Untouchables, Harijans铁面无私,Harijans

General Information一般资料

Untouchables, now called Harijans, have traditionally occupied the lowest place in the caste system of Hindu India; they were called untouchable because they were considered to be outside the confines of caste. 铁面无私,现在被称为Harijans,传统上占据了印度的印度教种姓制度中最低的地方,他们被称为碰不得的,因为他们被认为是种姓之外的范围。 Their impurity derived from their traditional occupations, such as the taking of life and the treatment of bodily effluvia.他们的杂质来源于他们的传统职业,如生命和身体采取臭气治疗。

Such was their impurity that traditionally they were banned from Hindu temples; in parts of South India even the sight of an Untouchable was sufficient to pollute a member of a higher caste. In 1949 the Indian government outlawed the use of the term Untouchables. The group has been reclassified as the "Scheduled Castes" and has been granted special educational and political privileges.这就是他们的杂质,传统上他们被禁止印度教寺庙,在南印度部分地区甚至一个贱民的视线,足以污染一个更高的种姓成员在1949年,印度政府取缔的长期铁面无私使用已被重新分类为“贱民”,并已获得特别教育和政治特权。 Today it is illegal to discriminate against a Harijan, yet they remain generally at the bottom of the caste hierarchy, performing the most menial roles demanded by society.今天,它是非法的歧视Harijan,但他们仍然普遍在种姓层次结构的底部,执行最卑微的社会角色要求。They numbered an estimated 65 million in the late 1960s.他们在60年代末期编号估计有65亿美元。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
PC Aggarwal, Halfway to Equality: The Harijans of India (1983); DP Das, The Untouchables Story (1985); JM Freeman, Untouchable: An Indian Life History (1979); JH Hutton, Caste in India: Its Nature, Function and Origins (1963); M Juergensmeyer, Religion as a Social Vision (1982); RK Kshirsagar, Untouchability in India (1982); JM Mahar, ed., The Untouchables in Contemporary India (1972); DG Mandelbaum, Society in India (1970).PC Aggarwal,中途平等:印度Harijans(1983年); DP达斯,铁面无私的故事(1985年); JM弗里曼,贱民:一名印度生活史(1979年); JH赫顿,在印度的种姓:它的性质,功能和起源(1963年),M,作为一个社会远景(1982)宗教Juergensmeyer; RK Kshirsagar,在印度不可接触(1982年); JM Mahar,教育署在当代印度(1972)铁面无私; DG曼德尔鲍姆,学会在印度(1970年)。


Untouchables铁面无私

General Information一般资料

Untouchables are the Harijan caste, the lowest class under Hinduism.铁面无私是Harijan种姓,根据印度教的最低级。


Caste System种姓制度

General Information一般资料

Caste is a rigid social system in which a social hierarchy is maintained generation after generation and allows little mobility out of the position to which a person is born.种姓是一个僵硬的社会制度,社会阶层保持一代又一代,并允许对一个人是天生的立场没有流动性​​了。The term is often applied to the hierarchical hereditary divisions established among the Hindus on the Indian subcontinent.该术语通常应用于印度教徒之间建立在印度次大陆的分层遗传分歧。The word caste was first used by 16th-century Portuguese traders; it is derived from the Portuguese casta, denoting family strain, breed, or race.种姓一词最早是由16世纪的葡萄牙商人,它是来自葡萄牙卡斯塔,表示家庭的压力,品种,或种族。The Sanskrit word is jati.在梵文词是jati。The Sanskrit term varna denotes a group of jati, or the system of caste.瓦尔纳的梵文词表示的jati组或种姓制度。

The traditional caste system of India developed more than 3000 years ago when Aryan-speaking nomadic groups migrated from the north to India about 1500BC.印度传统的种姓制度发展了3000年前雅利安人时讲从北方迁移到印度约1500BC游牧群体。The Aryan priests, according to the ancient sacred literature of India, divided society into a basic caste system.雅利安祭司,根据古印度神圣的文学,分为基本等级制度的社会。Sometime between 200BC and AD100, the Manu Smriti, or Law of Manu, was written.有时在200BC和AD100的马努Smriti,或马努法,被写入。In it the Aryan priest-lawmakers created the four great hereditary divisions of society still surviving today, placing their own priestly class at the head of this caste system with the title of earthly gods, or Brahmans. Next in order of rank were the warriors, the Kshatriyas. Then came the Vaisyas, the farmers and merchants.在它的雅利安人祭司立法者创造了四大社会的今天仍然幸存的遗传分歧,放置于本种姓制度头部与尘世的神,或者他们自己的婆罗门祭司类标题的排名顺序的下一个是战士,在Kshatriyas,然后传来Vaisyas,农民和商人。 The fourth of the original castes was the Sudras, the laborers, born to be servants to the other three castes, especially the Brahman. Far lower than the Sudras - in fact, entirely outside the social order and limited to doing the most menial and unappealing tasks - were those people of no caste, formerly known as Untouchables. (In the 1930s Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi applied the term Harijans, or "children of God," to this group.) The Untouchables were the Dravidians, the aboriginal inhabitants of India, to whose ranks from time to time were added the pariahs, or outcasts, people expelled for religious or social sins from the classes into which they had been born.原第四是首陀罗种姓劳动者,所生的是其他三个种姓,特别是婆罗门仆人远远超过了首陀罗更低-事实上,完全超出了社会秩序,并只限于做最卑贱和吸引力任务-是没有种姓的人,原名铁面无私已知 (在20世纪30年代的印度民族主义领袖圣雄甘地应用长期Harijans,或“神的孩子”这一组。)铁面无私是Dravidians,对原住民居民印度,他们的职级不时被添加的贱民,或遗弃,宗教或社会的罪驱逐到他们已经出生的类人。 Thus created by the priests, the caste system was made a part of Hindu religious law, rendered secure by the claim of divine revelation.因此,由神父创建,种姓制度被做了印度教的宗教法律的一部分,呈现由神启示的安全要求。

