Sunnites, Sunni, Ahl-i Sunnah逊尼,逊尼

General Information一般资料

The term Sunnites refers to the great majority of the world's Muslims, distinguishing them as the ahl al - sunna wal - jamaa ("the people of the sunna and the community") from the Shiites.逊尼派一词指的是世界上穆斯林占大多数,区分他们的AHL人 - 从什叶派jamaa(“的圣行和社会的人”) - 松纳沃尔玛。Sunnites are, by this definition, Muslims who strictly follow the sunna (practices) of the Prophet Muhammad and preserve the unity and integrity of the community. Anyone who stands within the mainstream of the Islamic tradition and acts in accordance with generally accepted practices of the community is, therefore, a Sunni. Most Muslims see the sunna as complementary to the Koran insofar as it explains certain points and elaborates some Koranic principles by offering details necessary for the practice of Islamic law.逊尼派是,由这个定义,严格按照谁穆斯林先知穆罕默德的圣训(实践),维护团结和社会诚信。 任何谁在伊斯兰的传统主流立场和行为与普遍接受的惯例社会,因此,逊尼派,大多数穆斯林认为古兰经相辅相成的圣行,因为它说明某些点,通过提供详细阐述了伊斯兰法的实践所必需的一些古兰经原则。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
I Al Faruqi and L Lamya, The Cultural Atlas of Islam (1986); JL Esposito, Islam and Politics (1984); IM Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies (1988).我铝Faruqi和L Lamya,伊斯兰文化图集(1986年); JL埃斯波西托,伊斯兰教与政治(1984年); IM拉皮德斯,一个伊斯兰社团的历史(1988年)。


Sunni Islam逊尼派伊斯兰教

General Information一般资料

Sunni Islam was defined during the early Abbasid period (beginning in AD 750), and it included the followers of four legal schools (the Malikis, Hanafis, Shafi'is, and Hanbalis ).逊尼派伊斯兰教的定义在阿巴斯王朝时期的初期(公元750年初),它包括四个(在Malikis,哈乃非学派,Shafi'is和罕百里学派 )法律学校的追随者。In contrast to the Shias, the Sunnis believed that leadership was in the hands of the Muslim community at large.与此相反的什叶派,逊尼派认为,领导在穆斯林社会的手中在逃。The consensus of historical communities, not the decisions of political authorities, led to the establishment of the four legal schools.社区的历史,而不是政治当局的决定,协商一致导致了四个法律学校成立。In theory a Muslim could choose whichever school of Islamic thought he or she wished to follow and could change this choice at will.从理论上讲可以选择任何一个穆斯林的伊斯兰学校认为他或她愿意遵循,并可能会改变这种选择。 The respect and popularity that the religious scholars enjoyed made them the effective brokers of social power and pitched them against the political authorities.尊重和知名度的宗教学者使他们享受社会权力的有效经纪和投他们对政治当局。

After the first four caliphs, the religious and political authorities in Islam were never again united under one institution.经过前四个哈里发,在伊斯兰教的宗教和政治当局从未再团结在一个机构。 Their usual coexistence was underscored by a mutual recognition of their separate spheres of influence and their respective duties and responsibilities.他们通常的共存是强调由他们各自势力范围和各自的职责和责任的相互承认。Often, however, the two powers collided, and invariably any social opposition to the elite political order had religious undertones.然而,通常两个大国相撞,并不约而同地反对任何社会精英的政治秩序有宗教意味。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈迈德S. Dallal


Sunni Islam逊尼派伊斯兰教

Advanced Information先进的信息

Doctrines教义

The Sunni tradition is one of the two main sectarian divisions in Islam (the other being Shi'a).传统的逊尼派是伊斯兰教两大教派在师(另一个是什叶派)之一。A number of important principles govern the Sunni tradition.一些重要的一些原则支配逊尼派的传统。

