Tantra谭崔

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The term Tantra refers to a pan Indian religious movement (also called Tantrism) that arose in about the 6th century AD within both Buddhism and Hinduism and to the texts (either Buddhist or Hindu) setting forth its practices and beliefs.谭崔一词指的是一个泛印度的宗教运动(也称为密宗),在大约公元6世纪内都出现了佛教和印度教和文本(无论是佛教或印度教),列举其做法和信仰。 The main emphasis of Tantrism is on the development of the devotee's dormant psychophysical powers by means of special meditations and ritual techniques.密宗主要强调的是对奉献者的休眠心理物理学权力的特殊冥想和祭祀技术手段的发展。These are essentially esoteric and must be passed on personally from master to initiate.这些基本上是深奥的,必须通过从主机上亲自发起。Stressing the coordination of body, speech, and mind, they include the use of symbolic gestures (mudras); the uttering of potent formulas (Mantras); the entering (through meditation) of sacred diagrams (Mandalas) and yantras; the meditator's creative visualization of and identification with specific divine forms; and the physical, iconographic, or mental use of sexual forces and symbols.强调身体,言语和心灵的协调,它们包括(mudras)象征性的姿态使用;了(咒语)强效配方一言不发,在进入神圣的图(曼荼罗)和yantras(通过冥想);禅修的创意可视化具体的神圣和鉴定形式,以及象征性力量和体能,肖像权,或精神使用。

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Because of the last of these emphases, Tantra has sometimes been considered as a degenerate form of religion rather than as the final outgrowth of trends whose roots reach deep into YOGA and Indian cosmology.由于这些重点最后,密宗有时被认为是一种堕落的趋势,其根深入到宇宙深瑜伽和印度最终产物,而不是宗教的形式。 Although the particulars of practice vary between the Buddhist and Hindu Tantras and within each of these traditions from one text or lineage to another, they all stress the realization, within the body, of the union of polar opposites, whether these be conceived of as devotee and goddess, the masculine principle (Shiva) and the feminine (Shakti), reason and compassion, or samsara and nirvana.虽然实践的细节之间的佛教和印度教的密续,并在这些传统各不相同,从每一个文字或沿袭到另一个,他们都强调实现,身体内的工会对立的两极,不管这些被设想为奉献者和女神,男性原则(湿婆)和女性(沙克蒂),理性和同情,或轮回和涅槃。 Tantrism is traditionally practiced in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and other countries where Tibetan Buddhism is followed, as well as in India.密宗在西藏实行的是传统上,尼泊尔,不丹等国家,其次是藏传佛教,以及在印度。

Joseph M Kitagawa and John S Strong约瑟夫M北川和约翰s强

Bibliography: 参考书目:
B Bhattacharya, The World of Tantra (1988); NN Bhattacharya, History of the Tantric Religion (1983); S Chattopadhyaya, Reflections on the Tantras (1978); A Mookerjee and M Khanna, The Tantric Way: Art, Science, Ritual (1989).B,对密教(1988)世界巴特查亚; NN巴特查亚,密宗的宗教历史(1983年),S Chattopadhyaya,思考的密续(1978),A和M Mookerjee卡纳,在密宗道:艺术,科学,仪式( 1989年)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Buddhism 佛教

Mahayana Buddhism大乘佛教

Theravada Buddhismtheravada佛教

Lamaism 喇嘛教

Zen Buddhism


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