Taoism道教 中文 - Zhong Wen

(6th Century BC)(公元前6世纪)

General Information一般资料

Tao means 'the Way' or 'Way of Life.'道指“的方式”或“生活方式”。

Lao - Tse is the supposed author of the Tao Te Ching, a small book containing the main tenets of Taoism.老挝 - 谢是道德经,一本小书包含道教的主要原则应该的作者。The book is divided into two parts, the Tao and the Tek, and is subdivided into 81 chapters.全书分为两部分,陶和TEK,并分为81章细分。He was a contemporary of Confucius, who visited him several times and who was deeply impressed by the spirituality and humility of Lao - Tse.他是孔子,谁访问了他好几次,谁是深受精神和谦虚的老印象深刻的当代 - 谢。

'All things originate from Tao, conform to Tao, and to Tao they at last return.' “万物起源于道,符合道,并道,最后返回他们。”

Lao - Tse taught a belief in transmigration of souls, which got absorbed into Taoism, Confucianism and the other Eastern religions as reincarnation. 老挝-谢教授在灵魂轮回的信仰,它钻进了道教,儒家和其他东方宗教的轮回吸收。

Where Confucianism is rather practical, Taoism is largely negative in its teachings and emphasizes pacifism, mysticism, and the importance of non - activity.如果儒家是比较实用的,道教是在很大程度上否定其教义,并强调和平主义,神秘主义和非重要性 - 活动。

Taoism taught its believers to cast aside worldly pleasures, honors, and glory and to be content with their lot. Later on, Taoism came to be a religion of spirits and ancestor worship far removed from the original simple teachings. 道教教导其信徒抛弃世俗的快乐,荣誉和荣耀,并与他们的很多内容,后来,后来被道教的神灵信 ​​仰和祖先崇拜远从原来简单的教义中删除。 A priesthood arose, shrines and temples were erected, and an elaborate system composed of magic, charms, and spells was developed.一个祭司出现,神社和寺庙拔地而起,一个精心制作的系统的神奇,魅力,和法术组成的开发。

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In principle, Taoism suggests not striving for 'the best', which theoretically is never attainable.原则上, 道教表明不争取“最好”,这在理论上是永远不会实现的。Just accept 'good enough' and be contented and happy. Taoism teaches simplicity, frugality and love of the soil.只要接受“足够好”,并满足和快乐。道教教简单,节俭和土壤的爱。Extensive education was not sought in Taoism as in Confucianism.广泛的教育是不寻求在道教中儒学。

Three stages of religious growth occurred.三大宗教生长阶段发生。The first, eremital, involved abstention from too much food, deep breathing, and learning rules for longevity.第一,eremital,涉及弃权从过多的食物,深呼吸,学习规则和长寿。(up to about 200 BC) (高达约公元前200年)

The second, the magical, lasted from 200 BC to 200 AD.第二,神奇的,持续了从公元前200年至公元200年。 Taoists developed fortunetelling and exorcism.道家开发算命和驱魔。

The third, the ecclesiastical, is a church - like phase up to today.第三,教会,是教会 - 就像阶段到今天为止。Taoism took over many of the gods of Buddhism over the years as well as other conventions.道教接管了许多佛教的神多年来以及其他约定。Lao Tse was deified along with Pan Ku and Yu Huang Shanti who became the Trinity that corresponds to the Three Jewels of Buddhism.老子被神化随着番苦,禹皇山体谁成为三位一体的对应佛教的三宝。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The term Taoism refers both to the philosophy outlined in the Tao Te Ching (identified with Lao - Tzu) and to China's ancient Taoist religion.道教一词既指在道德经(与老挝确定 - 慈济)概述了哲学和中国古代道教的宗教。Next to Confucianism, it ranks as the second major belief system in traditional Chinese thought.下一步,儒学,它被列为第二个中国传统思想的主要信仰体系。

Taoist Philosophy道家哲学

The formulation of Taoist philosophy is attributed to Lao - Tzu (fl. 6th or 4th century BC) and Chuang - Tzu (c. 369 - c. 286 BC) as well as the Lieh - tzu (compiled during the Han dynasty, 202 BC - 220 AD).在道家哲学的制定,是因为老挝 - 慈济(楼之6或公元前4世纪)和庄 - 曾子(公元前369 - 公元前286角)以及烈 - 孜(在汉代,公元前202年编译 - 公元220年)。Three doctrines are particularly important: Tao (way) is nonbeing (wu), the creative - destructive force that brings everything into being and dissolves everything into nonbeing; return (fu) is the destiny of everything - that is, everything, after completing its cycle, returns to nonbeing; and nonaction (wu wei), or action in harmony with nature, is the best way of life.三是特别重要的教义:道(路)非存在(吴),创意 - 破坏性的力量,使应运而生一切,溶解到非存在的一切;返回(FU)是一切的命运 - 那就是,一切完成后的,循环,返回到非存在;和nonaction(吴伟),或在与大自然的和谐行动,是生命的最佳途径。Chuang - tzu taught that, from a purely objective viewpoint, all oppositions are merely the creations of conceptual thought and imply no judgments of intrinsic value (one pole is no more preferable than its opposite).庄 - 老子教导说,从纯客观的角度来看,所有的对立都只是概念性的创作思想和暗示的内在价值没有判断(一极是不超过其对面最好)。Hence the wise person accepts life's inevitable changes.因此,明智的人接受生活的必然变化。The Lieh - tzu said that the cultivation of Tao would enable a person to live for several hundred years.该列子 - 子说,陶种植将使一个人住几百年。Taoism teaches the devotee to lead a long and tranquil life through the elimination of one's desires and aggressive impulses.道教教导信徒带领通过一个人的欲望和攻击性冲动消除一个漫长而安宁的生活。