The characteristics of an Indian caste include rigid, hereditary membership in the caste into which one is born; the practice of marrying only members of the same caste (endogamy); restrictions on the choice of occupation and on personal contact with members of other castes; and the acceptance by each individual of a fixed place in society.一名印度种姓的特点包括刚性的,在进入哪一个是出生种姓世袭成员;在选择职业和与其他种姓成员的个人接触的限制,在同种姓结婚的(内婚制),只有会员的做法;和每一个社会个体接受固定的地方。 The caste system has been perpetuated by the Hindu ideas of samsara (reincarnation) and karma (quality of action).种姓制度一直延续了印度教的轮回观念(轮回)和业力 (行动的质量)。According to these religious beliefs, all people are reincarnated on earth, at which time they have a chance to be born into another, higher caste, but only if they have been obedient to the rules of their caste in their previous life on earth.根据这些宗教的信仰,所有的人都转世在地球上,此时他们已经将要进入另一个出生的机会,更高的等级,但前提是他们已经服从了他们在地球上的前世种姓的规则。 In this way karma has discouraged people from attempting to rise to a higher caste or to cross caste lines for social relations of any kind.这样业已经劝阻试图上升到一个更高的种姓或交叉进行任何形式的社会关系种姓线的人。

The four original castes have been subdivided again and again over many centuries, until today it is impossible to tell their exact number.四个原始种姓已经细分了许多世纪以来一次又一次,直到今天也不可能告诉他们的确切人数。Estimates range from 2000 to 3000 different castes established by Brahmanical law throughout India, each region having its own distinct groups defined by craft and fixed by custom.估计从2000年到由依法设立的全印度婆罗门,每个地区都有自己的定义的工艺和独特的群体自3000固定不同种姓。

The complexities of the system have constituted a serious obstacle to civil progress in India.该系统的复杂性都构成了对印度的文明进步的严重障碍。The trend today is toward the dissolution of the artificial barriers between the castes.今天的趋势是朝着种姓之间的人为障碍解散。The stringency of the caste system of the Hindus was broken down greatly during the period of British rule in India.对印度教徒的种姓制度严格的细分大大在英国统治印度时期。The obligation of the son to follow the calling of his father is no longer binding; men of low castes have risen to high ranks and positions of power; and excommunication, or the loss of caste, is not as serious as it may once have been.的儿子跟随他的父亲打电话义务不再具有约束力;低种姓的男子已经上升到较高的职级和职务的权力和逐出教会,或种姓的损失,是不是严重的一次,因为它可能已被。 In addition, the caste system was from time to time burst from within by ecclesiastical schisms, most notably the rise of Buddhism, itself a reaction from, and protest against, the intolerable bondage of the caste system.此外,种姓制度是从时间内爆教会的分裂,最引人注目的是佛教的兴起,本身就是一个从反应,以及对中,种姓制度束缚难耐的抗议时间

In recent years considerable strides toward eradicating unjust social and economic aspects of the caste system as practiced in India have been made through educational and reform movements.近年来,对消除不公平的社会和经济方面的种姓制度在印度实行取得了相当大的进展,通过教育和改革运动。 The great leader in this endeavor was Mohandas Gandhi.在这一努力中的伟大领袖圣雄甘地。The drafted constitution of India, which was published a few days after the assassination of Gandhi in January 1948, stated in a special clause under the heading "human rights": "Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden."印度起草的宪法,这是几天后,在1948年1月刺杀甘地在一个特殊的条款表示标题下的“人权”,出版:“贱民是撤销,其任何形式的做法是禁止的。” Despite official attempts to improve the status of members of the lowest caste, many of whom now prefer to be referred to as Dalits (Hindi for "oppressed people"), discrimination and exploitation is still common.尽管官方试图提高最低种姓成员的地位,其中许多人现在更愿意被称为贱民(意为“被压迫人民”印地文),歧视和剥削的情况仍十分普遍。



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