  1. The Prophet and his revelation are of foremost authority.先知和他的启示是最重要的权威。
  2. In order for the Qur'an to be used as a basis for sound judgement for subjects under dispute it is necessary to take sound hadiths into account.为了要作为一个有争议的课题,有必要考虑到声音圣训声音判断的依据古兰经秩序。
  3. Qur'anic verses should be interpreted in the context of the whole of the Qur'an.古兰经经文的解释应在古兰经的整个背景。
  4. In understanding the Qur'an rational thinking is subordinate to revelation.在了解古兰经理性的思考是从属于启示。If the Qur'an or the Sunnah of the Prophet offers a clear judgement on anything, the Muslim is obliged to follow this judgement.如果古兰经或先知圣训提供任何明确的判断上,穆斯林有义务遵循这一判断。If there is no clear judgement about anything in the Qur'an, then it is necessary to make a rational opinion (known as Ijtihad) which is consistent with Qur'anic teaching.如果没有任何有关在古兰经明确的判断,那么就必须要进行合理的意见(视Ijtihad已知),这是与古兰经的教学是一致的。
  5. The first four caliphs were the legitimate rulers of the early community.前四个哈里发是早期社会的合法统治者。
  6. Faith and deeds are inseparable.信仰和行为是分不开的。
  7. Everything occurs according to the divine plan.根据发生的一切神圣的计划。
  8. Allah will be seen in the life after death.安拉将出现在死后的生活。

The Sunni tradition also emphasises the importance of religion in the formation of public policy.逊尼派传统也强调了宗教在公共政策形成中的重要性。This emphasis has, according to Sunni-Muslim scholars, given rise to two interrelated processes: the supremacy of the Shari'a and the sovereignty of the Islamic community.这个重点,根据逊尼派穆斯林学者,产生了两个相互关联的过程:至高无上的伊斯兰教法和伊斯兰社会的主权。According to the Sunni tradition, if Islam is a legalistically oriented religion, concerned with the organization of human society, it follows that religious teaching must concern itself with matters of marriage and divorce, inheritance and ownership, commercial transactions and contractual dealings, government, banking, investment, credits, debts and so on.据逊尼派的传统,如果伊斯兰是一种宗教legalistically导向,随着人类社会的有关组织,它遵循宗教教学必须关注的结婚和离婚,继承和所有权,商业交易和合同交易,政府,银行本身的问题,投资,信贷,债务等。 The proper execution of these contractual matters according to the principles of the shari'a based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet constitutes an important part of the way to salvation.这些合同事项妥善地执行根据对古兰经和先知圣训为基础的伊斯兰教法的原则,构成了救赎方式的重要组成部分。

History历史

Islam is divided between the minority Shia tradition and the majority Sunni tradition.伊斯兰教分为少数的什叶派和逊尼派穆斯林为主的传统的传统。The minority group regard the Prophet's Son in law, Ali, and his descendants as divinely authorised to rule the Muslim community.少数群体在法律方面,阿里和他的后裔的先知的儿子作为神授权规则的穆斯林社区。The majority group believed that the caliph should be appointed through the consensus of the community.大多数组认为,哈里发应当通过社会的共识任命。

The Muslim community's encounter with other cultures, coupled with further divisions in the community itself, brought home the need to formulate the principles of faith within a rational framework.穆斯林社会与其他文化与社会的进一步分裂加上本身,遇到带回家,需要制定一个合理的框架内对信用的原则。In the 10th century much of the contents of the Muslim community's theology was put into a set of propositions known as Sunni (orthodox) theology.在10世纪的穆斯林社区的神学的大部分内容被放入为逊尼派(正统)神学已知命题设置。The word Sunni derives from the sunnah, or example, of the Prophet, and indicates the orthodoxy of the majority community as opposed to the peripheral positions of schismatics who by definition must be in error.这个词来自逊尼派的圣行,或例如,先知,并指出大多数人的社会,而不是正统的schismatics谁的定义必须是在错误的外围阵地。

A further response to schisms involved developing a trend of accommodation and synthesis.另一项针对参与开发的住宿和综合的趋势分裂。The principle of accommodation made it possible for diverse schools of thought to coexist and recognize each other.该原则的住宿安排使不同学校的思想共存和相互承认。Thus, the two principal theological schools of al-Ashari and al-Maturidi accepted each other as orthodox while opposing minority traditions such as Mu'tazilah, Kharijites and Shi'a.因此,两个主要的AL - Ashari和al - Maturidi神学院接受正统而互相对立的,如Mu'tazilah,Kharijites和什叶派少数民族传统。The legal framework of the Sunni tradition was provided by the Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools.而逊尼派传统的法律框架所​​提供的哈纳菲,沙菲仪,马利基和Hanbali学校。

