Virgin Birth处女出生

General Information一般资料

The accounts of the birth of Jesus Christ in the Gospels according to Matthew and Luke, specifically the two Annunciation stories (Matt. 1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38), tell of a virginal conception by Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit. Belief that Jesus was thus conceived without a human father was more or less universal in the Christian church by the 2d century and is accepted by the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and most Protestant churches.在福音的耶稣基督诞生根据马修和卢克,账目明确两个报喜故事(太1:18-25,路加福音1:26-38),告诉了玛丽处女的概念是将权力圣灵, 信仰耶稣是人类的父亲没有这样设想或多或少普遍在基督教教会的2D世纪,是由罗马天主教,东正教,基督教和最接受。

The origin of the tradition, however, is a controversial subject among modern scholars.而传统产地,然而,是在现代学者争议的问题。Some believe it to be historical, based on information perhaps from Mary or her husband Joseph; for others it is a theological interpretation developed from extraneous sources (Hellenistic Jewish traditions about the birth of Isaac or pagan analogies).有些人认为它是历史的基础上,信息从玛丽或丈夫约瑟夫也许,别人是从神学的解释(关于艾萨克​​或异教徒类比出生希腊犹太传统)外来源开发。 Whatever its origin, it may be recognized as a Christological affirmation denoting the divine origin of the Christ event.无论其来源,它可能被承认为基督denoting的基督事件神圣的起源肯定。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Brown, RE, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (1973) and The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke (1977); Campenhausen, H. von, The Virgin Birth in the Theology of the Ancient Church (1964); Miguens, M., The Virgin Birth: An Evaluation of Scriptural Evidence (1975).布朗的处女观和身体复活的耶稣(1973)和弥赛亚的诞生RE:关于在马修和卢克(1977)的婴儿叙事解说; Campenhausen,H.冯,在维尔京出生的神学古老的教堂(1964年); Miguens,M.,维尔京出生:对圣经的证据(1975年)评价。


Virgin Birth of Jesus维尔京耶稣诞生

Advanced Information先进的信息

Matt.马特。1:18, 22-25 and Luke 1:26-38 teach that the birth of Jesus resulted from a miraculous conception. 1:18,22-25和路加福音1:26-38教导说耶稣诞生的概念从一个奇迹般的结果。He was conceived in the womb of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit without male seed.他设想在子宫内的圣母玛利亚受圣灵没有男性种子的力量。This is the doctrine of the virgin birth, which must be distinguished from other doctrines concerning Mary such as perpetual virginity, her immaculate conception, her assumption, which are rejected by most Protestants, and from views in which the phrase "virgin birth" is taken to indicate some sort of divine involvement in the incarnation without affirming the biological virginity of Jesus' mother.这是处女诞生的学说,它必须从其他学说有关,如永久童贞玛利亚,她的完美无暇的意境,她的假设,这是拒绝了大多数新教徒,从意见中,把“处女生育”是采取区别表示不肯定耶稣的母亲童贞一些生物在神的化身参与排序。 Views of the latter sort are common enough in modern liberal theology, but it is an abuse of language to call them affirmations of the virgin birth; they are denials of the virgin birth, though they may indeed be affirmations of something else.后者是常见的排序次数足够现代自由神学,但它是一个语言来调用它们的处女生育的肯定虐待,他们都是处女生育否认,但他们确实可能是别的东西肯定。

Possibility and Probability可能性与概率

If one rejects the possibility of miracle in general, as does, eg, Bultmann, then one must reject the virgin birth as well.如果拒绝一般奇迹的可能性,象,例如,布特曼,然后就必须拒绝处女诞生也是如此。But such a generalized rejection of miracle is arbitrary and indefensible on any ground, and it is contrary to the most fundamental presuppositions of Christian thought.但这样的奇迹是任意的,广义拒绝以任何理由站不住脚的,也是违背了基督教思想的最根本前提。The virgin birth is no more miraculous than the atonement or the resurrection or the regeneration of sinners.童女生子不超过赎罪或复活或再生奇迹般的罪人。If miracle is rejected, then nothing important to Christianity can be retained.如果奇迹是拒绝,然后什么都不重要了基督教得以保留。

If one accepts the general possibility of miracle, one must still ask about the possibility and probability of the virgin birth in particular.如果一个人接受了奇迹一般的可能性,人们仍然必须询问的可能性和特别是处女生育的可能性。For an evangelical Christian the fact that this doctrine is taught in God's inerrant Word settles such questions.对于一个福音派基督教的教义,这是神的事实无误的字教落户等问题。Yet this fact does not make historical investigation superfluous.然而,这一事实并不能使历史调查是多余的。If indeed Scripture is inerrant, it is consistent with all historical discovery.如果确实圣经是无误的,它与所有的历史的发现是一致的。To illustrate this consistency can only be helpful, not only to convince those who doubt the authority of Scripture, but also to confirm the faith of those who accept it.为了说明这种一致性只能是有益的,不仅要说服那些谁怀疑圣经的权威,也证实了这些谁接受它的信念。But such investigation must be carried out on principles compatible with the Christian revelation, not (as with Bultmann) on principles antagonistic to it from the outset.但这种调查必须进行的原则与基督教的启示,而不是在原则(与布特曼)对立从一开始就兼容。

The NT Accounts在NT帐户

On that basis, then, let us examine the credibility of the NT witnesses, Matthew and Luke.在此基础上,那么,让我们研究的NT证人,马修和卢克信誉。Both Gospels are often dated from AD 70-100, but if we grant the assumption that Jesus was able to predict the fall of Jerusalem (AD 70; and why would a Christian deny this?), there is ample evidence for dating these Gospels in the 60s or earlier.这两个福音往往从公元70-100年,但如果我们授予假设耶稣是能够预测秋季耶路撒冷(公元70;?和基督教为什么会否认这一点),有这些福音约会在充分的证据60年代或更早。 In any case, the two accounts are generally thought to be independent of each other and thus to be based on a tradition antedating both.在任何情况下,这两个帐户,一般认为是相互独立,从而可以在一个日期提前两个传统的基础。

Confirming the antiquity of this tradition is the remarkably "Hebraic" character of both birth accounts: the theology and language of these chapters seem more characteristic of the OT than the NT, as many scholars have noted.证实了这一传统古代是非常“希伯来”两个出生户口性质:神学和这些章节语言似乎更多的OT特征比NT,正如许多学者所指出的。 This fact renders very unlikely the hypothesis that the virgin birth is a theologoumenon, a story invented by the early church to buttress its Christological dogma.这一事实呈现不太可能的假设,即处女的诞生是一个theologoumenon,由早期教会基督发明来支持它的教条一个故事。 There is here no mention of Jesus' preexistence.这里有没有耶稣的前世提。His title "Son of God" is seen to be future, as is his inheritance of the Davidic throne (Luke 1:32, 35).他的题目是“上帝的儿子”都被看作是未来的,因为是他的大卫宝座(路加福音1:32,35)继承。In the birth narratives Jesus is the OT Messiah, the son of David, the fulfillment of prophecy, the one who will rescue God's people through mighty deeds, exalting the humble and crushing the proud (Luke 1:46-55).在叙述耶稣的诞生是OT弥赛亚,大卫的儿子,预言的实现,谁强大的事迹将通过拯救上帝的子民,振奋人心的谦虚和破碎的骄傲(路加福音1:46-55)。 The writers draw no inference from the virgin birth concerning Jesus' deity or ontological sonship to God; rather, they simply record the event as a historical fact and (for Matthew) as a fulfillment of Isa.画的作者没有从处女关于耶稣的神或上帝本体sonship出生推断,相反,他们只是记录作为历史事实,并作为履行伊萨(马修)事件。 7:14.7:14。

