General Information一般资料

Soul is a term rarely used with precise definition in philosophy, religion, or common life.灵魂是很少在哲学,宗教,或共同生活的精确定义中使用的术语。It is generally regarded as descriptive of an entity related to but distinguishable from the body--the spiritual part of human beings that animates their physical existence and survives death.人们普遍认为,作为一个实体相关的描述,但自体区别 - 人类精神的一部分,他们的身体动画的存在和生存死亡。

Primitive religions tend to associate the soul with the vital force in humans and often identify it with particular parts or functions of the body (the heart or kidneys, the breath or pulse).原始宗教往往联想到人类的灵魂和重要力量往往认同的特定部分或身体功能(心脏或肾脏,呼吸或脉搏)它。Other religions show traces of such animistic ideas.其他宗教的显示等万物有灵观念的痕迹。In Hinduism, the Atman (originally meaning "breath") is the individual factor that is indestructible and that after death is reborn in another existence.在印度教,阿特曼(原来意思是“呼吸”)是个人因素,是坚不可摧的,死后在另一个存在的重生。But Atman is identified with Brahman, the Source of all things to which the soul ultimately returns when it ceases to have a separate existence.但阿特曼是确定与婆罗门,一切事情的灵魂最终返回时,不再有一个单独的存在源。 (Buddhism, on the other hand, repudiates the notion of Atman, positing the theory of Anatta, nonself.) Early Jewish thought did not conceive the soul as existing apart from the body except in the shadowy realm of departed spirits (Sheol). (佛教,另一方面,否定了阿特曼的概念,positing的无我,非我的理论。)早期犹太人的思想并没有设想为现有从体内外的离去,除了在精神境界的阴影(阴间)的灵魂。 Greek and especially Platonic thought divided humans into two parts: body and soul.希腊,尤其是柏拉图思想分成两部分人:身体和灵魂。The soul, often referred to as the psyche, was considered both preexistent and immortal.灵魂,通常被称为灵魂,被认为是双方先在和不朽。

The early Christian church lived under the influence of Greek ideas about the body and soul, although biblical teachings about Resurrection were superimposed on them.早期的基督教教会生活在约的身体和灵魂的希腊思想的影响,虽然约复活圣经教义警方在他们的叠加。Throughout the history of the Christian church, there has been no clearly defined and universally accepted metaphysical conception of the soul.在整个基督教教会历史,一直没有明确界定的灵魂和普遍接受的形而上学的概念。Nevertheless, Christian theology and worship have adhered firmly to the conviction of personal survival after death rooted in belief in the love of God and the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.然而,基督教神学和信仰坚定地坚持了后在神的爱的信念根植于死亡,耶稣基督从死里复活的个人生存的信念。

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Philosophy has long been preoccupied with speculation about the existence and nature of the soul and its relationship to the body.哲学一直忙于猜测的存在和性质的灵魂和身体的关系。In the 20th century many philosophers have argued, following William James, that the concept of the soul is neither verifiable nor necessary to an understanding of humankind's mode of existence in the world.在20世纪的许多哲学家认为,继威廉詹姆斯说,灵魂的概念既不是可核查的,也没有必要到人类的生存模式在世界上的理解。

Charles W. Ranson查尔斯W兰森

Bibliography 参考书目
Cullmann, Oscar, Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection of the Dead? Cullmann,奥斯卡奖,灵魂或死人复活的不朽?(1958); Kenny, Anthony JP, The Anatomy of the Soul: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Mind (1973); Laird, John, The Idea of Soul (1970); Rank, Otto, Psychology and the Soul (1961); Swinburne, Richard, The Evolution of the Soul (1986). (1958年);肯尼安东尼,灵魂的解剖JP:在心灵哲学(1973)文史论丛;莱尔德,约翰,灵魂的思想(1970年);排名,奥托,心理学和灵魂(1961年);斯温伯恩,理查德,灵魂的演进(1986年)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

A Soul is a living being, life principle, person, or individual spiritual nature.灵魂是一个活的生命,生活的原则,个人或个人的精神本质。It may be ascribed to animals (Gen. 1:30; Rev. 8:9) and to God (Lev. 26:11; Isa. 42:1).这可能归因于动物(创1:30;启示录8:9)和神(利未记26:11;赛42:1)。It is often used interchangeably with spirit, although distinctions that begin to appear in the OT are carried forward in the NT.它往往是交替使用的精神,虽然区别是开始出现在旧约都是在新台币前进。Thus while soul in the NT normally means an individual spiritual entity with a material body so that a person is thought of as a body-soul, spirit is the special gift of God which places one in relationship to him.因此,虽然在NT灵魂通常是指一个具有独立精神的实体物质的身体,让一个人是作为一个团体的灵魂,精神是上帝特别的礼物关系的地方之一,他的思想。 Scripture states that Jesus gave his spirit to his Father (Luke 23:46; John 19:30), but elsewhere it is said that he gave his soul as a ransom for many (Matt. 20:28; John 10:15).圣经指出,耶稣给了他的精神,他的父亲(路加福音23:46;约翰19:30),但在其他地方是说,他给了作为许多赎金(太20:28;约翰10:15)他的灵魂。 In general terms then it can be said that soul in Scripture is conceived to be an immaterial principle created by God, which is usually united to a body and gives it life; however, the soul continues to exist after death in human beings (Matt. 10:28; James 5:20; Rev. 6:9; 20:4), a condition which is ended at the close of this age (I Cor. 15:35-55).一般而言那么可以说,在圣经中的灵魂,是构思是一个无关紧要的原则由上帝创造的,通常是统一于一体,并赋予它生命,但是,人死后灵魂仍然存在于人类(太10:28;詹姆斯5:20,启示录6:9,20:4),一个是在这个年龄接近(林前15:35-55)结束条件。

The Early Church早期教会

Speculation about the soul in the subapostolic church was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy.关于灵魂投机的subapostolic教堂很大程度上受希腊哲学。This is seen in Origen's acceptance of Plato's doctrine of the preexistence of the soul as pure mind (nous) originally, which, by reason of its fall from God, cooled down to soul (psyche) when it lost its participation in the divine fire by looking earthward.这是出现在俄的柏拉图的纯心(臭氧)灵魂最初,先在其中,由于其从神下跌的原因,冷却到灵魂(精神),当它失去了神圣的火参与学说验收寻找地向。 It is also seen in Tertullian's repudiation of Greek ideas and his insistence on the biblical teaching of the union of the soul, an immaterial creation of God, with the material body which has been made for it.它也出现在良的希腊思想和他对灵魂的,无形的上帝创造联合圣经的教导坚持抵赖性,与材料的机构,已经为它做。

Augustine's great influence was felt in the church in his teaching about the soul as in other matters.奥古斯丁的巨大影响力感到在他的有关其他事项,如灵魂教学的教会。Condemning the heathen notions that the soul was originally a part of God, an idea which he calls blasphemy, that it is corporeal, or that it becomes polluted through the body, he saw the soul as a rational-spiritual substance made "like God," and made by him, sustaining and directing the body (The Greatness of the Soul, XIII, 22).谴责,灵魂原本是神的一部分,一个想法,他呼吁亵渎,它是有形的,或者说,它通过人体污染成为异教徒的概念,他认为这使象神“的理性精神实质的灵魂, “并提出由他保持和指挥身体(灵魂的,十三,22伟大)。Concerning its origin and whether it was created by God or transmitted by parents, Augustine might be unsure (On the Soul and Its Origin, I, 27), but of its "proper abode" and "homeland" he was certain, and that is God (The Greatness of the Soul, I, 2).关于它的起源以及它是否是由上帝或由父母传染,奥古斯丁可能是不确定(论灵魂及其起源,I,27),但其“适当的居留权”和“祖国”,他是肯定的,那就是神(灵魂的,我2伟大)。

