Upanishads奥义书 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

The Upanishads are chronologically the latest portions of the Vedas, the sacred texts of Hinduism.奥义书是按时间顺序的吠陀的最新部分,印度教的神圣文本。The earliest Upanishads, probably dating from 900 to 600 BC, represent the first development of philosophical reflections in Sanskrit literature; later works have also been accepted from time to time as Upanishads.最早的奥义书,大概建于公元前900至600,代表了哲学思考梵语文学率先发展,后来的作品也被接受,从时间奥义书时间。 According to a widespread tradition the oldest Upanishads are the Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, Kaushitaki, and Maitri Upanishads. The material they comprise is part poetry, part prose.根据广泛的传统最古老的奥义书是ISA,科纳,卡塔,Prasna,Mundaka,Mandukya,Taittiriya,Aitareya,Chandogya,Brhadaranyaka,Svetasvatara,Kaushitaki和Maitri奥义书的材料,他们组成部分是诗歌,散文的一部分。 They contain didactic stories, allegories, and passages for meditation, a number of which are repeated in more than one Upanishad or elsewhere in the Vedic corpus.它们包含说教故事,寓言,对冥想和通道,其中一些是在一个以上的奥义书或其他地方进行吠陀语料库重复。

The fundamental concern of the Upanishads is the nature of reality. They teach the identity of the individual soul (atman) with the universal essence soul (Brahman).奥义书的根本问题是对现实的本质,他们教的普遍本质与灵魂(婆罗门)的个体灵魂(阿特曼)的身份。 Because they are the final portions of the Vedas, they are also known as Vedanta, "the end of the Vedas," and their thought, as interpreted in succeeding centuries, is likewise known as Vedanta.因为他们是吠陀的最后部分,他们也被称为韦丹塔,“吠陀的终结”和他们的思想,在以后的几个世纪的解释,同样被称为韦丹塔。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
P Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads (1960); E Easwaren, The Upanishads: A Selection (1987); NA Nikam, Ten Principal Upanishads: Some Fundamental Ideas (1974); S Sharma, Life in the Upanishads (1985).P Deussen,对奥义书哲学(1960年),E Easwaren,奥义书:一个选择(1987年); NA Nikam,十项主要奥义书:部分(1974年)的基本思想,S夏尔马,在奥义书人寿(1985)。

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