Not much is known about the author of Matthew, but there is much reason to ascribe the third Gospel to Luke the physician (Col. 4:14), a companion of Paul (II Tim. 4:11; cf. the "we" passages in Acts, such as 27:1ff.) who also wrote the Acts of the Apostles (cf. Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1-5).没有太多的了解的作者马太,但仍然有很多原因归咎于第三福音路加医生(西4:14),一保(II添4:11伴侣;比照“我们”如27:1 FF行为,通道)谁也写了使徒行传(参见路加福音1:1-4;徒1:1-5)。Luke claims to have made a careful study of the historical data (1:1-4), and that claim has been repeatedly vindicated in many details even by modern skeptical scholars such as Harnack.卢克声称已经做了的(1:1-4)的历史资料进行认真研究,并声称已多次平反,甚至在很多细节,如哈尔纳克现代学者持怀疑态度。 Both his vocations, historian and physician, would have prevented him from responding gullibly to reports of a virgin birth.无论他的职业,历史学家和医生,将无法应对gullibly的处女生育报告了他。The two birth narratives have been attacked as inconsistent and/or erroneous at several points: the genealogies, the massacre of the children (Matt. 2:16), the census during the time of Quirinius (Luke 2:1-2); but plausible explanations of these difficulties have also been advanced.这两个出生说明已袭击了数分,不一致和/或错误:族谱,孩子们的大屠杀(太2:16),期间的居里扭(路加福音2:1-2)普查的时间,但这些困难可能的解释也被先进的。 Jesus' Davidic ancestry (emphasized in both accounts) has been under suspicion also; but as Raymond Brown argues, the presence of Mary and Jesus' brothers, especially James (Acts 1:14; 15:13-21; Gal. 1:19; 2:9), in the early church would probably have prevented the development of legendary material concerning Jesus' origin.耶稣的祖先大卫(在这两个帐户强调)也已受到怀疑,但作为雷蒙德布朗认为,玛丽和耶稣的“兄弟们,尤其是詹姆斯(徒1:14; 15:13-21,加拉太1:19。 ; 2:9),在早期教会可能会阻碍了传说中的有关耶稣的源材料的发展。All in all, we have good reason, even apart from belief in their inspiration, to trust Luke and Matthew, even where they differ from the verdicts of secular historians ancient and modern.总而言之,我们有充分的理由,甚至除了在他们的灵感的信仰,信任卢克和马修,即使他们从古代和现代世俗历史学家的判决不同。

The Rest of Scripture圣经的休息

Much has been said concerning the "silence" of Scripture about the virgin birth outside of the passages mentioned.已经说了很多关于“沉默”的有关章节中提到之外的处女生育圣经。This silence is real, but it need not be explained by any ignorance or denial of the virgin birth by other NT writers.这种沉默是真实的,但它不需要任何的无知或其他NT作家处女出生拒绝解释。It is significant that even the Gospels of Matthew and Luke are "silent" about the virgin birth through fifty of their combined fifty-two chapters.重要的是,即使是马修和卢克福音是“无声”关于通过他们的结合五十二章fifty处女的诞生。The silence of the rest of the NT can be explained in essentially the same ways as one would explain the partial silence of Matthew, and Luke.而其余的NT沉默可以解释在本质上是相同的方式作为一个可以解释的部分沉默马修和卢克。The NT deals chiefly with (1) Jesus' preaching, life, death, resurrection (the Gospels and to some extent the epistles); (2) the preaching and missionary work in the early church (Acts especially); (3) teaching concerning the theological and practical problems of the church (Acts, epistles); (4) assurances of the triumph of God's purposes and visions of the end times (Revelation, other NT books).新台币交易主要是与(1)耶稣“传道,生命,死亡,复活(福音和在一定程度上书信)(2)的说教,在早期教会(徒特别是)宣教工作;(3)教学有关在教会(徒,书信)的神学和实际问题;神的宗旨和愿景的结束时间(启示录,其他新台币书籍)的胜利(4)保证。 The virgin birth was not part of Jesus' preaching or that of the early church.童女生子是不是耶稣的说教或早期教会的一部分。It was not a controversial matter such as might have been addressed in the epistles (Christology in general was not a particularly controversial matter among the Christians, and even if it had been, the virgin birth most likely was not seen as a means of supporting Christological dogma).这不是一个有争议的问题,如可能已在书信(一般基督不是一个有争议的问题,特别是其中的基督徒,即使它一直,维尔京诞生很可能是不作为支持基督的一种手段解决教条)。 The main function of the virgin birth in the NT, to show the fulfillment of prophecy and to describe the events surrounding Jesus' birth, is appropriate only to birth narratives, and only two birth narratives have been preserved in the canon.而在NT处女的诞生,显示了预言的实现和描述的事件周围的耶稣的诞生,主要功能是适当只生育叙述,只有两个出生说明已在佳能保留。 We must also assume that the early church maintained a certain reserve about public discussion of these matters out of respect for the privacy of Jesus' family, especially Mary.我们还必须假设,早期教会保持着对公众讨论这些问题,为耶稣的家庭,特别是玛丽隐私的尊重了一定的储备。

Is there anything in the NT that contradicts the virgin birth accounts? There are passages where Jesus is described as the son of Joseph: John 1:45; 6:42; Luke 2:27, 33, 41, 43, 48; Matt. 有没有在NT的矛盾的处女生育帐目什么耶稣是约瑟的儿子描述的段落:约翰1时45分,6时42分,卢克2点27分,33,41,43,48;马特 13:55.13:55。Clearly, though, Luke and Matthew had no intention of denying the virgin birth of Christ, unless the birth narratives are later additions to the books, and there is no evidence of that.由此可见,虽然,卢克和马修并没有否认基督的处女生育打算,除非是以后出生的叙述到的书籍的增加,并没有证据。These references clearly refer to Joseph as the legal father of Jesus without reference to the question of biological fatherhood.这些提法显然是指法律作为耶稣的父亲约瑟没有提到的生物父亲的问题。The same is true in the Johannine references, with the additional fact that the words in question were spoken by those who were not well acquainted with Jesus and/or his family.同样是真实的约翰参考,与更多的事实,有问题的话是那些谁是没有很好地与耶稣和/或他的家人熟悉发言。( The text of Matt. 1:16, saying that Joseph begat Jesus, is certainly not original .)对马特。1点16文字,说约瑟夫生了耶稣,当然不是原来的 。)

It is interesting that the Markan variant of Matt.有趣的是,马特Markan变种。13:55 (Mark 6:3) eliminates reference to Joseph and speaks of Jesus as "Mary's son," an unusual way of describing parentage in Jewish culture. 13:55(马可福音6:3)消除提到约瑟夫和耶稣说,作为“玛丽的儿子”,描述一个犹太文化的父母子女关系不寻常的方式。Some have thought that this indicates some knowledge of the virgin birth by Mark, or even some public knowledge of an irregularity in Jesus' origin, even though Mark has no birth narrative as such.有些人认为,这表明一些由Mark知识的处女生育,甚至一些在耶稣的起源不规则公共知识,尽管马克没有这样诞生的叙述。 Cf.比照。John 8:41, where Jesus' opponents hint his illegitimacy, a charge which apparently continued to be made into the second century.约翰8:41,耶稣的对手暗示他的非法性,一次充电这显然仍然是进入了第二个世纪。Brown remarks that such a charge would not have been fabricated by Christians, nor would it have been fabricated by non-Christians probably, unless Jesus' origin were known to be somehow unusual.布朗这样的收费将不会被捏造的基督徒,也不会是捏造的非基督徒可能,除非耶稣的起源被称​​为是某种不寻常的言论。 Thus it is possible that these incidental references to Jesus' birth actually confirm the virgin birth, though this evidence is not of great weight.因此它可能是耶稣的诞生实际上确认这些附带引用的处女生育,虽然这方面的证据是没有多大的重量。

