Zen Buddhism

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The is a recognized denomination of Buddhism.本是一个公认的佛教宗派。It is popular among non Buddhists in the US; it seeks to transmit the spirit of Buddhism without demanding allegiance to all the teachings of Buddha.这是深受美国非佛教徒,它旨在传播而不要求效忠所有佛像的佛教教义精神。 It uses mondo, a question - and - answer technique to reveal truths (some religious) from within the seeker which will bring bodhi (enlightenment).它采用盟多,一个问题 - 和 - 技术来揭示答案的导引头内,将带来菩提(启蒙)真理(某些宗教)。Wisdom and love are major emphases.智慧和爱是主要的重点。

Many critics see Zen Buddhism as non religious, as a sham religion.许多评论家认为非宗教的佛教禅宗,作为假宗教。True Buddhists see it as an attempt as a short cut to true enlightenment.真正的佛教徒看作是一个真正的捷径启蒙尝试。Others see it as an atheistic approach to life.其他人认为这是一个无神论的生活态度了。

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Zen Buddhism

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Zen or Ch'an Buddhism represents a sectarian movement within the Buddhist religion that stresses the practice of meditation as the means to enlightenment.禅佛教禅宗或代表在佛教宗派运动,强调冥想作为对启蒙手段的做法。Zen and Ch'an are, respectively, Japanese and Chinese attempts to render the Sanskrit word for meditation, dhyana.禅与禅分别是日本和中国的企图呈现冥想,禅是梵文。

Zen's roots may be traced to India, but it was in East Asia that the movement became distinct and flourished.禅宗的根源可追溯到印度,但它在东亚的是,运动成为不同和繁荣。Like other Chinese Buddhist sects, Ch'an first established itself as a lineage of masters emphasizing the teachings of a particular text, in this case the Lankavatara Sutra.像其他中国佛教宗派,禅宗首先确立了在这种情况下强调的一个特定文本的教导,楞伽经主人血统本身。Bodhidharma, the first Ch'an patriarch in China, who is said to have arrived there from India c.菩提达摩,禅宗在中国的第一个族长,谁据说已抵达印度C.有470 AD, was a master of this text.公元470,是这个文本的主人。He also emphasized the practice of contemplative sitting, and legend has it that he himself spent 9 years in meditation facing a wall.他还强调了沉思坐在实践,相传是他自己花了沉思9年面临着墙壁。

With the importance of lineages, Ch'an stressed the master - disciple relationship, and Bodhidharma was followed by a series of patriarchs each of whom received the Dharma (religious truth) directly from his predecessor and teacher.随着宗族的重要性,强调了禅大师 - 弟子的关系,达摩是由一系列的元老每个人得到他的前任和教师的佛法(宗教真理),随后直接。By the 7th century, however, splits in the line of transmission began to develop, the most important of which was between Shen - hsiu (606 - 706) and Hui - neng (638 - 713), disciples of the 5th patriarch, Hung - jen.到了公元7世纪,然而,在输电线路分裂开始发展,其中最重要的是与沉 - 修(606 - 706),回族 - 能(638 - 713),第五届族长弟子,红 - 仁。According to a later and clearly biased legend, Hui - neng defeated Hung - jen in a stanza - composing contest, thereby demonstrating his superior enlightenment.据传说以后,显然有偏见,惠 - 能击败红 - 在节仁 - 作曲比赛,从而显示了其卓越的启示。He was then secretly named 6th patriarch but had to flee south for fear of his rival's jealousy.然后,他被评为第六届偷偷族长却不得不逃离他的对手的嫉妒恐惧南部。

The split between Shen - hsiu and Hui - neng accounts for the southern and northern branches of Ch'an, which competed vigorously for prestige and state support.沉之间的分裂 - 修和回族 - 能为禅,而争夺的威信和国家大力支持的南部和北部的分行帐户。Hui - neng's branch dominated in the long run, and by 796 an imperial decree settled the matter in his favor posthumously.回族 - 能分行为主,从长远来看,和796一个帝国法令落户追授他有利的事情。By then, however, Hui - neng's branch was itself beginning to subdivide into several different schools.届时,然而,惠 - 能的分支本身开始细分成几个不同的学校。

The subsequent history of Ch'an in China was mixed.而禅宗在中国后来的历史是喜忧参半。The sect suffered from the great persecution of Buddhism in 845.该教派遭受了佛教在845大迫害。It recovered better than many Buddhist schools, however, partly because, in contrast to other monastic communities, Ch'an monks engaged in physical labor, which made them less dependent on state and lay support.它比许多佛教学校收回,但更好的,一方面是因为,相对于其他寺院社区,从事体力劳动禅和尚,这使他们减少对国家的依赖打下的支持。 During the Sung dynasty (960 - 1279), Ch'an again prospered and was a leading influence on the development of Chinese art and neo - Confucian culture.在宋代(960 - 1279年),禅宗又是一个繁荣和对中国艺术的发展和新领导的影响力 - 儒家文化。