Origin of the Soul原产地的灵魂

Augustine's reluctance to take sides in the debate on the origin of the soul was not shared by his contemporaries.奥古斯丁不愿参加对灵魂的起源辩论双方没有同意他的同时代人。Some Greek church fathers shared Origen's theory that the soul preexisted with God and that it was assigned to a body as a penalty for its sin of looking downward.一些希腊教会父亲共同渊源的理论,与神和灵魂 ,它被分配作为它的眼睛向下罪的刑罚于一体preexisted。Most, however, accepted the creationist view that God created each individual soul at the moment that he gave it a body, while some, like Tertullian, held the traducianist theory that each soul is derived, along with the body, from the parents.但是,大多数接受了神创论认为 ,上帝创造的时刻,他给它一个身体每一个人的灵魂,而另一些,如良举行的traducianist理论认为,每一个灵魂,是派生的,伴随着身体从父母。

Arguments cited in favor of creationism were (1) that Scripture distinguishes the origin of man's soul and body (Eccl. 12:7; Isa. 42:5; Zech. 12:1; Heb. 12:9); (2) that creationism preserves the idea of the soul as a simple, indivisible substance better than traducianism, which requires the idea of the division of the soul and its derivation from the parents; and (3) that it makes more credible Christ's retention of a pure soul than does traducianism. 参数中提到的神创论赞成 (1)圣经区分人的灵魂和身体(传道书12点07;赛42:5;撒加利亚12时01分;希伯来书12:9);起源(2)创保留作为一个简单的,不可分割的物质比traducianism,这就需要对灵魂和它从父母推导师的想法更好的灵魂的思想;(3),它使更可信基督的一个纯洁的灵魂保留比不traducianism。

In behalf of traducianism it was said (1) that certain Scripture supports it (Gen. 2:2; Heb. 7:10; cf. I Cor. 11:8); (2) that it offers the best theory for the whole race having sinned in Adam; (3) that it is supported by the analogy of lower life in which numerical increase is obtained by derivation; (4) that it teaches that parents beget the whole child, body and soul, and not just the body; and (5) that it was necessary for Christ to have received his soul from the soul of Mary in order to redeem the human soul. 在traducianism代表有人说(1)某些经文支持它(创2:2;希伯来书七时10分;比照林前11时08分);(2),它提供了最好的理论为全比赛中有犯罪亚当(3),它是支持的寿命较低,其中增加的数值是由推导得出的比喻;(4),它教导我们,父母招致整个儿,身体和灵魂,而不仅仅是身体及(5),这是为基督必须有收到玛丽的灵魂他的灵魂,以换取人的灵魂。

Augustine carefully weighed the arguments on each side of the controversy, leaning toward traducianism for a time even while he saw the difficulty of retaining the soul's integrity with this hypothesis; later he admitted that he was perplexed and baffled by the question.奥古斯丁认真权衡各方面的争议的论点,靠在一时间对traducianism即使他看到了留住灵魂的这个假说的完整性困难,后来他承认,他感到困惑和问题百思不得其解。

A contemporary theologian who takes essentially the same stance is GC Berkouwer, who calls the controversy "unfruitful," inasmuch as it wrongly assumes that the issue is one of horizontal or vertical relations.谁需要一个当代神学家基本相同的立场是GC Berkouwer,谁调用争议“徒劳的”,因为它错误地假设问题是水平或垂直关系之一。"Such a way of putting it is far too feeble an attempt to render adequately the greatness of the work of God" (Man: The Image of God, 292).“这样的说法是过于软弱,企图使充分的伟大的神的工作”(文:上帝的形象,292)。 The God of Israel does not create only in the distant past, but he is constantly active in human history, the Creator in horizontal relationships as well as others.以色列上帝不创造只有在遥远的过去,但他不断活跃在人类历史上,在横向关系以及其他创造者。To speak about a separate origin of the soul he sees as impossible biblically, inasmuch as this creationist theory sees the relationship to God as "something added to the 'essentially human,' which later is defined independently as 'soul' and 'body.'要谈论的灵魂,他认为圣经是不可能单独起源,生死时刻,因为这创造论理论视为“对上帝的关系的东西添加到”人的本质“,后来被定义为”灵魂“和独立”的身体。“ Both soul and body can then be viewed in different 'causal' relationships without reference to some intrinsic non-causal relationship to God. If, however, it is impossible to speak of the essence of man except in this latter religious relationship, then it also becomes impossible to introduce duality into the origin of soul and of body within the unitary human individual" (303).身体和灵魂都可以被看作不同的“因果”没有参考一些内在的非因果关系,以上帝的关系。然而,如果它是不可能对人的本质讲,除了在后一种宗教的关系,那么它也成为不可能引入的灵魂和身体内的单一人类个体“(303)来源的两重性。

ME OsterhavenME Osterhaven
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GC Berkouwer, Man: The Image of God; A. Dihle et al., TDNT, IX, 608-66; CA Beckwith, SHERK, XI, 12-14; C. Hodge, Systematic Theology, II; L. Berkhof, Systematic Theology.GC Berkouwer,文:上帝的形象; A. Dihle等,TDNT,IX,608-66; CA贝克威思,SHERK,十一,12-14; C. Hodge的,有系统的神学,二; L.伯克霍夫,系统化。神学。


Additional Information其他信息

There are four theories of the origin of the individual soul:有四种个体灵魂的起源理论:

Genesis 2:7 tells of God's breathing into man the breath of life (a soul) implying that He never repeated doing that after Adam.创世记2:7告诉到人的生命的气息(灵魂)暗示,他从来不这样做,经过反复亚当神的呼吸。This seems to favor Traducianism, but arguments for the other alternatives have sometimes been offered based on that same Scripture.这似乎有利于Traducianism,但对于其他替代论点,有时提供基于同一经文。

The concept of Soul is so esoteric that there are some scholars who deny the very existence of it, partly because there has never been any concrete evidence that proves its existence.灵魂观念是如此深奥,有一些学者谁否认它的存在,一方面是因为从未有过任何具体的证据来证明它的存在。Of course, in that event, any discussion regarding the origin of the Soul becomes meaningless.当然,在这种情况下,任何讨论关于灵魂的起源变得毫无意义。


Catholic Information天主教信息

(Greek psyche; Latin anima; French ame; German Seele). (希腊精神,拉丁美洲灵魂,法国AME,德国SEELE)。

The question of the reality of the soul and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life.对灵魂和身体的区别,从现实的问题是哲学中最重要的问题,对于它必然了一个未来生活的学说。Various theories as to the nature of the soul have claimed to be reconcilable with the tenet of immortality, but it is a sure instinct that leads us to suspect every attack on the substantiality or spirituality of the soul as an assault on the belief in existence after death.至于灵魂性质的各种理论都声称自己与不朽的宗旨调和,但它是一个肯定的本能,使我们怀疑作为一个中存在的信念上的每一个实体性攻击或攻击后灵性的灵魂死亡。 The soul may be defined as the ultimate internal principle by which we think, feel, and will, and by which our bodies are animated.灵魂可以被定义为终极内部原则,我们认为,感觉和意志,而我们的身体是由动画。The term "mind" usually denotes this principle as the subject of our conscious states, while "soul" denotes the source of our vegetative activities as well.所谓“心”,通常指的是我们有意识的国家主体这一原则,而“灵魂”表示我们的营养源,以及活动。That our vital activities proceed from a principle capable of subsisting in itself, is the thesis of the substantiality of the soul: that this principle is not itself composite, extended, corporeal, or essentially and intrinsically dependent on the body, is the doctrine of spirituality.这从我们的重要原则本身存续能力进行活动,是灵魂的实体性的论断:这个原则本身不是复合,扩展,有形的或本质上和本质上的身体依赖,是灵性主义。 If there be a life after death, clearly the agent or subject of our vital activities must be capable of an existence separate from the body.如果有死后的生活,明确代理人或我们的重要活动主体必须是一个存在从身体分离的能力。 The belief in an animating principle in some sense distinct from the body is an almost inevitable inference from the observed facts of life.在某种意义上,在从体内不同的动画原则的信念是从生活中的观察到的事实几乎是不可避免的推论。Even uncivilized peoples arrive at the concept of the soul almost without reflection, certainly without any severe mental effort.即使是不文明的人民到达灵魂的概念几乎没有反射,当然没有任何严重的精神努力。The mysteries of birth and death, the lapse of conscious life during sleep and in swooning, even the commonest operations of imagination and memory, which abstract a man from his bodily presence even while awake-all such facts invincibly suggest the existence of something besides the visible organism, internal to it, but to a large extent independent of it, and leading a life of its own.出生和死亡的奥秘,在睡眠和动荡不已失效自觉的生活,即使是最常见的想象和记忆操作,这从他的身体存在抽象的一个人即使在清醒时,所有这些事实表明无敌的存在,除了一些可见的有机体,它的内部,但在很大程度上它的独立,并领导自己的生命。 In the rude psychology of the primitive nations, the soul is often represented as actually migrating to and fro during dreams and trances, and after death haunting the neighbourhood of its body.在粗鲁的原始民族心理,灵魂往往表现为实际迁移过程中来来回回的梦想和恍惚,和死后困扰其身体附近。Nearly always it is figured as something extremely volatile, a perfume or a breath.几乎始终是想通的东西极不稳定,香水或呼吸。Often, as among the Fijians, it is represented as a miniature replica of the body, so small as to be invisible.通常,作为其中的斐济人,它表示为身体微型复制品,这么小的是无形的。The Samoans have a name for the soul which means "that which comes and goes".萨摩亚人有一个灵魂,这意味着“那些来得快,去”的名称。Many peoples, such as the Dyaks and Sumatrans, bind various parts of the body with cords during sickness to prevent the escape of the soul.许多国家的人民,如Dyaks和苏门答腊,在绑定线,以防止疾病的灵魂摆脱身体的各个部位。 In short, all the evidence goes to show that Dualism, however uncritical and inconsistent, is the instinctive creed of "primitive man" (see ANIMISM).总之,所有的证据正好说明二元论,但不加批判的和不一致的,是“原始人”(见万物有灵)本能的信条。