The political leadership of the Sunni community, and therefore the symbol of orthodoxy has been the caliphate.而逊尼派社会的政治领导,因此在正统的象征一直是哈里发。After the first four caliphs the community came under the authority of the Ummayads, who set up their capital in Damascus.经过前四个哈里发社会受到的Ummayads,谁设在大马士革的资本的权力。The period of the Ummayad caliphs (661-750) saw the conquest of North Africa and Spain.伍麦叶王朝的哈里发(661-750)时期看到了北非和西班牙的征服。In 732 Muslim armies reached as far as Toulouse in the south-west of France.在穆斯林军队达到732尽可能图卢兹在西南部的法国。 In the East, Muslim armies arrived in Afghanistan and the region that is present-day Pakistan.在东方,穆斯林军队抵达阿富汗和该地区是当今巴基斯坦。In 750 the Ummayad caliph was overthrown in rebellion led by the 'Abbasids, who were to form the next caliphate.在750伍麦叶王朝哈里发被推翻了由“阿巴斯王朝,谁是形成未来哈里发领导的叛乱。Remnants of the Ummayad family, however, were able to establish themselves in Muslim Spain, where they ruled until 1031.伍麦叶王朝遗留的家庭,然而,能够建立在穆斯林西班牙,他们在那里统治,直到1031自己。

The 'Abbasids established their capital in Baghdad in 750.而“阿巴斯王朝在巴格达建立了750他们的资本。From then until the 10th century both the Muslim empire and the power of the 'Abbasids continued to grow.从那时起直到10世纪穆斯林帝国,同时对“阿巴斯王朝力量继续增长。However, from the 10th century the empire began to fragment.然而,从10世纪帝国开始片段。A rival caliphate, the Fatimids, was established in North Africa.它的竞争对手哈里发时,法蒂玛,成立于北非。The Mongol invasions and the capture of Baghdad in 1258 brought to an end the caliphate in Iraq.蒙古入侵和1258年的巴格达捕捉宣告结束在伊拉克的哈里发。An 'Abbasid caliphate was established in Cairo, but this was without any real political power.一个'阿巴斯哈里发在开罗成立,但这次没有任何真正的政治权力。

The caliphate was taken over when the Ottomans invaded Egypt in 1517.被接管的哈里发奥斯曼帝国入侵时,在1517年埃及。The defeat of the Ottoman empire after the first world war, and the creation of a secular state in Turkey (which had been at the heart of the Ottoman empire) brought the caliphate to an end.后的第一次世界战争击败奥斯曼帝国,一个在土耳其建立世俗国家(其中有在奥斯曼帝国的心脏已经)带来的哈里发结束。For the first half of the twentieth century many regions of the Islamic world have sought to free themselves from European colonial rule.对于二十世纪上半叶,伊斯兰世界许多地区都试图摆脱欧洲殖民统治自己。In the absence of the caliphate a pan-Islamic identity has been sought through organisations such as the Muslim World League and the Islamic Conference.在缺席的情况下的哈里发泛伊斯兰身份已经寻求通过诸如穆斯林世界联盟和伊斯兰会议组织。Internal divisions have, however, impeded any real scope for Islamic unity.有内部分歧,但是,任何阻碍伊斯兰团结的真正范围。

Symbols符号

See Islam.见伊斯兰教。

Adherents遗民

Today Ahl-i Sunna/Sunnism is the madhhab of 90% of all Muslims.今天AHL -我孙娜/ Sunnism是所有穆斯林的90%madhhab。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

None.无。

Bülent Þenay湍流Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project概述世界宗教项目


General Essay on Sunni Islam一般征文逊尼派伊斯兰教

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Sunni tradition is known in Arabic as the Ahl-i Sunnah (the People of Sunnah), a term which according to the earliest classical sources emerged in the ninth century.逊尼派的传统是著名的阿拉伯语的AHL -我圣训(人民的圣行),一个术语,根据最早的经典来源在第九世纪出现了。 The word "Sunnah" means custom, method, path or example and refers particularl y to the example of the prophet Muhammad as found in the Hadith.单词“圣训”是指自定义,方法,路径或榜样,是指particularl y来的先知穆罕默德的例子,在圣训中找到。Thus, the Ahl-i Sunnah are those who follow the tradition of the prophet and his companions in understanding the Islamic faith.因此,AHL -我圣训是那些谁跟随先知和伊斯兰信仰在理解他的同伴的传统。