Taoist Religion道教

Often regarded as a corruption of Taoist philosophy, the Taoist religion began in the 3d century BC with such practices as Alchemy (the mixing of elixirs designed to ensure the immortality of the body).通常作为一种腐败视为道教哲学,道教的宗教开始在3D世纪公元前作为炼金术(即设计,以确保身体的不朽长生不老药混合)等做法。 The alchemy was carried out by Taoist priest - magicians at the court of Shih Huang - ti of the Ch'in dynasty (221 - 207 BC).炼金术是进行了道士 - 在石黄法院魔术师 - 秦王朝的TI(221 - 公元前207年)。These magicians were also acclaimed as spirit mediums and experts in levitation.这些魔术师也被作为精神媒介和磁悬浮专家的好评。 They were the heirs of the archaic folk religion of China, which had been rejected by the early Confucianists.他们对中国古老的民间宗教,这已经由早期儒家拒绝了继承人。Among the prominent features of Taoist religion are belief in physical immortality, alchemy, breath control and hygiene (internal alchemy), a pantheon of deities (including Lao - tzu as one of the three Supreme Ones), monasticism and the ritual of community renewal, and revealed scriptures.在道教信仰的突出特点是在肉体成仙,炼丹术,气息控制和卫生(内部炼金术),万神殿的神的信仰(包括老挝 - 作为三个最高法院的例子之一姿),修道和社区重建仪式,并透露经文。The Taoist liturgy and theology were influenced by Buddhism.道教礼仪和神学是佛教影响。Its scriptures, the Tao - tsang, consist of hundreds of separate works totaling more than 5,000 chapters.它的经文,道 - 曾荫权,包括单独的作品共计5000多章节数百人。

Among the principal Taoist sects to emerge was the Heavenly Master sect, founded in West China in the 2d century AD.其中主要的道教教派出现是天师派,在中国西部建立在二维世纪广告。It advocated faith healing through the confession of sin and at one time recruited members as soldiers and engaged in war against the government.它主张通过认罪的信仰愈合,一次招募的士兵成员和反对政府的战争。The Supreme Peace sect, also founded in the 2d century, adopted practices much like those of the Heavenly Master sect and launched a great rebellion that went on for several years before ending in 205 AD.最高法院和平教派,也是在2D世纪创立,通过很像的天师派的做法,并推出了大叛乱,就在几年前来到公元205结束。 The Mao - shan (Mount Mao) sect, founded in the 4th century, introduced rituals involving both external and internal alchemies, mediumistic practice, and visionary communication with divinities.毛泽东 - 山(山毛)教派,在4世纪创立,推出仪式,涉及外部和内部alchem​​ies,mediumistic实践,有远见与神灵沟通。

The Ling - pao (Marvelous Treasure) sect, also founded in the 4th century, introduced the worship of divinities called T'ien - tsun (Heavenly Lords).凌 - 葆(妙宝)教派,也是在4世纪创立,引入了神灵崇拜所谓的天王 - 村(天上议院)。The Ch'uan - chen (Completely Real) sect was founded in the 12th century as a Taoist monastic movement.在傅 - 陈(完全真实)教派创立于12世纪的道教寺院的运动。Eventually the Heavenly Master sect absorbed most of the beliefs and practices of the other sects and, in the 20th century, became the most popular Taoist group.最终,天师教派吸收的信仰和其他教派的做法大部分,在20世纪,成为最流行的道教团体。

David C Yu彗星于大卫

Bibliography: 参考书目:
M Chiu, The Tao of the Chinese Religion (1985); G Geng and J English, Lao Tzu: The Tao Te Ching (1979); AC Graham, Chuang Tzu: The Inner Chapters (1981); M Kaltenmark, Lao Tzu and Taoism (1969); S Little, Realm of the Immortals: Daoism in the Arts of China (1988); M Saso, Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal (1972); RM Smullyan, The Tao Is Silent (1977); A Waley, The Way and Its Power (1958); H Welch, Taoism (1957). M照,对中国宗教(1985年)陶,G和J耿英,老子:道德经(1979年);葛瑞汉,庄子:(1981)内篇,M Kaltenmark,老子与道教(1969年),S小,在神仙境界:在中国道教艺术(1988年),M SASO,道教和宇宙重建(1972年)祭; RM Smullyan,道是无声(1977年),A韦利,它的动力之路(1958),H韦尔奇,道教(1957年)。

Lao - tzu (Laozi)老挝 - 老子(老子)