Early literature bears the same stamp of Dualism.早期文献熊同邮票的二元论。In the "Rig-Veda" and other liturgical books of India, we find frequent references to the coming and going of manas (mind or soul).在“RIG -吠陀”和印度其他礼仪的书籍,我们找到了来来往往的玛纳斯(心灵或灵魂)会经常引用。 Indian philosophy, whether Brahminic or Buddhistic, with its various systems of metempsychosis, accentuated the distinction of soul and body, making the bodily life a mere transitory episode in the existence of the soul.印度哲学与轮回的各项制度,是否Brahminic或佛教,突显了灵魂和身体的区别,使得身体的生命只有在灵魂的存在短暂的插曲。 They all taught the doctrine of limited immortality, ending either with the periodic world-destruction (Brahminism) or with attainment of Nirvana (Buddhism).他们都教教义的有限不死,结束与定期世界毁灭(婆罗门教)或达到涅槃(佛教)之一。The doctrine of a world-soul in a highly abstract form is met with as early as the eighth century before Christ, when we find it described as "the unseen seer, the unheard hearer, the unthought thinker, the unknown knower, the Eternal in which space is woven and which is woven in it."而在一个高度抽象的形式世界的灵魂学说会见了像公元前八世纪初,当我们发现它是“看不见的先见,听话的闻所未闻的unthought思想家,未知能知,永恒的描述这是机织和空间这是它织成的。“

In Greece, on the other hand, the first essays of philosophy took a positive and somewhat materialistic direction, inherited from the pre-philosophic age, from Homer and the early Greek religion.在希腊,另一方面,哲学的第一个散文采取了积极的,有点功利的方向,从荷马和早期希腊宗教从预哲学时代继承。In Homer, while the distinction of soul and body is recognized, the soul is hardly conceived as possessing a substantial existence of its own.在荷马,而灵魂和身体的区别是公认的,灵魂是很难设想为拥有一个​​自己的大量存在。 Severed from the body, it is a mere shadow, incapable of energetic life.从身体痛苦的,它只是一个影子,充满活力的生活能力。 The philosophers did something to correct such views.哲学家做了一些纠正这种看法。The earliest school was that of the Hylozoists; these conceived the soul as a kind of cosmic force, and attributed animation to the whole of nature.最早的学校的Hylozoists认为,这些设想作为一种宇宙力量的灵魂,由于动画到整个自然界。Any natural force might be designated psyche: thus Thales uses this term for the attractive force of the magnet, and similar language is quoted even from Anaxagoras and Democritus.任何自然力量可能被指定的心灵:因此泰雷兹使用磁铁的吸引力这个词,以及类似的语言,甚至从阿那克萨哥拉和德谟克利特引用。 With this we may compare the "mind-stuff" theory and Pan-psychism of certain modern scientists.有了这一点,我们可以比较一下“思维的东西”的理论和某些现代科学家泛psychism。Other philosophers again described the soul's nature in terms of substance.其他哲学家再次说明在物质方面的灵魂的本质。Anaximander gives it an aeriform constitution, Heraclitus describes it as a fire.阿那克西曼德给它一个无形的宪法,赫拉克利特描述为一个火。The fundamental thought is the same.其根本思想是一致的。The cosmic ether or fire is the subtlest of the elements, the nourishing flame which imparts heat, life, sense, and intelligence to all things in their several degrees and kinds.宇宙醚或火灾是微妙的元素,火焰的滋养,赋予热,生命,意识,智力在其数度和种类的所有东西。The Pythagoreans taught that the soul is a harmony, its essence consisting in those perfect mathematical ratios which are the law of the universe and the music of the heavenly spheres.毕达哥拉斯学派教导说灵魂是和谐,其本质是在那些完美的宇宙规律和天球的音乐数学比例组成。With this doctrine was combined, according to Cicero, the belief in a universal world-spirit, from which all particular souls are derived.有了这个理论相结合,根据西塞罗,在世界上普遍的精神信仰,特别是从所有的灵魂都而得。

All these early theories were cosmological rather than psychological in character.所有这些早期的理论是宇宙的性质,而不是心理。Theology, physics, and mental science were not as yet distinguished.神学,物理学,精神科学没有尚未区别开来。It is only with the rise of dialectic and the growing recognition of the problem of knowledge that a genuinely psychological theory became possible.这是只有在辩证的兴起和知识的问题日益认识到,一个真正的心理学理论成为可能。In Plato the two standpoints, the cosmological and the epistemological, are found combined.在柏拉图的两个立场,宇宙学和认识论,发现结合起来。Thus in the "Timaeus" (p. 30) we find an account derived from Pythagorean sources of the origin of the soul.因此,在“蒂迈欧篇”(第30页)我们找到了灵魂的起源毕达哥拉斯来源帐户。First the world-soul is created according to the laws of mathematical symmetry and musical concord.首先是世界的灵魂,是根据建立的数学对称性和音乐和谐的法律。It is composed of two elements, one an element of "sameness" (tauton), corresponding to the universal and intelligible order of truth, and the other an element of distinction or "otherness" (thateron), corresponding to the world of sensible and particular existences.它由两部分组成,一个一个元素的“同一性”(tauton),对应的真理普遍性和理解的订单,以及其他的区分或“异类”(thateron)元素,对应的合理的世界,特别是存在物。 The individual human soul is constructed on the same plan.个别人的灵魂,是建立在相同的计划。

