Zoroastrianism,Zoroaster, Zarathusthra, Zarathustra拜火教

General Information一般资料

During the 7th and 6th centuries BC the ancient polytheistic religion of the Iranians was reformed and given new dimensions by the prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathusthra).在公元前的古代多神教宗教的伊朗人第7和第6世纪被改革和赋予的先知琐罗亚斯德(或Zarathusthra)新的层面。 Zoroaster's life dates have been traditionally given as (c. 628 - 551 BC), but many scholars argue for earlier dates.琐罗亚斯德的生活日期传统上被赋予为(C. 628 - 公元前551年),但许多学者争论的较早日期。Linguistic evidence suggests that he was born in northeastern Iran, but the prophet's message was to spread throughout the Persian Empire.语言学的证据表明,他是在伊朗东北部出生,但先知的消息扩散到波斯帝国。 Adopted as the faith of the Persian kings, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the Achaemenid empire and flourished under its successors, the Parthian and Sassanian empires. Its theology and cosmology may have influenced the development of Greek, later Jewish, Christian, and Muslim thought. The Muslim conquest of the 7th century AD marked the beginning of a steady decline of Zoroastrianism.作为波斯国王信仰通过,祆教成为了阿契美尼德帝国的官方宗教,在其继任者,在帕提亚和波斯萨珊帝国兴盛, 其神学和宇宙学的可能影响了希腊,后来犹太教,基督教和穆斯林思想的发展,而公元7世纪穆斯林征服标志着一个拜火教稳步下降的开始。 Persecution resulted in the migration (about the 10th century) of the majority of Zoroastrians to India, where the Parsis of Bombay are their modern descendants.迫害导致了对印度,孟买所在的印度拜火教徒是他们的现代后裔大部分迁移拜火教(约10世纪)。

The religion of ancient Iran was derived from that of the ancient Indo Europeans, or Aryans.古代伊朗宗教是来自古代印度的欧洲人,或雅利安人的。The language of the earliest Zoroastrian writings is close to that of the Indian Vedas, and much of the mythology is recognizably the same.最早的祆教著作语言接近印度吠陀认为,和神话多少是recognizably相同。Two groups of gods were worshiped, the ahuras and the daevas.两个组的神灵崇拜,在ahuras和daevas。The worship of the ahuras (lords) may have reflected the practice of the pastoral upper classes, and tradition holds that Zoroaster was born into a family that worshiped only the ahuras. The message of the prophet, however, was that Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord, was the sole creator and lord of the world and that the worship of the daevas was the worship of evil. In Zoroaster's theology the Amesha Spentas, or Bountiful Immortals, were divine beings who acted essentially as agents of the power of Ahura Mazda; they were traditionally seven in number: Bounteous Spirit, Good Mind, Truth, Rightmindedness, Dominion, Health, and Life.该ahuras(领主)的崇拜可能反映了上层阶级的田园实践,传统认为是琐罗亚斯德成一个崇拜只有ahuras家庭诞生了。 先知的消息,然而,是阿胡拉马自达,智者主,是唯一的创造者和世界的主,这对daevas崇拜是邪恶的崇拜在琐罗亚斯德的神学六圣神,或丰年祭神仙,是谁担任的阿胡拉马自达电源代理商基本上天人他们在传统上排名第七:宽裕的精神,良好的心态,真相,Rightmindedness,自治领,健康和生命。 The first of these, Spenta Mainyu, is of special importance in that he is paired with a "twin," Angra Mainyu, or Hostile Spirit.其中第一,Spenta Mainyu,具有特殊的重要性,他是一个“双”,安格拉Mainyu,或敌对精神配对。

When given a choice between good and evil, or truth and the lie, Bounteous Spirit chose truth and Hostile Spirit the lie.当给定一个善恶,或真理和谎言的选择,选择了真理和精神宽裕敌对精神的所在。 Creation becomes a battleground, with the demoted ahuras invoked for the doing of good and the daevas enlisted by Angra Mainyu in the doing of evil.创作变成了战场,同为做的好,daevas由安格拉Mainyu征在邪恶做援引降级ahuras。Nevertheless, Ahura Mazda has decreed that truth will triumph, and the old world will be destroyed by fire and a new creation instituted.不过, 阿胡拉马自达已颁布法令,将胜利的真理,而旧世界将火和新的创造实行销毁。

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In the period following Zoroaster, for which little evidence remains, Zoroastrianism consolidated its position and spread throughout Iran.在下面的琐罗亚斯德,对此几乎没有证据仍然时期,祆教巩固了其地位在整个伊朗和蔓延。 The rise of the southern Persians and Medes seems to have been accompanied by the reinstatement of many of the ahuras, although Ahura Mazda is still recognized as supreme god. Among the most important figures to revive at this time were Mithra (Mithraism), usually associated with the sun, and Anahita, associated with the waters and fertility.南部的玛代波斯和崛起似乎已经伴随着许多的ahuras复职,虽然阿胡拉马自达仍然作为最高神的认可。被其中最重要的人物恢复,此时密特拉(Mithraism),通常伴有与太阳,Anahita,与水和生育有关。 Ahura Mazda (who becomes Ormazd) becomes identified with Spenta Mainyu, and Angra Mainyu (Ahriman) remains his antagonist.阿胡拉马自达(谁成为Ormazd)成为与Spenta Mainyu鉴定,并安格拉Mainyu(阿里曼)保持他的对手。Ahura Mazda has relinquished some of his absolute supremacy and appears to need the assistance of the lesser ahuras, particularly Mithra, who appears as mediator and protector of the created world.阿胡拉马自达已经放弃对他的绝对优势,并出现了一些需要的较小ahuras,特别是密特拉,谁作为调解人和创建世界保护出现的援助。

This dualist view eventually became the orthodox position.这种二元论观点最终成为了正统的地位。Its development may have owed much to the Magi, a hereditary priestly caste, although their role is unclear.它的发展可能在很大程度上要归功于贤士,世袭祭司种姓,尽管他们的作用还不清楚。From them, however, the Greco Roman world learned much of what it knew of the religion.从他们身上,但是,希腊罗马世界了解了它的宗教知道了。An important reform movement, however, arose within Zoroastrianism - the movement around Zurvan.一个重要的改革运动,然而,出现在拜火教 - 扎尔万左右运动。The Zurvanites posited a supreme god, Zurvan (Infinite Time), who had sacrificed for 1,000 years in order to gain offspring.假定一个至高无上的Zurvanites神,扎尔万(无限时间),谁牺牲1000年,以获得后代。At the end of that time he experienced momentary doubt, and from that doubt arose Ahriman; at the same time, Ormazd came into being because of the efficacy of the sacrifices.在那个时代的结束,他经历了短暂的怀疑,而从这个疑问产生阿里曼;在同一时间,Ormazd成因为牺牲疗效应运而生。 At the end of 3,000 years Ahriman crossed the void that separated them and attacked Ormazd.在3000年年底阿里曼越过虚空地分居他们和攻击Ormazd。The two made a pact to limit the struggle, and Ahriman fell back into the abyss, where he lay for 3,000 years.这两个协议做了限制的斗争,阿里曼回落深渊,他3000年奠定。

During that period Ormazd created the material and spiritual world; in retaliation, Ahriman called into being six demons and an opposing material world.在此期间Ormazd创造了物质和精神的世界;在报复,阿里曼称为应运而生six恶魔和一个反物质世界。In the next 3,000 year period Ahriman attempted to corrupt the creation of Ormazd; he was successful but was trapped in the world of light. The final period of 3,000 years was ushered in by the birth of Zoroaster, who revealed this struggle to man; the prophet is to be followed by three saviors, appearing at intervals of 1,000 years. At the appearance of the last, a day of judgment will occur, the drink of immortality will be offered to those who have fought against Ahriman, and a new creation will be established.在接下来的3000年期阿里曼企图破坏的Ormazd创作,他是成功的,但在世界的光被困在3000年迎来了最后期限是由琐罗亚斯德,谁向人透露这场斗争中诞生;的先知是应遵循的三个救世主,在千年的时间间隔出现。在最后的外观,审判的日子会发生,不朽的饮料将提供给那些谁拥有对阿里曼打,一个新的创造将成立。

The sacred literature of Zoroastrianism is found in the Avesta, which was compiled sometime during the Sassanian period (224 - 640 AD) from much earlier materials.祆教神圣的文学被发现在该阿维斯塔,这是编译在萨珊时期(224 - 640 AD)的某个时候从早得多的材料。Only a portion of the Avesta remains, but the language of its earliest sections is extremely ancient, closely related to that of the Indian Vedas.只有在阿维斯塔部分仍然存在,但其最早的部分是非常古老的语言,密切相关的印度吠陀的。These sections, the Gathas, are thought to be by Zoroaster himself.这些路段,Gathas,被认为是由琐罗亚斯德本人。They are hymns and form the primary part of the Yasna, the central liturgy of the religion.他们是赞美诗和形成了Yasna,中央对宗教礼仪的主要部分。Also contained in the Avesta are the Yashts, hymns to a number of the ahuras, and later in date than the Gathas.也包含在阿维斯塔是Yashts,在数量的ahuras赞美诗,后来在日比Gathas。Finally comes the Videvdat, which is concerned with purity and ritual.最后是Videvdat,这与纯度和祭祀有关。A large body of commentary exists in Pahlavi, dating from the 9th century AD, which contains quotations from earlier material no longer extant.庞大的身躯的评论存在于巴列维,从公元9世纪,它包含从早期的材料不再现存报价约会。

The rituals of Zoroastrianism revolve around devotion to the good and the battle against the forces of evil. Fire plays a major role, being seen as the manifestation of the truth of Ahura Mazda, as preached by Zoroaster. 的拜火教的仪式围绕献身好,对抗邪恶。消防部队的战斗中起着重要作用,被作为真理的阿胡拉马自达琐罗亚斯德所宣扬的表现,看到。 Also important is the ritual drink, haoma, which is related to the Vedic soma.同样重要的是礼仪饮料,豪马,这是关系到吠陀躯体。

Tamara M Green塔玛拉M绿色

Bibliography: 参考书目:
MA Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (1979); M Dhalla, History of Zoroastrianism (1938) and Zoroastrian Theology from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (1914); J Duchesne - Guillemin, Symbols and Values in Zoroastrianism (1966) and The Western Response to Zoroaster (1958); JH Moulton, Early Zoroastrianism (1913); RC Zaehner, The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961) and The Teachings of the Magi: A Compendium of Zoroastrian Beliefs (1956).马博伊斯,拜火教:他们的宗教信仰与实践(1979年),M Dhalla,对祆教(1938)和拜火教神学从最早的时候到今天(1914年)历史,J杜申 - Guillemin,符号和祆教值(1966年)和西方应对琐罗亚斯德(1958年); JH莫尔顿,早期祆教(1913年); RC,黎明和祆教(1961年)和法师的​​教诲黄昏扎纳:一(1956)祆教信仰纲要。


Zoroastrianism拜火教

Spitama Zarathustra (c. 660 - 583 BC).Spitama查拉图斯特拉(公元前660 - 公元前583)。

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The fundamental idea of Zoroastrianism is that since the beginning, there has existed a spirit of good (Ahura Mazda or Ormazd) and a spirit of evil (Ahriman) who are in perpetual conflict, with the soul of man as the great object of the war.拜火教的基本思路是,从一开始,出现了与人的存在为对象的战争的伟大灵魂的精神好(阿胡拉马自达或Ormazd)和邪恶(阿里曼)谁在冲突不断的精神, 。Ormazd created men free, so that if they allow themselves to fall under the sway of Ahriman they are held to be justly punishable. When a person dies, his good and evil deeds will be weighed against each other, and accordingly as the balance is struck he will be sent to heaven or to hell. If they are exactly equal, the soul passes into an intermediate state and remains there until the day of judgment.Ormazd创造了男人的自由,所以,如果他们让自己下阿里曼挥洒他们认为是公正惩罚秋天, 当一个人死后,他的善恶事迹将相互权衡,并据此为取得平衡他将被发送到天堂或地狱,如果他们是完全平等的,灵魂会进入一个中间状态并保持,直到审判日有。 Ormazd is to triumph ultimately, and then there will be one undivided kingdom of God in heaven and on earth. Ormazd是最终的胜利,然后会有天堂和地球上的一个不可分割的神的国度。

The 'bible' of Zoroastrians is the Zend - Avesta.“圣经”的拜火教是在Zend -阿维斯塔。

It is divided into 5 parts:它分为5个部分:

Zoroaster taught a higher moral plane, where men attained virtue by good thoughts and conduct rather than by sacrifice.琐罗亚斯德教过一个更高的道德飞机,其中男性达到良好的思想道德和行为,而不是通过牺牲。All of a man's good works are actually entered into the book of life as credits, and bad works as debits.一个人的好作品都是真正进入生活的书作为学分,并作为借记坏作品。If the total score is positive, the soul goes to heaven; if negative, hell.如果总比分是积极的,灵魂进入天堂;如果为负,地狱。 If the balance is close, the soul stays in an intermediate state until the final judgment.如果余额接近,灵魂停留在一个直到最后判决中间状态。Sins could never be washed away, but just balanced out.罪孽永远无法被冲走,但只是平衡了。