General Information一般资料

Lao - tzu, or Master Lao, is the name of the supposed author of the Taoist classic Tao - te Ching.老挝 - 姿,或主老挝,是道家经典道应该作者的名字 - 德贞。According to Taoist legend, Lao - tzu, the founder of Taoism, was named Li Erh and had the courtesy name Lao Tan.根据道教传说,老挝 - 子,道教的创始人,被命名为李尔,并礼貌名老谈。An older contemporary of Confucius (551 - 479 BC), he was keeper of the archives at the imperial court.孔子的一个旧当代(551 - 479年),他是档案门将在朝廷。In his 80th year he set out for the western border of China, toward what is now Tibet, saddened and disillusioned that men were unwilling to follow his path to natural goodness.在他80年,他列出了中国西部边陲,对什么是现在西藏,悲痛和失望,男人不愿追随他的道路自然善良。At the border (Hank Pass), however, the guard Yin Hsi requested that Lao - tzu record his teachings before he left, whereupon he composed in 5,000 characters the famous Tao - te Ching (The Way and Its Power).在边界(汉克通行证),但是,后卫尹熙要求老挝 - 慈济记录他的教诲在他离开,于是他在5000个字符组成的著名的道 - 德贞(方式及其电源)。

The essential teaching of Lao - tzu is the Tao, or Way, to ultimate reality - the way of the universe exemplified in nature.老挝重要的教学 - 姿是道,或方式,最终的现实 - 在宇宙的本质体现方式。The harmony of opposites (T'ai Ch'ai) is achieved through a blend of the yin (feminine force) and the yang (masculine force); this harmony can be cultivated through creative quietude (wu wei), an effortless action whose power (te) maintains equanimity and balance.和谐的对立面(台庆Ch'ai)是通过一个阴(女性力量)和阳(男性力)交融,这种和谐可以通过创造性的培养宁静(吴伟),一个轻松的动作,其权力(TE)保持镇定和平衡。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
WT Chan, trans., The Way of Lao Tsu (Tao te Ching) (1963); H Welch, The Parting of the Way (1957); M Kaltenmark, Lao - Tzu and Taoism (1969).WT陈,反,对老子之路(道德经)(1963年),H的方式(1957)分型韦尔奇,M Kaltenmark,老挝 - 慈济与道教(1969)。

Tao Te Ching (Daode Jing)道德经(道德京)

General Information一般资料

A philosophical classic by Lao - Tzu, the Tao Te Ching is the single most important text of Chinese Taoism.按老的哲学经典 - 慈济,道德经是最重要的中国道教的文字。According to tradition, the sage composed its approximately 5,000 words in the 6th century BC at the request of a gatekeeper who wanted a record of his teachings.按照传统,圣人组成,在公元前6世纪在一个看门人要求谁想要他的教诲记录其约5000字。The book is now considered to date from the 4th century BC.这本书现在被认为是迄今为止从公元前4世纪。Laced with richly poetic imagery, it counsels balance, restraint, simplicity, and the avoidance of activity and desire as the means of achieving harmony with the natural currents of the Tao, or universal way.富有诗意的意象与花边,它是实现律师与自然之道的电流,或通用方式的和谐平衡的手段,限制,简单和活动避免和愿望。In ancient China Lao - tzu's thoughts rivaled those of Confucius in popularity, and his book has elicited hundreds of commentaries and translations.在古代中国老挝 - 老子的思想相媲美孔子的普及,和他的书就引起了评论和翻译数百人。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Lao - tzu, Tao Te Ching (1964); BB Sims, Lao - tzu and the 'Te Ching' (1971).老挝 - 老子,道德经(1964); BB模拟人生,老挝 - 老子和“道德经”(1971年)。


Catholic Information天主教信息


Taoism is the second of the three state religions (San-kiao) of China.道教是宗教的三个国家的中国(三阿娇)第二。This religion is derived from the philosophical doctrines of Lao-tze.这种宗教是源自老子的哲学学说。"Lao-tze's Taoism", says Legge (Religions of China, 229), "is the exhibition of a way or method of living which men should cultivate as the highest and purest development of their nature". “老子的道教”说,理雅各(中国宗教,229),“是一种方式或生活的人应该培养作为自己的最高和最纯净的自然发展法展”。According to De Groot (Religious System of China, IV, p. 66): "Taoism, as the word indicates, is the Religion of the Tao, a term meaning Path or Way, but denoting in this peculiar case the way, course or movement of the Universe, her processes and methods. In other words, Taoism is the Religion of Heaven and Earth, of the Cosmos, of the World or Nature in the broadest sense of these words. Hence we may call it Naturism".据德格鲁特(宗教系统中国,四,第66页):“道家,作为字指示,是道,这个词的含义路径或方式的宗教,但在这种特殊情况下denoting的方式,课程或宇宙的运动,她的过程和方法。换言之,道教是宗教的天地,对宇宙,世界还是在这些词的最广泛意义上的性质,所以我们可以称之为天然主义“。