Sometimes, as in the "Phaedrus", Plato teaches the doctrine of plurality of souls (cf. the well-known allegory of the charioteer and the two steeds in that dialogue).有时,如在“裴德诺”,柏拉图的灵魂教多个学说(参看的车夫,并在对话中的两个战马著名寓言)。The rational soul was located in the head, the passionate or spirited soul in the breast, the appetitive soul in the abdomen.理性的灵魂是位于头部,在乳房或奔放热情的灵魂,在腹部食欲的灵魂。In the "Republic", instead of the triple soul, we find the doctrine of three elements within the complex unity of the single soul.在“共和国”,而不是三联的灵魂,我们发现在复杂的单一的灵魂的三个要素的统一的学说。The question of immortality was a principal subject of Plato's speculations.不朽的问题是一个柏拉图的猜测主要议题。 His account of the origin of the soul in the "Timaeus" leads him to deny the intrinsic immortality even of the world-soul, and to admit only an immortality conditional on the good pleasure of God.他的灵魂在“蒂迈欧篇”出身使他否认乃至世界的内在灵魂不死,并且承认只有一个不朽的神的美意条件。In the "Phaedo" the chief argument for the immortality of the soul is based on the nature of intellectual knowledge interpreted on the theory of reminiscence; this of course implies the pre-existence of the soul, and perhaps in strict logic its eternal pre-existence.在“斐多篇”为灵魂不死的主要论据是基于对怀旧理论解释知识产权知识的性质,当然这意味着灵魂的前生,并在严密的逻辑可能是其永恒的预存在。 There is also an argument from the soul's necessary participation in the idea of life, which, it is argued, makes the idea of its extinction impossible.还有一个从灵魂的必要参与在生命的想法,其中,有人认为,使得其灭绝的想法是不可能的说法。These various lines of argument are nowhere harmonized in Plato (see IMMORTALITY).这些不同的说法线无处在柏拉图的统一(见不朽)。The Platonic doctrine tended to an extreme Transcendentalism.柏拉图主义超验主义倾向发挥到了极致。Soul and body are distinct orders of reality, and bodily existence involves a kind of violence to the higher part of our composite nature.灵魂和身体是对现实的不同订单,身体存在的暴力行为涉及到我们的综合性较高的一部分。 The body is the "prison", the "tomb", or even, as some later Platonists expressed it, the "hell" of the soul.该机构是“监狱”中,“墓”,甚至,一些后来柏拉图表示它的“地狱”的灵魂。In Aristotle this error is avoided.在亚里士多德的这个错误是可以避免的。His definition of the soul as "the first entelechy of a physical organized body potentially possessing life" emphasizes the closeness of the union of soul and body.他对为“物理组织可能拥有生命体的第一entelechy”灵魂的定义强调了工会的灵魂和身体的亲密。The difficulty in his theory is to determine what degree of distinctness or separateness from the matter of the body is to be conceded to the human soul.在他的理论的困难在于确定什么样的独特性或身体的物质的独立性程度是要顺应人的灵魂。He fully recognizes the spiritual element in thought and describes the "active intellect" (nous poetikos) as "separate and impassible", but the precise relation of this active intellect to the individual mind is a hopelessly obscure question in Aristotle's psychology.他充分认识到,在思想精神上的元素,描述为“单独和恝”的“积极的智力”(臭氧poetikos),但这种积极的智力精确与个人有关的头脑是一个在亚里士多德的心理学无可救药模糊的问题。 (See INTELLECT; MIND.)(见智力; MIND)

The Stoics taught that all existence is material, and described the soul as a breath pervading the body.在斯多葛派教导说,所有的存在是物质的,并形容为身体气息弥漫的灵魂。They also called it Divine, a particle of God (apospasma tou theu) -- it was composed of the most refined and ethereal matter.他们也把它称为神州,是神(apospasma头theu)粒子 - 这是最精致和空灵的问题组成。

Eight distinct parts of the soul were recognized by them:八个不同部分的灵魂被承认他们:

the ruling reason (to hegemonikon)执政的原因(以hegemonikon)

the five senses;五感;

the procreative powers.的生育权力。

Absolute immortality they denied; relative immortality, terminating with the universal conflagration and destruction of all things, some of them (eg Cleanthes and Chrysippus) admitted in the case of the wise man; others, such as Panaetius and Posidonius, denied even this, arguing that, as the soul began with the body, so it must end with it.绝对不死他们否认,相对不死,带有普遍性大火和销毁所有的东西,其中有些(如克利安西和克吕西波)在智者的情况下承认终止;如Panaetius和帕奥西多尼乌斯人,甚至否认这一点,争论,作为灵魂与身体开始,所以它必须结束它。

Epicureanism accepted the Atomist theory of Leucippus and Democritus.享乐主义接受Leucippus和德谟克利特Atomist理论。Soul consists of the finest grained atoms in the universe, finer even than those of wind and heat which they resemble: hence the exquisite fluency of the soul's movements in thought and sensation.灵魂组成的宇宙中,甚至比那些风热,他们像最优秀的粒度更细的原子:因此,在思想和感觉的灵魂的动作细腻流畅。 The soul-atoms themselves, however, could not exercise their functions if they were not kept together by the body.灵魂原子本身,但是,不能行使其职责,如果他们没有被保​​存下来的身体在一起。It is this which gives shape and consistency to the group.正是这种赋予形状和一致性,以该组。If this is destroyed, the atoms escape and life is dissolved; if it is injured, part of the soul is lost, but enough may be left to maintain life.如果被破坏,原子逃生和生活解散,如果是受伤,失去灵魂的一部分,但可能会留下足够维持生活。The Lucretian version of Epicureanism distinguishes between animus and anima: the latter only is soul in the biological sense, the former is the higher, directing principle (to hegemonikon) in the Stoic terminology, whose seat is the heart, the centre of the cognitive and emotional life.享乐主义Lucretian版本的区分敌意和灵魂:后者不仅是灵魂在生物意义上说,前者是更高,指挥原则(以hegemonikon)在斯多葛术语,其座位是心,对中心的认知和情感生活。


Graeco-Roman philosophy made no further progress in the doctrine of the soul in the age immediately preceding the Christian era.希腊罗马哲学在时代没有灵魂的学说的进一步进展紧接基督教时代。None of the existing theories had found general acceptance, and in the literature of the period an eclectic spirit nearly akin to Scepticism predominated.现有的理论,没有发现普遍接受,并在这一时期文学的一种折衷的精神几乎类似于怀疑主义占主导地位。Of the strife and fusion of systems at this time the works of Cicero are the best example.在这冲突,此时的系统融合西塞罗的作品是最好的例子。On the question of the soul he is by turns Platonic and Pythagorean, while he confesses that the Stoic and Epicurean systems have each an attraction for him.在他的灵魂问题是轮流柏拉图和毕达哥拉斯,同时他承认说,斯多葛和伊壁鸠鲁系统已分别为他的吸引力。Such was the state of the question in the West at the dawn of Christianity.这些是在黎明在西方基督教国家的问题。In Jewish circles a like uncertainty prevailed.在犹太界类似的不确定性占了上风。The Sadducees were Materialists, denying immortality and all spiritual existence.撒都该人是唯物主义者,否认不死,一切精神的存在。The Pharisees maintained these doctrines, adding belief in pre-existence and transmigration.法利赛人认为这些学说,加入在预先存在和轮回的信仰。The psychology of the Rabbins is founded on the Sacred Books, particularly the account of the creation of man in Genesis.该Rabbins心理学是建立在神圣的书籍,特别是在创世纪的人类创造的帐户。Three terms are used for the soul: nephesh, nuah, and neshamah; the first was taken to refer to the animal and vegetative nature, the second to the ethical principle, the third to the purely spiritual intelligence.三个条件是用于灵魂:nephesh,nuah和neshamah,第一是采取指动物和植物的性质,对道德原则的第二个,第三个为纯粹的精神智慧​​。 At all events, it is evident that the Old Testament throughout either asserts or implies the distinct reality of the soul.在所有的事件,很显然,无论是整个旧约声称或暗示的灵魂明显的现实。An important contribution to later Jewish thought was the infusion of Platonism into it by Philo of Alexandria.一个重要的贡献,后来犹太人的思想是柏拉图到它由亚历山大的斐洛输液。He taught the immediately Divine origin of the soul, its pre-existence and transmigration; he contrasts the pneuma, or spiritual essence, with the soul proper, the source of vital phenomena, whose seat is the blood; finally he revived the old Platonic Dualism, attributing the origin of sin and evil to the union of spirit with matter.他教的灵魂立即神圣的起源,它的前生和轮回,他对比了灵魂适当的元气,或精神实质,对生命现象,它的座椅是血源,最后他恢复了老柏拉图的二元论,把这罪和邪恶的精神与物质联盟的起源。