Zoroastrianism is a religion that developed in Iran from about the sixth century BC, generally ascribed to Zoroaster (Zarathustra), who was born in Iran '258 years before Alexander.'拜火教是一种开发伊朗从大约公元前六世纪,一般归因于琐罗亚斯德(查拉图斯特拉),谁是出生在伊朗前宗教亚历山大'258年。“ The date of Zoroaster's birth has been given variously as 6000 BC, 1400 BC, and 1000 BC, but Herzfeld accepts the traditional date, approximately, as now confirmed (Herzfeld, (570 - 500 BC); Jackson, 660 - 583 BC).对琐罗亚斯德的出生日期被赋予不同地为公元前6000年,公元前1400年和1000年,但Herzfeld接受传统迄今为止,大约像现在确认(Herzfeld,(570 - 公元前500年),杰克逊,660 - 583 BC)。Accordingly, Zoroaster was contemporary with other great religious personages, including Buddha, Confucius, Lao Tze, and several Hebrew prophets.因此,琐罗亚斯德是与其他伟大的宗教人士,包括佛陀,孔子,老子,和几个希伯来先知当代。 That Zoroaster used Vedic materials found in early Hinduism can hardly be denied; that he was a polytheist like Darius, Xerxes, and others who were probably Zoroastrians (at least, their inscriptions pay homage to Ahura Mazda) seems most likely.这琐罗亚斯德使用印度教吠陀早期发现的材料难以否认,他是一个喜欢大流士,薛西斯和其他人可能是谁拜火教(至少,他们的题字祭奠阿胡拉马自达)似乎最有可能的多神。

But Zoroaster was protesting against the false and cruel in religion, and followed the principle, "If the gods do aught shameful, they are not gods."但琐罗亚斯德抗议反对虚假和残忍的宗教和遵循的原则,“如果神做任何事物可耻的,他们不是神。”Accordingly, he exalted Ahura Mazda ("wise Lord," often improperly translated "Lord of light") as supreme among the gods or spirits, and viewed the world as an agelong struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainy (or Ahramanyus, Ahriman, "Spirit of evil"), both of whom came into existence independently in the distant past.因此,他崇高的阿胡拉马自达(“聪明的主,”经常不当译“光明之主”),作为众神之中,或精神至高无上的,视为与阿胡拉马自达和安格拉Mainy(或Ahramanyus,阿里曼长年的斗争的世界“邪恶的“灵),他们两人进入了独立存在,在遥远的过去。 Zoroastrianism is therefore called a dualism, but it is a limited dualism.祆教因此称为二元论,但它是一个有限的二元论。

Zoroaster calls upon human beings to join in this conflict on the side of Ahura Mazda, the key words of such religion being "good thoughts, good works, good deeds."琐罗亚斯德呼吁人类要在这场冲突中加入对阿胡拉马自达,宗教等方面的关键词是“好思想,好作品,做好事。”The ultimate victory of Ahura Mazda, however, was not to be accomplished by human assistance but by the advent of a messiahlike figure, the Saoshyant.阿胡拉马自达的最终胜利,然而,不被人协助,但由一个messiahlike图中,Saoshyant来临完成。 The duration of the struggle was to be six thousand years (three thousand had already passed when Zoroaster was born), following which was to be the resurrection and judgment.斗争的持续时间要6000年(3000已经过去了,当琐罗亚斯德出生),随后是被复活和判断。Many of the details of Zoroastrianism are later developments, some post Christian and even post Mohammedan, and scholars are divided on what elements are to be traced to Zoroaster's own teaching.对祆教的许多细节都是后来的发展,一些后基督教和伊斯兰教,甚至后,学者都在哪些元素要追溯到琐罗亚斯德自己的教学分。

Because of the fact that the revelation of the doctrines of resurrection, angels, Satan, and the Messiah comes late in the OT or even in the intertestamental period in early Judaism, scholars have frequently traced these ideas to Zoroastrian influence exerted upon the Jewish people after the Babylonian exile.由于对事实的复活学说,天使,撒旦,和弥赛亚的启示来得晚在旧约或在早期犹太教intertestamental期甚至,学者们经常追踪这些想法拜火教的影响后,犹太人民施加后巴比伦流亡。 Moulton examined these points in detail and concluded that they were "not proven."莫尔顿详细研究这些问题,并认为他们“没有被证明。”The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has reopened the discussion, due to the presence of marked "Zoroastrian" influences in the Qumran literature.对死海古卷的发现,重新讨论,由于标有“拜火教”,在昆兰文学影响的存在。Some of the most striking parallels to Jewish Christian eschatology can be shown to be very late developments in Zoroastrianism.最惊人的相似之处,以犹太基督教末世有的可证明是在祆教很晚发展。On the other hand, it would not do violence to a high view of inspiration to admit that God could have used Zoroastrianism as a means of stimulating the Jewish mind to think on these subjects even as he used hellenism to prepare the Jewish mind for the Christian revelation (witness Saul of Tarsus).另一方面,它不会做暴力的灵感新高承认,上帝可以用来作为刺激犹太人心中想就这些问题即使他用希腊准备为基督徒,犹太人心中的手段祆教启示(见证大数扫罗)。 The magi ("wise men") of the birth narrative may have been Zoroastrian priests.诞生叙事贤士(“智者”)可能是拜火教祭司。

A branch of Zoroastrians is the Parsees, who are fire worshipers.拜火教的分支,是帕西,谁是火的崇拜者。Zoroastrians generally worship natural objects, such as the sun and fire, and of great heroes.拜火教崇拜一般,如太阳和火的自然对象,和伟大的英雄。

WS Lasor WAS Lasor

Bibliography: 参考书目:
JH Moulton, HDB; AVW Jackson, Jewish Encyclopedia; E Herzfeld, Zoroaster and His World; RP Masani, The Religion of the Good Life, Zoroastrianism; JJ Modi, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees; M Boyce, "Zoroastrianism," in Historia Religionum. JH莫尔顿,建屋发展局; AVW,犹太百科全书杰克逊,E Herzfeld,琐罗亚斯德和他的世界; RP Masani,对美好生活,祆教的宗教; JJ莫迪,在宗教仪式和帕西海关,M博伊斯,“拜火教”在Historia Religionum。


Zoroastrianism拜火教

Advanced Information先进的信息

Zoroastrianism is a religion that developed in Iran from about the sixth century BC, generally ascribed to Zoroaster (Zarathustra), who was born in Iran "258 years before Alexander."拜火教是一种开发伊朗从大约公元前六世纪,一般归因于琐罗亚斯德(查拉图斯特拉),谁是出生于伊朗宗教“之前亚历山大258年。” The date of Zoroaster's birth has been given variously as 6000 BC, 1400 BC, and 1000 BC, but Herzfeld accepts the traditional date, approximately, as now confirmed (Herzfeld, 570-500 BC; Jackson, 660-583 BC).对琐罗亚斯德的出生日期被赋予不同地为公元前6000年,公元前1400年和1000年,但Herzfeld接受传统迄今为止,大约像现在确认(Herzfeld,570-500 BC;杰克逊,660-583 BC)。Accordingly, Zoroaster was contemporary with other great religious personages, including Buddha, Confucius, Lao Tze, and several Hebrew prophets.因此,琐罗亚斯德是与其他伟大的宗教人士,包括佛陀,孔子,老子,和几个希伯来先知当代。 That Zoroaster used Vedic materials found in early Hinduism can hardly be denied; that he was a polytheist like Darius, Xerxes, and others who were probably Zoroastrians (at least, their inscriptions pay homage to Ahura Mazda) seems most likely.这琐罗亚斯德使用印度教吠陀早期发现的材料难以否认,他是一个喜欢大流士,薛西斯和其他人可能是谁拜火教(至少,他们的题字祭奠阿胡拉马自达)似乎最有可能的多神。 But Zoroaster was protesting against the false and cruel in religion, and followed the principle, "If the gods do aught shameful, they are not gods."但琐罗亚斯德抗议反对虚假和残忍的宗教和遵循的原则,“如果神做任何事物可耻的,他们不是神。”Accordingly, he exalted Ahura Mazda ("wise Lord," often improperly translated "Lord of light") as supreme among the gods or spirits, and viewed the world as an agelong struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainy (or Ahramanyus, Ahriman, "Spirit of evil"), both of whom came into existence independently in the distant past.因此,他崇高的阿胡拉马自达(“聪明的主,”经常不当译“光明之主”),作为众神之中,或精神至高无上的,视为与阿胡拉马自达和安格拉Mainy(或Ahramanyus,阿里曼长年的斗争的世界“邪恶的“灵),他们两人进入了独立存在,在遥远的过去。 Zoroastrianism is therefore called a dualism, but it is a limited dualism.祆教因此称为二元论,但它是一个有限的二元论。

Zoroaster calls upon human beings to join in this conflict on the side of Ahura Mazda, the key words of such religion being "good thoughts, good works, good deeds."琐罗亚斯德呼吁人类要在这场冲突中加入对阿胡拉马自达,宗教等方面的关键词是“好思想,好作品,做好事。”The ultimate victory of Ahura Mazda, however, was not to be accomplished by human assistance but by the advent of a messiahlike figure, the Saoshyant.阿胡拉马自达的最终胜利,然而,不被人协助,但由一个messiahlike图中,Saoshyant来临完成。 The duration of the struggle was to be six thousand years (three thousand had already passed when Zoroaster was born), following which was to be the resurrection and judgment.斗争的持续时间要6000年(3000已经过去了,当琐罗亚斯德出生),随后是被复活和判断。Many of the details of Zoroastrianism are later developments, some post-Christian and even post-Mohammedan, and scholars are divided on what elements are to be traced to Zoroaster's own teaching.对祆教的许多细节都是后来的发展,一些后基督教,甚至后伊斯兰教,学者是什么元素要追溯到琐罗亚斯德自己的教学分。

Because of the fact that the revelation of the doctrines of resurrection, angels, Satan, and the Messiah comes late in the OT or even in the intertestamental period in early Judaism, scholars have frequently traced these ideas to Zoroastrian influence exerted upon the Jewish people after the Babylonian exile.由于对事实的复活学说,天使,撒旦,和弥赛亚的启示来得晚在旧约或在早期犹太教intertestamental期甚至,学者们经常追踪这些想法拜火教的影响后,犹太人民施加后巴比伦流亡。 Moulton examined these points in detail and concluded that they were "not proven."莫尔顿详细研究这些问题,并认为他们“没有被证明。”The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has reopened the discussion, due to the presence of marked "Zoroastrian" influences in the Qumran literature.对死海古卷的发现,重新讨论,由于标有“拜火教”,在昆兰文学影响的存在。Some of the most striking parallels to Jewish-Christian eschatology can be shown to be very late developments in Zoroastrianism.最惊人的相似之处,以犹太 - 基督教末世论的一些可以被证明是在祆教很晚发展。On the other hand, it would not do violence to a high view of inspiration to admit that God could have used Zoroastrianism as a means of stimulating the Jewish mind to think on these subjects even as he used hellenism to prepare the Jewish mind for the Christian revelation (witness Saul of Tarsus).另一方面,它不会做暴力的灵感新高承认上帝可以用来作为刺激犹太人心中想就这些问题即使他用希腊准备为基督徒,犹太人心中的手段祆教启示(见证大数扫罗)。 The magi ("wise men") of the birth narrative may have been Zoroastrian priests.诞生叙事贤士(“智者”)可能是拜火教祭司。

WS Lasor WAS Lasor
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
JH Moulton, HDB; AVW Jackson, Jewish Encyclopedia; E. Herzfeld, Zoroaster and His World, 2 vols.; RP Masani, The Religion of the Good Life, Zoroastrianism; JJ Modi, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees; M. Boyce, "Zoroastrianism," in Historia Religionum, ed.JH莫尔顿,建屋发展局; AVW,犹太百科全书杰克逊; E. Herzfeld,琐罗亚斯德和他的世界,2卷; RP Masani,对美好生活的宗教,祆教; JJ莫迪,在宗教仪式和帕西海关; M.博伊斯,“拜火教”,在Historia Religionum,编辑。 CJ Bleeker and G. Widengren.CJ Bleeker和G Widengren。


The Avesta在阿维斯塔

Catholic Information天主教信息

The sacred books of Parsees, or Zoroastrians, and the main source of our knowledge concerning the religious and spiritual life the ancient Persians.的帕西人,或拜火教神圣的书籍,和我们的知识的主要来源有关宗教和精神生活的古代波斯人。This collection of writings occupies the same place in the literature of Iran (ancient Persia) that the Vedas do in India.这一著作集居在伊朗文学(古代波斯)相同的地方,在印度的吠陀做。The designation Zend-Avesta, which is often employed to denote the sacred code, is not strictly correct.该指定Zend的,阿维斯塔,这常常是用来表示神圣的代码,是不完全正确。It owes its origin to a mistaken inversion of the Pahlavi designation Avistak u Zand, a term which probably means "Text and Commentary"; for the word Zand (in the Avesta itself, Zainti) signifies "explanation" and even in the Avesta is applied to the exegetical matter in the text.它欠它的起源到指定的巴列维Avistak ü赞德,一个术语,大概意思是“文字和解说”误反转;为词赞德(在阿维斯塔本身,Zainti)表示“解释”,并在阿维斯塔甚至是应用要在文字训诂的问题。 It is similarly used by the Parsee priests to denote the Pahlavi version and commentary, but not the original scriptures.它同样采用了帕西神父表示巴列维版本和评论,而不是原来的经文。Whether the term Avistak, which is the Pahlavi form of the word Avesta, has the meaning of "text", "law", is not absolutely certain.无论是长期Avistak,这是这个词的阿维斯塔巴列维形式,有​​“文”的意思,“法”,也不是绝对肯定的。Some scholars interpret it as "wisdom", "knowledge".有的学者解释为“智慧”,“知识”吧。