During the early centuries following the death of the Prophet Islamic scholars sought to consolidate and systematize Islamic belief and practice.在下面的先知死亡世纪初的伊斯兰学者试图巩固和系统化伊斯兰信仰和实践。One of the challenges confronting Muslim scholars was how to determine which of the many thousands of hadith attributed to the Prophet and his companions were authentic.穆斯林学者所面临的挑战之一是如何确定的圣训的许多数以万计,归结为先知和他的同伴被地道。In the ninth century, two scholars, Muhammad b.在第九世纪,两位学者,穆罕默德湾Isma'il Bukhari (d.870) and Muslim b.Isma'il布哈里(d.870)和穆斯林B。al Hajjaj (d. 875), collected and sifted through the vast numbers of traditions in order to compile dictionaries containing the authentic traditions of the Prophet.人Hajjaj(卒于875),收集并通过传统的广大过筛,以编译字典包含了先知的正宗传统。Basing their decisions on the reliability of the particular transmitters, al Bukhari and al Hajjaj reduced the massive number of traditions to several thousand.立足于对特定发射机可靠性他们的决定,人布哈里和Al Hajjaj减少了传统数量庞大到几千元。In the tenth century these collections were given canonical status by the Muslim community.在第十个世纪,这些藏品被赋予的穆斯林社会规范的状态。

In addition to these two collections, four further collections of hadith were compiled by lesser known scholars.除了这两个集合,四个圣训进一步收入,编制鲜为人知的学者。While regarded as authentic and canonical by the Ummah, these do not have quite the same status as those of al Bukhari and al Hajjaj.虽然作为地道和伊斯兰世界视为规范,这些不具备相当的作为人布哈里和基地Hajjaj相同的地位。

A second area of Islamic life developed at this time was the Shari 'ah, the regulations and principles upon which Islamic law is based.伊斯兰生活的第二个方面在这个时候开发是莎丽“啊,法规,并呼吁伊斯兰法为基础的原则。The four orthodox schools of law - Hanafiyyah, Malikiyyah, Shafi'iyyah and Hanbaliyyah - elaborated the rules of procedure by which particular laws could be determined.四正统的法学院 - Hanafiyyah,Malikiyyah,Shafi'iyyah和Hanbaliyyah - 阐述议事某些特定法律可确定的规则。These rules were based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah and two legal principles known as qiyas and ijma'.这些规则是根据古兰经和圣训和qiyas和ijma“之称两个法律原则。Qiyas is the attempt through analogical reasoning to determine how the principles of the Qur'an and the Sunnah could be applied to a situation not clearly addressed through these sources. Qiyas是通过类比推理的尝试,以确定如何对古兰经和圣行的原则可以适用于通过这些渠道没有明确解决的情况。An example of such a ruling is the extension of the Qur'anic decree against market activities during the Friday congregational prayers to a general prohibition of all business activities at this time.这样的一个判决的例子是对市场活动的古兰经法令在星期五祈祷会众扩展到所有业务活动在这个时候一般禁止。

Ijma', meaning consensus, was based on the principle that when no clear guidance was given by the Qur'an or the Sunnah on a principle of law the consensus of the community would be sought. Ijma“,意思是共识,是基于认为,当没有明确的指导意见是由古兰经或圣训给予法律上的原则是社会的共识将寻求原则。All four schools accept these principles as the basis of the Shari 'ah and regard each other as orthodox.所有四所学校接受的莎丽“啊依据这些原则,并将其视为正统对方。They differ with regard to the particular importance each school attaches to qiyas and ijma' relative to the Qur'an and the Sunnah.它们的不同方面的特殊重要性每所学校重视qiyas和ijma“相对于古兰经和圣行。