Lao-tze, the equivalent to "the Old or Venerable Philosopher" (if taken as a title of respect), or to "Old Boy" (if literally translated), was born in the third year of Ting Wang, Prince of Chou, ie in 604, at K'io-jin, in the Kingdom of Ts'u, today Ho-nan Province.老子,对“老法师或哲学家”(如果这是尊重标题服用),或“老男孩”(如果直译),相当于,出生于汀王,周王子的第三个年头,即在604,在K'io金,在Ts'u,今天何南省王国。 The legend given by Ko Hung in his "Record of Spirits and Immortals" (written in the fourth century AD), says that "he was not born till his mother had carried him in her womb seventy-two years or, according to some accounts, eighty-one years".由高给出的传说在他的“纪录精神和八仙”(在公元4世纪写的)红,说:“他是不是天生的,直到他的母亲在她的子宫进行72年或他,根据一些帐户,81年“。 "No wonder", adds Legge (1. c., pp. 203-4) "that the child should have had white hair, - an 'old boy' of about fourscore years!"“难怪”,增加了理雅各(1角,页203-4。)“,孩子应该有白发 - ”老男孩“的有关fourscore年!”This date of 604, in accordance with historical tradition, is not given by Sze-ma Ts'ien in the biography which he devoted to the philosopher in his "She-ki" (Historical Memoirs); if this date be accepted, it is difficult to admit of the authenticity of the meeting between Lao-tze and Confucius, 500 BC; if the latter was then fifty-one years old according to Chwang-tze, Lao-tze was then one hundred and four years old.这604日期按照符合历史传统,是不是给予施马的传记,他专门在他的“她棋”(历史回忆录)的哲学家Ts'ien,如果这个日期被接受,它是难以承认之间的老子和孔子,公元前500年会议的真实性,如果后者当时51年老根据Chwang赐,老子当时104年岁。

The family name of Lao-tze was Li, his name Eul (meaning "Ear"), his honorary title Pe-yang, and his posthumous name Tan (meaning "Flat-eared").对老子姓氏是李,他的名字EUL(意思是“耳朵”),他的荣誉称号PE阳,和他的谥号谭(意为“平耳”)。 He was one of the "Sze", recorders, historiographers, keepers of the archives of Lo, the Court of the princes of the Chou dynasty.他是“诗”,录像机,史官,对老档案员,对周朝的诸侯法院之一。Foreseeing the decay of this dynasty, he gave up his office, and undertook a journey; at the Han-kou Pass, Ho-nan Province, the watchman, Yin Hi, begged him to write his thoughts for his own instruction before he retired from the world; consequently, Lao-tze wrote his work in two parts in the Tao and the Te, and having entrusted it to Yin Hi, he disappeared; the time of the death of the philosopher is not known.预见到这个王朝衰败,他放弃了他的办公室,并进行了旅程;在汉口通,何南省,更夫,喜阴,求他写他自己的指令他的想法在他退役世界,因此,老子写了两道与特部分他的工作,并赋予它具有喜阴,他消失;的哲学家的死亡时间尚不清楚。 Lao-tze had a son Called Tsung who was a general of the Kingdom of Wei and who obtained the grant of land at Twan-kan.老子有一个儿子叫崇谁是对魏总,谁索取TWAN根批地。His son named Chu had himself a child Kung; Hia, grandson of Kung, was an official under Emperor Hiao-wen-ti, of the Han dynasty.他的儿子命名为楚有自己的孩子成功; HIA,对公孙子,是一个官方下皇帝Hiao文悌的大汉。Kiai, son of Hia, became a minister of K'iang, King of kiao-si, and, owing to this circumstance, settled with his family in the Kingdom of Ts'i. Kiai,HIA的儿子,成为K'iang部长,阿娇州市王,而且,由于这种情况下,与家人定居在了Ts'i王国。