Is Isa.是伊萨。7:14 a prediction of the virgin birth? Matt.7点14分出生的处女预测?马特。1:22 asserts that the virgin birth "fulfills" that passage, but much controversy has surrounded that assertion, turning on the meaning of the Isaiah passage in context, its LXX translation, and Matthew's use of both. 1时22分称,处女生育“满足”的通过,但有很大的争议围绕这一断言,对在背景下,其LXX翻译,和马修的以赛亚都使用通行的意思转动。The arguments are too complicated for full treatment here.这些参数过于复杂,在这里充分治疗。EJ Young has mounted one of the few recent scholarly defenses of the traditional position. EJ青年已安装了最近一些学者的传统立场辩护之一。I would only suggest that for Matthew the concept of "fulfillment" sometimes takes on aesthetic dimensions that go beyond the normal relation between "prediction" and "predicted event" (cf. his use of Zech. 9:9 in 21:1-4).我只想表明,对于马修的“圆满”的概念有时超出之间的“预测”和“预测事件”(见他的撒加利亚使用正常尺寸的关系去审美需要,在21:1-4 9时09分)。For Matthew, the "fulfillment" may draw the attention of people to the prophecy in startling, even bizarre ways which the prophet himself might never have anticipated.对于马修,“圆满”可提请人们注意的惊人,甚至离奇的先知自己可能永远不会有预期的方式预言。It "corresponds" to the prophecy in unpredictable but exciting ways, as a variation in music corresponds to a theme.据“对应”的不可预测的,但令人振奋的方式预言,作为一个音乐的变化对应于一个主题。It may be that some element of this takes place in Matt.这可能是一些发生在这个元素的马特举行。1:23, though Young's argument may prevail in the long run.1点23分,但年轻的说法可能盛行的长远目标。

Postbiblical AttestationPostbiblical认证

Belief in the virgin birth is widely attested in literature from the second century.在维尔京出生证明被广泛信仰文学从第二世纪。Ignatius defended the doctrine strongly against the docetists, who held that Jesus only "appeared" to have become man.伊格辩护主义强烈反对docetists,谁认为耶稣只是“似乎”已经成为男人。Some have thought that Ignatius shows acquaintance with a tradition independent of the Gospels affirming the virgin birth.有些人认为伊格显示了一个传统的肯定处女生育福音独立相识。The virgin birth was denied only by Gnostic docetists and by Ebionites, who held Jesus to be a mere human prophet.出生的处女被拒绝只有诺斯底docetists和以便尼派,谁举行耶稣仅仅是一个人的先知。The silence of some church fathers, like the silence of Scripture, has been cited as evidence of a tradition contrary to this doctrine, but there is no clear evidence of any such things, and the argument from silence can easily be countered as above.对一些教堂父亲的沉默,沉默的经文一样,已被列为一个传统违背了这一学说的证据,但目前还没有任何这样的事情明确的证据,并从沉默参数可以很容易地如上反驳。

Pagan or Jewish Background? Occasionally someone will suggest that the virgin birth narratives are based not on fact but on pagan or Jewish stories of supernatural births.异教徒或犹太人的背景是什么?偶尔会有人建议处女生育叙述的事实,但不是对超自然出生异教徒或犹太人的故事。 Such a hypothesis is most unlikely.这样的假设是最不可能的。There is no clear parallel to the notion of a virgin birth in pagan literature, only of births resulting from intercourse between a God and a woman (of which there is no suggestion in Matthew and Luke), resulting in a being half-divine, half-human (which is far different from the biblical Christology).没有明确的平行在异教文学处女出生只有从之间的上帝和女人(其中有没有马修和卢克建议)性交造成出生,概念,在一个被半神半产生人类(这是远离圣经的基督不同)。 Further, none of the pagan stories locates the event in datable history as the biblical account does.此外,位于异教的故事没有在datable历史圣经帐户的事件一样。Nor is there any precise parallel in Jewish literature.也没有任何犹太文学精确平行。The closest parallels would be the supernatural births of Isaac, Samson, and Samuel in the OT, but these were not virgin births.最接近的相似之处将是以撒,参孙,并在OT塞缪尔超自然的出生,但这些都没有处女生育。Isa.伊萨。7:14 was not considered a messianic passage in the Jewish literature of the time. 7:14不被认为是在当时的犹太文学救世主通行。It is more likely that the event of the virgin birth influenced Matthew's understanding of Isa.它更可能的是,处女生育事件影响马修的伊萨的理解。7:14 than the reverse. 7时14不是相反。

Doctrinal Importance教义的重要性

The consistency of this doctrine with other Christian truth is important to its usefulness and, indeed, to its credibility.这一学说与其他基督教真理的一致性是很重要的它的实用性,事实上,它的公信力。For Matthew and Luke the chief importance of the event seems to be that it calls to mind (as a "sign," Isa. 7:14) the great OT promises of salvation through supernaturally born deliverers, while going far beyond them, showing that God's final deliverance has come.对于马修和卢克事件的主要重要性似乎是,它要求记(作为“标志,”赛。7:14)救恩的伟大OT通过超自然出生商之承诺,而远远超出了他们去,显示出上帝的最后拯救已经到来。 But one can also go beyond the specific concerns of Matthew and Luke and see that the virgin birth is fully consistent with the whole range of biblical doctrine.但是,人们也可以超越马修和卢克的具体问题和看到处女的诞生,是完全符合圣经教义的整个范围是一致的。The virgin birth is important because of: (1) The doctrine of Scripture.处女的诞生,是重要的,因为:(1)圣经的教义。If Scripture errs here, then why should we trust its claims about other supernatural events, such as the resurrection?如果圣经ERRS这里,那么我们为什么要相信对其他超自然的事件,如复活,其主张?(2) The deity of Christ. (2)神的基督。While we cannot say dogmatically that God could enter the world only through a virgin birth, surely the incarnation is a supernatural event if it is anything.虽然我们不能说教条,神可以进入,只有通过处女诞生的世界,肯定是化身是一个超自然的事件,如果它是什么。To eliminate the supernatural from this event is inevitably to compromise the divine dimension of it.为了消除这一事件是不可避免的超自然妥协它的神圣维度。(3) The humanity of Christ. (3)基督的人性。This was the important thing to Ignatius and the second century fathers.这是重要的事情伊格内修和父亲的第二个世纪。Jesus was really born; he really became one of us.耶稣真的出生,他真的成了我们的。(4) The sinlessness of Christ. (4)无罪的基督。If he were born of two human parents, it is very difficult to conceive how he could have been exempted from the guilt of Adam's sin and become a new head to the human race.如果他父母出生的两个人,是很难想像他怎么可能已经从亚当的罪罪责豁免,并​​成为一个新的头到人类。And it would seem only an arbitrary act of God that Jesus could be born without a sinful nature.而这似乎只是一个神的任意行为,耶稣可能是没有罪恶的本性。Yet Jesus' sinlessness as the new head of the human race and as the atoning lamb of God is absolutely vital to our salvation (II Cor. 5:21; I Pet. 2:22-24; Heb. 4:15; 7:26; Rom. 5:18-19).然而,耶稣作为人类新的头部和作为神的赎罪羔羊无罪是绝对重要的救恩(二肺心病5时21分;彼前2:22-24,希伯来书4:15; 7。: 26;罗5:18-19)。(5) The nature of grace. (5)性质的宽限期。The birth of Christ, in which the initiative and power are all of God, is an apt picture of God's saving grace in general of which it is a part.基督的,其中的积极性和力量都是神的,出生是上帝的拯救恩典一般它是一个贴切的一部分图片。It teaches us that salvation is by God's act, not our human effort.它告诉我们,救恩是上帝的行为,不是我们人类的努力。The birth of Jesus is like our new birth, which is also by the Holy Spirit; it is a new creation (II Cor. 5:17).耶稣的诞生,是像我们的新生,这也是由圣灵,它是一种新的创造(二肺心病5:17)。

Is belief in the virgin birth "necessary"? It is possible to be saved without believing it; saved people aren't perfect people. 在处女生育“必要”的信念很可能要在不相信它保存;?保存的人不是完美的人。But to reject the virgin birth is to reject God's Word, and disobedience is always serious.但拒绝处女生育是拒绝神的话语,和不服从始终是严重的。Further, disbelief in the virgin birth may lead to compromise in those other areas of doctrine with which it is vitally connected.此外,在维尔京诞生怀疑可能导致妥协主义者与它是非常有关的其他领域。