Little was known concerning the religion and customs of ancient Persia before the Avesta was brought to Europe in the eighteenth century.很少有人知道有关宗教和古代波斯的习俗被带到前阿维斯塔在十八世纪的欧洲。From the allusions in Greek and Roman writers, like Herodotus, Plutarch, Pliny, and others, it had long been surmised that such a body of scriptures existed.从希腊和罗马的作家如希罗多德,普鲁塔克,普林尼,和他人,典故,它早已推测,这样的经文体存在。Scattered allusions in Arabic and Syriac writers strengthened this conviction.在阿拉伯和叙利亚作家分散典故加强了这个信念。 But the information to be extracted from these references was vague and meagre.但是,从这些引用中提取信息模糊和微薄。 The first scholar to make the language and the contents of the sacred books of the Parsees known to Europe was a young Frenchman, Anquetil du Perron, who in 1754 went to India for this very purpose.第一个学者,使语言和已知的欧洲帕西的神圣书籍的内容是一个年轻的法国人,Anquetil杜门阶,谁在1754年赴印度这个目的。 His enthusiasm and perseverance overcame the many obstacles he encountered on his journey to Hindustan and the difficuities he met during his stay in Surat.他的热情和毅力克服了他在他的旅程印度斯坦和difficuities他在会见他留在苏拉特遇到了许多障碍。Success at last crowned his efforts, and on his return in 1771 he was able to give to the world the first translation of the Avesta.最后取得圆满成功作出努力,并在他于1771年回归,他能够给世界的第一次翻译的阿维斯塔。From the moment of its publication a bitter controversy arose concerning the authenticity of the work.从它的出版时刻出现一场激烈的争论有关工作的真实性。Some scholars, like Sir William Jones, declared that it was a clumsy forgery of modern Parsee priests, and the question was disputed for half a century until the advance made in the study of Sanskrit and comparative philology decided the matter and vindicated the genuineness of the scriptures and the value of Anquetil's work, although his translation, as a first attempt, was necessarily, imperfect in many respects.一些学者,如威廉爵士琼斯,宣称这是一个现代帕西祭司笨拙伪造,问题是有争议的半个世纪,直到走在梵文和比较语言学研究作出决定的问题,平反的真实性经文和Anquetil的工作的价值,虽然他的翻译,作为第一次尝试,是必然,在许多方面不完善。

CONTENT AND DIVISIONS内容和部门

Originally, the sacred scriptures of the Parsees were of far greater extent than would appear from the Avesta in the form in which we now possess it.本来,在帕西的神圣经文是更大程度上远远超过从阿维斯塔会出现在表格中,我们现在拥有它。Only a relatively small portion of the original has in fact been preserved, and that is collected from several manuscripts, since no single codex contains all the texts now known.只有原来的一小部分,实际上已被保存下来,那就是收集一些手稿,因为没有单一法典包含了所有现在已知的文本。In its present form, therefore, the Avesta is a compilation from various sources, and its different parts date from different periods and vary widely in character.在其目前的形式,因此,阿维斯塔是从各种来源汇编,它的不同部分,从不同时期不同日期和性质广泛。Tradition tells us that the Zoroastrian scriptures consisted originally of twenty-one nasks (books), but only one of these, the Vendidad, had been completely preserved.传统告诉我们,拜火教经文由最初的21 nasks(书),但其中只有一个,Vendidad,已经完整地保留下来。The loss of the sacred books is attributed by the followers of Zoroaster to the invasion of Alexander "the accursed Iskandar", as they call him, who burned the palace library at Persepolis, thus destroying one archetype copy of the text, and threw the other into the river near Samarkand, according to the statement of the Pahlavi records (Dinkard, bk. III, West, "Sacred Books of the East", XXXVII, pp. xxx, xxxi, and Shatroiha-i Airan, 2-5).神圣的书籍的损失是由于受琐罗亚斯德的追随者到亚历山大“的诅咒依斯干达”入侵,他们打电话给他,谁烧了在波斯波利斯宫图书馆,从而破坏其中的文本原型复制,撒在其他到撒马尔罕附近的河流,根据记录的巴列维声明(Dinkard,浅滩三,西,三十七,第XXX,三十一,和Shatroiha - I蔼然,2-5“东方圣书”)。For wellnigh five hundred years after the Macedonian invasion the Parsee scriptures remained in a scattered condition, much being preserved only by memory, until the great Zoroastrian under the Sassanian dynasty (AD 226-651), when the texts were again collected, codified, translated into Pahlavi, and interpreted.对于wellnigh500年后,马其顿入侵帕西经文保持在一个分散的状况,更是只有记忆保留下来,直到下的波斯萨珊王朝(公元226-651)伟大的拜火教,当文本再次收集,编纂,翻译到巴列维,并解释。 A beginning in this direction had already been made under the last of the Parthian kings, but the great final redaction took place in Sassanian times, under Shahpuhar II (309-379).在这个方向已经开始做下的帕提亚国王最后,但伟大的决赛节录发生在萨珊时代置于Shahpuhar II(309-379)。Our present Avesta is essentially the work of this redaction, although important sections of the text have been lost since then, especially after the Arabs conquered Persia.我们目前的阿维斯塔本质上是这节录的工作,虽然文字的重要部分已丢失自那时以来,特别是在阿拉伯人征服了波斯。This conquest (637-651) was fatal to the Iranian religion, and caused Zoroastrianism to be supplanted by Mohammedanism and the Avesta by the Koran.这征服(637-651)是致命的伊朗宗教,并造成祆教由阿维斯塔伊斯兰教和古兰经所取代。As already mentioned, great portions of the scriptures have since disappeared entirely; out of the original twenty-one nasks, the nineteenth alone (the Verdidad) has survived.如前所述,大部份的经文以来完全消失;跳出原有21 nasks,十九单独(在Verdidad)生还。Portions of other nasks are preserved, interspersed here and there among the Yasna and Vispered, or have come down to us as flattered fragments in Pahlavi works, or have been rendered into Pahlavi, like the Bundahishn (Book of Creation) and the Shayast-la-Shayast (Treatise on the Lawful and Unlawful).其他nasks部分被保留下来,穿插其中的Yasna在这里和那里,Vispered,或已回落在巴列维工程受宠若惊的片段给我们,或已被渲染成巴列维像Bundahishn(创作书)和Shayast - LA - Shayast(在合法和非法论)。In this way we are able to make good some of our losses of the old scriptures enough has been said, however, to explain the lack of coherence noticeable in certain parts of the Avestan code.这样,我们能够做出良好的旧经文我们的损失已经说了一些不足,但是,解释一致性的Avestan代码的某些部分明显不足。 The Avesta, as we now have it, is usually divided into five sections, relating to the ritual, hymns of praise, the liturgy, and the law.在阿维斯塔,我们现在有它,通常分为五个部分有关的仪式,赞美诗歌,礼仪和法律。These sections:这些部分:

the Yasna, including the Gathas, or hymns;在Yasna,包括Gathas,或赞美诗;

Vispered; Vispered;

Yashts; Yashts;

minor texts, such as the Nyaishes (favourite prayers in daily use among the Parsees), and小文,如Nyaishes(在日常使用中的帕西喜爱祈祷),和

Vendidad. Vendidad。

Besides this there are some independent fragments preserved in Pahlavi books (Hadhokt Nask, etc).除此之外还有在巴列维书籍(Hadhokt Nask等)保留一些独立的片段。The main divisions, when taken together, again fall into two groups, the one liturgical comprising Vendidad, Vispered and Yasna, or the Avesta proper, the other general, called Khorda Avesta (Abridged Avesta) and comprising the minor texts and the Yashts.主要的分歧,加在一起,再分为两组,一礼仪包括Vendidad,Vispered和Yasna,或阿维斯塔正确,其他一般称为Khorda阿维斯塔(资产阿维斯塔),成员包括未成年文本和Yashts。 A brief characterization of the five divisions will now be given.一个简短的五个部门鉴定,现在得到。

(1) The Yasna (Skt. yajna), "sacrifice", "worship", the chief liturgical portions of the sacred canon.(1)Yasna(梵文yajna),“牺牲”,“崇拜”,神圣的佳能首席礼仪部分。It consists principally of prayers and hymns used in the ritual, and is divided into seventy-two ha or haiti (chapters), symbolized by the seventy-two strands of the kushti, or sacred girdle with which the young Zoroastrian is invested on his being received into the Church.它主要包括祈祷和祭祀用的赞美诗,并分为72公顷或海地(章)由72股的kushti,或神圣的腰封与该年轻拜火教是对他的被投资象征,分接收到教会。 The middle third of the Yasna (Ys., 28-53), however, is not directly connected with the ritual, but contains the Gathas, the holy psalms, songs which preserved the metrical sayings of Zoroaster himself as used in his sermons.该Yasna(Ys.,28-53)中的三分之一,但是,是不是直接连接仪式,但包含Gathas,神圣的诗篇,这首歌曲保存在自己的琐罗亚斯德在他的布道用格律说法。 This is the oldest portion of the Avesta and descends directly from the prophet and his disciples.这是最古老的阿维斯塔部分和下降的先知和他的弟子直接。These canticles are metrical in their structure and are composed in the so-called Gatha-dialect, a more archaic form of language than is used in the rest of the Avesta.这些canticle的是其结构的格律,并在所谓的Gatha方言,更古老的语言形式比在阿维斯塔其余部分使用的组成。 There are seventeen of the hymns, grouped in five divisions, each group taking its name from the opening words; thus Ahunavaiti, Ushtavaiti, etc. Inserted in the midst of the Gathas is the Yasna Haptanghaiti (the Seven-chapter Yasna) consisting of prayers and hymns in honour of the Supreme Deity, Ahura Mazda, the Angels, Fire, Water, and Earth.有十七个赞美诗,在五个部门组成,各组取从它的名字的开头语,因此Ahunavaiti,Ushtavaiti等在Gathas中间插入是Yasna Haptanghaiti(七篇Yasna)组成的祈祷在最高神,阿胡拉马自达,天使,火,水,和地球的荣誉赞美诗。This selection also shows a more archaic type of language, and stands next to the Gathas in point of antiquity.这一选择也显示了一个更古老的语言类型,站在旁边的古代点Gathas。Its structure though handed down in prose, may once have been metrical.它的结构虽然在散文交给了下来,可一旦有格律。

(2) The Vispered (vispe ratavo, "all the lords") is really a short liturgy, very similar in style and form to the Yasna, which it supplements in a briefer form. (2)Vispered(vispe ratavo,“所有的领主”)确实是一个短的礼仪,在风格和形式非常相似,Yasna,它在一个简短的补充形式。 It owes its name to the fact that it contains invocations to "all the lords".它得名的事实,它包含“所有的领主”调用。

(3) The Yashts (yeshti, "worship by praise"), of which there are twenty-one, are hymns in honour of various divinities. (3)Yashts(yeshti“,由赞美崇拜”),其中有21,在各种神灵的荣誉赞美诗。These hymns are for the most part metrical in structure, and they show considerable poetic merit in certain instances, which is not common in Avesta.这些赞美诗是大部分结构格律,他们显示出相当诗意的优点,在某些情况下,这是不是在阿维斯塔常见。They are of especial interest historically on account of the glimpses they afford us of the great mythological and legendary material in the folklore of ancient Iran used so effectively by Firdausi in his great epic of the Persian kings, the "Shah Namah".他们是历史上ESPECIAL利益的瞥见他们承受的巨大神话和传说中的古代民间传说伊朗使用Firdausi如此有效地在他的伟大史诗的波斯国王,“沙阿Namah”材料我们的帐户。 Among the divinities to whom special yashts are devoted we find Ardvi Sura the goddess of waters; Tishtrya, the star Sirius; Mithra, the divinity of light and truth; the Fravashis, or departed souls of the righteous, Verethragna, the genius of Victory and the Kavaya Hvarenah, "kingly glory", the divine light illuminating the ancient kings of Iran.其中神灵为之特殊yashts致力于我们发现Ardvi苏拉的水域女神; Tishtrya,星天狼星;密特拉,光与真理的神性;的Fravashis,或离开了正义,Verethragna灵魂,胜利的天才和在Kavaya Hvarenah,“王道荣耀”,神圣的光照亮了伊朗古代国王。

(4) The fourth division (minor texts) comprises brief prayers, like the five Nyaishes (to the Sun, Moon, Mithra, Water, and Fire), the Gahs, Siruzas and Afringans (blessings). (4)第四师(小文)包括简短的祈祷,像五Nyaishes(太阳,月亮,密特拉,水,火),在Gahs,Siruzas和Afringans(祝福)。 These selections form a manual of daily devotion.这些选择构成了每天奉献手册。

(5) The fifth division, Vendidad (from vi daeva data, "law against the demons"), is the religious law code of Zoroastrianism and comprises twenty-two fargards (chapters).(5)第五师,Vendidad(从六daeva数据,“对恶魔法”),是祆教的宗教法码,成员包括22 fargards(章)。It begins with an account of Creation in which Ormuzd, the god, is thwarted by Ahriman, the devil; then it describes the occurrence of a destructive winter, a sort of Iranian deluge.它从一个创作帐户中Ormuzd,神,是由阿里曼,恶魔挫败,然后它描述了一个破坏性的冬季发生后,伊朗洪水排序。 The remainder of the book is largely devoted to elaborate prescriptions with regard to ceremonial purification, especially the cleansing from defilement incurred by contact with the dead, and to a list of special penances imposed as a means of atoning for impurity.该书的其余部分主要是致力于制定有关礼仪的净化,尤其是从污秽清洁服务与死者接触产生,并以作为对杂质赎罪的手段施加特殊penances名单处方。 The Vendidad is an ecclesiastical code, not a liturgical manual.该Vendidad是教会的代码,而不是一个礼仪手册。Its different parts vary widely in character and in age.它的不同部位有很大的不同性质和年龄。Some parts may be comparatively recent in origins although the greater part is very old.一些地方可能会在较近期的起源虽然大部份是很老。

