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The Vedas (Sanskrit: "knowledge"), the most sacred books of Hinduism and the oldest literature of India, represent the religious thought and activity of the Indo European speaking peoples who entered South Asia in the 2d millennium BC, although they probably also reflect the influence of the indigenous people of the area.吠陀(梵文:“知识”), 印度教最神圣的书籍和印度最古老的文献,代表宗教思想的欧洲谁进入南印度在2D公元前亚洲人民和活动来说,虽然他们可能也反映了在该地区的土著人的影响。 The Vedic texts presumably date from between 1500 and 500 BC.韦达文本大概日期从1500年至公元前500年。This literature was preserved for centuries by an oral tradition in which particular families were entrusted with portions of the text for preservation.这些文献是保存了几个世纪的口头传统的家庭中,特别是同为保存文本部分委托。As a result, some parts of the texts are known by the names of the families they were assigned to.因此,课文中的某些部分是已知的由他们被分配到家庭的名字。

In its narrowest sense, the term Veda applies to four collections of hymns (samhita): Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda. These hymns and verses, addressed to various deities, were chanted during sacrificial rituals.在其最窄意义上说,这个词适用于四吠陀赞美诗(本集)集合:梨俱吠陀,萨玛吠陀,Yajur吠陀和阿塔吠陀这些赞美诗和经文,给不同的神,祭祀仪式都在高喊。 In a wider sense, Veda refers to both these hymns and the materials that accreted around them to form four books with four parts. For each of the Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva, there are not only hymns, but also Brahmanas - prose texts that explain and illustrate the significance of the ritual; Aranyakas, or forest - treatises - esoteric texts providing symbolic or magical interpretations of ritual formulae; and the commentaries called Upanishads - the beginnings of Hindu philosophy.在更广泛的意义上说,吠陀是指这两个赞美诗和他们周围增生, 形成四个部分四书材料的钻机,萨玛,Yajur和阿塔发,每年不仅有诗歌,而且婆罗门-散文文本的解释和说明的仪式意义; Aranyakas,或森林-论文-提供象征性的仪式公式或魔法的解释深奥的文本,以及评论称奥义书 -印度教哲学的开端。

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Vedic rituals essentially involved offerings to and with fire under precisely prescribed conditions by which the sacrificer hoped to communicate with the deities and thus to obtain desired results.吠陀仪式实质上正是规定的条件下参与其中sacrificer希望与神沟通,从而取得预期的效果并与火祭。The importance attached to the satisfaction of formal conditions required that a priest with knowledge of the proper forms officiate at the sacrifice.的重视,在要求一个具有适当形式的知识祭司主持祭祀形式条件表示满意。Many of the deities addressed by the sacrifice were identified or associated with natural objects of forces such as fire, water, and wind.经处理的神牺牲许多确定或与诸如火,水,风的力量自然对象相关联。Among the most important were Indra (thunder, war, and perhaps creator), Varuna (guardian of the cosmic order and moral law), Agni (fire, light), and Soma (a liquid used in the sacrifice).其中最重要的是因陀罗(雷电,战争,也许创作者),伐楼拿(宇宙秩序和道德法律监护人),烈火(火,光)和索马(在牺牲使用的液体)。 The form and functions of one god, however, were not strictly distinguished from those of others and, as the Vedic period progressed, thought developed from polytheism to monotheism and thence, in the Upanishads, to monism.的形式和功能的一个神,但是,并没有严格区分他人的,而作为吠陀时期的进展, 认为发达国家从多神教到一神教和因此,在奥义书,以一元论。

The relation of Vedism to the Hinduism of later centuries is complex and not well understood.而Vedism关系后来几个世纪的印度教是复杂的,不能很好地理解。The Vedas are preserved in traditional fashion in certain parts of India, and the tendency is widespread to look to them as expressions of the fundamental genius of Hindu thought and aspiration.吠陀是保存在印度某些地区的传统方式,普遍的倾向是看作为印度教的基本思想和愿望的表达他们的天才。The originals of the major Hindu gods - Shiva and Vishnu - can be found among the minor deities of the Vedas.湿婆和毗湿奴 - - 主要印度教诸神的原件,可以发现其中的未成年人的吠陀神。The sacrifice has, however, all but disappeared from India in its Vedic form, replaced by different rites; and the analogy, central to the Vedic ritual, between actions on Earth and events in the heavens is replaced in Hinduism by the goal of liberation from actions on Earth, from life itself.牺牲了,但全部消失,从印度的吠陀形式不同的仪式所取代;和比喻,中央对吠陀仪式,与地球上的行动和在天上的事件是在印度教所取代解放的目标,从地球上的行动,从生活本身。 The concepts of Karma and Transmigration of Souls are not found in the Vedic corpus until the Upanishads.因果报应和灵魂轮回的概念都没有出现,直到奥义书吠陀语料。

Karl H Potter卡尔H波特

Bibliography: 参考书目:
EV Arnold, The Rigveda (1960); S Aurobindo, The Secret of the Veda (1971); J Gonda, Vedic Literature: Samhitas and Brahmanas (1975); AB Keith, Religion and Philosophy of the Vedas and Upanishads (1926); CK Raja, The Vedas: A Critical Study (1957). EV阿诺德,该Rigveda(1960年),S奥罗宾多,对吠陀的秘密(1971年)〔J贡达,吠陀文学:Samhitas和婆罗门(1975年); AB基思,宗教和吠陀和奥义书(1926年)哲学; CK拉贾,在吠陀:批判性研究(1957)。

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