It was Christianity that, after many centuries of struggle, applied the final criticisms to the various psychologies of antiquity, and brought their scattered elements of truth to full focus.这是基督教,经过许多世纪的奋斗,最终批评应用到古代各种的心理学,并带来了他们对真理的稀散元素,以充分的焦点。The tendency of Christ's teaching was to centre all interest in the spiritual side of man's nature; the salvation or loss of the soul is the great issue of existence.基督的教学趋势是中心都在人的精神性方面的兴趣;的救赎或丧失灵魂是存在很大的问题。The Gospel language is popular, not technical.福音语言是受欢迎的,而不是技术。Psyche and pneuma are used indifferently either for the principle of natural life or for spirit in the strict sense.心理和精气用于漠然无论是对自然生活的原则或在严格意义上的精神。Body and soul are recognized as a dualism and their values contrasted: "Fear ye not them that kill the body . . . but rather fear him that can destroy both soul and body in hell."身体和灵魂被确认为是二元对立和对比他们的价值观:“你们不要害怕他们,杀死体内,而是怕他,可以和灵魂都灭在地狱里的身体。” In St. Paul we find a more technical phraseology employed with great consistency.在圣保罗,我们找到更多的技术用语用很大的一致性就业。Psyche is now appropriated to the purely natural life; pneuma to the life of supernatural religion, the principle of which is the Holy Spirit, dwelling and operating in the heart.赛琪现在拨纯粹的自然生命;元气的超自然的宗教生活,其原则是圣灵,住所和心脏运行。The opposition of flesh and spirit is accentuated afresh (Romans 1:18, etc.).肉体和精神的对立加剧重新(罗马书1:18等)。 This Pauline system, presented to a world already prepossessed in favour of a quasi-Platonic Dualism, occasioned one of the earliest widespread forms of error among Christian writers -- the doctrine of the Trichotomy.这宝莲系统,呈现给世界已经在准柏拉图的二元论所引致的错误中最早的基督教作家普遍的形式之一,有利于prepossessed - 的三分法学说。According to this, man, perfect man (teleios) consists of three parts: body, soul, spirit (soma, psyche, pneuma).根据这一理论,人,完美的男人(teleios)由三部分组成:身体,灵魂,精神(SOMA,心理,精气)。Body and soul come by natural generation; spirit is given to the regenerate Christian alone.身体和灵魂来受自然生成;精神是考虑到再生基督教孤单。Thus, the "newness of life", of which St. Paul speaks, was conceived by some as a superadded entity, a kind of oversoul sublimating the "natural man" into a higher species.因此,有“新生命”,其中圣保罗讲,构思是由一些作为superadded实体,是一种超灵升华到一个更高的物种“天然人”。 This doctrine was variously distorted in the different Gnostic systems.这一学说是不同地扭曲了不同的诺斯底系统。The Gnostics divided man into three classes:在诺斯替教派分为三类人:

pneumatici or spiritual,pneumatici或精神,

psychici or animal,psychici或动物,

choici or earthy.choici或泥土。

To each class they ascribed a different origin and destiny.每班他们赋予不同的起源和命运。The spiritual were of the seed of Achemoth, and were destined to return in time whence they had sprung -- namely, into the pleroma.的精神是对Achemoth种子,注定要返回时从那里他们异军突起 - 即到pleroma。 Even in this life they are exempted from the possibility of a fall from their high calling; they therefore stand in no need of good works, and have nothing to fear from the contaminations of the world and the flesh.即使在这样的生活他们免除了他们的高要求,从下跌的可能性,因此,他们主张在任何需要的优秀作品,并没有什么可害怕的是世界上污染和肉体。 This class consists of course of the Gnostics themselves.这个类包含的诺斯替教派的过程本身。The psychici are in a lower position: they have capacities for spiritual life which they must cultivate by good works.该psychici是在一个较低的位置是:他们有精神生活的能力,他们必须培养良好的工作。They stand in a middle place, and may either rise to the spiritual or sink to the hylic level.他们站在中间位置,并可能引起的任何精神或下沉到物质的水平。In this category stands the Christian Church at large.在此类别代表广大基督教教堂。Lastly, the earthy souls are a mere material emanation, destined to perish: the matter of which they are composed being incapable of salvation (me gar einai ten hylen dektiken soterias).最后,朴实的灵魂是一个单纯的物质流溢,注定要灭亡:对,他们是由被拯救的(我噶尔einai的ten hylen dektiken soterias)能力的问题。This class contains the multitudes of the merely natural man.这个类包含的只是自然的人众人。

Two features claim attention in this the earliest essay towards a complete anthropology within the Christian Church:在这两个功能声称最早走向基督教教会内完成人类学作文注意:

an extreme spirituality is attributed to "the perfect";一个极端的灵性,是因为“完美”;

immortality is conditional for the second class of souls, not an intrinsic attribute of all souls.不朽的灵魂,是第二类,而不是对所有灵魂的内在属性的条件。

It is probable that originally the terms pneumatici, psychici, and choici denoted at first elements which were observed to exist in all souls, and that it was only by an afterthought that they were employed, according to the respective predominance of these elements in different cases, to represent supposed real classes of men.它很可能最初的条款pneumatici,psychici和choici在其中观察到存在于所有的灵魂第一要素表示,这是只能由他们受雇于事后,根据这些元素在不同情况下各自优势,代表男人应该真正的类。 The doctrine of the four temperaments and the Stoic ideal of the Wise Man afford a parallel for the personification of abstract qualities.四大气质学说和斯多葛理想的智者不起一个抽象的素质人格化平行。The true genius of Christianity, expressed by the Fathers of the early centuries, rejected Gnosticism.基督教的真正的天才,由世纪初的父亲表示,拒绝灵知。The ascription to a creature of an absolutely spiritual nature, and the claim to endless existence asserted as a strictly de jure privilege in the case of the "perfect", seemed to them an encroachment on the incommunicable attributes of God.到了一个绝对的精神性的生物,和无休止的存在要求归属断言作为一个严格的法律上的“完美”的情况下特权,似乎他们对上帝的incommunicable属性的侵犯。 The theory of Emanation too was seen to be a derogation from the dignity of the Divine nature For this reason, St. Justin, supposing that the doctrine of natural immortality logically implies eternal existence, rejects it, making this attribute (like Plato in the "Timaeus") dependent on the free will of God; at the same time he plainly asserts the de facto immortality of every human soul.该理论的化身也被认为是一个从神性为此,圣贾斯汀尊严减损,假定自然主义的不朽逻辑意味着永恒的存在,拒绝它,使这个属性(如柏拉图在“蒂迈欧篇“)对上帝的自由意志而定,在同一时间,他清楚地断言,每个人的灵魂不死的事实。 The doctrine of conservation, as the necessary complement of creation, was not yet elaborated.该学说的保护,为创造必要的补充,还没有详细阐述。Even in Scholastic philosophy, which asserts natural immortality, the abstract possibility of annihilation through an act of God's absolute power is also admitted.即使在学术理念,断言自然不死,在湮没通过对上帝的绝对权力的行为抽象的可能性也承认。Similarly, Tatian denies the simplicity of the soul, claiming that absolute simplicity belongs to God alone.同样,塔蒂安否认灵魂的简单,声称绝对简单属于上帝。All other beings, he held, are composed of matter and spirit.所有其他众生,他认为,是由物质和精神。Here again it would be rash to urge a charge of Materialism.这将是在这里再次呼吁轻率的唯物主义负责。Many of these writers failed to distinguish between corporeity in strict essence and corporeity as a necessary or natural concomitant.这些作家之间的体质,许多未能严格区分精华和作为必要的或自然伴随体质。Thus the soul may itself be incorporeal and yet require a body as a condition of its existence.因此,灵魂本身可能是无形的,但需要作为其存在的条件的机构。In this sense St. Irenæus attributes a certain "corporeal character" to the soul; he represents it as possessing the form of its body, as water possesses the form of its containing vessel.在这个意义上说圣irenæus属性一定的“有形的性格”的灵魂,他表示为拥有其身体的形式,因为水具有其包含容器的形式。 At the same time, he teaches fairly explicitly the incorporeal nature of the soul.与此同时,他教导相当明确的灵魂无形的性质。He also sometimes uses what seems to be the language of the Trichotomists, as when he says that in the Resurrection men shall have each their own body, soul, and spirit.他有时也使用了似乎是该Trichotomists语言,他说,在复活的男子应有每个自己的身体,灵魂和精神。But such an interpretation is impossible in view of his whole position in regard to the Gnostic controversy.但这样的解释是他在关于诺斯替争议整个立场是不可能的。The dubious language of these writers can only be understood in relation to the system they were opposing.这些作家可疑的语言只能被理解有关的制度,他们反对。By assigning a literal divinity to a certain small aristocracy of souls, Gnosticism set aside the doctrine of Creation and the whole Christian idea of God's relation to man.通过指定一个文字神的灵魂在一定的小贵族,诺斯替主义抛开创作乃至整个神的关系,以男子基督教思想学说。On the other side, by its extreme dualism of matter and spirit, and its denial to matter (ie the flesh) of all capacity for spiritual influences, it involved the rejection of cardinal doctrines like the Resurrection of the Body and even of the Incarnation itself in any proper sense.在另一边,其极端的二元论的物质和精神,它剥夺了所有的精神问题的影响能力(即肉身),它涉及到像复活的身体排斥和大是大非的教义本身的化身,甚至在任何适当的意义。 The orthodox teacher had to emphasize:正统的老师曾强调:

the soul's distinction from God and subjection to Him;灵魂的区别,从神和服从他;

its affinities with matter.与物质的亲和力。

The two converse truths -- those of the soul's affinity with the Divine nature and its radical distinction from matter, were apt to be obscured in comparison.这两个相反的真理 - 灵魂与神的性质,其根本的区别从物质的亲和力,是比较容易被掩盖。It was only afterwards and very gradually, with the development of the doctrine of grace, with the fuller recognition of the supernatural order as such, and the realization of the Person and Office of the Holy Spirit, that the various errors connected with the pneuma ceased to be a stumbling-block to Christian psychology.这是事后才和非常缓慢,在发展主义的宽限期,以作为更全面地认识这些超自然的秩序,以及人与圣灵厅的实现,这与元气有关的各种错误,停止成为绊脚石,以基督教的心理。 Indeed, similar errors have accompanied almost every subsequent form of heterodox Illuminism and Mysticism.事实上,类似的错误都伴随着几乎每一个异端Illuminism和神秘主义以后的形式。

Tertullian's treatise "De Anima" has been called the first Christian classic on psychology proper.德尔图良的论文“德阿尼玛”被称为第一次基督教经典心理学正确。The author aims to show the failure of all philosophies to elucidate the nature of the soul, and argues eloquently that Christ alone can teach mankind the truth on such subjects.笔者的目的是显示所有的哲学未能澄清的灵魂的本质,并认为单靠雄辩基督教人类等学科的真理。His own doctrine, however, is simply the refined Materialism of the Stoics, supported by arguments from medicine and physiology and by ingenious interpretations of Scripture, in which the unavoidable materialism of language is made to establish a metaphysical Materialism.他自己的学说,然而,仅仅是唯物主义的斯多葛精致,从医学和生理学参数,通过巧妙的解释圣经,其中的语言不可避免的唯物主义是建立了一个形而上学的唯物主义的支持。 Tertullian is the founder of the theory of Traducianism, which derives the rational soul ex traduce, ie by procreation from the soul of the parent.良是对Traducianism,这源于理性的灵魂前谮,即由父灵魂生育理论的创始人。For Tertullian this was a necessary consequence of Materialism.对于良这是一种唯物主义的必然结果。Later writers found in the doctrine a convenient explanation of the transmission of original sin.后来作者发现,在学说的原罪的传输方便的解释。St. Jerome says that in his day it was the common theory in the West.圣杰罗姆说,在他的一天是在西方常见的理论。Theologians have long abandoned it, however, in favour of Creationism, as it seems to compromise the spirituality of the soul.神学家很早就放弃了,但是,在神创论的青睐,因为它似乎是妥协的精神灵魂。Origen taught the pre-existence of the soul.奥利教的灵魂前生。Terrestrial life is a punishment and a remedy for prenatal sin.地球生命是一种惩罚和产前罪补救。"Soul" is properly degraded spirit: flesh is a condition of alienation and bondage (cf. Comment. ad Romans 1:18).“灵魂”是正确退化精神:肉是一种异化和奴役的条件(参见注释广告罗马书1:18)。Spirit, however, finite spirit, can exist only in a body, albeit of a glorious and ethereal nature.精神,然而,有限的精神,只能存在于一个机构,尽管是一项光荣而空灵的性质。Neo-Platonism, which through St. Augustine contributed so much to spiritual philosophy, belongs to this period.新柏拉图主义,它通过圣奥古斯丁贡献良多的精神理念,属于这一时期。Like Gnosticism, it uses emanations.诺斯替主义一样,它采用放射。The primeval and eternal One begets by emanation nous (intelligence); and from nous in turn springs psyche (soul), which is the image of nous, but distinct from it.而由此引发的一个原始和永恒的化身臭氧(情报),以及来自转臭氧弹簧心灵(灵魂),这是常识,但是从它鲜明的形象。Matter is a still later emanation.无论是再后来的化身。Soul has relations to both ends of the scale of reality, and its perfection lies in turning towards the Divine Unity from which it came.灵魂要对现实规模两端的关系,在实现其完美统一的神圣从它来到转折点所在。In everything, the neo-Platonist recognized the absolute primacy of the soul with respect to the body. ,一切以新柏拉图主义者公认的关于身体的灵魂的绝对主导地位。Thus, the mind is always active, even in sense -- perception -- it is only the body that is passively affected by external stimuli.因此,头脑始终处于激活状态,即使在感觉 - 知觉 - 它只是被动地是由外部刺激的影响身体。 Similarly Plotinus prefers to say that the body is in the soul rather than vice versa: and he seems to have been the first to conceive the peculiar manner of the soul's location as an undivided and universal presence pervading the organism (tota in toto et tota in singulis partibus).同样普罗提诺宁愿说,人体中,而不是相反的灵魂,是:和他似乎已经率先设想作为一个不可分割的和普遍弥漫的有机体(在TOTO等托塔托塔中存在的灵魂的位置特殊方式singulis partibus)。It is impossible to give more than a very brief notice of the psychology of St. Augustine.这是不可能给多了,圣奥古斯丁心理非常简短的通知更多。His contributions to every branch of the science were immense; the senses, the emotions, imagination, memory, the will, and the intellect -- he explored them all, and there is scarcely any subsequent development of importance that he did not forestall.他的贡献,每一个科学的分支是巨大的,感官,情感,想象,记忆,意志和智慧 - 他探讨所有这些,并有几乎没有任何后续发展的重要性,他没有阻止。He is the founder of the introspective method.他是创办人的内省方法。Noverim Te, noverim me was an intellectual no less than a devotional aspiration with him. Noverim特,noverim我是一个知识分子没有比与他虔诚的愿望少。The following are perhaps the chief points for our present purpose:以下是对我们现在的目的也许首席几点:

he opposes body and soul on the ground of the irreducible distinction of thought and extension (cf. DESCARTES).他反对对思想束缚的区分和扩展(参见笛卡儿)地面的身体和灵魂。St. Augustine, however, lays more stress on the volitional activities than did the French Idealists.圣奥古斯丁,然而,更奠定了在法国的理想主义者比没有意志活动的压力。As against the Manichæans he always asserts the worth and dignity of the body.由于对摩尼教他总是声称身体的价值和尊严。 Like Aristotle he makes the soul the final cause of the body.像亚里士多德,他使灵魂的身体最终原因。As God is the Good or Summum Bonum of the soul, so is the soul the good of the body.由于神是灵魂的好或Summum Bonum,所以是灵魂对身体有好处。The origin of the soul is perhaps beyond our ken.灵魂的起源可能是超出了我们的县。He never definitely decided between Traducianism and Creationism.他从来没有绝对决定之间Traducianism和神创论。

As regards spirituality, he is everywhere most explicit, but it is interesting as an indication of the futile subtleties current at the time to find him warning a friend against the controversy on the corporeality of the soul, seeing that the term "corpus" was used in so many different senses.至于灵性,他无处不在最明确的,但它是作为当时找到他警告反对对灵魂的肉体争议的朋友目前徒劳的奥妙有趣的迹象,看到这个词“文集”是用来在这么多不同的感觉。 "Corpus, non caro" is his own description of the angelic body.“语料库,非卡罗”是他的天使般的身体自己的描述。