This story is too matter of fact and lacks the marvellous legend which should surround the person of the chief of a new religion.这个故事太物质缺乏事实和奇妙的传说,应该包围了一个新的宗教首席人。 Legend was provided for.传说是规定。Ko Hung, already mentioned, had placed the legend of Lao-tze at the beginning of the "Shon-sion-ch'-wan" (Records of Spirits and Immortals), and he says: "His mother carried him after the emotion she felt in seeing a large shooting star. He received from Heaven the vital breath; as he was born in a house whose proprietor was called Li (Pear tree), so he was named Li".高红,已经提到,有放置在“Shon,锡永,ch'婉”(精神和不朽的记录)开始对老子的传说,他说:“他的母亲进行情感后,他她感觉在看到一个大流星他从天堂的切身气息;因为他在一所房子的老板被称为李(梨树)出生,所以他被任命为礼“。 Some authors say that Lao-tze was born before heaven and earth.有些作者说,老子以前出生的天地。According to others, he possessed a pure soul emanated from heaven, He belonged to the Class of spirits and gods.根据其他人,他拥有一个纯粹的灵魂从天上所发出,属于他的精神和神类。The chief work of Lao-tze, in fact the only one which has been ascribed to him with some probability, is the "Tao-teh-king".对老子的主要工作,其实只有一个已经赋予了一些概率给他,是“道德王”。In the "China Review" (March-April, 1886), Dr. Herbert A. Giles wrote a sensational article, "The Remains of Lao Tzu", to show by various arguments that the "Tao-teh-king" is a spurious work and that its now spurious portions have been mostly mistranslated.在“中国评论”(3月-4月,1886年),博士赫伯特A.贾尔斯写了一个耸人听闻的文章,“老子的遗迹”,由各种参数表明,“道德王”是虚假的现在的工作,其主要寄生的部份已被误译。 It was the starting-point of a controversy in which Dr. Chalmers, Dr. Legge, Dr. Edkins, and some other sinologues took part.这是一个争论中,查莫斯博士,理雅各博士,艾约瑟博士和其他一些汉学家参加了出发点。 The authenticity of the work has been admitted by most of them.这项工作的真实性已经承认了其中的大多数。Wylie says (Notes on Chinese Literature, new ed., p. 216): "The only work which is known to be truly the production of Lao Keun is the 'Taòu tih king', which has maintained its reputation and secured a popularity to a certain extent among reading men generally of every denomination."怀利说,(在中国文学,新的版,第216页注):“唯一的工作,被称为是真正的老瑾生产是”Taòu TIH王“,它一直保持其声誉和获得了普及读书人之间的每一个面额一般一定的影响。“Legge writes (Religions of China, p. 203): "No other writing has come down to us from the pencil of Lâo-tsze, its author", and (Brit. Quart. Rev., July, 1883, p. 9): "We know that Lao Tzu wrote the 'Tao Tê Ching'", and (p. 11): "The 'Tao Tê Ching' is a genuine relic of one of the most original minds of the Chinese race, putting his thoughts on record 2400 years ago."理雅各写道(对中国宗教,第203页):“没有其他的写作已下降到我们从老子tsze,其作者铅笔”,和(Brit.夸脱牧师,七月,1883年,第9页。) :“我们知道,老子写”道德经“”,和(第11页)说:“”道德经“是对中国赛最原始的心目中一个真正的遗物,把他的思考记录2400年前。“The German E. Faber (China Rev., XIII, 241) says that "there is little room left for doubts regarding the authenticity of our Canon."德国E.费伯(中国牧师,第十三,241)说,“有一点余地关于我们佳能的真实性的怀疑离开了。”

Besides the "Tao-teh-king" a good many works treat of Taoism: the "Yin-fu-king-kiai" which professes to be an exposition of the oldest Taoist record in existence; "Ts'ing-tsing-king" (The Book of Purity and Rest); the "T'ai-hsi-king" (Respiration of the Embryo); the "T'ai-shang-Kan-ying-pien" (Tractate of Actions and their Retributions).除了“道德王”的好很多作品治疗道教:“阴夫国王kiai”的自称是对存在最古老的道教记录博览会“; Ts'ing青王” (纯度和休息的书);的“台庆熙王”(胚胎的呼吸);的“台庆尚侃莹,陈水扁”(的行动和他们的Retributions短文)。

The chief Taoist philosophers are: Tsou-yuen (400 BC), author of a work on the influences of the five ruling elements, influenced by Buddhist doctrines; Kweiku-tze (380 BC), a mystic, astrologer, and fortune-teller; Ho-kwan-tze (325-298 BC), an orthodox Confucianist when writing on jurisprudence, a Taoist in other writings; Chwang-tze (330 BC), the author of the "Nan-hua" classic, the adversary to Mencius, and according to Eitel "the most original thinker China ever produced"; Shi-tze (280 BC), a Taoist writer, influenced by the heterodox philosopher, Yang-chu (450 BC), the Apostle of Selfishness; the statesman Han-feitze (250 BC); Liu-ngan or Hwai-nan-tze (died 112 BC), a cosmogonist.首席道教哲学家:邹元(公元前400年),一个关于五个裁决要素的影响作品的作者,由佛教教义的影响; Kweiku赐(公元前380年),一个神秘,天文学家和算命先生;何群赐(325-298年),正统的儒家法学写作时,在其他著作道教; Chwang赐(公元前330年),对“南花”经典之作,作者对孟子的对手,而据艾特尔“的最原始的思想家中国有史以来生产”;石赐(公元前280年),道教作家,哲学家的异端,杨柱(450年),自私的使徒的影响;政治家汉feitze (公元前250年),刘颜或怀南子(死于公元前112),一个cosmogonist。But the first disciples of Lao-tze were Kang-sang-tze (570-543 BC), the first expositor of Taoism as a distinct system, the sceptic Li-tze (500 BC), and Wen-tze (500 BC).但是,老子的第一门徒亢桑子(570-543年),道教作为一个独特的系统的第一个解释者,怀疑论者李赐(公元前500年),以及文子(公元前500年)。 The historian Sze-ma-ts'ien speaking of Chwang-tze says: "He wrote with a view to asperse the Confucian school and to glorify the mysteries of Lao Tze. . . His teachings are like an overwhelming flood, which spreads at its own sweet will. Consequently, from rulers and ministers downwards, none could apply them to any definite use."历史学家士MA - ts'ien的Chwang赐发言说:“他,以期写信给洒儒家和老子的荣耀的奥秘,他的教导像洪水铺天盖地,这在其价差。将自己的甜蜜,因此,从统治者和部长向下,没有人能运用到任何明确的使用。“ Giles (Chinese Literature, 60) concludes from this passage: "Here we have the key to the triumph of the Tao of Confucius over the Tao of Lao Tze. The latter was idealistic, the former a practical system for every-day use."贾尔斯(中国文学,60)从这段话总结:“在这里我们有到过的老子,孔子淘淘胜利的关键,后者是理想主义,对日常使用前一个实用的系统。”