JM Frame JM帧
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
T. Boslooper, The Virgin Birth; RE Brown, The Birth of the Messiah and The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus; FF Bruce, Are the NT Documents Reliable? T.,维尔京出生Boslooper; RE,对弥赛亚和处女观和身体复活的耶稣出生布朗; FF布鲁斯,是新台币文件可靠吗?H. von Campenhausen, The Virgin Birth in the Theology of the Ancient Church; RG Gromacki, The Virgin Birth: Doctrine of Deity; JG Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ; J. Murray, Collected Writings, II, 134-35; O .H.冯,在古代教会神学维尔京出生Campenhausen; RG,维尔京诞生Gromacki:对神的教义; JG玛沁,基督的处女出生的J.默里,收集写作,二,134-35,O 。Piper, "The Virgin Birth: The Meaning of the Gospel Accounts," Int 18:131ff.; BB Warfield, "The Supernatural Birth of Jesus," in Biblical and Theological Studies; EJ Young, Commentary on Isaiah.吹笛者,他说:“维尔京出生:福音的帐户的意思,”诠释18:131 FF; BB沃菲尔德,“耶稣超自然的诞生”,在圣经和神学研究; EJ年轻,在以赛亚评论。


Virgin Birth of Christ维尔京基督诞生

Catholic Information天主教信息

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son.教条的教导耶稣基督的圣母是处女之前,期间和之后的构思和她的神的儿子出生。

I. THE VIRGIN BIRTH IN CATHOLIC THEOLOGY一,在天主教神学处女生育

Councils and Creeds议会和信条

The virginity of our Blessed Lady was defined under anathema in the third canon of the Lateran Council held in the time of Pope Martin I, AD 649.我们的祝福夫人贞操的定义下诅咒在拉特兰会议第三次在教皇马丁一,公元649佳能如期举行。The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, as recited in the Mass, expresses belief in Christ "incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary"; the Apostles' Creed professes that Jesus Christ "was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary"; the older form of the same creed uses the expression: "born of the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary".尼西亚- Constantinopolitan信条,如大众吟诵,表达了基督信仰“的化身由圣母玛利亚圣灵”,使徒信经自称是耶稣基督“的构思是由圣灵,圣母马利亚所生” ;同一信条旧的形式使用的表达式:“的圣灵和圣母马利亚所生”。These professions show:这些行业显示:

That the body of Jesus Christ was not sent down from Heaven, nor taken from earth as was that of Adam, but that its matter was supplied by Mary; that Mary co-operated in the formation of Christ's body as every other mother co-operates in the formation of the body of her child, since otherwise Christ could not be said to be born of Mary just as Eve cannot be said to be born of Adam;这是耶稣基督的身体并没有发下来从天堂,也没有从地球当作是亚当的,但它的问题是由玛丽提供;,玛丽在基督的身体,因为每个其他母亲形成合作经营的合作经营在孩子的身上,因为否则基督,形成不能说是出生的玛丽就像除夕不能说是亚当的诞生;

that the germ in whose development and growth into the Infant Jesus, Mary co-operated, was fecundated not by any human action, but by the Divine power attributed to the Holy Ghost;该病菌在其发展和增长将婴儿耶稣,玛丽共同经营,是fecundated没有任何人的行动,而是由神圣权力归于圣灵;

that the supernatural influence of the Holy Ghost extended to the birth of Jesus Christ, not merely preserving Mary's integrity, but also causing Christ's birth or external generation to reflect his eternal birth from the Father in this, that "the Light from Light" proceeded from his mother's womb as a light shed on the world; that the "power of the Most High" passed through the barriers of nature without injuring them; that "the body of the Word" formed by the Holy Ghost penetrated another body after the manner of spirits.这是圣灵超自然的影响力延伸到耶稣基督的诞生,不仅是维护玛丽的完整性,但同时造成基督出生或外部产生,以反映从父在此他的永恒的诞生,即“从光灯”的出发点他的母亲作为光子宫洒在世界,也就是说,通过自然的屏障过去,没有伤害他们“至高者的能力”,即由圣灵形成了“的字体”侵入后地另一机构精神。

Church Fathers教父

The perpetual virginity of our Blessed Lady was taught and proposed to our belief not merely by the councils and creeds, but also by the early Fathers.我们的祝福夫人永久的童贞被教导,并建议我们的信念不只是由议会和信条,但也由早期的教父。The words of the prophet Isaias (vii, 14) are understood in this sense by在先知伊萨亚(七,14)的话是在这个意义上理解的

St. Irenaeus (III, 21; see Eusebius, HE, V, viii), Origen (Adv. Cels., I, 35), Tertullian (Adv. Marcion., III, 13; Adv. Judæos, IX), St. Justin (Dial. con. Tryph., 84), St. John Chrysostom (Hom. v in Matth., n. 3; in Isa., VII, n. 5); St. Epiphanius (Hær., xxviii, n. 7), Eusebius (Demonstrat. ev., VIII, i), Rufinus (Lib. fid., 43), St. Basil (in Isa., vii, 14; Hom. in S. Generat. Christi, n. 4, if St. Basil be the author of these two passages), St. Jerome and Theodoretus (in Isa., vii, 14), St. Isidore (Adv. Judæos, I, x, n. 3), St. Ildefonsus (De perpetua virginit. s. Mariæ, iii).圣爱任纽(III,21,见尤西比乌斯,HE,第五,第八),奥利(Adv. CELS,我35),良(Adv.马吉安,三,13;。高级Judæos,IX),圣贾斯汀(Dial. CON Tryph,84。),圣约翰金口(Hom. V IN Matth,注3;。在伊萨,七,注5);圣埃皮法尼乌斯(Hær.,二十八,N.七),尤西比乌斯(Demonstrat. EV,八,I),Rufinus(Lib. FID,43),圣罗勒(在伊萨,七,14;。磡S. Generat斯蒂,N. 4,如果圣罗勒是这两个通道的作者),圣杰罗姆和Theodoretus(在伊萨。,七,14),圣伊西多尔(Adv. Judæos,I,X,注3),圣Ildefonsus(德perpetua virginit。秒Mariæ,三)。

St. Jerome devotes his entire treatise against Helvidius to the perpetual virginity of Our Blessed Lady (see especially nos. 4, 13, 18).圣杰罗姆致力于他对到我们的祝福夫人永久的童贞(见特别是双数4,13,18)Helvidius整个论文。

The contrary doctrine is called:与此相反的学说被称为:

"madness and blasphemy" by Gennadius (De dogm. eccl., lxix), "madness" by Origen (in Luc., h, vii), "sacrilege" by St. Ambrose (De instit. virg., V, xxxv), "impiety and smacking of atheism" by Philostorgius (VI, 2), "perfidy" by St. Bede (hom. v, and xxii), "full of blasphemies" by the author of Prædestin. “疯狂和亵渎”的Gennadius(德dogm。传道书。,lxix),“疯狂”的奥利(在吕克。,H,七),“亵渎”的圣刘汉铨(德instit。virg。,V,三十五) “不虔诚和打孩子的无神论”的Philostorgius(六,2),“背信弃义”的圣比德(hom. V和二十二),“充满了亵渎”,由Prædestin作者。(i, 84), "perfidy of the Jews" by Pope Siricius (ep. ix, 3), "heresy" by St. Augustine (De Hær. h., lvi). (I,84),“背信弃义的犹太人”教皇Siricius(插曲九,3),“异端”的圣奥古斯丁(德Hær。H.,LVI)。

St. Epiphanius probably excels all others in his invectives against the opponents of Our Lady's virginity (Hær., lxxviii, 1, 11, 23).圣埃皮法尼乌斯可能擅长于对圣母的童贞(Hær.,LXXVIII,1,11,23)的所有其他对手的谩骂。