Medieval psychology prior to the Aristotelean revival was affected by neo-Platonism, Augustinianism, and mystical influences derived from the works of pseudo-Dionysius.中世纪的心理之前,亚里士多德的复兴是受新柏拉图主义,奥古斯丁,以及伪狄奥尼修斯的作品获得神秘的影响。 This fusion produced sometimes, notably in Scotus Eriugena, a pantheistic theory of the soul.这种融合产生的,有时,特别是在司各脱Eriugena,一个灵魂的泛神论的理论。All individual existence is but the development of the Divine life, in which all things are destined to be resumed.所有个别存在,但发展的神圣生命,其中所有的东西都是注定要被收回。The Arabian commentators, Averroes and Avicenna, had interpreted Aristotle's psychology in a pantheistic sense.阿拉伯评论家,阿威罗伊和阿维森纳,诠释了一个泛神论的意义亚里士多德的心理。St. Thomas, with the rest of the Schoolmen, amends this portion of the Aristotelean tradition, accepting the rest with no important modifications.圣托马斯,与Schoolmen休息,修订本的亚里士多德传统的一部分,接受无重大修改的休息。St. Thomas's doctrine is briefly as follows:圣托马斯的学说简述如下:

the rational soul, which is one with the sensitive and vegetative principle, is the form of the body.理性的灵魂,这与敏感和营养的原则之一,是身体的形式。This was defined as of faith by the Council of Vienne of 1311;这被定义为信仰由维埃纳省议会的1311;

the soul is a substance, but an incomplete substance, ie it has a natural aptitude and exigency for existence in the body, in conjunction with which it makes up the substantial unity of human nature;灵魂是一种物质,但不完整的内容,也就是说,它具有天然的资质和在体内存在的紧急情况,与它一起构成了人性的实质统一;

though connaturally related to the body, it is itself absolutely simple, ie of an unextended and spiritual nature.虽然connaturally相关的机构,它本身就是绝对简单,非扩展的和精神的本质,即。It is not wholly immersed in matter, its higher operations being intrinsically independent of the organism; the rational soul is produced by special creation at the moment when the organism is sufficiently developed to receive it.它不是完全沉浸在物质,其较高的业务本质上是独立的有机体,理性的灵魂,是由特殊的创作产生于何时,是充分发展的有机体接受它的时刻。 In the first stage of embryonic development, the vital principle has merely vegetative powers; then a sensitive soul comes into being, educed from the evolving potencies of the organism -- later yet, this is replaced by the perfect rational soul, which is essentially immaterial and so postulates a special creative act.在胚胎发育的第一阶段,重要的原则,只是植物人权力,然后一个敏感的灵魂应运而生,educed从生物体进化potencies来 - 后来的是,这是由完美理性的灵魂,它本质上是无形取代等假设一个特殊的创造性行为。Many modern theologians have abandoned this last point of St. Thomas's teaching, and maintain that a fully rational soul is infused into the embryo at the first moment of its existence.许多现代神学家都放弃了这种圣托马斯的教学最后一点,并认为,一个完全理性的灵魂,是胚胎注入到在其存在的第一时刻。


Modern speculations respecting the soul have taken two main directions, Idealism and Materialism.现代揣测尊重灵魂已采取两个主要方向,唯心主义和唯物主义。Agnosticism need not be reckoned as a third and distinct answer to the problem, since, as a matter of fact, all actual agnosticisms have an easily recognized bias towards one or other of the two solutions aforesaid.不可知论不必作为第三和独特的答案的问题来计算,因为,作为一个事实上,所有实际agnosticisms有对一种或多种上述两个解决方案等易于识别的偏差。 Both Idealism and Materialism in present-day philosophy merge into Monism, which is probably the most influential system outside the Catholic Church.这两种理想主义和当代哲学的唯物主义合并成一元论,这可能是外面的天主教教会最有影响力的系统。


Descartes conceived the soul as essentially thinking (ie conscious) substance, and body as essentially extended substance.笛卡儿构思的灵魂,基本上思维(即自觉)的实质内容,并作为基本扩展物质的身体。The two are thus simply disparate realities, with no vital connection between them.因此这两个根本不同的现实,他们之间没有重大联系。This is significantly marked by his theory of the soul's location in the body.这是显着特点是他的灵魂在身体位置理论。 Unlike the Scholastics he confines it to a single point -- the pineal gland -- from which it is supposed to control the various organs and muscles through the medium of the "animal spirits", a kind of fluid circulating through the body.不同的scholastics他局限到一个单点 - 松果体 - 从它应该是控制的各个器官,并通过了“动物精神”,是一种流体通过人体循环中的肌肉。Thus, to say the least, the soul's biological functions are made very remote and indirect, and were in fact later on reduced almost to a nullity: the lower life was violently severed from the higher, and regarded as a simple mechanism.因此,至少可以说,灵魂的生物功能都提出了非常遥远和间接的,而事实上,后来就减少到几乎无效:较低的生活是从更高的猛烈切断,并作为一种简单的机制把。 In the Cartesian theory animals are mere automata.在笛卡尔理论的动物都只是自动机。It is only by the Divine assistance that action between soul and body is possible.这是灵魂和肉体之间的行动是可能的,只有神的援助。The Occasionalists went further, denying all interaction whatever, and making the correspondence of the two sets of facts a pure result of the action of God.该Occasionalists走得更远,否认所有互动什么的,使之成为事实的两套了上帝的行动纯净结果的对应关系。The Leibnizian theory of Pre-established Harmony similarly refuses to admit any inter-causal relation.而预先制定的和谐莱布尼兹理论同样拒绝承认有任何间的因果关系。The superior monad (soul) and the aggregate of inferior monads which go to make up the body are like two clocks constructed with perfect art so as always to agree.优越的单子(灵魂)和其中去弥补身体劣势单子总像与完美的艺术构建了两个时钟,使一如既往同意。They register alike, but independently: they are still two clocks, not one.他们注册的一致好评,但独立:他们仍然是两个时钟,一个也没有。 This awkward Dualism was entirely got rid of by Spinoza.这种尴尬的二元论是完全摆脱了由斯宾诺莎。For him there is but one, infinite substance, of which thought and extension are only attributes.对他来说只有一个,无限的物质,其中的思想和扩展名的属性。Thought comprehends extension, and by that very fact shows that it is at root one with that which it comprehends.领会思想的延伸,由该张女士表明,它在它的根与该领会之一。The alleged irreducible distinction is transcended: soul and body are neither of them substances, but each is a property of the one substance.据称不可约的区别是超越:灵魂和身体都没有,他们的物质,但每一个都是一个物质属性。Each in its sphere is the counterpart of the other.在每一个领域的其他对手。This is the meaning of the definition, "Soul is the Idea of Body".这是定义的含义,“灵魂是机构的想法”。Soul is the counterpart within the sphere of the attribute of thought of that particular mode of the attribute of extension which we call the body.灵魂是在对的那对扩展属性,我们称之为人体特定模式思想领域的对应属性。Such was the fate of Cartesianism.这些是笛卡儿主义的命运。

English Idealism had a different course.英国唯心主义产生了不同的课程。Berkeley had begun by denying the existence of material substance, which he reduced merely to a series of impressions in the sentient mind.伯克利分校已开始由否定物质实体的存在,他只是减少了在众生心中的印象系列。Mind is the only substance.心灵是唯一的物质。Hume finished the argument by dissolving mind itself into its phenomena, a loose collection of "impressions and ideas".休谟成品溶解现象记入其本身的“印象和想法”的松散集合的说法。The Sensist school (Condillac etc.) and the Associationists (Hartley, the Mills, and Bain) continued in similar fashion to regard the mind as constituted by its phenomena or "states", and the growth of modern positive psychology has tended to encourage this attitude.该Sensist学校(孔狄亚克等)和Associationists(哈特利,在米尔斯和贝恩)继续以类似的方式视为构成其现象或“国家”的思想,和现代积极心理学的发展趋向,以鼓励这态度。 But to rest in Phenomenalism as a theory is impossible, as its ablest advocates themselves have seen.但要休息现象论作为一种理论是不可能的,因为其本身所看到的最能干的倡导者。Thus JS Mill, while describing the mind as merely "a series [ie of conscious phenomena] aware of itself as a series", is forced to admit that such a conception involves an unresolved paradox.因此穆勒,而仅仅描述为“一系列意识到自己作为一个系列[有意识的现象,即]”的心态,是被迫承认,这样的概念涉及到一个未解决的矛盾。 Again, W. James's assertion that "the passing thought is itself the Thinker", which "appropriates" all past thoughts in the "stream of consciousness", simply blinks the question.同样,詹姆斯的说法,即“合格思想本身就是思想者”,其中“占有”中的“意识流”所有过去的想法,只是闪烁的问题。 For surely there is something which in its turn "appropriates" the passing thought itself and the entire stream of past and future thoughts as well, viz.对于这肯定有一些东西在转“占有”的思想本身并通过对过去和未来的思考,以及整个流,即the self-conscious, self-asserting "I" the substantial ultimate of our mental life.自我意识,自我主张“我”我们的心理生活相当极致。To be in this sense "monarch of all it surveys" in introspective observation and reflective self-consciousness, to appropriate without itself being appropriated by anything else, to be the genuine owner of a certain limited section of reality (the stream of consciousness), this is to be a free and sovereign (though finite) personality, a self-conscious, spiritual substance in the language of Catholic metaphysics.要在这个意义上内省的观察和反思自我意识“的一切调查君主”,以不被任何东西本身,是有一定的现实有限的部分(意识流)真正的主人拨出适当的,这将是一个自由和主权(尽管有限)的个性,自我意识,在天主教形而上学语言的精神实质。