The Avesta does not represent the whole of the sacred scriptures of the Parsees.在阿维斯塔并不代表对帕西的神圣经文的整体。It is supplemented by an extensive Pahlavi literature, consisting in part of translations from the sacred canon and in part of original matter.它是辅以广泛的巴列维从文学翻译的神圣经典的一部分,在原问题的一部分组成。 The most notable Pahlavi works belonging here are the Dinkard (Acts of Religion), dating from the ninth century of the Christian Era; Bundahishn, "Original Creation", finished in the eleventh or twelfth century of the Christian Era, but containing material as old as the Avesta itself, being in part a version of one of the original nasks; the Mainog-i-Khirad (Spirit of Wisdom), a religious conference on questions of faith, and the Arda Viraf Namak, a sort of Zoroastrian "Divina Commedia", which is especially important because of its account of the Persian ideas concerning the future life.最显着的巴列维作品属于这里是Dinkard(宗教徒),从第九世纪的基督教时代的约会; Bundahishn,“独创”,在基督教时代第十一或十二世纪完成的,但包含的旧料如阿维斯塔本身,部分作为一个原nasks版本;的Mainog - I - Khirad(智慧灵),对宗教的信仰问题会议和阿尔达Viraf Namak,一类拜火教“神曲“,这是特别重要,因为其对未来生活的波斯思想帐户。 There is also some later Zoroastrian literature in modern Persian, comprising works like the Zartushtnamah (Book of Zoroaster), the Sad-dar (Hundred Doors, or Chapters), the Rivayats (traditional treatises).也有一些在现代文学波斯拜火教后,包括像Zartushtnamah(琐罗亚斯德的书),伤心,DAR(百门,或章节),在Rivayats(传统论文)的作品。

LANGUAGE语言

The language of the Avesta is best designated simply as Avestan, not as Zend, for the reasons given in the beginning of this article.阿维斯塔的语言是最好的指定仅仅作为Avestan,还不如Zend的,在本文开头所提出的理由。Nor is Old Bactrian a desirable term, since it is by no means proved that the language of the Avesta was spoken in ancient Bactria.也不是一个理想的双峰旧术语,因为它是由证明的阿维斯塔语言讲古代巴克特里亚绝不是。The Avestan language is an Indo-Germanic tongue and belongs more specifically to the Iranian group, the other members being the Old Persian of the cuneiform inscriptions, the Pahlavi, and Pazend (or Middle Iranian), and the later dialects, New Persian, Kurdish, Afghan, etc. The Avestan speech is very closely related to Sanskrit; in fact, we are able to transpose any word from one language into the other by the application of special phonetic laws.该Avestan语言是印度 - 日耳曼舌头,属于更具体的伊朗团体,其他成员正在对楔形文字铭文古波斯语,巴列维,并Pazend(或中东伊朗),以及后来的方言,新波斯语,库尔德语,阿富汗等Avestan讲话是非常密切相关的梵文,事实上,我们可以转成任何一种语言,由特殊的拼音法的适用等字。 The script employed in the Avestan texts, as five have them, is not so old as the language itself, but dates from the Sassanian period.在Avestan文本就业,为他们五人,该脚本不如老的语言本身,而是来自萨珊时期的日期。 It is read from right to left and can be traced ultimately to a Semitic sources.它是由右至左读,可以追溯到一个犹太人的最终来源。 It is not known in what script the original Avesta was recorded.它不知道在什么脚本原阿维斯塔记录。

ZOROASTER琐罗亚斯德

It can no longer be doubted that Zoroaster was a real historical personage.它可以不再怀疑,琐罗亚斯德是一个真正的历史人物。The attempts of some scholars to represent him as a mythical being have failed, even though much that is related about his life is legendary, as in the case of Buddha.一些学者试图将其表示为一个神话被他失败了,尽管很多是关于他的生活相关的是传说中的佛案。The man Zoroaster in the original texts appears as Zarathushtra, from which Zoroaster, our present form of the prophet's name, is derived through the Greek and Latin.在对原文的人琐罗亚斯德显示为Zarathushtra,从中琐罗亚斯德,我们的先知的名字目前的形式,是通过希腊和拉丁而得。 The Avesta always writes Zarathushtra; the Pahlavi has Zartusht; the modern Persian, Zardusht.在阿维斯塔总是写Zarathushtra;的巴列维已Zartusht;现代波斯语,Zardusht。What the meaning of the name is, cannot be stated positively.什么名字的意思是,不能说肯定。All that we know is that the name is a compound, and that the second element, ushtra, means "camel", the first part has been variously rendered as "old", "lively", "golden", "ploughing", etc. There has been much discussion as to the date when the prophet lived.所有我们知道的是,这个名字是一种化合物,而第二个元素,ushtra,意思是“骆驼”,第一部分已经被不同地呈现为“老”,“活泼”,“金婚”,“耕耘”等有已被的日期时,先知住得沸沸扬扬。 The traditional date in the Pahlavi books places his era between the earlier half of the seventh and the sixth century BC, or, more specially, 660-583 BC; but many scholars assign him to a century, or even several centuries, earlier.在传统的巴列维书籍的地方日期间的第七同期的一半,公元前六世纪,或者更特别,660-583 BC他的时代,但许多学者指派他到一个世纪,甚至几百年,早。There is much uncertainty regarding his birthplace and the details of his life.有很多不确定性他的出生地和他的生活细节。He was undoubtly born in Western Iran.他undoubtly出生在伊朗西部。From Western Iran, more specifically Azerbaijan (the ancient Atropatene) he seems to have gone Ragha (Rai) in Media, and even his mission did not meet with success in that region he turned to the East, to Bactria.从伊朗西部,更具体阿塞拜疆(古Atropatene),他似乎已经消失在媒体Ragha(RAI),甚至他的任务并没有满足,他在该地区转向东,巴克特里亚成功。 There a certain king named named Vishtaspa became converted to his creed, the generous patronage of this powerful defender of the faith the new religion soon gained a firm footing.有一定的国王命名的命名Vishtaspa转换成了他的信条,这种信仰的强大后卫的慷慨赞助的新的宗教很快就获得了坚定的基础。 Presumably the faith was carried from Bactria to Media, whence it spread into Persia and was accepted in all probability by the great Achaemenian kings.大概是从巴克特里亚的信念进行到媒体,从那里它传播到波斯,并在所有的概率接受伟大Achaemenian国王。In the case of Cyrus there is some doubt whether he was adherent of Zoroastrian law, but Darius was a pronounced Mazda-worshipper and presumably, therefore, a true Zoroastrian, as we know that the last kings of the Achaemenian dynasty were genuine followers of the religion.在居鲁士的情况下有一些人怀疑他是拜火教法贴壁,但大流士是一个明显的马自达崇拜者和推测,因此,一个真正的拜火教,因为我们知道,Achaemenian王朝的最后一个国王都是真正的信徒宗教。 If tradition can be believed, Zoroaster began his ministry at the age of thirty, made a convert, when he was forty-two, of King Vishtaspa, and was slain at the age of seventy-seven, when the Turanians stormed Balkh.如果传统可以相信,琐罗亚斯德开始在三十岁他的部,做了一个转换,当他42王Vishtaspa,并在被杀害的77岁,当Turanians冲进巴尔赫。 This account of the prophet's death is given, at least, by Firdausi.这种先知的死亡帐号加入,至少由Firdausi。

Under the kings of the Achaemenian line the religion founded by Zoroaster became one of the great religions of the ancient East.根据国王的Achaemenian线由琐罗亚斯德创立的宗教成为了古代东方的伟大的宗教之一。But it shared the fate of the Persian monarchy, it was shattered, though not overthrown, by the conquest of Alexander and fell consequently into neglect under the Seleucid and Parthian dynasties.但是,共享的波斯君主制度的命运,它被震碎,但没有被推翻,由亚历山大征服和落入下塞琉古和帕提亚王朝因而忽视。 With the accession of the Sassanian dynasty it met with a great revival.随着波斯萨珊王朝加入它遇到了一个伟大的复兴。The kings ot the house of Sassan were zealous believers and did everything in their power to spread the faith as a national creed, so that its prosperity rose again to the zenith. OT的Sassan房子的国王也被热心的信徒和他们的一切力量来传播作为国家信条的信仰,因此,它的繁荣又回升到了顶点。Sectarian movements, to be sure, were not lacking.,可以肯定的,宗派运动并不是缺乏。The heresy of Mazdak for a moment imperilled the union of the Zoroastrian Church and State, and Manichaeism, that menace of early Christian orthodoxy, also threatened the ascendancy of the Iranian national faith, which was really its parent.对于危害的拜火教教会与国家联盟片刻异端Mazdak和摩尼教,即早期基督教正统的威胁,也威胁到伊朗的国家信仰优势,这是真正的父母。 These dangers, however, were only temporary and of minor importance as compared with the Arab conquest, which followed in the seventh century (651) and dealt the fatal blow from which Zoroastrianism never recovered.这些危险,然而,只是暂时性的轻微的重要性,并与阿拉伯征服,而随后在第七世纪(651)和处理的致命一击从中祆教再也没有恢复过来比较。 The victorious followers of Mohammed carried on their proselytizing campaign with relentless vigour.穆罕默德追随者的胜利对他们进行无情的活力与传教活动。The few Zoroastrians who stood firmly by their faith were oppressed and persecuted.该谁站在他们的信仰坚定少数拜火教受压迫和迫害。Some remained, and were scattered throughout their native land; but the majority took refuge in India, where their descendants, the Parsees, are found even at the present day.一些仍然存在,在整个故土分散,但多数发生在印度避难,他们的后裔,帕西,甚至在现今发现。About 10,000 are here and there throughout Persia, chiefly at Yazd and Kirman, but the bulk of the Zoroastrians, upwards of 90,000 souls, constitute a prosperous community in India, chiefly at Bombay.约10 000人在这里和那里整个波斯主要在亚兹德和Kirman,但大部分的拜火教,向上90,000灵魂,构成了一个在印度繁荣的社会,主要是在孟买。

Publication information Written by Arthur FJ Remy.出版信息书面亚瑟FJ雷米。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫体育托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


The Theological Aspects of the Avesta在神学方面的阿维斯塔

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. GOD一,神

The name of the Supreme God of the Avestic system is Ahura Mazda (in the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, Auramazda), which probably signifies the All-Wise Lord.该系统的Avestic最高神的名字是阿胡拉马自达(在阿契美尼德王室铭文,Auramazda),这可能标志着全智主。 This divine name was later modified into the Pahlavi form Auharmazd, the modern Persian Ormuzd (Greek Oromazes).这个神圣的名字后来被改装成的巴列维形式Auharmazd,现代波斯语Ormuzd(希腊Oromazes)。 Hence the name of Mazdeism commonly applied to Avestic religion.因此,对Mazdeism名称通常适用于Avestic宗教。

Ahura Mazda is a pure spirit; His chief attributes are eternity, wisdom, truth, goodness, majesty, power.阿胡拉马自达是一个纯粹的精神,他的主要属性是永恒的,智慧,真,善,威严,力量。He is the Creator (datar) of the all good creatures - not, however, of Evil, or evil beings.他是所有生物的创造者好(达塔尔) - 不,但是,邪恶,或邪恶的生命。He is the supreme Lawgiver, the Rewarder of moral good, and the Punisher of moral evil.他是至高无上的立法者,道德良好的赏赐,以及道德上的邪恶处罚。He dwells in Eternal Light; in the later literature light is spoken of as the clothing of Ahura Mazda or even His "body", ie a kind of manifestation of His presence, like the Old Testament Shekinah.他居住在永恒之光,在以后的参照文献是作为阿胡拉马自达衣服,甚至他的“身体”,即体现了他的存在像旧约舍吉拿,善良发言。 In this same patristic (Pahlavi) literature we find frequent enumerations of the attributes of Ahura Mazda; thus these are said to be "omniscience, omnipotence, all-sovereignty, all-goodness".在此相同的教父(巴列维)文献,我们发现了阿胡拉马自达频繁枚举的属性,因此这些据说是“无所不知,无所不能,全主权,全善”。 Again He is styled "Supreme Sovereign, Wise Creator, Supporter, Protector, Giver of good things, Virtuous in act, Merciful, Pure Lawgiver, Lord of the good Creations".他又自称是“最高主权,智者创造者,支持者,保护者,对美好事物的赐予者在采取行动,善良,仁慈,纯立法者,对好的创意王”。

II. II。DUALISM二元论

It has been remarked above that Ahura Mazda is the Creator of all good creatures.据上述表示的阿胡拉马自达是一切良好的生物的创造者。This at once indicates the specific and characteristic feature of the Avestic theology generally known as "dualism".这一次表明了一般称为“二元论”之称的Avestic神学具体的一个特征。The great problem of the origin of evil which has ever been the main stumbling-block of religious systems, was solved in the Zoroastrian Reform by the trenchant, if illogical, device of two separate creators and creations: one good, the other evil.对其中曾经一直是主要的宗教制度绊脚石邪恶的起源大问题,是解决了犀利,在拜火教改革,如果不符合逻辑的,设备的两个独立的创作者和作品:一好,其他邪恶。 Opposed to Ahura Mazda, or Ormuzd, is His rival, Anro Mainyus (later, Aharman, Ahriman), the Evil Spirit.反对阿胡拉马自达,或Ormuzd,是他的对手,Anro Mainyus(后来,Aharman,阿里曼),邪恶的精神。 He is conceived as existing quite independently of Ahura Mazda, apparently from eternity, but destined to destruction at the end of time.他设想,现有相当独立的阿胡拉马自达,显然是从永恒,却注定在时间结束的破坏。Evil by nature and in every detail the exact opposite of Ahura Mazda, he is the creator of all evil, both moral and physical.生性邪恶,在每一个细节的阿胡拉马自达正好相反,他是一切罪恶的创造者,道义和物质。Zoroaster in the Gathas says (Ys., xlv, 2, Jackon's translation):在Gathas琐罗亚斯德说(Ys.,XLV,2,Jackon的翻译):

Now shall I preach of the World's two primal Spirits,现在我应该鼓吹世界的两个原始精神,

The Holier one of which did thus address the Evil:其中之一的圣洁没有因此解决危机:

Neither do our minds, our teachings, nor our concepts,也没有我们的头脑,我们的教诲,也没有我们的观念,

Nor our beliefs, nor words, nor do our deeds in sooth,和我们的信仰,也不是文字,也没有在安抚我们的行为,

Nor yet our consciences, nor souls agree in aught.但我们也没有良心,也不同意在任何事物的灵魂。

It is here to be remarked that the specific name of Ahura Mazda in opposition to the Evil Spirit is Spento Mainyus, the Holy Spirit, and Ahura Mazda and Spento Mainyus are used as synonyms throughout the Avesta.正是在这里要指出的是,阿胡拉马自达,反对邪恶的精神的具体名称是Spento Mainyus,圣灵,和阿胡拉马自达和Spento Mainyus作为整个阿维斯塔同义词使用。The obviously illogical doctrine of two separate and supreme creators eventually led to certain philosophical attempts to reduce the double system to uniformity.两个独立的和至高无上的创造者,显然不符合逻辑的学说最终导致一定的哲学试图减少双系统的一致性。One of these consisted in throwing back the Divine unity to an anterior stage in which Zrvana Akarana, "illimitable time", becomes the single, indifferent, primordial source from which both spirits proceed.其中之一包括在投掷回神统一到前阶段,Zrvana Akarana,“illimitable时间”,成为单一,冷漠,这两种原始来源的精神进行。Another solution was sought in attributing two spirits (faculties or functions) to Ahura Mazda himself, his Spento Mainyus and his Anro Mainyus, or his creative and destructive spirit -- an idea probably borrowed from lndian philosophy.另一种解决方案是在归属two精神(院系或功能),以阿胡拉马自达自己的追捧,他的Spento Mainyus和他的Anro Mainyus,还是他的创造性和破坏性的精神 - 一个想法可能是借用lndian理念。This seems the favourite doctrine of the modern Parsees of Bombay, as may be seen in Mr. Navroji Maneckji Kanga's article in the "Babylonian and Oriental Record" for May, 1900 (VIII, 224-28), and it is claimed to be strictly founded on teaching of the Gathas; but although such a development of thought a real monotheism with the Zoroastrian dualism, these theories cannot really be called Avestic at all, except in so far as Zrvana Akarana is an Avestic term.这似乎是孟买的帕西人最喜爱的现代主义,可能会看到先生Navroji Maneckji坎加的,在“东方巴比伦和记录”五月,1900(第八,224-28)的文章,并声称要严格建立在对Gathas教学,但尽管这样的发展思路与祆教二元论真正的一神论,这些理论并不能真正被称为Avestic在所有除在尽量Zrvana Akarana是Avestic术语。They are "patristic" or "scholastic".他们是“教父”或“学术”。The result of the dualistic conception of the universe is that of a continuous warfare that has been going on even from the beginning between two hostile worlds or camps.对宇宙的二元概念的结果是连续作战,已准备从两个敌对的世界之间或营地开始甚至认为。All creatures belong to one or another of the camps, not only sentient and intelligent beings, like the spirit and man, but also the animal and the vegetable worlds.所有的动物属于一个或另一个营地,不仅有情和智慧生物,和人一样的精神,也是动物和植物世界。All dangerous, noxious, poisonous animals and plants are evil by their very creation and nature.所有的危险,有害,有毒的动物和植物都是由他们创造和性质非常邪恶。[We see here the primal germ of Manichæism.[我们在这里看到的摩尼教原始胚芽。Mani was a heretic of the Mazdean faith (AD 258).玛尼是一个信仰邪教的Mazdean(公元258)。This "heresy" is often reprobated in the Pahlavi religious books, together with Judaism and Christianity.] Hence - in sharp contrast to the Hindi ahimsa, a characteristic tenet of Buddhism, which prohibits the killing of any creature, even the smallest and the most noxious insect - to kill as many as possible of the Khrafstras, or noxious creatures of the Evil Spirit (such as wolves, serpents, snakes, locusts, intestinal worms, ants), is one of the most meritorious of religious actions.这种“异端”往往reprobated在巴列维宗教书籍,连同犹太教和基督教]因此 - 在鲜明的对比,印地文不杀生,是佛教,禁止任​​何生物造成特点宗旨,即使是最小和最有害昆虫 - 杀象的​​Khrafstras,或邪恶的精神(如狼,蛇,蛇,蝗虫,肠虫,蚂蚁)有害生物尽可能多的,是最宗教活动有功之一。This great warfare, both spiritual and material, will go on to the end of time.这个伟大的战争,无论是精神和物质,会去到结束的时间。 It is to end in a final triumph of the Good and the annihilation (apparently) of Evil, including Anro Mainyus himself.这是结束在一个良好的最终胜利和罪恶湮没(显然),包括Anro Mainyus自己。Such at least is the teaching in the later "patristic" literature.这样至少是在后来的“教父”文学教学。

III. III。ANGELOLOGY天使

Dualism in its widest sense seems to be an inherent and ineradicable tendency of the Iranian mind.在其最广泛意义上的二元论似乎是对伊朗的心态和根深蒂固的固有倾向。Almost everything is conceived in pairs or doubles.几乎一切都孕育于成对或双打。Hence the constant reference to the "Two Worlds", the spiritual and the material.因此,不断提及“两个世界”的精神和物质。 The doctrine of the Spirit World, whether belonging to the good or the evil creation, is highly developed in the Avesta and subsequent literature.该学说的心灵世界,无论是属于好或邪恶的创造,是高度发达的阿维斯塔和以后的文献。Around Ahura Mazda is a whole hierarchy of spirits, corresponding very closely with our "angels".约阿胡拉马自达是一个整体的精神层次,相应的与我们的“天使”非常密切的合作。There is, however, this to be noted, that in the Zoroastrian system many of these creature-spirits are demonstrably old Aryan nature deities who have been skilfully transformed into angels, and so fitted into a monotheistic framework, frequently enough, in hymns and other passages, by the simple interpolation of the epithet Mazdadata (created by Mazda), before their names.有,然而,这是指出,拜火教,在这些生物系统,明显精神许多老雅利安性质谁被巧妙地转化为天使,等装成一神论的框架赞美诗,足够频繁,和其他神通道,由绰号Mazdadata(由马自达创建),在其名称的简单插值。 Of the good spirits who surround Ahura, the most important are the Amesha Spentas ("Holy Immortals" or "Immortal Saints") generally reckoned as six (though Ahura Mazda himself is frequently included among them, and they are then called seven).谁环绕阿胡拉的精神状态良好,最重要的是六圣神(“圣仙”或“不朽的圣人”),一般6个(虽然阿胡拉马自达自己经常包括在他们,他们便叫做七)计算。 These are the characteristic genii of the Gathas and their very names show that they are merely personified attributes of the Creator Himself.这是该Gathas特征天才和他们的名字表明,他们很只是人格化的造物主自己的属性。 They are: Vohu Manah (Good Mind), Asha Vahishta (Best Holiness), Khshathra Vairya (Desirable Sovereignty), Spenta Armaiti (Holy Piety, a female spirit), Haurvatat (Health), and Ameretat (Immortality).它们是:Vohu Manah(好记),阿沙Vahishta(最佳圣洁),Khshathra Vairya(可取主权),Spenta Armaiti(神圣的虔诚,女性精神),Haurvatat(卫生),并Ameretat(不朽)。 In the Younger Avesta and later traditional literature these evident personifications, whose very names are but abstract nouns, become more and more concrete personages or genii, with varying functions, most of all Vohu Manah (Vohuman) rises to a position of unique importance.在雅戈尔阿维斯塔,后来这些传统的文学明显人格化,其只是抽象的名词,越来越具体的人物或天才具有不同功能,非常的名字,所有Vohu Manah(Vohuman)上升到最重要的独特地位。Dr. LH Gray, however, argues, in a very striking article, that even these are evolutions of original naturalistic deities [Archiv für religions wissenschaft (Leipzig, 1904), VII, 345-372].格雷博士LH,但认为,在一个非常引人注目的文章,即使这些都是原来的[论坛存档献给宗教wissenschaft(莱比锡,1904年),VII,345-372]自然神变阵。 In later patristic literature Vohu Manah is conceived as the "Son of the Creator" and identified with the Alexandrine Logos.在以后的教父文学Vohu Manah被看作是“造物主之子”,并与亚历山大标志标识。(See Casartelli, Philosophy of the Mazdayasnian Religion, 42-90.) Asha, also (the equivalent of the Sanskrit Rta=Dharma), is the Divine Law, Right, Sanctity (cf. Ps. cxviii), and occupies a most conspicuous position throughout the Avesta. (见Casartelli,宗教哲学的Mazdayasnian,42-90。)阿莎,也(即梵文RTA =佛法​​当量),是神圣的法律,右,圣洁(参见聚苯乙烯。cxviii),并占据了最显眼位置在整个阿维斯塔。

But besides the Amesha Spentas, there are a few other archangels whose rank is scarcely less, if it does not sometimes exceed theirs.但除了六圣神,也有少数的排名几乎是少,如果它不有时会超过他们的其他大天使。Such is Sraosha ("Obedience" - ie to the divine Law).这就是Sraosha(“服从” - 即神法)。With him are associated, in a trio, Rashnu (Right, Justice) and Mithra.与他有关联,在一个三重奏,Rashnu(右,司法部)和密特拉。 This last is perhaps the most characteristic, as he is the most enigmatical, figure of the Iranian angelology.最后这也许是最具特色的,因为他是最阴阳怪气,伊朗天使的身影。Undoubtedly in origin (like the Vedic Mitra) a Sun-deity of the primitive Aryan nature-worship, he has been taken over into the Avesta system as the Spirit of Light and Truth - the favourite and typical virtue of the Iranian race, as testified even by the Greek historians.毫无疑问,在原产地(如吠陀米特拉)对原始的雅利安人自然崇拜太阳神,他已经接手到与光与真理的圣灵阿维斯塔系统 - 伊朗比赛最喜欢的和典型的美德,为作证甚至由希腊历史学家。So important is his position that he is constantly linked with Ahura Mazda himself, apparently almost as an equal, in a manner recalling some of the divine couples of the Vedas.因此,重要的是他的位置,他不断与阿胡拉马自达自己的联系,显然几乎是平等的,在地回顾了吠陀神圣的夫妇一些。It is well known how in later times the Mithra cult became a regular religion and spread from Persia all over the Roman Empire, even into Britain.众所周知,如何在以后的时代的密特拉崇拜变成一个普通的宗教和罗马帝国各地,甚至到英国从波斯传播。[See, especially, Cumont's great work, Monuments relatifs au culte de Mithra" (Paris, 1893).] Nor must mention be omitted of Atars, the Genius of Fire, on account of the particular importance and sanctity attached to fire as a symbol of the divinity and its conspicuous use in the cult (which has given rise to the entirely erroneous conception of Zoroastrianism as "Fire-worship", and of the Parsees as "Fire-worshippers"). Water, Sun, Moon, Stars, the sacred Haoma plant (Skt. Soma), and other natural elements all have their special spirits. But particular mention must be made of the enigmatical Farvashis, the origin and nature of whom is still uncertain. Some writers [especially Soderblom, "Les Fravashis" (Paris, 1899); "La vie future" (Paris, 1901)] have seen in them the spirits of the departed, like the dii manes, or the Hindu pitris. But, as a matter of fact, their primal conception seems to approach nearest to the pre-existent Ideai of Plato. Every living creature has its own Fravashi, existing before its creation; nay in some places inanimate beings, and, stranger still, Ahura Mazda Himself, have their Fravashis. They play an important role in both the psychology and the ritual cult of Mazdeism.[见,特别是Cumont的伟大的工作,古迹relatifs AU culte德密特拉“(巴黎,1893年)。]也必须提到省略的Atars,消防天才上的特殊重要性和重视神圣的帐户,以火为标志在神性和突出使用邪教(这已引起了祆教完全错误的概念为“火崇拜”,及“消防崇拜者”的帕西),水,太阳,月亮,星星,圣豪马厂(梵文SOMA),以及其他自然元素都有其特殊的精神,但特别提到必须是阴阳怪气Farvashis了,人的起源和本质仍然是不确定的,有些[特别Soderblom作家,“莱斯Fravashis” (巴黎,1899年);“拉争夺未来”(巴黎,1901年)]已经看到他们的离去精神像DII鬃毛,或印度教pitris,但是,事实上,他们的原始概念似乎。办法最接近柏拉图前期存在Ideai每个生物都有自己的Fravashi,在其创作存在;不仅如此,有些地方没有生命的生命,而且,更奇怪的是,阿胡拉马自达自己,他们有他们Fravashis发挥重要作用。无论是心理和Mazdeism邪教仪式。

Face to face with the hierarchy of celestial spirits is a diabolical one, that of the daevas (demons, Pahlavi and Mod. Persian div or dev) and druj's of the Evil Spirit.面对面与精神层次的天体是一个恶魔般的,对daevas(恶魔,巴列维和Mod。波斯格或发展)和druj的魔就是这样。 They fill exactly the places of the devils in Christian and Jewish theology.他们填写正是在基督教和犹太教神学的鬼子的地方。 Chief of them is Aka Manah (Pahlavi Akoman, "Evil Mind"), the direct opponent of Vohu Manah.其中最主要的是阿卡Manah(巴列维Akoman,“邪恶思想”),对Vohu Manah直接对手。Perhaps the most frequently mentioned of all is Aeshma, the Demon of Wrath or Violence, whose name has come down to us in the Asmodeus (Aeshmo daeva) of the Book of Tobias (iii, 8).也许最经常提到的都是Aeshma,愤怒或暴力的恶魔,他的名字已回落在书的托比亚斯(三,8)Asmodeus(Aeshmo daeva)给我们。The Pairikas are female spirits of seductive but malignant nature, who are familiar to us finder the form of the Peris of later Persian poetry and Iegend.该Pairikas是女性精神的诱惑,但恶性的性质,谁是我们熟悉的Finder中的后来波斯诗歌和Iegend的佩里斯形式。