As De Groot observes (lsc, IV, 67): "Taoism being fundamentally a religion of the Cosmos and its subdivisions, old Chinese Cosmogony is its Theogony. It conceives the Universe as one large organism of powers and influences, a living machine, the core of which is the Great Ultimate Principle or T'ai-kih, comprising the two cosmic Breaths or Souls, known as the Yang and the Yin, of which, respectively, Heaven and Earth are the chief depositories. These two souls produce the four seasons, and the phenomena of Nature represented by the lineal figures called kwa".正如德格鲁特指出(LSC,四,67):“道教是根本的宇宙和其下属的宗教,旧中国的宇宙起源是它的神谱它设想为一体的大型有机体的权力和影响,生活机,宇宙。其核心是伟大的终极原理或台庆 - KIH,包括两个宇宙的呼吸或灵魂,作为阳和阴已知的,其中,分别,天地是主要的托管机构,这两个灵魂产生四个季节和自然的直系数字代表现象称为夸“。 In fact the Yang and the Yin produce by the power of their co-operation all that exists, man included.事实上,阳虚阴出示了他们的合作都存在权力,包括人。Ancient Chinese philosophy attributes to man two souls:中国古代哲学的两个灵魂属性的人:

The shen, or immaterial soul, emanates from the ethereal, celestial part of the Cosmos, and consists of yang substance.沉,或无形的灵魂,源于空灵,对宇宙天体的一部分,阳物质组成。When operating actively in the living human body, it is called k'i or 'breath', and kwun; when separated from it after death, it lives as a refulgent spirit, styled ming.当工作在活的人体积极,它被称为k'i或“呼吸”,而观塘,当从它分离后死亡,它的生命作为辉煌的精神,风格明。

The kwei, the material, substantial soul, emanates from the terrestrial part of the Universe, and is formed of yin substance.在桂,材料,大量的灵魂,源于宇宙的陆地部分,而且是阴的物质形成的。 In living man it operates under the name of p'oh and on his death it returns to the Earth" (De Groot, IV, p. 5).它在人的生活下运作的p'oh名称和对他的逝世返回地球“(德格鲁特,第四,第5页)。

Thus the kwei is buried with the man and the shen lingers about the tomb.因此,桂被埋葬的人与沉约墓不散。Marking the distinction between the two souls, there existed in the legendary period, according to the "Li-ki", a sacrificial worship to each soul separately: the hwun or k'i returns to heaven, the p'oh returns to earth.纪念两个灵魂之间的区别,存在着在传说中的时期,根据“立基”,一个祭祀崇拜每个灵魂分开:在hwun或k'i返回天上,人间的p'oh回报。 These two souls are composite; in fact all the viscera have a particular shen.这两个灵魂是复合的,事实上所有的内脏有特定的沉。 "There are medical authors who ascribe to man an indefinite number of souls or soul-parts, or, as they express. it, a hundred shen. Those souls, they say, shift in the body according to the age of the owner; so, eg when he is 25, 31, 68 or 74, and older they dwell in his forehead, so that it is then very dangerous to have boils or ulcers there, because effusion of the blood would entail death. At other times of life they nestle under the feet or in other parts and limbs, and only in the 21st, 38th, 41st, and 50th years of life they are distributed equally through the body, so that open abscesses, wherever they appear, do not heal then at all. Such pathologic nonsense regulates, of course, medical practice to a high degree" (De Groot, IV, p. 75). “还有谁归于人的灵魂或灵魂零部件无限期号码,或者,因为他们表达的作者是医学,沉百那些灵魂,他们说,在体内转变根据主人的年龄;。使,例如,当他是25,31,68或74岁以上,他们住在他的额头,所以这是非常危险的,然后有疖或溃疡出现,因为血液渗出将意味着死亡。在其他时候他们的生活雀巢在脚或其他部位及四肢,只有在21日,第38,第41,第50年的生活和他们平均分配到全身,使开放的脓肿,只要他们出现,不愈合,然后在所有。这种病理废话调节,当然,医疗实践的高度“(德格鲁特,四,第75页)。 The liver, the lungs, and the kidneys correspond to the spring, to the autumn, to the winter, as well as to the east, the west, and the north.肝,肺,肾对应于春季,到了秋天,到了冬季,以及东部,西部和北部。The soul may be extracted from a living man; the body may still live when left by the soul, for instance during sleep; the soul of a dead man may be reborn into other bodies.灵魂可以从生活中提取男儿的身体可能仍然生活在灵魂离开时,例如在睡眠,一个死人的灵魂有可能会变成其他机构的重生。 Ghosts may enter into relation with the living, not only in dreams, but they may take revenge on their enemies.鬼魂可能进入与生活的关系,不仅在梦中,但他们可能需要对他们的敌人复仇。

At the head of the Taoist Pantheon is a trinity of persons:在道教神殿头是三位一体的人:

Yuen-shi-t'ien-tsun, "the honoured one of heaven, first in time", residing in "the jade-stone region", who created the three worlds;苑世天王 - 村“的老字号之一的天堂,在第一时间”,在“玉,石区”,谁创造了三个世界居住;

Ling-pan-t'ien-tsun, "the honored one of heaven who is valued and powerful", residing in the "upper pure region", collector of the sacred books, calculator of the succession of time, and the regulator of the two principles yin and yang;灵泛天王 - 村“的天堂谁是重视和强有力的荣幸之一”,居住在“上层纯区”,神圣的书籍收藏家,时间连续计算器,以及监管机构两个原则阴阳;

Lao-tze himself, who exposed to mankind the doctrines uttered by the first person in the trinity and collected in the form of books by the second.老子自己,谁接触到人类的学说出自三位一体中的第一人,在书的形式收集的第二位。

Next come: Yuh-hwang-ta-ti, "the great jade-stone emperor", who governs the physical universe; Hen-t'u-hwang-ti-k'i, "Spirit of imperial earth, ruler of the soil"; the star gods, whose lord (sing-chu) resides in a star near the pole; T'ien-hwang-ta-ti, who lives in the pole star, etc.; Liu-tsu, the "father of thunder".接下来是:育黄- TA - TI,“伟大的翡翠石帝”,谁管理的物理宇宙;母鸡,涂煌钛k'i,“皇土灵,统治者的土壤“;星神,其主(承柱)在附近的一个极星所在;天王 - 黄- TA - TI,谁在极星等生活;刘赐,是”雷声父亲“。"While he discourses on doctrine, his foot rests on nine beautiful birds. He has under him thirty-six generals, t'ien tsiang" (Edkins, "Journ. North China Br. Roy. Asiat. Soc.," III, Dec., 1859, p. 311); the sun and moon; the San-yuen or San-kwan, "the three rulers" who preside over three departments of physical nature, heaven, earth, and water; Hiuen-kien-shang-ti, "high emperor of the dark heaven", who is described as the model of the true ascetic. “虽然他的理论话语,他的脚休息了九个美丽的小鸟,他在他36将军,蒋天王”(艾约瑟,“Journ北中国溴。罗伊。Asiat。SOC。”三,十二月,,1859年,第311页),太阳和月亮;圣元或三关“三个统治者”谁主持三个物理性质,天,地,水部门; Hiuen -坚,尚TI,“高皇帝的黑暗天堂”,谁是真正的禁欲主义的模型来描述。He has transformed himself eighty-two times to become the instructor of men in the three national religions (Edkins, lc, p. 312).他已经改变了自己的82倍,成为男子在三(艾约瑟,LC,第312页)国家宗教导师。A number of personages were worshipped under the name of tsu, patriarchs.一些人士的崇拜下,台联,族长的名字。Confucius himself has a place assigned him among the deities of this religion, and he is addressed as "the honoured one of heaven who causes literature to flourish and the world to prosper" (Edkins).孔子自己也分配之间的这种宗教的神他的地方,他被称为“天上的荣幸一个谁导致文学的蓬勃发展和世界的繁荣”(艾约瑟)处理。 Some men have been worshipped as gods after their death: Kwan-ti, the god of war; Hu-tsu, a physician; a medical divinity, Ko-tsu Sa-tsu ; etc.有些男人被供奉为神后死亡:关钛,战争之神;,医生胡赐;医疗神威,柯赐萨赐,等等。