The foregoing discussion partly anticipates our criticism of Materialism.上述讨论的部分预计我们的唯物主义的批评。The father of modern Materialism is Hobbes, who accepted the theory of Epicurus, and reduced all spirits either to phantoms of the imagination or to matter in a highly rarefied state.现代唯物主义的父亲是霍布斯,谁接受了伊壁鸠鲁的理论,并减少所有烈酒要么幻影的想象或物质在高度稀薄的状态。This theory need not detain us here.这个理论不必扣留我们。Later Materialism has three main sources:后来唯物主义有三个主要来源:

Newtonian physics, which taught men to regard matter, not as inert and passive, but as instinct with force.牛顿物理学,教男人方面的问题,还不如惰性和被动,但与力量的本能。Why should not life and consciousness be among its unexplored potencies?为什么不应该生活和意识是其中的未开发potencies? (Priestley, Tyndall, etc.) Tyndall himself provides the answer admitting that the chasm that separates psychical facts from material phenomena is "intellectually impassable". (普里斯特利,廷德尔等)廷德尔自己提供了答案承认的鸿沟分隔心理事实材料的现象是“智力不可逾越的”。Writers, therefore, who make thought a mere "secretion of the brain" or a "phosphorescence" of its substance (Vogt, Moleschott) may be simply ignored.作家,因此,谁做思想仅仅或“磷光”,其实质(沃格特,Moleschott)“的大脑分泌”可能是简单地忽略。 In reply to the more serious Materialism, spiritualist philosophers need only re-assert the admissions of the Materialists themselves, that there is an impassable chasm between the two classes of facts.在回答较为严重的唯物主义,唯灵论的哲学家只需要重新断言自己接诊的唯物主义者,有一个事实之间的两个类不可逾越的鸿沟。

Psychophysics, it is alleged, shows the most minute dependence of mind-functions upon brain-states.心理物理学,据称,显示在大脑的精神状态,功能最微小的依赖。The two orders of facts are therefore perfectly continuous, and, though they may be superficially different yet they must be after all radically one.这两个订单的事实,因此完全连续的,而且,虽然他们可能表面上不同但他们必须从根本上毕竟之一。Mental phenomena may be styled an epiphenomenon or byproduct of material force (Huxley).心理现象可能是风格的物质力量(赫胥黎)附带现象或副产品。The answer is the same as before.答案是和以前一样。There is no analogy for an epiphenomenon being separated by an "impassable chasm" from the causal series to which it belongs.有没有被一个“不可逾越的鸿沟”脱离因果系列其所属an附带现象比喻。The term is, in fact, a mere verbal subterfuge.这个词,其实,仅仅口头说辞。The only sound principle in such arguments is the principle that essential or "impassable" distinctions in the effect can be explained only by similar distinctions in the cause.在这样的论点只是稳健性原则的原则是必要的或“不可逾越”的效果区别只能在类似的​​区别的原因解释。This is the principle on which Dualism as we have explained it, rests.这是原则上的二元论,因为我们已经解释,休息。Merely to find relations, however close, between mental and physiological facts does not advance us an inch towards transcending this Dualism.仅仅是为了找关系,但心理和生理密切的事实,不事先通知我们朝着超越这个二元论一英寸。It only enriches and fills out our concept of it.它不仅丰富和填补了我们​​对它的概念。The mutual compenetration of soul and body in their activities is just what Catholic philosophy (anticipating positive science) had taught for centuries.灵魂和身体的活动相互compenetration正是天主教哲学(期待实证科学)有几百年的教导。Man is two and one, a divisible but a vital unity.人是二而一,一整除但一个重要的团结。

Evolutionism endeavours to explain the origin of the soul from merely material forces.进化论的努力来解释灵魂从单纯的物质力量的来源。Spirit is not the basis and principle; rather it is the ultimate efflorescence of the Cosmos.精神不是的基础和原则,而是它是宇宙的最终开花。If we ask then "what was the original basis out of which spirit and all things arose?"如果我们问,然后“什么是原来的基础上,其中的精神,所有的事情出现?”we are told it was the Unknowable (Spencer).我们被告知这是不可知(斯宾塞)。This system must be treated as Materialistic Monism.这个系统必须被视为唯物主义一元论。The answer to it is that, as the outcome of the Unknowable has a spiritual character, the Unknowable itself (assuming its reality) must be spiritual.而它的答案是,作为不可知的结果有一个精神品格,不可知本身(假设其现实)必须精神。

As regards monistic systems generally, it belongs rather to cosmology to discuss them.至于一元论的系统一般,它属于宇宙论讨论,而到他们。We take our stand on the consciousness of individual personality, which consciousness is a distinct deliverance of our very highest faculties, growing more and more explicit with the strengthening of our moral and intellectual being.我们采取的独特个性,这意识是我们最高的院系非常鲜明解脱,成长与我们的道德和智力正在加强更多,更明确的意识我们的立场。 This consciousness is emphatic, as against the figments of a fallaciously abstract reason, in asserting the self-subsistence (and at the same time the finitude) of our being, ie it declares that we are independent inasmuch as we are truly persons or selves, not mere attributes or adjectives, while at the same time, by exhibiting our manifold limitations, it directs us to a higher Cause on which our being depends.这种意识是有力的,因为对一个谬误抽象理性的虚构,在维护自我生存的我们被(并在同一时间的有限性),即它宣称,我们是独立的生死时刻,因为我们是真正的个人或自我,不是单纯的属性或形容词,而在同一时间,通过参展我们多方面的局限性,它引导我们到一个更高的事业上我们是依赖。

Such is the Catholic doctrine on the nature, unity, substantiality, spirituality, and origin of the soul.就是这样的性质,团结,充实,精神和灵魂的起源天主教教义。It is the only system consistent with Christian faith, and, we may add, morals, for both Materialism and Monism logically cut away the foundations of these.它是唯一系统与基督教信仰相一致,而且,我们可能会增加,道德,为唯物主义一元论和逻辑上切去其中的基础。The foregoing historical sketch will have served also to show another advantage it possesses -- namely, that it is by far the most comprehensive, and at the same time discriminating, syntheseis of whatever is best in rival systems.上述历史草图将服务也表现出另一个优势是拥有 - 即它是迄今为止最好的对手无论是系统最全面的,并在同一时间歧视,syntheseis的。It recognizes the physical conditions of the soul's activity with the Materialist, and its spiritual aspect with the Idealist, while with the Monist it insists on the vital unity of human life.它承认的灵魂与唯物主义活动的物质条件,以及它与唯心主义精神方面,而它与一元论对人类生活的重要团结坚持。It enshrines the principles of ancient speculation, and is ready to receive and assimilate the fruits of modern research.它供奉古代投机的原则,并准备接受和吸收现代研究的成果。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher & Joseph Bolland.出版信息由迈克尔马希尔&约瑟夫Bolland表示写。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil and Joseph P. Thomas.转录由托马斯汉奇尔和约瑟夫P.托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Also, see:此外,见:
Traducianism traducianism
Origin of the Soul原产地的灵魂

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