IV. IV。MAN MAN

In the midst of the secular warfare that has gone on from the beginning between the two hosts of Good and Evil stands Man.在世俗的战争已经历了从善恶之间的两台主机开始的中间立场的人。Man is the creature of the Good Spirit, but endowed with a free will and power of choice, able to place himself on the side of Ahura Mazda or on that of Anro Mainyus.人是生物的良好的精神状态,但有一个自由意志和力量的选择,能够放在一边的阿胡拉马自达或在Anro Mainyus认为自己有实力。The former has given him, through His prophet Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) His Divine revelation and law is (daena).前者给了他,通过他的先知Zarathushtra(琐罗亚斯德),他的神的启示和法律是(daena)。According as man obeys or disobeys this Divine law his future lot will be decided; by it he will be judged at his death.据服从或不服从的人这个神圣的法律他的未来会有很多决定;通过它,他将在他的死亡来判断。The whole ethical system is built upon this great principle, as in the Christian theology.整个道德体系是建立在这个伟大的原则,在基督教神学。Moral good, righteousness, sanctity (asha) is according to the Divine will and decrees; Man by his free will conforms to, or transgresses, these.道德好,义,圣洁(ASHA)是根据神的意志和法令;他的自由意志,人符合或transgresses,这些。The Evil Spirit and his innumerable hosts tempt Man to deny or transgress the Divine law, as he tempted Zoroaster himself, promising him as reward the sovereignty of the whole world.在邪恶的精神,他无数主机诱惑人否认或违背法律的神圣,因为他动心琐罗亚斯德本人,希望他作为奖励整个世界的主权。- "No!"- “不!”replied the Prophet, "I will not renounce it, even if body and soul and life should be severed!"先知回答说,“我不会放弃它,即使身体和灵魂和生命,应切断!”(Vendidad, xix, 25, 26). (Vendidad,十九,2​​5,26)。It is well to emphasize this basis of Avestic moral theology, because it at once marks off the Avesta system from the fatalistic systems of India with their karma and innate pessimism.它可以很好地强调这种Avestic道德神学的基础,因为它在一次过由印度与他们的业力和天生的悲观宿命论系统阿维斯塔系统标志。 [See Casartelli, "Idée du péché chez les Indo-Eraniens" (Fribourg, 1898.)]. [见Casartelli,“衣蝶杜péché桑切斯莱印Eraniens”(弗里堡,1898年)]。A characteristic note of Iranian religious philosophy is its essential optimism; if there is human sin, there is also repentance and expiation.伊朗宗教哲学的特点注意的是它的基本乐观,如果有人类罪,也有悔改和赎罪。 In the later Pahlavi religious literature there is a proper confession of sin (patet) and a developed casuistry.在后来的巴列维宗教文学有一种罪(patet)和发达的诡辩适当的自白。Asceticism, however, finds no place therein.禁欲主义,但是,没有发现其中的地方。

Divine worship, with elaborate ritual, is an essential duty of man towards his Creator.神的崇拜,礼仪与阐述,是一个人对他的创造者基本职责。There is indeed no animal sacrifice; the leading rites are the offering of the quasi-divine haoma (the fermented juice of the a sacred plant, a species of Asclepias), the exact counterpart of the Vedic soma-sacrifice; the care of the Sacred Fire, the chanting of the ritual hymns and prayers, and passages of the Sacred Books (Avesta).确实是有没有动物的牺牲,领导仪式的准神豪马(一种神圣的植物,种了马利发酵汁),对吠陀苏摩牺牲的确切对应祭的神圣护理火灾发生后,仪式的赞美诗和祈祷,以及(阿维斯塔)圣书经文呗。

The moral teaching is closely akin to our own.道德教学是密切类似于我们自己。Stress is constantly laid on the necessity of goodness in thought, word, and deed (humata, hakhta, hvarshta) as opposed to evil thought, word, and deed (dushmata, duzhukhta, duzhvarshta).压力是不断的在思想奠定了必要的善,字和契税(humata,hakhta,hvarshta),而不是邪恶的思想,言语,和行为(dushmata,duzhukhta,duzhvarshta)。 Note the emphatic recognition of sin in thought.请注意在思想罪有力的认可。Virtues and vices are enumerated and estimated much as in Christian ethics.美德与恶习列举和估计高达基督教道德。Special value is attributed to the virtues of religion, truthfulness, purity and generosity to the poor.特殊的价值,是因为宗教,真实,纯洁和慷慨的穷人的美德。Heresy, untruthfulness, perjury, sexual sins, violence, tyranny are specially reprobated.异端,不真实,伪证罪,性罪,暴力,专制是专门reprobated。Zoroaster's reform being social as well as religious agriculture and farming are raised to the rank of religious duties and regarded as spiritually meritorious.琐罗亚斯德的改革是社会以及宗教农业和农业是提高到了宗教职务职级和精神上立功认为。The same will account for the exaggerated importance, almost sanctity, attached to the dog.同样将占夸张的重要性,几乎神圣附着在狗。On the other hand, the one repulsive feature of Avestic morality is the glorification, as a religious meritorious act, of the Khvaetva-datha, which is nothing else than intermarriage between the nearest of kin, even brothers and sisters.另一方面,一个道德的Avestic令人厌恶的特点是美化,作为一个宗教立功行为,对Khvaetva - datha,这无非都是近亲通婚之间的距离最近,甚至兄弟姐妹。In later times this practice was entirely repudiated by the modern Parsees.在稍后的时间这种做法是完全否定的现代帕西。

V. ESCHATOLOGY五,末世

After death the disembodied soul hovers around the corpse for three days.死后尸体周围的无形的灵魂徘徊了三天。Then it sets off across the Cinvat bridge to meet its judgment and final doom in the world beyond the grave.然后它设置在整个Cinvat桥断,以满足其判断和超越世界总决赛的严重厄运。The three judges of souls are Mithra, Sraosha, and Rashnu.灵魂的三个法官密特拉,Sraosha和Rashnu。The soul of the just passes safely over the bridge into a happy eternity, into heaven (Auhu vahishta, Garo nmana), the abode of Ahura and His blessed angels.灵魂的只是安全地传递到了一个幸福的永恒的桥梁,进入天堂(Auhu vahishta,加罗nmana),在阿胡拉和他的祝福天使居留权。The wicked soul falls from the fatal bridge and is precipitated into hell (Duzh auhu).邪恶的灵魂瀑布从致命的桥梁,是地狱(Duzh auhu)沉淀。Of this abode of misery a lively description occurs in the later Pahlavi "Vision of Arda Viraf", whose visit to the Inferno, with the realistic description of its torments, vividly recalls that of Dante.这种痛苦居留权的生动描述发生在后来的巴列维,其访问的地狱“的阿尔达Viraf视野”,与它的痛苦现实的描述,生动地回顾了但丁的。 The state called Hamestakan, or Middle State, does not appear in Avesta itself, but is a development of the later patristic theology.所谓Hamestakan,或中东国家的状态,不会出现在阿维斯塔本身,而是一种后来的教父神学的发展。It is not, however, conceived, exactly as our Purgatory, but rather as an indifferent state for those whose good and evil deeds are found at death to be in perfect equilibrium.它不是,但是,设想,正是因为我们的炼狱,而是作为对于那些善恶事迹淡漠状态是在发现死在完美均衡。They are therfore neither in suffering nor in happiness.他们therfore既不痛苦也不快乐。At the end of time, the approach of which is described in the Pahlavi literature in terms strikingly like those of our Apocalypse, will come to the last Prophet, Saosyant (Saviour) under whom all occur the Ressurection of the Dead (Frashokereti), the General Judgment the apokatastasis or renewal of the whole world by the great conflagration of the earth and consequent flood of burning matter.在年底的时候,其方法是在在惊人地像我们启示这些条款巴列维文学描述,谁就最后先知,Saosyant(救世主)根据谁所有发生的死者(Frashokereti),复活一般判决的apokatastasis或整个世界重建的地球和随之而来的洪水燃烧物质极大大火。 According to the Pahlavi sources, this terrible flood will purify all creatures; even the wicked will be cleansed and added to the "new heavens and the new earth".据巴列维人士透露,这种可怕的洪水将所有的生物净化,甚至邪恶的将进行清理,并添加到“新天新地”。Meanwhile a mighty combat takes place between Saoshyant and his followers and the demon hosts of the Evil Spirit, who are utterly routed and destroyed forever.同时,一个强大的作战需要和他的追随者之间Saoshyant和邪恶的灵,谁是完全路由和销毁永远妖主机的地方。 (See Yasht, xix and xiii) (见Yasht,十九及十三)

VI. VI。MAZDEISM AND THE PERSIAN KINGSMAZDEISM和波斯湾KINGS

It is frequently asserted or assumed that the Avesta religion as above sketched was the religion of Darius and the other Achaemenid Kings of Persia (549-336 BC) From the cuneiform inscriptions of these sovereigns (in the Old Persian language, a sister dialect of the Avestic Zend) we know pretty well what their religion was.这是经常断言或假设阿维斯塔宗教上面勾勒是大流士和其他阿契美尼德波斯(549-336 BC)王从这些主权国家的楔形文字铭文(在旧波斯语言,宗教的姐妹方言Avestic Zend的),我们知道他们的宗教是什么相当不错了。They proclaim themselves Mazdeans (Auramazdiya, Darius, Behistun Column, IV, 56); their Supreme God is Auramazda, greatest of gods (Mathishta baganam).他们自称Mazdeans(Auramazdiya,大流士,贝希斯敦列,四,56),它们的最高神是Auramazda,最伟大的神(Mathishta baganam)。He is Creator of all things - heaven, earth, and man - all things happen by His will (vashna); He sees and knows all things, man must obey His precepts (framana), and follow the "good way" (pathim rastam); man must invoke and praise Him; He hates sin, especially falsehood which is denounced as the chief ot sins, also insubordination and despotism.他是万物的创造者 - 天,地,人 - 所有的事情发生了,他将(vashna),他看到并知道所有的东西,人必须服从他的戒律(framana),并按照“好办法”(pathim拉斯塔姆);人必须调用和赞美他,他痛恨罪恶,特别是谎言这是作为行政OT罪,也违抗命令和专制主义的谴责。 Inferior spirits are associated with Him, "clan gods" and particularly Mithra and Anahita.劣质白酒是与他有关,“氏族神”,特别是密特拉和Anahita。Yet, with all these close similarities, we must hesitate to consider the two religious systems are identical.然而,所有这些密切的相似性,我们必须毫不犹豫地考虑这两个宗教制度是相同的。For in this Achaemenid inscriptions there is absolutely no trace of the dualism which is the characteristic and all-prevailing feature of the Avesta, and no allusion whatever to the great prophet Zoroaster, or the revelation of which he was the mouthpiece.对于这个阿契美尼德铭文完全没有一丝的二元论这是阿维斯塔特点和全通行功能,并没有提到任何的伟大先知琐罗亚斯德,或启示,其中他是喉舌。 The exact relation between the two systems remains enigmatical.两个系统之间的确切关系仍然阴阳怪气。

SUMMARY概要

"The highest religious result to which human reason unaided by revelation, can attain" is the deliberate verdict of a learned Jesuit theologian (Father Ernest Hull, SJ, in "Bombay Examiner" 28 March, 1903). “最高宗教结果是人类理性的启示外援,可以达到”是一个博学的耶稣会神学家(父亲欧内斯特赫尔,SJ,在“孟买考官”1903年3月28日)蓄意判决。 This estimate does not appear exaggerated.这个估计不会出现夸张。The Avesta system may be best defined as monotheism modified by a physical and moral dualism, with an ethical system based on a Divinely revealed moral code and human free will.在阿维斯塔系统可能是最好的定义是由一个身体和道德的二元论修改一神教,与上神透露道德准则和人类的自由意志为基础的道德体系。 As it is now followed by the living descendents of its first votaries, the Parsees of India, it is virtually the same as it appears in the Avesta itself, except that its monotheism is more rigid and determined, and that it has shed such objectionable practices as Khvetuk-das (Khvaetva-datha) and seeks to explain them away.由于现在是由它的第一个votaries,印度帕西人的生活后裔其次,它几乎是相同的,因为它在阿维斯塔本身的出现,除了它是更严格的一神论和决定,它已脱落等不良行为作为Khvetuk - DAS(Khvaetva - datha)和试图解释他们离开。A great revival in the knowledge of the old sacred languages (Zend and Pahlavi) which had become almost forgotten, has taken place during the past half-century under the stimulus of European scholarship, whose results have been widely adopted and assimilated.一个在旧的神圣语言(Zend和巴列维),它已成为几乎忘记了,知识的伟大复兴已在本欧洲奖学金,其结果刺激过去半个世纪的地方已被广泛采纳和吸收。 The religious cult is scrupulously maintained as of old.该邪教组织是严格保持作为老。The ancient traditional and characteristically national virtues of truth and open-handed generosity flourish exceedingly in the small, but highly intelligent, community.古老的民族传统和典型的事实和开放手慷慨的美德发扬光大,在极其小,但聪明绝顶,社区。

Publication information Written by LC Casartelli.出版信息LC Casartelli写。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫体育托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Zoroastrianism拜火教

