Transcendental Meditation (TM)超觉静坐

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Transcendental Meditation is an Eastern meditative practice popularized in the West by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.超觉静坐冥想是东,西方的做法推广由玛赫西马赫什瑜珈。Born in India in 1918, Maharishi (which means "great sage") was a disciple of Swami Brahmananda Saraswati (or "Guru Dev") before he began teaching in the West as a Hindu holy man.在印度出生于1918年,玛赫西(意为“大圣”)是一个偶像Brahmananda萨拉斯瓦蒂(或“大师开发”)之前,他就开始在西方教学作为一个印度教圣人的弟子。 As part of a series of world tours, Maharishi first came to the United States in 1959.作为一个世界旅游系列的一部分,玛赫西第一次来到美国于1959年。The TM movement has become the largest and fastest growing of the various Eastern spiritual disciplines that have taken root in the West.该商标的运动已经成为各种东方已采取在西方根精神的学科规模最大,增长最快的。

The simplified and Westernized set of yoga techniques that Maharishi has introduced and marketed in the West is presented to the public as a nonreligious practice designed to enable a person to make use of his / her full mental potential while at the same time achieving deep rest and relaxation.瑜伽的技术简化和西化集玛赫西引进并在西方市场上呈现给公众,旨在使一个人使他/她充分的心理潜在用途,而在同一时间实现深休息和不信教的做法放松。 TM claims to offer people absolute happiness, perfect bliss, and "restful alertness" through a technique that requires a minimum of meditation, twenty minutes twice a day. TM声称通过给人们提供了一种技术,需要大量的冥想,二十分钟,每天两次的最低绝对的幸福,完美的幸福,和“宁静的警觉”。

The claim that TM is not religious, that it is merely a scientific technique, has been questioned by Christian and secular observers alike.声称TM是不是宗教,它仅仅是一个科学技术,一直质疑基督教和世俗观察员的一致好评。Maharishi and his carefully trained instructors assert that the benefits of TM can be enjoyed without compromising one's religion.玛赫西和他的认真训练教官断言,TM的好处可以在不损害自己的宗教享用。Critics of the TM movement argue that transcendental meditation is essentially Hindu religious practice in disguise.TM运动的批评者认为,先验冥想实质上是变相的印度教宗教实践。

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An initiation ceremony is required of all novice meditators.一个启动仪式所需的所有新手禅修。TM instructors contend that this is merely a secular ceremony of gratitude.TM导师抗衡,这仅仅是一个世俗的感谢仪式。 The religious nature of this ceremony (called the puja), however, is quite clear.这个仪式(称为法会)宗教性质,但是,很清楚。 The participant is asked to bring flowers, fruit, and a white cloth and to bow before the image of Maharishi's late teacher, Guru Dev.参与者被要求把鲜花,水果和一块白布,并鞠躬前玛赫西已故老师,师开发的形象。The puja is a Sanskrit hymn of adoration and worship, although its meaning is not revealed to the novice.该法会是一种崇拜和祭祀梵文的赞歌,尽管它的含义是不透露给新手。The initiation ceremony, therefore, is by Christian definition the worship of false gods.启动仪式上,因此,是假神崇拜的基督徒的定义。From the perspective of TM, the puja is intended to alter the consciousness of both instructor and novice so that the mind is opened to the influence of the "great masters."从商标的角度看,法会的目的是改变双方教练和新手的意识,使头脑是开放的影响“大师”。

At the time of initiation, the candidate is given a supposedly secret mantra, a Sanskrit word or syllable, which is claimed to have special vibrational qualities and which is regularly used by the meditator thereafter.在开始的时候,候选人被赋予一个假想秘密咒语,梵文单词或音节,这是声称具有特殊的振动品质,哪些是经常使用的禅修之后。 TM instructors state that the matras are merely "meaningless sounds."TM教官指出,matras仅仅是“毫无意义的声音。”However, an examination of the source of the mantras, the Hindu religion, reveals that these sounds are the code names of deities.然而,在咒语的来源审查,印度教的宗教,表明这些声音是神的代号。Therefore, the repetition of a mantra constitutes an act of worship.因此,一个口头禅重复构成的崇拜行为。

The use of a mantra is one of the standard means of inducing the classical mystical experience of God - consciousness or unity.使用的一句口头禅是诱使他人古典神秘体验神的标准手段之一 - 意识或统一。The twice - daily routine of TM is said to enable the person to achieve an altered or "transcendental" state of consciousness with the goal of ultimately reaching "enlightenment."两次 - TM的日常说的人,使实现目标的最终达成一个改变或“先验”的意识状态“的启示。”Its objective is the elimination of all consciously directed thought, an emptying of the mind.它的目标是消除所有自觉地指导思想,一个心灵的排空。Like all Eastern mysticism, TM involves the negation of the mind and an increased reliance on subjective feelings.像所有的东方神秘主义,TM涉及心灵的否定和对日益依赖主观感受。

Transcendental Meditation is in reality a form of pantheism.超觉静坐是一种泛神论的形式在现实中。 It does not teach the existence of one eternal, personal God, the Creator of the universe.它不会教的一个永恒的,人格神的存在,宇宙的创造者。It is part of the monist tradition in that it teaches belief in the essential oneness of all reality and therefore the possibility of man's unity with the divine.它是一元论的传统,它教导在所有现实的基本合一,因此,人与神的统一信仰的一部分的可能性。The practice of TM itself leads the meditator toward the idolatry of selfworship because of the identification of the self with the higher "Self" of the creation. TM本身的实践引领走向selfworship由于具有较高的“自我”的创作自我鉴定偶像崇拜禅修。In short, TM promotes an experience involving the loss of one's distinctive identity under the false pretense of a scientific technique.总之,TM推广的经验,涉及一个人的独特身份下的科学技术,虚假的幌子损失。

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Bibliography 参考书目
D Haddon and V Hamilton, TM Wants You!ð哈顿和V汉密尔顿,TM要你!A Christian Response to Transcendental Meditation; D Haddon, "Transcendental Meditation," in A Guide to Cults and New Religions, ed.基督徒回应超觉静坐,D哈顿,“超觉静坐”,在一个邪教和新兴宗教版指南。RM EnrothRM Enroth



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