Transmigration of Souls轮回的灵魂

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Transmigration of souls, sometimes called metempsychosis, is based on the idea that a soul may pass out of one body and reside in another (human or animal) or in an inanimate object.轮回的灵魂,有时也被称为轮回,是基于这样一种想法,一个灵魂可以传递出一个身体和居住在另一个(人或动物),或者是没有生命的物体。 The idea appears in various forms in tribal cultures in many parts of the world (for example, Africa, Madagascar, Oceania, and South America).这个想法出现在世界许多地方(例如,非洲,马达加斯加,大洋洲和南美)的部落文化的各种形式。The notion was familiar in ancient Greece, notably in Orphism, and was adopted in a philosophical form by Plato and the Pythagoreans.熟悉的概念是在古希腊,特别是在Orphism,并在哲学的形式通过了柏拉图和毕达哥拉斯学派。 The belief gained some currency in gnostic and occult forms of Christianity and Judaism and was introduced into Renaissance thought by the recovery of the Hermetic books.的信念获得了基督教和犹太教诺斯替一些货币形式和隐匿性,并介绍了到文艺复兴时期的密封书籍复苏的想法。

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The most fully articulated doctrine of transmigration is found in Hinduism.轮回的学说是最充分的阐述中找到印度教。It does not appear in the earliest Hindu scriptures (the Rig Veda) but was developed at a later period in the Upanishads (c. 600 BC).它不会出现在最早的印度教经文(即梨俱吠陀),但当时在奥义书后期(约公元前600年)开发。Central to the conception of human destiny after death was the belief that human beings are born and die many times.中央对人类命运的概念后死亡的,人是出生和死亡很多次的信念。Souls are regarded as emanations of the divine spirit.灵魂被视为神圣的精神的化身。Each soul passes from one body to another in a continuous cycle of births and deaths, their condition in each existence being determined by their actions in previous births.每个灵魂从一个身体传递到另一个的出生和死亡不断循环,他们在每一个存在条件是由以前出生的行动。

Thus, transmigration is closely interwoven with the concept of Karma (action), which involves the inevitable working out, for good or ill, of all action in a future existence.因此,轮回是密切交织在一起的噶概念(动作),这就涉及到了不可避免的工作,或好或坏的未来生存中的所有行动。 The whole experience of life, whether of happiness or sorrow, is a just reward for deeds (good or bad) done in earlier existences.在整个生活经验,无论是幸福或悲哀,是一种早期存在物做事迹(好或坏的)正义的回报。The cycle of karma and transmigration may extend through innumerable lives; the ultimate goal is the reabsorption of the soul into the ocean of divinity from whence it came.因果报应和轮回的周期可能延长到无数的生命,最终的目标是灵魂到海洋,从何处神威它来重吸收。This union occurs when the individual realizes the truth about the soul and the Absolute (Brahman) and the soul becomes one with Brahman.这个联盟时,会发生个别实现对灵魂和绝对(婆罗门)真理和灵魂变得与婆罗门之一。 It is often mistakenly thought that Buddhism also involves transmigration.人们常常误以为佛教也涉及轮回。The classical Buddhist doctrine of anatta ("no soul"), however, specifically rejects the Hindu view.佛教的无我的古典主义(“没有灵魂”),但是,具体否定印度教的看法。The Buddhist position on the workings of karma is exceedingly complex.关于佛教的因果报应的运作状况是极其复杂的。

The idea of transmigration has been propagated in the Western world by movements such as Theosophy and by the more recent proliferation of Oriental religious cults.轮回的思想已经传播到西方世界,如神智运动和由东方邪教最近扩散。Most of these Westernized versions appear to lack the intellectual rigor and philosophical content of the classical Hindu doctrine.这些西方版本的大部分似乎缺乏严谨和古典印度教主义哲学的内容。

Charles W Ranson查尔斯W兰森

Bibliography: 参考书目:
J Head, ed., Reincarnation in World Thought (1967); AW Holzer, Born Again (1970).J主任,主编,在世界思想轮回(1967年); AW霍尔泽,重生(1970年)。

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