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

The religion of ancient Persia as founded by Zoroaster; one of the world's great faiths that bears the closest resemblance to Judaism and Christianity.古代波斯的琐罗亚斯德教所创立,是世界上最伟大信仰一个熊最接近的相似犹太教和基督教。According to the tradition in the Parsee books, Zoroaster was born in 660 BC and died in 583; but many scholars claim that he must have flourished at a much earlier time.据在帕西书的传统,琐罗亚斯德出生于公元前660和583死亡,但许多学者宣称,他必须在更早的时间蓬勃发展。All investigators, however, are agreed that his teachings were generally in force throughout Iran before the time of the Jewish Captivity.所有调查员,但是,都同意他的教诲一般整个伊朗生效前的犹太人被关押的时间。His name in its ancient form in the Avesta is "Zarathustra," and in later Persian, "Zardusht"; the form "Zoroaster," which is now common, has been adopted from the Greek and Latin "Zoroastres."他在其在阿维斯塔古老形式的名称是“查拉图斯特拉”,并在以后的波斯语,“Zardusht”,其形式为“琐罗亚斯德”,这是现在常见的,已经从希腊和拉丁采用了“Zoroastres。” The native country of the prophet is now believed to have been Media, in western Iran, and there are reasons for claiming that his birthplace was in the province of Atropatene, the modern Azerbaijan; but much of his ministry, or rather most of his prophetic career, was passed in eastern Iran, especially in the region of Bactria, where he won a powerful patron for his religion.先知的祖国现在认为已经在伊朗西部媒体,并声称是有他的出生地在Atropatene,现代阿塞拜疆省的原因,但他的部多,或者说他的预言的最职业生涯中,是通过在伊朗东部,尤其是在巴克特里亚,在那里他赢得了他的宗教强大的靠山地区。 This defender of the faith was a king named Vishtaspa, or Gushtasp, a name identical with that of Hystaspes, the father of Darius, although the two personages are not to be confounded, as has sometimes been done.这种信仰的后卫是国王命名Vishtaspa,或Gushtasp,一个名字与Hystaspes,大流士的父亲一样,虽然这两个人物是不被混淆,因为有时被完成。

Tenets of the Faith.信条的信仰。

Zoroaster was originally a Magian priest, but he appears to have reformed or purified the creed of the Magi.琐罗亚斯德原是Magian牧师,但他似乎已经改革或净化了麦琪的信条。His religious teachings are preserved in the Avesta.他的宗教教义都保存在阿维斯塔。The character of the Persian religion before Zoroaster's time is not known, but a comparison with that of India shows that it must have had much in common with the early religion of the Hindus.而前琐罗亚斯德的时间波斯宗教性质尚不清楚,但与印度的比较表明,它必须有共同的印度教徒与早期的宗教了。It may be presumed that it was a modified nature-worship, with polytheistic features and some traces of demonistic beliefs.它可以假定这是一个修改与多神教信仰特点和demonistic一些痕迹自然崇拜。Herodotus ("Hist." i. 131 et seq.) states that the Persians from the earliest times worshiped the sun, moon, stars, and earth, and the waters and wind, and he intimates in precise words that they had borrowed certain religious elements from the Assyrians.希罗多德(“历史。”岛131起。)指出,从最早的时候,波斯人崇拜太阳,月亮,星星,大地和水,风,和他在精确的话,他们借来的内衣某些宗教元素从亚述人。 One or two superstitious practises which he describes, such as the propitiation of the powers of evil (ib. iii. 35, vii. 114), show survivals of demoniacal rites, against which Zoroaster so strongly inveighed; and the account which he gives of the Magian ceremonies is quite in accordance with Zoroastrianism. (。ib.三35,七114)一个或两个迷信做法,他介绍,如对邪恶的权力作了挽回祭,显示demoniacal仪式残余,反对如此强烈的琐罗亚斯德猛烈抨击,以及帐户,他给出了仪式是相当的Magian与祆教的规定。

The Kingdoms of Good and Evil.对善恶的王国。

One of the characteristic features of Zoroastrianism is the doctrine of dualism, recognizing the powers of good and evil as two personified principles at war with each other.对祆教的特征性表现之一是二元论学说,认识到良好的人格化的权力和作为两个在战争原则与对方邪恶。 Ahuramazda, or Ormuzd ("the Wise Lord"), leads the forces of good; Angra-Mainyu, or Ahriman ("the Spiritual Enemy"), heads the hosts of evil.Ahuramazda,或Ormuzd(“智者主”),引领着良好的力量;安格拉 - Mainyu,或阿里曼(“精神的敌人”),负责人的邪恶主机。Bands of angels and archangels follow the divine leader, while troops of demons and archfiends hasten after the evil lord.天使和大天使乐队跟随神的领导者,而恶魔和archfiends部队加速后的邪恶领主。The archangels are six in number and are called by the general name Amesha Spentas ("Immortal Holy Ones"); they are personifications of virtues and abstract ideas, and are named Vohu Manah ("Good Mind"), Asha Vahishta ("Perfect Righteousness"), Khshathra Vairya ("Wished-for Kingdom"), Spenta Armaiti (a feminine personification of harmony and the earth), Haurvatat ("Health," "Salvation"), and Ameretat ("Immortality").在大天使的数量六是由通用名称六圣神(“不朽的神圣一”)呼吁,它们是抽象的思想品德和人格化,并命名为Vohu Manah(“好记”),阿沙Vahishta(“完美的正义“),Khshathra Vairya(”希望换王国“),Spenta Armaiti(和谐与地球女性的化身),Haurvatat(”健康“,”拯救“),并Ameretat(”不朽“)。The angels and lesser divine beings are termed Yazatas ("Worshipful Ones") and are very numerous, although twenty-one of them are more prominent than the rest; these include divine embodiments of the sun, moon, stars, fire, earth, water and air, the spirits of the righteous (called "fravashis"), and also several abstract concepts, like victory, religion, kingly glory, and the divinity known as Mithra, an incarnation of light and truth.天使和较少天人被称为Yazatas(“尊贵一”),并非常多,虽然他们21顷比其他突出;其中包括神圣的化身,太阳,月亮,星星,火,土,水和空气,义人的精神(所谓的“fravashis”),以及一些抽象的概念也喜欢胜利,宗教,王道荣耀,作为密特拉,一个光明和真理的化身称为神。 The rabble of hell, led by Ahriman, is ill organized, and the chief archfiend, after Ahriman himself, is the demon Aeshma (Dæva), a name which is thought to be found in the Book of Tobit as Asmodeus, although this view is not accepted by some (see Asmodeus).地狱的乌合之众,由阿里曼领导,有组织的虐待,而行政archfiend后阿里曼自己,是恶魔Aeshma(Dæva),这一被认为是在为Asmodeus Tobit回归书找到的名字,但这种观点是不接受一些(见Asmodeus)。In addition to the six archfiends there is a legion of minor fiends and demons ("dæva," "druj").除了六个archfiends有一个小魔鬼和恶魔(“dæva”,“druj”)军团。

Millennial Doctrines.千年学说。

The conflict between the opposing kingdoms of light and darkness forms the history of the world, which lasts for 12,000 years and is divided into four great eons.在光明与黑暗之间的对立冲突王国形成了世界历史上,这将持续12000年,并划分为四个大永世。The first 3,000 years is the period of spiritual existence.第一3000年是精神的存在期限。Ormuzd knows of Ahriman's coexistence, and creates the world first in a spiritual state before giving it a material form, the "fravashis" being the models of the future types of things. Ormuzd知悉阿里曼的共存,并创建了世界第一的精神状态前,它的物质形态,“fravashis”是对事物未来类型的模型。Ahriman is ignorant of his great rival's existence, but on discovering this he counter-creates the hosts of demons and fiends.阿里曼是他的伟大对手的存在一无所知,但在发现这一点,他反创造的恶魔和恶魔的主机。In the second 3,000 years, while Ahriman and his host have been confounded by Ormuzd, the latter creates the world in its material form, and the world is then invaded by Ahriman.在第二3000年,而阿里曼和他的主人已被Ormuzd混淆,后者建立在其物质形态的世界,这个世界再由阿里曼入侵。 The third 3,000 years is the period of conflict between the rival powers and the struggle for the soul of man, until Zoroaster comes into the world.第三3000年是冲突的对手之间的权力和对人的灵魂的斗争时期,直到琐罗亚斯德到世上来的。His birth inaugurates a new era, and the fourth and last 3,000 years begins.他的诞生开创了一个新时代,第四个和最后3000年开始。 These final millennial eras are presided over by Zoroaster himself and his three posthumous sons, who are to be born in future ages in an ideal manner, the last being the Messiah called Saoshyant ("Savior," "Benefactor"; lit. "he who will benefit and save the world").这些最终的千年纪元的主持琐罗亚斯德本人和他的三个儿子死后,谁是要在未来的时代出生在一个理想的方式,最后被称为Saoshyant弥赛亚(“救主”,“恩人”,点燃 “他谁受惠,拯救世界“)。In its general bearings this dualistic scheme of the universe is theologically monotheistic in so far as it postulates the final predominance ofOrmuzd; and it is optimistic in its philosophy, inasmuch as it looks for a complete regeneration of the world.在其一般轴承这个宇宙二元计划在神学一神教到目前为止,因为它假设最终的优势ofOrmuzd,以及它是在其哲学乐观,因为它为一个完整的世界再生的样子。

In all this struggle man is the important figure; for the ultimate triumph of right depends upon him.在这一切斗争的人是重要人物,为最终的胜利后,他有权决定。He is a free agent according to Zoroaster ("Yasna," xxx. 20, xxxi. 11), but he must ever be on his guard against the misguidance of evil.他是一名自由球员根据琐罗亚斯德(“Yasna,”XXX 20,三十一11),但他必须永远不会对他的警惕邪恶的误导。The purpose of Zoroaster's coming into the world and the aim of his teaching are to guide man to choose aright, to lead him in the path of righteousness, in order that the world may attain to ultimate perfection.琐罗亚斯德的目的的未来走向世界和他的教学目的是引导人,以正确地选择,带领他的公义的道路,以便使世界向最终可能达到完美。 This perfection will come with the establishment of the Good Kingdom (Avesta, "Vohu Khshathra"), the Wished-for Kingdom (Avesta, "Khshathra Vairya"), or the Kingdom of Desire (Avesta, "Khshathra Ishtōish").这种完美会与英国建立了良好(阿维斯塔“Vohu Khshathra”),王国(阿维斯塔“Khshathra Vairya”),或欲望(阿维斯塔“Khshathra Ishtōish”)王国 - 为希望。When this shall come to pass the world will become regenerate (Avesta, "Ahūm Frashem Kar"; or "Frashōkereti"); a final battle between the powers of good and evil will take place; Ahriman and his hosts will be routed; and good shall reign supreme ("Yasht," xix. 89-93; Bundahis, xxx. 1-33).当这应成为过去,世界将变成再生(阿维斯塔“Ahūm Frashem家”,或“Frashōkereti”)之间的良好的权力和邪恶的最后一战会发生;阿里曼和他的主机将被路由;和良好应至高无上(“Yasht,”十九89-93;。Bundahis,XXX 1-33)。The advent of the Messiah (Saoshyant) will be accompanied by the resurrection of the dead and the general judgment of the world, which thenceforth will be free from evil and free from harm.对弥赛亚(Saoshyant)的出现将伴随着死者复活和世界的总体判断,这此后将由邪恶和伤害免费。

Ethical Teachings and Religious Practises.伦理教义和宗教Practises。

The motto of the Zoroastrian religion is "Good thoughts, good words, good deeds" (Avesta, "Humata, hūkhta, hvarshta").祆教的宗教格言是“好思想,好言,善行”(阿维斯塔“Humata,hūkhta,hvarshta”)。 Man in his daily life is enjoined to preserve purity of body and soul alike.在他的日常生活人是责成保持身体与心灵纯洁的一致好评。 He is to exercise scrupulous care in keeping the elements earth, fire, and water free from defilement of any kind.他是在行使保持元素土,火,水从任何形式的污辱免费一丝不苟地照顾。Truth-speaking and honest dealing are made the basis of every action; kindliness and generosity are virtues to be cultivated; and agriculture and cattle-raising are prescribed as religious duties.真相讲,诚实交易是由每一个行动的基础;慈爱和慷慨要培养美德,以及农业和畜牧业为宗教义务的规定。Marriage within the community of the faithful, even to wedlock with blood relatives, is lauded; and according to the Avesta ("Vendidād," iv. 47), "he who has a wife is to be accounted far above him who has none; and he who has children is far above the childless man."婚姻中的忠实社区,甚至与血亲婚,是赞扬,并根据阿维斯塔(“Vendidād,”四47),“谁拥有他的妻子是要远远超过他却没有谁占;他是谁的孩子。远远高于无子女的人“

In disposing of the dead, it is unlawful to burn or bury the body or to throw it into water, as any of these modes of disposal would defile one of the sacred elements; the dead must therefore be exposed in high places to be devoured by birds and dogs, a custom which is still observed by the Parsees and Gabars in their "Towers of Silence."在死者的处理,它是非法的身体燃烧或掩埋或投入水中,为处置这些模式中的任何会玷污神圣的要素之一;死者因此,必须在被吞噬高的地方暴露鸟和狗,一个是仍然由帕西并在其Gabars观察定制“沉默的塔。”

Priesthood and Ritual.圣职和仪式。

In religious matters the priesthood was supreme in authority, and the sacerdotal order was hereditary.在宗教事务的神职人员是最高权力,以及sacerdotal秩序世袭。The Mobeds and Herbeds were the Levites and Kohanim of Zoroastrianism.该Mobeds和Herbeds是利和拜火教Kohanim。The name for priest, "athaurvan," in the Avesta corresponds to "atharvan" in India; the Magi were a sacerdotal tribe of Median origin.对于牧师,“athaurvan,”在阿维斯塔名称对应“atharvan”在印度的贤士是一个中位数起源sacerdotal部落。 In acts of worship (Avesta, "Yasna") animal sacrifices were sometimes offered, especially in more ancient times, but these immolations were subordinate and gave place more and more to offerings of praise and thanks-giving accompanied by oblations of consecrated milk, bread, and water.在崇拜的行为(阿维斯塔“Yasna”)提供动物的牺牲,有时,特别是在更古老的时代,但这些自焚,给了下属的地方越来越多的赞扬和感谢,给人以神圣的牛奶oblations的陪同下,面包产品和水。 The performance of these rites was attended by the recitation of long litanies, especially in connection with the preparation of the sacred drink "haoma," made from a plant resembling the Indian "sōma," from which an exhilarating juice was extracted.这些礼仪的表现是由长litanies特别是在神圣的饮料准备连接,背诵出席“豪马”,由一个类似印度“躯体”,从一名令人振奋的果汁提取厂。 It has been thought that the twigs (Avesta, "baresman"; modern Persian, "barsom") employed by the Zoroastrian priests in their ritual are alluded to as the "branch" held to the nose by the sun-worshipers in the vision of Ezekiel (viii. 16-17); and the consecrated cake (Avesta, "draonah"; modern Persian, "darūn") has been compared with the Hebrew showbread.据认为,树枝(阿维斯塔“baresman”,现代波斯语,“barsom”)在其受聘仪式的祆教祭司都提到的“分支”持有的太阳崇拜者到鼻子的眼光以西结书(viii. 16-17);和奉献饼(阿维斯塔“draonah”,现代波斯语,“大润发”)已与希伯来陈设饼。