Sacred Scripture圣经

There can be no doubt as to the Church's teaching and as to the existence of an early Christian tradition maintaining the perpetual virginity of our Blessed Lady and consequently the virgin birth of Jesus Christ.不可能有任何疑问,教会的教学和以一个早期基督教维护我们的祝福夫人,因此在耶稣基督诞生的处女贞操的传统永远存在。 The mystery of the virginal conception is furthermore taught by the third Gospel and confirmed by the first.处女的概念是神秘而且教的第三个福音和首次证实。According to St. Luke (1:34-35), "Mary said to the angel: How shall this be done, because I know not man? And the angel answering, said to her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the most High shall overshadow thee. And therefore also the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God."据圣卢克(1:34-35),“玛丽说,天使:如何将这样做,因为我知道没有人与天使回答,对她说:圣灵会临到你,最高功率应盖过你。因而也是它应是你出生的神圣必称为神的儿子。“ The intercourse of man is excluded in the conception of Our Blessed Lord.性交的男子被排除在我们的祝福的主概念。According to St. Matthew, St. Joseph, when perplexed by the pregnancy of Mary, is told by the angel: "Fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost" (1:20).据圣马太,圣若瑟,当由玛丽怀孕的困惑,是由天使说:“不要害怕,要采取祢玛丽你的妻子,因为这是在她的设想,是在圣灵”( 1:20)。

II. II。SOURCES OF THIS DOCTRINE这一学说的来源

Whence did the Evangelists derive their information?做了福音从哪里获得他们的信息?As far as we know, only two created beings were witnesses of the annunciation, the angel and the Blessed Virgin.据我们所知,只有两个人创造了生命的榜文证人,天使和圣母。Later on the angel informed St. Joseph concerning the mystery.后来通报了有关天使圣若瑟之谜。We do not know whether Elizabeth, though "filled with the Holy Ghost", learned the full truth supernaturally, but we may suppose that Mary confided the secret both to her friend and her spouse, thus completing the partial revelation received by both.我们不知道伊丽莎白,尽管“与圣灵充满”,学到的全部真相超自然,但我们可以假设玛丽吐露了对她的朋友都和她的配偶的秘密,从而完成了由局部双双获得启示。

Between these data and the story of the Evangelists there is a gap which cannot be filled from any express clue furnished by either Scripture or tradition.这些数据和之间的福音故事有一个无法从圣经或传统或提供任何明示线索填补缺口。If we compare the narrative of the first Evangelist with that of the third, we find that St. Matthew may have drawn his information from the knowledge of St. Joseph independently of any information furnished by Mary.如果我们比较了与第三,第一传播者的叙述中,我们发现,圣马太可能引起的圣若瑟知识所提供的任何信息独立玛丽他的信息。 The first Gospel merely states (1:18): "When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child, of the Holy Ghost."第一个福音只是国家(1:18):“当作为他的母亲玛丽是信奉约瑟夫之前,他们走到了一起,她被发现与孩子的圣灵。” St. Joseph could supply these facts either from personal knowledge or from the words of the angel: "That which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost."圣若瑟可以提供无论是从个人知识或从天使的话这些事实:“那是在她的设想,在圣灵的。”The narrative of St. Luke, on the other hand, must ultimately be traced back to the testimony of Our Blessed Lady, unless we are prepared to admit unnecessarily another independent revelation.在圣路加叙述,另一方面,最终必须追溯到我们的祝福夫人的证词,除非我们准备承认不必要的另一个独立的启示。 The evangelist himself points to Mary as the source of his account of the infancy of Jesus, when he says that Mary kept all these words in her heart (2:19, 51).自己点的传播者玛丽作为他对耶稣时,他说,玛丽留在她的心(2:19,51)所有这些词婴儿帐户来源。Zahn [1] does not hesitate to say that Mary is pointed out by these expressions as the bearer of the traditions in Luke 1 and 2.赞恩[1]不犹豫地说,玛丽是指出这些表达式出来作为在路加福音1和2承载的传统。

A. How did St. Luke derive his account from the Blessed Virgin?A.如何圣卢克来自圣母他的帐户? It has been supposed by some that he received his information from Mary herself.据一些应该由他接受了他从玛丽自己的信息。 In the Middle Ages he is at times called the "chaplain" of Mary [2]; J. Nirsch [3] calls St. Luke the Evangelist of the Mother of God, believing that he wrote the history of the infancy from her mouth and heart.在中世纪时,他被称为倍的玛丽[2]“牧师”的J. Nirsch [3]呼吁圣路加神的母亲传播者,认为他从她口中说的历史和婴儿心。Besides, there is the implied testimony of the Evangelist, who assures us twice that Mary had kept all these words in her heart.此外,还有的传播者,谁向我们保证两次,玛丽一直保持在她心中所有的这些话暗示的证词。But this does not necessitate an immediate oral communication of the history of the infancy on the part of Mary; it merely shows that Mary is the ultimate source of the account.但是,这并不需要的是对历史的玛丽部分婴儿立即口头沟通,它只是表明,玛丽是该帐户的最终来源。If St. Luke had received the history of the infancy from the Blessed Virgin by way of oral communication, its presentation in the third Gospel naturally would show the form and style of its Greek author.如果圣路加收到了由口头传播的方式圣母的初期历史,其在第三个福音介绍自然会表现出它的希腊作家的形式和风格。 In point of fact the history of the infancy as found in the third Gospel (1:5 to 2:52) betrays in its contents, its language, and style a Jewish-Christian source.在事实点的历史的婴儿在第三福音(1:5至2:52)发现暴露在其内容,其语言和风格的犹太 - 基督教的来源。The whole passage reads like a chapter from the First Book of Machabees; Jewish customs, and laws and peculiarities are introduced without any further explanation; the "Magnificat", the "Benedictus", and the "Nunc dimittis" are filled with national Jewish ideas.整个段落读起来就像从Machabees第一本书的篇章;犹太习俗,法律和特点是没有任何进一步的解释出台,对“尊”,有“Benedictus”,和“NUNC dimittis”符合国家犹太人的思想充满。As to the style and language of the history of the infancy, both are so thoroughly Semitic that the passage must be retranslated into Hebrew or Aramaic in order to be properly appreciated.至于风格和历史的婴儿语言,无一不是如此彻底犹太人的通道必须换算成希伯来文或阿拉姆以适当赞赏。We must conclude, then, that St. Luke's immediate source for the history of the infancy was not an oral, but a written one.我们必须结束,那么,圣路加为婴儿历史的直接来源是不是口头,而是写了一个。

B. It is hardly probable that Mary herself wrote the history of the infancy as was supposed by A. Plummer [4]; it is more credible that the Evangelist used a memoir written by a Jewish Christian, possibly a convert Jewish priest (cf. Acts 6:7), perhaps even a member or friend of Zachary's family [5]. B.它可能是很难玛丽自己题写了初期的历史,应该是由A.卢默[4],它是更可信的传播者使用的一个犹太基督徒写的回忆录,可能是转换犹太牧师(参徒6:7),甚至可能的成员​​或扎卡里的家人朋友[5]。 But, whatever may be the immediate source of St. Luke's account, the Evangelist knows that he has "diligently attained to all things from the beginning", according to the testimony of those "who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word" (Luke 1:2).但是,无论可能是圣路加帐户的直接来源,传播者知道自己有“努力实现从一开始所有的事情”,根据这些“谁从一开始就被目击者和词部长”的证词(路加福音1:2)。