Concomitant with the systematization of the Shari'ah was the establishment of theological orthodoxy.与伊斯兰教法系统化伴随是神学正统的建立。The encounter with non-Islamic beliefs and the emergence of deviant theological views within the community itself provided the impetus for the formation of an orthodox theology.与非伊斯兰信仰和对社区内的神学观点的出现本身越轨遇到提供了一个正统的神学形成的动力。The first major challenge to Islam from within came from the Kharijiyyah, who claimed that good works as well as the profession of faith were necessary to be a true Muslim.第一个主要挑战来自于伊斯兰教来自Kharijiyyah,谁声称好作品,以及信仰的职业是必要的,是一个真正的穆斯林。 Those who sinned without repenting forfeited their right to belong to the community of believers.这些谁不思悔改罪被没收的权利属于社会的信徒。Such was their strength of feeling on this issue that they violently persecuted those who disagreed with him.这就是他们在这个问题上的感觉,他们猛烈地受到迫害的人谁不同意他的实力。

The issue of the relationship between faith and works was taken up by a second group, the Mu'tazilah, who argued that the non-repentant sinner occupied a middle state between belief and non-belief.对信仰与工作的关系问题,就由第​​二组,Mu'tazilah,谁主张,非悔改的罪人占领之间的信仰和不信仰中间状态。 Although endeavouring to defend Islam against Hellenistic philosophy, the Mu'tazilah drew upon Hellenistic ideas in formulating their understanding of God and the relationship between God and humanity.虽然努力抵御希腊哲学伊斯兰教,Mu'tazilah借鉴了希腊思想在制定自己的神,神与人类之间关系的认识。 For the Mu'tazilah, all anthropomorphic language about God was to be interpreted as purely metaphorical.对于Mu'tazilah,所有关于神拟人化的语言,是作为纯粹的隐喻解释。Furthermore, in order to preserve the doctrine of human freedom and responsibility, God's action was interpreted in terms of necessity and duty rather than freedom.此外,为了维护人类的自由和责任的学说,神的行动解释的必要性和义务,而不是自由的条款。It was the denial of God's absolute freedom that was a source of concern to mainstrea m Islamic thinkers.这是上帝的绝对自由,这是一个令人关切的问题,以mainstrea米伊斯兰思想家拒绝。

In reaction to the Mu'tazilah doctrine, two theological schools emerged in the tenth century: Ash'ariyyah and Maturidiyyah.在反应的Mu'tazilah学说,两个神学院出现了十世纪:Ash'ariyyah和Maturidiyyah。 Both schools endeavoured to elevate revelation and reduce reason as the means by which humanity acquires a knowledge of God.这两所学校努力提高启示和减少的方法,使人类获得了神的知识的原因。By arguing that there were certain truths about the nature of God which were not accessible to human reason alone these schools sought to restore the doctrine of divine omnipotence.通过争辩说,有关于神的本性的某些真理而没有接触到人的原因,仅这些学校设法恢复神圣的全能主义。

The establishment of broadly based forms of jurisprudential and theological orthodoxy during its early history has not prevented the emergence of anti-orthodox tendencies in more recent times.对法学和神学正统广泛的形式建立在其早期的历史并没有阻止了在近代反正统倾向的出现。In the eighteenth century a group known as Wahhabiyyah emerged with the purpose of "purifying" Islam of non-Islamic accretions such as the worship of the saints.在十八世纪Wahhabiyyah称为一组出现以“净化”伊斯兰教等的圣人崇拜的非伊斯兰增生的目的。Integral to this project was the attempt to base Islamic law solely on the Qur'an and the Sunnah through the rejection of qiyas and ijma' as elements within the Shari 'ah.积分这个项目是完全古兰经和圣行试图通过qiyas和ijma“为元素内莎丽”啊甩基地伊斯兰法。A second, unrelated group, Ahmadiyyah, was founded in India towards the end of the nineteenth century.第二,无关组,Ahmadiyyah,始建于印度对十九世纪末。Its leader, Mirza Ghulam Ahamd, claimed to be the Christian Messiah, the Mahdi, an avatar of Krishna and a reappearance of Muhammad.其领导人,米尔扎古拉姆Ahamd,自称是基督教的弥赛亚,马赫迪,克里希纳的头像和穆罕默德的再现。In spite of being declared heretical by the orthodox Muslim community this group has spread beyond India into other parts of Asia and from there to Europe and Africa.在被宣布为正统穆斯林社会这个群体已经超越印度传播到亚洲其他地区,并从那里到欧洲和非洲,尽管邪教。