Resemblances Between Zoroastrianism and Judaism.拜火教和犹太教之间的相似之处。

The points of resemblance between Zoroastrianism and Judaism, and hence also between the former and Christianity, are many and striking.而拜火教和犹太教之间的相似点,因此也和基督教之间的前,多而引人注目。Ahuramazda, the supreme lord of Iran, omniscient, omnipresent, and eternal, endowed with creative power, which he exercises especially through the medium of his Spenta Mainyu ("Holy Spirit"), and governing the universe through the instrumentality of angels and archangels, presents the nearest parallel to Yhwh that is found in antiquity. Ahuramazda,伊朗最高领主,无所不知,无所不在,永恒的,具有创造性的力量赋予,他特别是通过他的Spenta Mainyu(“圣灵”)中的练习,和理事通过天使和大天使工具性的宇宙,提出了以耶和华最近并行是在古代找到。But Ormuzd's power is hampered by his adversary, Ahriman, whose dominion, however, like Satan's, shall be destroyed at the end of the world.但Ormuzd的力量是阻碍了他的对手,阿里曼,其统治,但是,像撒旦的,应在年底的世界毁灭。 Zoroastrianism and Judaism present a number of resemblances to each other in their general systems of angelology and demonology, points of similarity which have been especially emphasized by the Jewish rabbinical scholars Schorr and Kohut and the Christian theologian Stave.拜火教和犹太教目前的相似之处数量彼此在一般的天使和恶魔的系统,其中的相似性,特别是强调了由犹太拉比学者Schorr和科胡特和基督教神学家梯级点。 There are striking parallels between the two faiths and Christianity in their eschatological teachings-the doctrines of a regenerate world, a perfect kingdom, the coming of a Messiah, the resurrection of the dead, and the life everlasting.有惊人的相似之处两国在他们的信仰和基督教末世论的教义,一个再生的世界主义,一个完美的国度,一个弥赛亚来临,死者复活,生命永恒的。 Both Zoroastrianism and Judaism are revealed religions: in the one Ahuramazda imparts his revelation and pronounces his commandments to Zarathustra on "the Mountain of the Two Holy Communing Ones"; in the other Yhwh holds a similar communion with Moses on Sinai.无论是拜火教和犹太教宗教透露:在一个Ahuramazda赋予他的启示和宣告对“两圣Communing问鼎山”他的诫命,以查拉图斯特拉;在其他耶和华持有类似的交流与摩西在西奈。 The Magian laws of purification, moreover, more particularly those practised to remove pollution incurred through contact with dead or unclean matter, are given in the Avestan Vendïdād quite as elaborately as in the Levitical code, with which the Zoroastrian book has been compared (see Avesta).净化的Magian法律,而且,更特别是实行以消除通过与死亡或不洁物质接触发生污染,在Avestan给予Vendïdād相当的精心如利未代码,其中拜火教书已经比较(见阿维斯塔)。 The two religions agree in certain respects with regard to their cosmological ideas.两国同意在宗教方面的某些方面的宇宙观念。The six days of Creation in Genesis find a parallel in the six periods of Creation described in the Zoroastrian scriptures.创造的六创天找到了创作中的祆教经典描述six期间同时进行。Mankind, according to each religion, is descended from a single couple, and Mashya (man) and Mashyana are the Iranian Adam (man) and Eve.人类,根据每个宗教,是起源于一个单一的夫妇,和Mashya(男子)和Mashyana是伊朗亚当(男子)和夏娃。In the Bible a deluge destroys all people except a single righteous individual and his family; in the Avesta a winter depopulates the earth except in the Vara ("enclosure") of the blessed Yima.在圣经洪水摧毁,除了一个正义的个人和他的家人所有的人;在阿维斯塔冬季depopulates除了在义马瓦拉的祝福(“圈地”)的地球。 In each case the earth is peopled anew with the best two of every kind, and is afterward divided into three realms.在每一种情况下,地球上有人居住是重新与每一种最好的两个,是后来划分为三个领域。The three sons of Yima's successor Thraetaona, named Erij (Avesta, "Airya"), Selm (Avesta, "Sairima"), and Tur (Avesta, "Tura"), are the inheritors in the Persian account; Shem, Ham, and Japheth, in the Semiticstory.义马的继任Thraetaona的三个儿子,一个名为Erij(阿维斯塔“Airya”),塞尔姆(阿维斯塔“Sairima”),和图尔(阿维斯塔,“图拉”),是在波斯湾帐户的继承者;闪,含,雅弗,在Semiticstory。 Likenesses in minor matters, in certain details of ceremony and ritual, ideas of uncleanness, and the like, are to be noted, as well as parallels between Zoroaster and Moses as sacred lawgivers; and many of these resemblances are treated in the works referred to at the end of this article.在小事肖像在某些细节的仪式和仪式,是不洁的思想,等等,都需要注意,琐罗亚斯德之间以及与摩西相似的神圣lawgivers,以及这些相似之处很多作品中提到了治疗在本文的结尾。

Causes of Analogies Uncertain.类比的原因不确定。

It is difficult to account for these analogies.这是很难解释这些比喻。It is known, of course, as a historic fact that the Jews and the Persians came in contact with each other at an early period in antiquity and remained in more or less close relation throughout their history (see Avesta; Media; Persia).据了解,当然,作为一个历史事实,即犹太人和波斯人排在相互联系,在古代早期过后,或多或少在其整个历史上密切的关系(见阿维斯塔,媒体,波斯)依然存在。 Most scholars, Jewish as well as non-Jewish, are of the opinion that Judaism was strongly influenced by Zoroastrianism in views relating to angelology and demonology, and probably also in the doctrine of the resurrection, as well as in eschatological ideas in general, and also that the monotheistic conception of Yhwh may have been quickened and strengthened by being opposed to the dualism or quasi-monotheism of the Persians.多数学者,犹太人和非犹太人,都认为犹太教是强烈的,在有关天使和恶魔的意见祆教影响舆论,也可能在复活学说,以及在一般末世论思想,还指出,耶和华神论的观念可能已经加快并为被反对的二元论或波斯人准一神教加强。 But, on the other hand, the late James Darmesteter advocated exactly the opposite view, maintaining that early Persian thought was strongly influenced by Jewish ideas.但是,另一方面,已故詹姆斯Darmesteter主张完全相反的观点,认为早期的波斯想到的是强烈的犹太思想的影响。 He insisted that the Avesta, as we have it, is of late origin and is much tinctured by foreign elements, especially those derived from Judaism, and also those taken from Neoplatonism through the writings of Philo Judæus.他坚持认为,阿维斯塔,因为我们拥有它,最近的起源,是深受外国势力,特别是从犹太教派生的tinctured,以及那些通过采取从柏拉图的著作斐洛Judæus。 These views, put forward shortly before the French scholar's death in 1894, have been violently combated by specialists since that time, and can not be said to have met with decided favor on any side.这些意见,提出之前,法国学者去世不久于1894年,有受到暴力打击的专家,因为那个时候,并不能说是有利于决定会见任何一方。 At the present time it is impossible to settle the question; the truth lies probably somewhere between the radical extremes, and it is possible that when knowledge of the Assyrian and Babylonian religion is more precise in certain details, additional light may be thrown on the problem of the source of these analogies, and may show the likelihood of a common influence at work upon both the Persian and Jewish cults.在目前是不可能解决的问题;的道理所在可能介于激进极端的,也是可能的,当亚述和巴比伦的宗教知识,在某些细节更精确,更多的光线可能引发的问题对这些类比源,既可以显示在波斯和犹太邪教的共同影响,在工作的可能性。

Kaufmann Kohler, AVW Jackson考夫曼科勒,AVW杰克逊
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
For general works on the subject consult bibliographies under articles Avesta, Media, and Persia.有关问题的一般性工程咨询根据第阿维斯塔,媒体和波斯书目。Special works on Zoroaster and the religion: Jackson, Zoroaster the Prophet of Ancient Iran, New York, 1899; idem, Die Iranische Religion, in Geiger and Kuhn, Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie, Leipsic, 1904; Justi, Die Aelteste Iranische Religion und Ihr Stifter Zarathustra, in Preussische Jahrbücher, lxxxviii. ;同上,模具Iranische宗教,盖革和库恩,Grundriss DER Iranischen Philologie,Leipsic,1904; Justi,模具Aelteste Iranische宗教UND IHR杰克逊,琐罗亚斯德古代伊朗先知,纽约,1899年:在琐罗亚斯德和宗教特别工作Stifter查拉图斯特拉,在Preussische Jahrbücher,lxxxviii。55-86, 231-262, Berlin, 1897; Lehmann, Die Parsen, in Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte, 3d ed., Tübingen, 1905; idem, Zarathustra, en Bog om Persernes Gamle Tro, pp. 1-2, Copenhagen, 1899, 1902; Tiele, Geschichte der Religion: Die Religion bei den Iranischen Völkern, vol. 55-86,231-262,柏林,1897年,莱曼,模具Parsen,在Chantepie德拉Saussaye,Lehrbuch DER Religionsgeschichte,3D版,图宾根,1905年;同上,查拉图斯特拉,EN沼泽OM Persernes Gamle TRO,第1 - 。 2,哥本哈根,1899年,1902年,铁勒,历史馆DER宗教:宗教模具Iranischen Völkern北窟,第ii., section 1, translated by Gehrich, Gotha, 1898 (English transl. by Nariman in Indian Antiquary, vols. xxxii. et seq., Bombay, 1903).二,第1,翻译Gehrich,哥达,1898年(由纳里曼英文译。印度古物学家,第二卷。三十二。及以下,孟买,1903年)。 Particular treatises on the analogies between Zoroastrianism and Judaism: Schorr, in He-Ḥaluẓ, ii.-v.; Kohut, Ueber die Jüdische Angelologie und Dämonologie in Ihrer Abhängigkeit vom Parsismus, Leipsic, 1866; idem, Was Hat die Talmudische Eschatologie aus dem Parsismus Aufgenommen?特别是论文的拜火教和犹太教之间的类比:Schorr,在合Ḥaluẓ,ii.-v.;科胡特,Ueber死Jüdische Angelologie UND Dämonologie在Ihrer Abhängigkeit VOM Parsismus,Leipsic,1866;同上,是帽死Talmudische Eschatologie澳大利亚DEM Parsismus Aufgenommen?in ZDMG xxi.在ZDMG XXI。552-591; De Harlez, Avesta, Introduction, pp. ccv.-ccvi., ccix., Paris, 1881; Spiegel, Eranische Alterthumskunde, ii.552-591;德Harlez,阿维斯塔,导言,第ccv. - CCVI,ccix,巴黎,1881;。明镜,Eranische Alterthumskunde,II。17, 19, 26, 34, 40, 50 et seq., 63-65, 75, 117, 166 et seq., 169-171, Leipsic, 1878; Darmesteter, La Zend-Avesta, iii., Introduction, pp. lvi.-lxii., Paris, 1893; SBE 2d ed., iv., Introduction, pp. lvii.-lix.; Cheyne, Origin and Religious Concepts of the Psalter, London, 1891; Aiken, The Avesta and the Bible, in Catholic University Bulletin, iii. 17,19,26,34,40,50及以下,63-65,75,117,166及以下,169-171,Leipsic,1878年;。Darmesteter,拉Zend的,阿维斯塔,三,导言,第。 。lvi. - 62,巴黎,1893年; SBE 2版,四,导言,第lvii. - 59;。进益,起源和宗教观念的诗篇,伦敦,1891年,艾肯的阿维斯塔和圣经,在天主教大学通报,第三。243-291, Washington, 1897; Stave, Einfluss des Parsismus auf das Judenthum, Haarlem, 1898; Söderblom, La Vie Future d'Après le Mazdeisme, Paris, 1901; Böklen, Verwandschaft der Jüdisch-Christlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie, Göttingen, 1902; Moulton, in Expository Times, ix.243-291,华盛顿,1897年,木板,Einfluss DES Parsismus奥夫DAS Judenthum,哈勒姆,1898年; Söderblom,未来的La Vie D' apr镳乐Mazdeisme,巴黎,1901年; Böklen,Verwandschaft DER Jüdisch - Christlichen MIT DER Parsischen Eschatologie,哥廷根, 1902年,莫尔顿,在说明性时报,九。351-359, xi.351-359,十一。 257-260, and in Journal of Theological Studies, July, 1902, pp. 514-527; Mills, The Avesta, Neoplatonism and Philo Judœus, i., Leipsic, 1904; Moffat, Zoroastrianism and Primitive Christianity, in Hibbert Journal, 1903, i. 257-260,并在神学研究,七月,1902年,第514-527杂志;米尔斯的阿维斯塔,柏拉图和斐洛Judœus岛,Leipsic,1904年,莫法特,祆教和原始基督教,在希伯特杂志,1903岛 763-780.KAVWJ763 - 780.KAVWJ



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