Wahhabism, Wahhabiyyah瓦哈比

General Information一般资料

The term Wahhabism is an outsiders' designation for the religious movement within Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al - Wahhab (1703 - 92).瓦哈比主义一词是一个局外人“为在伊斯兰宗教的穆罕默德伊本阿卜杜勒成立运动指定 - 瓦哈比(1703 - 92)。 Members describe themselves as muwahhidun ("unitarians"), those who uphold firmly the doctrine that God is one, the only one (wahid).大家形容为muwahhidun(“神论”),那些谁坚持坚定的教义,上帝是一个,只有一个(瓦希德)自己。 This self designation points to the movement's major characteristic, its opposition to any custom and belief threatening and jeopardizing the glorification of the one God. It condemns as illegal and un - Islamic the practice of using the name of any prophet, saint, or angel in a prayer, of calling upon any such beings for intercession and making vows to them, and of visitations to tombs of saints. Adherents insist on a literal interpretation of the Koran and a strict doctrine of predestination.这种自我指定指向运动的一大特色,它反对任何习俗和信仰威胁和危害的一个上帝颂扬它谴责非法和联合国-伊斯兰使用任何先知的名字,圣人或天使在实践一个呼吁为说情任何这样的生命,使祈祷,发誓他们,向圣人坟墓探视。遗民在可兰经的字面解释的宿命,并坚持严格的教义。

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Abd al - Wahhab, who had spent some years in Medina and various places in Iraq and Iran, won the support of Ibn Saud, ruler of the Najd (now in Saudi Arabia), in 1744, after being expelled from his native city, Uyayna, because of controversial teachings in his Kitab al - tawhid (Book of Unity).阿卜杜勒 - 瓦哈比,谁花了在麦地那和在伊拉克和伊朗各地一些年来,赢得了伊本沙特,在Najd统治者(今沙特阿拉伯)的支持,在1744年,后从他的家乡,Uyayna开除,因为在他的Kitab人争议的教诲-统一圣战组织 (团结书)。The realization of the ideal of an Islamic state based on the Sharia now seemed feasible.该对伊斯兰教为基础的伊斯兰国家实现理想现在看来是可行的。Between about 1763 and 1811 the Wahhabi Saudis established control of most of Arabia.关于1763和1811之间的瓦哈比沙特建立了阿拉伯的最大控制。Although pushed back by the Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali, they recovered part of their first empire between 1821 and 1833.虽然推埃及统治者穆罕默德阿里的话,他们恢复了其1821年和1833年之间的第一帝国的一部分。A long period of decline followed, but, in 1932, Ibn Saud succeeded in establishing the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.一个长期的下降之后,但在1932年,伊本沙特建立了沙特阿拉伯王国成功。Wahhabi teachings have also played a role in the 19th century history of parts of Nigeria, India, and Indonesia.瓦哈比教义也起到了对尼日利亚,印度和印度尼西亚的部分19世纪的历史作用。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
HS Philby, Arabia of the Wahhabis (1982) and Saudi Arabia (1955); J Sabini, Armies in the Sand (1981).HS Philby,对瓦哈比(1982年)和沙特阿拉伯(1955年)阿拉伯〔J Sabini,在沙军(1981)。

The BELIEVE Religious Information Source web site is not connected with the organization described in this presentation.该相信宗教信息来源网站没有连接,在此演示中描述的组织。This happens to be ONE of the 1,000 religious subjects which are included in BELIEVE.这恰巧是信奉的是包括1000名宗教科目之一。

Our small Protestant Christian Church, which created and maintains the BELIEVE site, has no contact with the organization described here, so we cannot help in providing contacts or addresses.我们的小基督教新教教堂,创建和维护不管相信网站,没有在这里描述与组织的联系,所以我们不能帮助提供接触或地址。 In addition, since BELIEVE does not "sell" anything, we cannot help in finding books, icons or souvenirs.此外,由于不管相信不“卖”什么,我们不能帮助寻找书籍,图标或纪念品。