Bülent Þenay湍流Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project概述世界宗教项目

Bibliography : 参考书目

Al-Azmeh, Aziz (ed.) Islamic Law: Social and Historical Contexts. London: Routledge, 1988.铝Azmeh,阿齐兹(编辑) 伊斯兰法:社会与历史背景伦敦:Routledge出版社,1988。

Clarke, Peter. West Africa and Islam: a Study of Religious Development from the 8th to the 20th Century. E.。克拉克,彼得西非和伊斯兰:一个宗教发展研究从8到20世纪 E.Arnold, 1982.阿诺德,1982年。

Enayat, Hamid. Modern Islamic Political Thought: The Response of the Shi'i and Sunni Muslims to the Twentieth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1982. 。ENAYAT,哈米德现代伊斯兰政治思想:在什叶派和逊尼派穆斯林的响应到二十世纪纽约麦克米伦,1982。

Gibb, HAR Islam: A Historical Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1953.吉布,HAR 伊斯兰:一个历史考察牛津牛津大学出版社,1953。

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Hodgson, Marshall GS The Venture of Islam. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1974.霍奇森,马歇尔GS 伊斯兰的芝加哥风险:芝加哥大学出版社,1974。

Martin, Richard C. Islam: A Cultural Perspective. Prentice Hall, 1982.马丁,理查德伊斯兰教:文化的角度 Prentice Hall出版社1982年。

Rahman, Fazlur. Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979. 拉赫曼,Fazlur 伊斯兰教芝加哥:芝加哥出版社,1979年大学。

Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. 。Rippin,安德鲁穆斯林:他们的宗教信仰和习俗。Vol 1: The Formative Period. London: Routledge, 1990.第1卷:在形成时期伦敦:Routledge出版社,1990。

Watt, WM The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1973.瓦特,WM 的伊斯兰思想形成时期爱丁堡:爱丁堡大学出版社,1973。

Wolfson, HA The Philosophy of the Kalam. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.欧胜 ,房委会的卡拉姆哲学剑桥马萨诸塞州:哈佛大学出版社,1976。


The four accepted legal schools of Sunnis are:四个接纳逊尼派法律学校是:

These four schools are somewhat different from each other, but Sunni Muslims generally consider them all equally valid.这四所学校是有点互不相同,但逊尼派穆斯林普遍认为他们都同样有效。


Sunni-Shi'i Relationships逊尼派和什叶派的关系

Shi'a Viewpoint什叶派观点

One of the most important socio-political issues in life is that of leadership, its quality, authority and method of appointment.最重要的社会政治生活中的一个问题是领导的,其质量,权威性和任命的方法。The Qur`an and the prophetic teachings emphasize obedience to Allah, His Prophet and the upright 'people of authority'.在古兰经`an和先知的教导强调服从真主,先知和正直的“当权者”。No Muslim disagrees with this.没有穆斯林不同意这一点。It is only with the method of legitimizing a 'person of authority' that differences occur and around which the Sunni and Shi'i theologies diverge.它只有在一个合法化,并围绕这一分歧发生的逊尼派和什叶派神学分歧“的权力的人”的方法。

During the early centuries of Islam the terms Sunni and Shi'i meant different things at different times, as did many other names designating various schools of thought.在世纪初的伊斯兰教逊尼派和什叶派的条款意味着在不同时期不同的事情,因为做了很多思想指定各学校的其他名称。It was not until the eleventh and twelfth centuries that the current pattern of usage stabilized.它不是直到11和12世纪的是,目前使用的模式趋于稳定。