One may well ask how the pure abstract doctrine of Lao-tze was turned into a medley of alchemical researches, a practice of witchcraft, with the addition of Buddhist superstitions, which constitute today what is called Tao-kiao, the religion or the teaching of Tao.有人可能会问如何在纯老子抽象主义,变成了炼金研究,实践混合泳的巫术与迷信佛教,构成今日所谓陶阿娇,宗教或教学此外,道。 This was the work of a legendary being, Chang Tao-ling, a descendant of the eighth generation of Chang Leang, a celebrated advisor of Liu-pang, founder of the Han dynasty.这是一个传奇正在工作,张道陵,本张Leang,一刘彭年,创始人是汉代著名的顾问第八代传人。He was born in the tenth year of the Emperor Kwang Wu-ti (AD 34) in a cottage of a small village of the Che-kiang Province, at the foot of the T'ien-mu-Shan, in the Hang-chou Prefecture.他出生在帝光武帝(公元34)在一个一个的车镇江市小村庄平房第十个年头,在天王亩山脚下,在杭州县。At an early age Chang studied the works of Lao-tze to which he added researches of alchemy, a science aiming at "prolonging life beyond the limits assigned by nature".从小长在研究了老子的作品,他补充说:炼金术的研究,一门科学在“延长超越生命极限的性质分配”目标。He found the drug of immortality, and by order of Lao-tze he destroyed the six great demons of the province; Lao-tze gave him also two books, two swords, one male, one female, a seal Called Tu-kung, etc. Chang gave his swords and books to his son Heng, bidding him to continue his pontificate from generation to generation.他发现了不朽的药物,以及由老子为了他摧毁了六个省的大恶魔,老子也给了他两本书,两剑,一男一女,名为杜功印章等,张书给了他的剑和他的儿子衡,招投标他继续教宗代代相传。 At noon on the seventh day of the first moon of the second year Yung-shou of the Han Emperor Heng (AD 157), Tao-ling ascended the Cloudy Mountain (Yun-shan) with his wife and two disciples, and with them disappeared into heaven.在对第二年永寿汉恒帝(公元157)正月初七中午,陶玲登上他的妻子和两个弟子多云山(云山),并与他们消失进入天堂。 Chang Heng, son of Chang Tao-ling, continued his father's tradition both in spiritual and alchemical researches, and Chang Lu the grandson, played an important part in the Yellow Cap Rebellion at the beginning of the Han dynasty.张珩,张陶玲的儿子,无论是在精神和继续研究炼金他父亲的传统,张路的孙子,起到在汉代开始就在黄河第叛乱的重要组成部分。 During the fifth century AD, when the Wei dynasty was ruling in Northern China, a certain K'iu Kien-che tried to substitute himself to the Chang family and received in 423 from the emperor the title of T'ien-shi, "Preceptor of Heaven", which formerly belonged to Tao-ling.在公元5世纪,北魏时在中国北方,统治了一定K'iu健哲试图以自己的家庭和423张得到了皇帝的天王市称号,“太师天人合一“,它原属于陶玲。 In 748 the T'ang Emperor Hiuen-Tsung conferred this title upon the heirs of the latter, and a grant of a large property near Lung-hu Shan was made to them in 1016 by the Sung Emperor Chen-Tsung.唐朝皇帝在748 Hiuen聪赋予后者的继承人这个称号,以及附近的龙胡山大型物业是在1016批给他们的宋皇帝陈琮。Heredity in the charge of high priest of the cult was secured to the descendants of Chang by the transmigration of the soul of Tao-ling's successor, at the time of his demise, to the body of a junior member of the family, whose selection is indicated by a supernatural phenomenon.在对邪教的大祭司负责遗传是固定在张的后裔由陶玲的继任者灵魂的轮回,在他的困境时,给一个家庭,他们的选择是初级会员体表示由一个超自然的现象。

To-day, at the head of the Taoist hierarchy is the Cheng-i-sze-kiao-chen-jen, "Heir to the founder of the Taoist sect"; this title was conferred by the Ming dynasty upon Chang Cheng-shang, descendant from Chang Tao-ling of the thirty-ninth generation.为天,是在道教层次头成我诗,阿娇真仁,“继承人的道教教派创始人”,这称号是由在长城尚明朝授予的,后裔从张道陵的第三第九代。 This title "belongs, by an hereditary privilege, to the firstborn descending in a direct line from Chang Tao-ling. He lives upon the Lung-hu Mountain, in the Kiang-si Province. His office consists in using his magical art to frighten demons away, to baffle diabolical influence, and to refrain the evil-doing souls of the dead. He names the new Ch'eng-hwang, 'tutelary deities of the cities', and for a fee, he gives to Taoists titles permitting them to celebrate the ceremonies with more solemnity" (P. Hoang, "Mélanges sur l'Administration", 34).这个称号“属于,由世袭的特权,给长子在从张道陵直线递减,他的生命后,龙鹄山在浙江斯省,他的办公室在使用他的神奇艺术吓唬组成恶魔掉,挡板毒辣的影响,​​并避免对死者的恶做灵魂,他的名字,新诚煌,“神的城市守护神”,并收取费用,他给人以道家标题允许他们庆祝更庄严的仪式“(第晃,”混杂河畔L'管理“,34)。 In the capital of the empire the Taoist priesthood includes: two Tao-lu-sze, superiors, a title corresponding with that of the Buddhists, seng-lu-sze; two Cheng-i, Taoists of right simplicity; two Yen-fa, ritual Taoists; two Che-ling, Taoists of great excellence, thaumaturgus; and two Che-i, Taoists of great probity, an inferior class of priests.在帝国的首都道教神职人员包括:两道鲁诗,标题与佛教徒,生鲁施了相应的上级;郑权简单two - I,道教,两个颜发,道教仪式,两个车龄,具有十分重要的卓越道教,thaumaturgus和两个车- I,道教的伟大正直,一个牧师下类。In the provinces at the head of the priesthood are: Tao-ki-sze Ton-ki, superior of the Taoists of a fu (prefectute), and Tao-ki-sze Fou Ton-ki, vice-superior of the Taoists of a fu; Tao-cheng, superior of the Taoists of a chou or a t'ing; Tao-hwei, superior of the Taoists of a hien.在在祭司头的省份有:陶基施吨棋,是一个富(prefectute)道家优越,陶琪诗缶吨棋的一种道家副优越富,陶成,周的一个或廷道家优越;陶慧,是一个hien道家优越。 The superiors are appointed by the governors-general (tsung-tu), or by the governors (fu-t'ai), on the presentation of the prefect of sub-prefect of the chou, t'ing, or hien.由上级任命的省长,一般(崇TU),或由省长(富台庆)上的介绍,对周知府同知,廷,或hien。

Publication information Written by Henri Cordier.出版信息写亨利科迪尔。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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