As to the original language of St. Luke's source, we may agree with the judgment of Lagarde [6] that the first two chapters of St. Luke present a Hebrew rather than a Greek or an Aramaic colouring.至于圣卢克来源的原始语言,我们可以同意拉加德[6]的判断,前两章的圣卢克目前比希腊或阿拉姆着色希伯来相当。 Writers have not been wanting who have tried to prove that St. Luke's written source for his first two chapters was composed in Hebrew [7].作家没有想谁曾试图证明,圣卢克书面来源他的前两章组成,在希伯来文[7]。But these proofs are not cogent; St. Luke's Hebraisms may have their origin in an Aramaic source, or even in a Greek original composed in the language of the Septuagint.但这些证据并不令人信服;圣卢克Hebraisms可能有他们在阿拉姆语源产地,或在该译本语言组成的希腊原始均匀。 Still, considering the fact that Aramaic was the language commonly spoken in Palestine at that time, we must conclude that Our Blessed Lady's secret was originally written in Aramaic, though it must have been translated into Greek before St. Luke utilized it [8].不过,在考虑到巴勒斯坦阿拉姆是常用的口语当时的语言,我们必须得出结论,我们的祝福夫人的秘密原来亚拉姆语写的,但它必须被翻译成希腊圣卢克前利用它[8]。 As the Greek of Luke 2:41-52 is more idiomatic than the language of Luke 1:4-2:40, it has been inferred that the Evangelist's written source reached only to 2:40; but as in 2:51, expressions are repeated which occur in 2:19, it may be safely inferred that both passages were taken from the same source.正如路加福音2:41-52希腊是超过了卢克1:4-2:40语言地道,它已被推断,传播者的书面来源只能达到2时40分,但在2点51,表达式在2:19的重复发生,它可以安全地推断,这两个通道是从同一源采取的。

The Evangelist recast the source of the history of the infancy before incorporating it into his Gospel; for the use of words and expressions in Luke 1 and 2 agrees with the language in the following chapters [9].重铸的传播者之前他的福音它纳入了对婴儿的历史来源;的字和卢克1和2表达式使用的语言同意在以下的章节[9]。Harnack [10] and Dalman [11] suggest that St. Luke may be the original author of his first two chapters, adopting the language and style of the Septuagint; but Vogel [12] and Zahn [13] maintain that such a literary feat would be impossible for a Greek-speaking writer.哈纳克[10]和达尔曼[11]表明,圣卢克可能是他的前两章原作者,采用的语言和风格的译本,但沃格尔[12]和赞恩[13]认为这种文学壮举将是一个希腊作家来说是不可能的。 What has been said explains why it is quite impossible to reconstruct St. Luke's original source; the attempt of Resch [14] to reconstruct the original Gospel of the infancy or the source of the first two chapters of the first and third Gospel and the basis of the prologue to the fourth, is a failure, in spite of its ingenuity.说了些什么解释了为什么它是完全不可能重建圣卢克原始来源;雷希的尝试[14]重建原始福音的婴儿,或前两个第一和第三个福音章节的来源和依据在第四序幕,是失败的,尽管在其聪明才智。 Conrady [15] believed that he had found the common source of the canonical history of the infancy in the so-called "Protevangelium Jacobi", which, according to him, was written in Hebrew by an Egyptian Jew about AD 120, and was soon after translated into Greek; it should be kept in mind, however, that the Greek text is not a translation, but the original, and a mere compilation from the canonical Gospels.Conrady [15]认为他已经找到了对在所谓的“Protevangelium雅可比”,其中,据他介绍,在希伯来文写了一篇关于埃及的犹太人公元120婴儿规范历史共同来源,并很快后翻译成希腊文,它应该牢记,但是,希腊文本不是一个翻译,但原来的,并从典型福音只是汇编。 All we can say therefore, concerning St. Luke's source for his history of the infancy of Jesus is reduced to the scanty information that it must have been a Greek translation of an Aramaic document based, in the last instance, on the testimony of Our Blessed Lady.因此我们只能说,关于圣路加为他的婴儿时期的耶稣的历史来源是减少到很少的信息,它必须在过去的一个实例阿拉姆基础的文件希腊语翻译,对我们的祝福的见证,夫人。

III. III。THE VIRGIN BIRTH IN MODERN THEOLOGY在现代神学处女生育

Modern theology adhering to the principle of historical development, and denying the possibility of any miraculous intervention in the course of history, cannot consistently admit the historical actuality of the virgin birth.现代神学坚持了历史发展的原则,否定了任何神奇的历史过程干预的可能性,不能一贯承认圣母诞生的历史现实。According to modern views, Jesus was really the son of Joseph and Mary and was endowed by an admiring posterity with the halo of Divinity; the story of his virgin birth was in keeping with the myths concerning the extraordinary births of the heroes of other nations [16]; the original text of the Gospels knew nothing of the virgin birth [17].按照现代观点,耶稣是真正的儿子,约瑟夫和玛丽是由一个有光环的神赋予后人欣赏,他的处女诞生的故事与有关的其他民族的英雄神话的非凡产保持在[ 16]的福音原文知道的处女生育无关[17]。Without insisting on the arbitrariness of the philosophical assumptions implied in the position of modern theology, we shall briefly review its critical attitude towards the text of the Gospels and its attempts to account for the early Christian tradition concerning the virgin birth of Christ.没有关于在现代神学的立场所隐含的哲学假设随意性坚持,我们将简要地回顾朝向福音和企图文字早期基督教有关耶稣诞生的传统帐户处女的批判态度。

A. Integrity of the Gospel TextA.完整性的福音文本

Wellhausen [18] contended that the original text of the third Gospel began with our present third chapter, the first two chapters being a later addition.豪森[18]争辩说,第三个福音原文与我们目前的第三章,前两章是以后除了开始的。But Harnack seems to have foreseen this theory before it was proposed by Wellhausen; for he showed that the two chapters in question belonged to the author of the third Gospel and of the Acts [19].但哈尔纳克似乎已经预见到这一理论,然后才由豪森建议,因为他发现有问题的两章属于第三福音和行为[19]作者。Holtzmann [20] considers Luke 1:34-35 as a later addition; Hillmann [21] believes that the words hos enouizeto of Luke 3:23 ought to be considered in the same light.HOLTZMANN [20]认为卢克作为一个后来此外1:34-35; Hillmann [21]认为,居屋的话路加福音3:23 enouizeto应该在同一个角度来考虑。Weinel [22] believes that the removal of the words epei andra ou ginosko from Luke 1:34 leaves the third Gospel without a cogent proof for the virgin birth; Harnack not only agrees with the omissions of Holtzmann and Hillmann, but deletes also the word parthenos from Luke 1:27 [23].Weinel [22]认为,字epei安德拉OU ginosko从路加福音1时34分离开去除没有令人信服的处女出生证明第三个福音;哈尔纳克不仅同意与HOLTZMANN和Hillmann的疏漏,但也删除字从路加福音1:27 parthenos [23]。Other friends of modern theology are rather sceptical as to the solidity of these text-critical theories; Hilgenfield [24], Clement [25], and Gunkel [26] reject Harnack's arguments without reserve.现代神学的其他朋友,而以这些文字批判理论牢固持怀疑态度; Hilgenfi​​eld [24],克莱门特[25],贡克尔[26]拒绝哈尔纳克毫无保留的论据。Bardenhewer [27] weighs them singly and finds them wanting.巴登黑韦尔[27]它们的重量,发现他们想要单独。

In the light of the arguments for the genuineness of the portions of the third Gospel rejected by the above named critics, it is hard to understand how they can be omitted by any unprejudiced student of the sacred text.在为受上述命名的批评拒绝了第三个福音的部分真实性的论据,很难了解他们可以被任何不带偏见的神圣文本学生省略。

They are found in all manuscripts, translations, and early Christian citations, in all printed editions - in brief, in all the documents considered by the critics as reliable witnesses for the genuineness of a text.他们发现,在所有的手稿,译本,和早期基督教的引文,在所有印刷版本 - 简言之,在所有被作为一个文字的真实性可靠的证人批评审议的文件。Furthermore, in the narrative of St. Luke, each verse is like a link in a chain, so that no verse can be removed as an interpolation without destroying the whole.此外,在圣路加叙述,每个诗句就像是在一个环节,所以没有诗可以作为插值删除,而不会破坏整体。

Moreover, verses 34 and 35 are in the Lucan history what the keystone is in an arch, what a diamond is in its setting; the text of the Gospel without these two verses resembles an unfinished arch, a setting bereft of its precious stones [28].此外,34和35节是在什么历史的基石卢坎在拱是,什么是钻石在其设置的;福音经文没有这两个文本类似于一个未完成的牌坊,设置其[28宝石剥夺。