WahhabiyyahWahhabiyyah

Advanced Information先进的信息

Doctrines教义

Wahabbiyyah is not a new sect within Islam but a movement whose purpose is to purify Islam of perceived heretical accretions.Wahabbiyyah不是伊斯兰教,但在运动,其目的是净化伊斯兰教认为增生的新的异端教派。The Wahhabis claim to base their doctrines on the teachings of the fourteenth century scholar Ibn Taymiyya and the rulings of the Hanbali school of law, the strictest of the four recognised in the Sunni consensus.瓦哈比声称立足于十四世纪的学者伊本Taymiyya和法律Hanbali学校,在逊尼派一致认可四个严格的裁决的教导他们的学说。 They believe that all objects of worship other than Allah are false, and anyone who worships in this way deserves to be put to death.他们认为,安拉的崇拜比其他所有对象都是假的,这样的人谁崇拜值得被处死。To introduce the name of a prophet, saint or angel into a prayer, or to seek intercession from anyone but Allah constitutes a form of polytheism.要引入一个祷告的先知,圣徒或天使的名字,或寻求任何人说情,但真主的形式构成的多神教。Attendance at public prayer is compulsory, and the shaving of the beard and smoking are forbidden.在公众祈祷出席是强制性的,以及剃胡须和禁止吸烟。Mosques should be architecturally simple, not luxurious or ornate.清真寺建筑风格应简单,没有豪华的或华丽。Prohibited are the celebration of the Prophet's birthday, making offerings at the tomb of saints, and playing music.禁止有先知的生日庆典,使得产品的圣人墓,并播放音乐。The injunctions of the Qur'an are to be taken literally.古兰经的禁令将被字面。

History历史

Wahhabiyyah emerged in the middle of the 18th century in Arabia as both a religious and political movement responding to the decline of the Ottoman empire and the increasing strength of Shi'a in Iran.Wahhabiyyah出现在阿拉伯既是一个宗教和政治运动响应的奥斯曼帝国的衰落和伊朗的什叶派增加强度在18世纪中叶。 Its founder, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab (1703-92), had witnessed many examples of laxity, superstition, and blind allegiance to Walis (Sufi saints) during his travels through Iraq and Arabia.它的创始人,伊本阿卜杜勒瓦哈比(1703年至1792年),目睹了在伊拉克和沙特阿拉伯通过他的旅行的例子很多的松弛,迷信和盲目效忠瓦历斯(苏菲圣人)。

The political character of the movement took the form of opposition to the ruling Ottoman empire.该运动的政治人物采取了反对的形式向奥斯曼帝国统治。In 1744 Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab formed an alliance with a local chieftain, Muhammad Ibn Sa'ud (1765), who accepted his doctrine and undertook its defence and propagation. 1744年伊本阿卜杜勒瓦哈比形成与当地酋长,穆罕默德伊本Sa'ud(1765),谁接受了他的学说,并承诺其国防和传播联盟。The demolition of shrines, tombstones and the capture of Mecca caused alarm in the Ottoman government which despatched an army to crush the movement.该神社,墓碑和麦加捕捉拆迁引起了奥斯曼帝国政府派遣军队的镇压运动报警。 The decisive defeat of the bedouin troops in 1818 brought to an end the first Sa'udi-Wahhabi venture.而在1818年的贝都因部队决定性的失败宣告结束第一Sa'udi -瓦哈比企业。

A remnant of the Wahhabi movement survived in a pocket of Central Arabia.一个幸存的瓦哈比运动的残余在沙特阿拉伯中部的口袋。In 1902 Abd al-Aziz Ibn Sa'ud, who was from the Sa'udi family and a follower of the bedouin faith of the Wahhabiyyah, took Riyadh, an event which led to his gradual conquest of the interior of the Arabian peninsula. 1902年阿卜杜勒阿齐兹伊本Sa'ud,谁从Sa'udi家庭和一个贝都因人的Wahhabiyyah信仰的追随者是,花了利雅得,事件导致他对阿拉伯半岛内部逐渐征服。 In 1927 Sa'ud signed a treaty with the British (who at that time were controlling parts of the Arabian peninsula) which gave him full independence in exchange for his recognition of British suzerainty over the Gulf sheikdoms. 1927年Sa'ud与英国签订了(当时是谁控制了阿拉伯半岛的部分),它给了他在为他的宗主权承认英国在海湾sheikdoms交换完全独立的条约。 Finally in 1932 he named his state the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.终于在1932年他命名了他的国家是沙特阿拉伯王国。Wahhabiyyah then became the official doctrine of the state.Wahhabiyyah然后成为了国家的官方学说。Today the Saudi state remains firmly rooted in the Wahhabi creed.今天,国家仍然牢牢掌握在沙特的瓦哈比主义根深蒂固。

Symbols符号

The movement has no distinctive symbol system.该运动并没有鲜明的符号体系。

Adherents遗民

Wahhabiyyah is the official ideology of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Wahhabiyyah是沙特阿拉伯王国的官方意识形态。There are no official statistics for the number of Muslims who follow the doctrines of Wahhabiyyah.有对穆斯林谁遵循Wahhabiyyah的教义人数的官方统计数字。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

The movement has no headquarters.该运动没有总部。

Bülent Þenay湍流Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project概述世界宗教项目



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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