Sunni essentially means one who follows the Sunnah, which is the desired aim of every sincere Muslim.逊尼派主要手段之一谁遵循圣行,这是每一个真诚的穆斯林的理想目标。It has come to mean, however, those Muslims who follow the Sunnah and Jama'ah, that is, the way of Muhammad and the consensual majority of Muslims.这已经意味着,然而,那些穆斯林谁遵循圣行和Jama'ah,也就是穆罕默德的方式和广大穆斯林的同意。The term was first adopted by a faction of Muslims who had accepted Abbasid rule, stressing the importance of its continuity with the Marwani past.一词最早通过了穆斯林谁接受阿巴斯王朝统治,强调与Marwani过去,其连续性的重要性派。It was well over a century after Muhammad that the term Sunni began to be widely used to distinguish between the largest common group (which is the literal meaning of Jama'ah) and the Shi'i, that is, those who were loyal to `Ali's party.这是穆罕默德好后这个词逊尼派开始被广泛用来区分最大的共同组(这是Jama'ah字面意思)和什叶派,也就是那些谁是忠诚于一个多世纪以来`阿里的党。 It also implied those who strictly and exclusively referred to the Hadith as opposed to engaging in theological and philosophical discourse as a means of gaining guidance.这也意味着那些谁严格,专门提到了圣训,而不是在搞神学和哲学话语作为一种获得指导的手段。In latter-day usage Sunni has become synonymous with 'orthodox', though it would be more accurate to employ the term Jama'ah to signify the popular mainstream.在后期的使用已成为逊尼派与“正统”的代名词,但它会更准确聘请长期Jama'ah以示流行的主流。

In the early years after the Prophet's death the term Shi`i meant 'follower' or 'partisan', with particular reference to `Ali.早在年后先知的死亡长期施`我的意思是“跟随者”或“党派”,并特别提到'阿里。The Shi'as believe that the Prophet had categorically appointed `Ali Ibn Abi Talib as his successor at the gathering of Ghadir Khum.在什叶派相信,先知断然任命`为他在继任者的Ghadir坤收集伊本阿里阿比利布。`Ali in turn nominated as his successor his eldest son Hasan, who then nominated his brother Husayn and so on through another ten generations of the Prophet's descendants. `反过来阿里提名他的继任他的大儿子哈桑,谁再提名等通过对先知的子孙十代他的另一个兄弟侯赛因。Although the Sunnis all acknowledge the event at Ghadir Khum, they take the Prophet's message as merely an acknowledgement of `Ali's merit rather than a definite political appointment.虽然逊尼派都承认在Ghadir坤事件,他们只是作为一个确认的'阿里的优点,而不是一个明确的政治任命先知的消息。

In the end, however, the successor to the Prophet was elected by a group of Medinan elders (while the Prophet was being buried).最后,然而,对先知的继任者当选由Medinan长老组(当先知被掩埋)。The first Muslim ruler (later to be called Caliph) was Abu Bakr, the Prophet's father-in-law and a close and loyal Companion.第一个穆斯林统治者(后来被称为哈里发)是艾布伯克尔,先知的岳父岳母和一个亲密的伴侣和忠诚。Though `Ali and his followers made occasional protests, they did not contest or revolt against the early Caliphs.虽然`阿里和他的追随者做偶尔的抗议,他们没有比赛或反对早期哈里发起义。`Ali himself remained loyal to the cause of Islam and served wherever and whenever he could alongside his predecessors.`阿里自己仍然忠于伊斯兰教事业和服务无论何时何地,他能沿着他的前辈。Upon the demise of the third Caliph, however, `Ali was elected the fourth.当第三哈里发的消亡,然而,'阿里当选为第四位。

.

The general Sunni stance on leadership was that peace under an unjust ruler was better than anarchy under a just one.一般的逊尼派领导人的立场是,在一个不公正的统治者在一个公正的和平是一个比无政府状态更好。For the Shi`i, justice in the government of human affairs could not grow if the ruler did not reflect the Prophet.对于石`我,在人类事务的政府司法不能生长,如果统治者没有体现先知。The ruler had the status of a prophetic figure who, in the Prophet's absence, should be the ultimate spiritual and temporal authority.标尺有一个先知人物谁,在先知的情况下,应是最终的精​​神和时间的权威地位。The prophetic mantle was taken up by the Sufis in the person of their Shaykhs or teachers.地幔的预言,就由在其Shaykhs或教师个人的苏菲。This fact is significant because while most Sufis were Sunni, the necessity for enlightened leadership reflects the essential nature of transmission of knowledge and guidance.这一事实是重要的,因为虽然大多数苏菲是逊尼派,为开明领导的必要性体现了知识和指导传输的本质属性。Hence the Shi`is turned to their Imams.因此,石`打开他们的伊玛目。

Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri伊Fadhlalla Haeri
THE ELEMENTS OF ISLAM伊斯兰的要素



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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