Finally, the Lucan account left us by the critics is not in keeping with the rest of the Evangelist's narrative.最后,卢坎帐户留下的批评是不符合我们的传播者的叙事休息保持。According to the critics, verses 26-33 and 36-38 relate the promise of the birth of the Messias, the son of Joseph and Mary, just as the verses immediately preceding relate the promise of the birth of the precursor, the son of Zachary and Elizabeth.据批评,经文26-33和36-38相关的出生的messias承诺,约瑟夫和玛丽的儿子,正如诗句紧接有关的易制毒化学诞生的承诺,对儿子扎卡里和伊丽莎白。 But there is a great difference: the precursor's story is filled with miracles - as Zachary's sudden dumbness, John's wonderful conception - while the account of Christ's conception offers nothing extraordinary; in the one case the angel is sent to the child's father, Zachary, while in the other the angel appears to Mary; in the one case Elizabeth is said to have conceived "after those days", while there is nothing added about Mary's conception [29].但是有一个很大的区别:前体的故事充满了奇迹 - 作为扎卡里突然哑,约翰的奇妙构思 - 而基督的构想帐户提供什么了不起,在一个情况下,天使被送到孩子的父亲,扎卡里,而在其他的天使似乎玛丽伊丽莎白在一个案例中,据说有构想“后那些日子”,而有关于玛丽的概念[29]没有增加。 The complete traditional text of the Gospel explains these differences, but the critically mutilated text leaves them inexplicable.完整的福音传统的文字介绍了这些差异,但看房肢解文本使他们莫名其妙。

The friends of modern theology at first believed that they possessed a solid foundation for denying the virgin birth in the Codex Syrus Sinaiticus discovered by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson in 1892, more accurately investigated in 1893, published in 1894, and supplemented in 1896.起初现代神学的朋友认为,他们拥有一个否定的法典Syrus西奈抄本处女生育刘易斯和夫人吉布森女士于1892年发现的,更准确地在1893年的调查,发表在1894年和1896年补充坚实的基础。 According to this codex, Matthew 1:16 reads: "Joseph to whom was espoused Mary the Virgin, begot Jesus who is called Christ."根据这一法典,马修1:16写道:“约瑟夫谁是信奉圣母玛利亚,耶稣是谁生了所谓的基督。”Still, the Syriac translator cannot have been ignorant of the virgin birth.尽管如此,叙利亚文翻译不能一直是处女生育一无所知。 Why did he leave the expression "the virgin" in the immediate context?他为什么留在眼前的环境中,“处女”?How did he understand verses 18, 20, and 25, if he did not know anything of the virgin birth?他是如何理解诗句18,20和25,如果他不知道的处女生育什么?Hence, either the Syriac text has been slightly altered by a transcriber (only one letter had to be changed) or the translator understood the word begot of conventional, not of carnal, fatherhood, a meaning it has in verses 8 and 12.因此,无论是叙利亚文文本已略有改变由手写(只有一个字母就必须改变)或翻译理解的传统字生了,而不是肉体,父亲,一个意思是在8日和12节了。

B. Non-historical Source of the Virgin BirthB.非历史的源维尔京诞生

The opponents of the historical actuality of the virgin birth grant that either the Evangelists or the interpolators of the Gospels borrowed their material from an early Christian tradition, but they endeavour to show that this tradition has no solid historical foundation.在圣母诞生授予不论是福音或福音借来的插值从早期基督教传统的材料,但他们的努力表明,这一传统并没有坚实的历史基础的历史现实的对手。 About AD 153 St. Justin (Apol., I, xxi) told his pagan readers that the virgin birth of Jesus Christ ought not to seem incredible to them, since many of the most esteemed pagan writers spoke of a number of sons of Zeus.大约在公元153圣贾斯汀(Apol.,我二十一)告诉他的异教的读者,耶稣基督诞生的处女不应该对他们似乎不可思议,因为最尊敬的作家很多异教的宙斯的儿子的数目发言。 About AD 178 the Platonic philosopher Celsus ridiculed the virgin birth of Christ, comparing it with the Greek myths of Danae, Melanippe, and Antiope; Origen (c. Cels. I, xxxvii) answered that Celsus wrote more like a buffoon than a philosopher.大约在公元178塞尔苏斯嘲笑哲学家柏拉图在基督诞生处女,比对达娜厄,Melanippe,希腊神话和Antiope它;奥利(。C. CELS我,三十七)回答说塞尔苏斯更像一个比一个哲学家小丑写道。But modern theologians again derive the virgin birth of Our Lord from unhistorical sources, though their theories do not agree.但是,现代神学家再次来自非历史来源处女生育我们的主,虽然他们的理论不同意。

The Pagan Origin Theory异教的起源理论

A first class of writers have recourse to pagan mythology in order to account for the early Christian tradition concerning the virgin birth of Jesus.一个一流的作家诉诸异教神话,以帐户为早期基督教有关耶稣出生的处女的传统。Usener [30] argues that the early Gentile Christians must have attributed to Christ what their pagan ancestors had attributed to their pagan heroes; hence the Divine sonship of Christ is a product of the religious thought of Gentile Christians.Usener [30]认为,早期的外邦基督徒必须归于基督的异教徒的祖先是什么原因他们的异教英雄,因此基督的神圣sonship是外邦基督徒的宗教思想的产物。 Hillmann [31] and Holtzmann [32] agree substantially with Usener's theory.Hillmann [31]和HOLTZMANN [32]同意Usener的理论很多。Conrady [33] found in the Virgin Mary a Christian imitation of the Egyptian goddess Isis, the mother of Horus; but Holtzmann [34] declares that he cannot follow this "daring construction without a feeling of fear and dizziness", and Usener [35] is afraid that his friend Conrady moves on a precipitous track.Conrady [33]发现在圣母玛利亚的埃及女神伊希斯,对荷鲁斯母亲基督教的模仿,但HOLTZMANN [34]宣称,他不能按照“无恐惧和眩晕的感觉大胆建设”这一点,并Usener [35 ]是怕他的朋友Conrady在陡峭的轨道移动。Soltau [36] tries to transfer the supernatural origin of Augustus to Jesus, but Lobstein [37] fears that Soltau's attempt may throw discredit on science itself, and Kreyher [38] refutes the theory more at length.索尔铎[36]试图转移超自然起源奥古斯耶稣,但Lobstein [37]担心,索尔铎的企图可能会引发诋毁科学本身,Kreyher [38]驳斥更详细的理论。

In general, the derivation of the virgin birth from pagan mythology through the medium of Gentile Christians implies several inexplicable difficulties:一般来说,从通过外邦基督徒异教神话中的处女生育推导意味着几个莫名其妙的困难:

Why should the Christian recently converted from paganism revert to his pagan superstitions in his conception of Christian doctrines?为什么最近从异教转为基督教恢复到他的基督教教义的异教迷信观念?

How could the product of pagan thought find its way among Jewish Christians without leaving as much as a vestige of opposition on the part of the Jewish Christians?如何能找到的异教思想的产物,不留对犹太基督徒的一部分作为反对它的许多遗迹在犹太基督徒呢?

How could this importation into Jewish Christianity be effected at an age early enough to produce the Jewish Christian sources from which either the Evangelists or the interpolators of the Gospels derived their material?这怎么可能成为犹太基督教的进口将影响上了年纪及早生产无论是从哪个福音或福音插值而得的物质犹太基督教的来源是什么? Why did not the relatives of Christ's parents protest against the novel views concerning Christ's origin?为什么没有基督的父母对小说的看法抗议亲属有关基督的起源?