It was during this period that Ch'an was first established in Japan.正是在这一时期,禅是首次在日本成立。Within 30 years of each other, two Japanese monks, Eisai (1141 - 1215) and Dogen (1200 - 53), went to China, where they trained respectively in the Lin - chi (Japanese, Rinzai) and Ts'ao - tung (Japanese, Soto) schools of Ch'an.在对方30年,两位日本僧人,卫材(1141年至1215年)和道玄(1200 - 53),去中国,他们分别接受了林 - 志(日语,临济)和曹 - 东(日本的禅,索托)学校。These they then introduced into Japan.这些,他们又传入日本。Rinzai emphasizes the use of Koans, mental stumbling blocks or riddles that the meditator must solve to the satisfaction of his master.临济强调Koans,精神障碍或猜谜语的禅修必须解决的主人满意的使用。 Soto lays more stress on seated meditation without conscious striving for a goal (zazen).索托重在层次的冥想没有自觉为目标(坐禅)争取更多的压力。Both schools fostered good relations with the shoguns and became closely associated with the Japanese military class.这两所学校培养与将军的良好关系,成为密切与日本的军事类相关联。Rinzai in particular was highly influential during the Ashikaga period (1338 - 1573), when Zen played an important role in propagating neo - Confucianism and infusing its own unique spirit into Japanese art and culture.特别是临济宗是很有影响力在足利时期(1338至1573年),当禅宗中发挥了重要作用,宣传新 - 儒学与注入到日本艺术和文化的独特精神。

The heart of Zen monasticism is the practice of meditation; it is this feature that has been most popular in Zen's spread to the West.禅宗修道的核心是冥想练习,它是这样的,已在禅宗的传播到西方最流行的功能。Zen meditation highlights the experience of enlightenment, or satori (Chinese: wu), and the possibility of attaining it in this life.坐禅凸显了启蒙经验,或佐鸟(中国:WU),以及实现在此生活的可能性。The strict training of Zen monks, the daily physical chores, the constant wrestling with koans, the long hours of sitting in meditation, and the special intensive periods of practice (sesshin) are all directed toward this end.禅宗的和尚,每天的物理琐事,与koans不断角力,在沉思坐在长时间,和实践(sesshin)特别密集的时期严格的训练,都是直接针对这个目的。

At the same time, enlightenment is generally thought of as being sudden.与此同时,启蒙,一般认为是被突然。The meditator needs to be jolted awake, and the only one who can do this is his Zen master.禅修者必须颠簸醒了,唯一一个谁能够做到这一点是他的禅师。The master - disciple relationship often involves private interviews in which the Zen trait of unconventionality sometimes comes to the fore; the master will allow no refuge in the Buddha or the sutras but demands from his disciple a direct answer to his assigned koan.主 - 弟子的关系往往牵涉在其中的不墨守成规禅性状有时就浮出水面私人面谈的主机将允许没有在佛避难或佛经但从他的弟子的要求直接回答他的分配公案。Conversely, the master may goad the disciple by remaining silent or compassionately help him out, but with the constant aim of trying to cause a breakthrough from conventional to absolute truth.相反,主机可以鞭策通过保持沉默或同情帮助他的弟子,但随着试图导致从传统到绝对真理的突破不变的宗旨。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong约瑟夫M北川和约翰s强

Bibliography: 参考书目:
H Dumoulin, History of Zen Buddhism (1963); T Hoover, Zen Culture (1977); C Humphreys, Zen: A Way of Life (1971); S Ogata, Zen for the West (1959); NW Ross, ed., The World of Zen (1960); DT Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism (1927 - 1934), Introduction to Zen Buddhism (1957), and Manual of Zen Buddhism (1960); J Van de Wetering, The Empty Mirror: Experiences in a Japanese Zen Monastery (1974); A Watts, The Spirit of Zen (1958); P Yampolsky, The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch (1967). H,佛教禅宗(1963)历史杜摩兰,T胡佛,禅文化(1977),C堪,禅:一种生活方式(1971年),S绪方,为西(1959)禅;净重罗斯版。在一个经验:J范de Wetering,空镜, - ,介绍禅宗(1957),和禅宗(1960)手动DT铃木,在禅宗杂文(1934 1927);的禅宗(1960)世界日本禅寺(1974年),A瓦,禅宗(1958)精神,P Yampolsky,对六祖(1967)六祖坛经。

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Mahayana Buddhism大乘佛教

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