Besides, the very argument on which rests the importation of the virgin birth from pagan myths into Christianity is fallacious, to say the least.此外,非常论据在于它从异教神话的处女生育进口到基督教是荒谬的,至少可以这样说。Its major premise assumes that similar phenomena not merely may, but must, spring from similar causes; its minor premise contends that Christ's virgin birth and the mythical divine sonships of the pagan world are similar phenomena, a contention false on the face of it.其主要前提假设类似的现象不仅可能,而且必须从类似的原因春天,其小前提争辩说,基督的处女诞生和世界的异教徒神话神圣sonships类似的现象,争上表面虚假的。

The Jewish Origin Theory (Isaiah 7:14)犹太人起源理论(以赛亚书7:14)

A second class of writers derive the early Christian tradition of the virgin birth from Jewish Christian influence.一个作家的第二类来自犹太基督教影响的处女生育早期基督教的传统。Harnack [39] is of the opinion that the virgin birth originated from Isaiah 7:14; Lobstein [40] adds the "poetic traditions surrounding the cradle of Isaac, Samson, and Samuel" as another source of the belief in the virgin birth.哈纳克[39]认为,从以赛亚书7:14处女生育起源意见; Lobstein [40]增加了作为另一个在维尔京诞生的信念之源“周围的以撒,参孙,撒母耳摇篮诗意的传统”。Modern theology does not grant that Isaiah 7:14, contains a real prophecy fulfilled in the virgin birth of Christ; it must maintain, therefore, that St. Matthew misunderstood the passage when he said: "Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying; Behold a virgin shall be with child, and bring forth a son," etc. (1:22-23).现代神学不授予该以赛亚书7:14,包含一个真正的预言在基督诞生处女履行,它必须保持,因此,圣马太误解通过时,他说:“现在这一切都做,它可能是应验主借先知发言,他说,看哪处女应与儿童,并带来一个儿子,“等(1:22-23)。 How do Harnack and Lobstein explain such a misunderstanding on the part of the Evangelist?如何解释这些哈纳克和Lobstein对传播者的一部分误会?There is no indication that the Jewish contemporaries of St. Matthew understood the prophet's words in this sense.没有任何迹象表明圣马太同时代的犹太人在这个意义上理解先知的话。Hillmann [41] proves that belief in the virgin birth is not contained in the Old Testament, and therefore cannot have been taken from it.Hillmann [41]证明,在维尔京诞生的信念是不包含在旧约,因此不能从它采取的。 Dalman [42] maintains that the Jewish people never expected a fatherless birth of the Messias, and that there exists no vestige of such a Jewish interpretation of Isaiah 7:14.达尔曼[42]认为,犹太人民从来没有预期的messias父亲出生,而且不存在这样一种解释以赛亚书7:14犹太人遗迹。

Those who derive the virgin birth from Isaiah 7:14, must maintain that an accidental misinterpretation of the Prophet by the Evangelist replaced historic truth among the early Christians in spite of the better knowledge and the testimony of the disciples and kindred of Jesus.那些谁获得从以赛亚书7:14处女生育,必须保持一个由传播者的误解先知偶然间取代在更好地了解和见证的弟子和亲属的耶稣尽管早期的基督徒历史真相。 Zahn [43] calls such a supposition "altogether fantastic"; Usener [44] pronounce the attempt to make Isaiah 7:14 the origin of the virgin birth, instead of its seal, an inversion of the natural order.赞恩[43]呼吁这样一个假设“共精彩”; Usener [44]发音的企图使以赛亚书7:14出生的处女的起源,而不是它的印章,一个自然顺序颠倒。Though Catholic exegesis endeavours to find in the Old Testament prophetic indications of the virgin birth, still it grants that the Jewish Christians arrived at the full meaning of Isaiah 7:14, only through its accomplishment [45].虽然天主教训诂学努力寻求在旧约先知的处女生育的迹象,但仍然是赠款,犹太人基督徒在以赛亚书7:14到达的全部含义,只有通过它的成就,[45]。

The Syncretic Theory理论的合一

There is a third theory which endeavours to account for the prevalence of the doctrine of the virgin birth among the early Jewish Christians.还有第三个理论,努力占了其中的早期犹太基督徒处女生育主义盛行。Gunkel [46] grants that the idea of virgin birth is a pagan idea, wholly foreign to the Jewish conception of God; but he also grants that this idea could not have found its way into early Jewish Christianity through pagan influence.贡克尔[46]赠款的处女生育观念是一个异教徒的想法,外商到神犹太概念,但他还授予为早期犹太基督教,这种想法不可能找到它的方式通过异教的影响。 Hence he believes that the idea had found its way among the Jews in pre-Christian times, so that the Judaism which flowed directly into early Christianity had undergone a certain amount of syncretism.因此他认为,这个想法已经找到了方向之间的前基督教时代的犹太人,让犹太教的直接流入早期基督教经历了一定量的合一。 Hilgenfeld [47] tries to derive the Christian teaching of the virgin birth neither from classical paganism nor from pure Judaism, but from the Essene depreciation of marriage.Hilgenfeld [47]试图获得既不从古典异教也从单纯的犹太教,但是从婚姻的厄色尼折旧的处女生育基督教教义。The theories of both Gunkel and Hilgenfeld are based on airy combinations rather than historical evidence.双方贡克尔和Hilgenfeld的理论是基于历史的证据,而不是通风的组合。Neither writer produces any historical proof for his assertions.无论是作家产生任何历史证明他的断言。Gunkel, indeed, incidentally draws attention to Parsee ideas, to the Buddha legend, and to Roman and Greek fables.贡克尔,的确,顺便提请注意帕西思路,佛的传说,以及罗马和希腊的寓言。But the Romans and Greeks did not exert such a notable influence on pre-Christian Judaism; and that the Buddha legend reached as far as Palestine cannot be seriously maintained by Gunkel [48].但是,罗马和希腊人没有施加这样一个前基督教犹太教显着影响,并认为佛传奇达成尽可能巴勒斯坦不能认真贡克尔维持[48]。 Even Harnack [49] regards the theory that the idea of virgin birth penetrated among the Jews through Parsee influence, as an unprovable assumption.即使哈尔纳克[49]关于这一理论的犹太人之间的渗透影响,通过帕西处女出生作为证明的假设,想法。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息AJ马斯写。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.献给圣母玛利亚无玷圣心天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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Besides the works cited in the course of this article, we may draw attention to the dogmatic treatises on the supernatural origin of the Humanity of Christ through the Holy Ghost from the Virgin Mary especially: WILHELM AND SCANNELL, Manual of Catholic Theology, II (London and New York, 1898), 105 sqq.; 208 sqq.; HUNTER, Outlines of Dogmatic Theology, II (New York, 1896), 567 sqq.; also to the principal commentaries on Matt., i, ii; Luke, i, ii.除了在这篇文章中列举的作品,我们可以提请注意对基督的人类通过从圣母玛利亚,特别是圣灵超自然起源的教条式的论文:威廉和斯坎内尔,天主教神学手册,II(伦敦和纽约,1898年),105 SQQ; 208 SQQ; HUNTER,纲要的教条式的神学,二(纽约,1896年),567 SQQ;还对马特的主要评论,I,II;卢克,我,II。Among Protestant writings we may mention the tr.在新教的著作,我们可以提到的TR。of LOBSTEIN, The Virgin Birth of Christ (London, 1903); BRIGGS, Criticism and the Dogma of the Virgin Birth in North Am.对LOBSTEIN,基督的维尔京诞生(伦敦,1903年); BRIGGS,批评和维尔京出生在北上午教条。Rev. (June, 1906); ALLEN in Interpreter (Febr., 1905), 115 sqq.; (Oct., 1905), 52 sqq.; CARR in Expository Times, XVIII, 522, 1907; USENER, sv Nativity in Encyclo.启示录(6月,1906年);李鹏飞在口译(Febr.,1905年),115 SQQ;(10月,1905年),52 SQQ;卡尔在说明性时报,十八,522,1907; USENER,SV诞生在Encyclo 。Bibl., III, 3852; CHEYNE, Bible Problems (1905), 89 sqq.; CARPENTER, Bible in the Nineteenth Century (1903), 491 sqq.; RANDOLPH, The Virgin Birth of Our Lord (1903). 。Bibl,III,3852;进益,圣经问题(1905年),89 SQQ;木匠,圣经在19世纪(1903),491 SQQ;兰多夫,而我们的主(1903)维尔京诞生。



Also, see:此外,见:
Mariology mariology
Virgin Mary圣母玛利亚
Assumption 假设
Immaculate Conception圣母无染原罪瞻礼

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