Book of Amos, עמוס (Hebrew)书阿摩司书

General Information一般资料

Amos, a book of the Old Testament, is the third book of the Minor Prophets.阿莫斯,一个旧约书,是小先知第三册。It takes its name from the prophet Amos who lived c.它从先知阿摩司谁住C.它的名字750 BC as a shepherd at Tekoa in the southern kingdom of Judah.公元前750年作为一个在提哥亚在英国南部的犹大牧羊人。It was to the northern kingdom of Israel, however, that his prophetic message was addressed.这是以色列北部的王国,然而,他的预言的消息处理。Writing during a time of prosperity, when a sharp contrast existed between the luxurious life of the nation's leaders and the oppression of the poor, Amos preached the urgency of social justice and the threat of impending divine judgment.写在一个繁荣的时候,当一个鲜明的对比之间的国家领导人奢华生活和穷人的压迫存在,阿莫斯宣扬社会正义的紧迫性和神圣的审判即将到来的威胁。 The structure of the book falls into nine parts, each dominated by a negative message containing threats of darkness, famine, and destruction.书的结构分为九个部分,由负含有黑暗的威胁,饥荒和破坏为主的每个消息。Amos is the oldest of the prophetic books of the Bible.阿莫斯是圣经的预言书最古老的。

George W Coats乔治W科茨

Bibliography 参考书目
JL Mays, Amos, A Commentary (1969).JL梅斯,阿莫斯,评注(1969年)。


Book of Amos阿摩司书

Brief Outline简述

  1. Indictment of foreign nations and Judah and Israel (chap 1, 2)外国国家和犹大和以色列公诉书(第一章1,2)
  2. Condemnation of wicked Samaria (chaps 3-5)谴责邪恶的撒马利亚(3-5章)
  3. Foretelling judgment and promise of restoration and prosperity (chaps 6-9)判断和预言的恢复和繁荣的承诺(6-9章)

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Amos阿莫斯

Advanced Information先进的信息

Amos: borne; a burden, one of the twelve minor prophets.阿莫斯:承担,一个负担,十二小先知之一。 He was a native of Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles south-east of Bethlehem.他是Tekota本土,现代Tekua,一个大约12英里东南伯利恒镇。He was a man of humble birth, neither a "prophet nor a prophet's son," but "an herdman and a dresser of sycomore trees," RV He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and was contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea (Amos 1:1; 7:14, 15; Zech. 14:5), who survived him a few years.他是一个不起眼的出生的人,既不是“先知,也不是先知的儿子”,但“一个herdman和一个sycomore树木梳妆台,”RV他在乌西雅,犹大王天的预言,并与以赛亚书和何西阿当代(阿摩司书1:1;七时14分,15;撒加利亚14:5),谁生存了他几年。 Under Jeroboam II.在耶罗波安二。 the kingdom of Israel rose to the zenith of its prosperity; but that was followed by the prevalence of luxury and vice and idolatry.以色列王国上升到其繁荣顶峰,但那是由豪华和副和偶像崇拜的流行之后。At this period Amos was called from his obscurity to remind the people of the law of God's retributive justice, and to call them to repentance.在此期间阿莫斯被称为从他默默无闻,提醒神的报应正义法律的人,叫他们悔改。

The Book of Amos consists of three parts: (1.) The nations around are summoned to judgment because of their sins (1:1-2:3).在阿摩司书由三部分组成:(1)围绕国家的召唤,因为他们的罪孽(1:1-2:3)来判断。He quotes Joel 3:16.他引用约珥书3:16。(2.)The spiritual condition of Judah, and especially of Israel, is described (2:4-6:14). (2)犹大的精神状态,特别是以色列,是描述(2:4-6:14)。(3.) In 7:1-9:10 are recorded five prophetic visions.(3)在7:1-9:10记录five预言的愿景。(a) The first two (7:1-6) refer to judgments against the guilty people.(一)前两个(7:1-6)是指对判决有罪的人。(b) The next two (7:7-9; 8:1-3) point out the ripeness of the people for the threatened judgements. (二)未来两年(7:7-9; 8:1-3)指出,为威胁判断的人成熟。7:10-17 consists of a conversation between the prophet and the priest of Bethel. 7:10-17由之间的先知和牧师伯特利交谈。(c) The fifth describes the overthrow and ruin of Israel (9:1-10); to which is added the promise of the restoration of the kingdom and its final glory in the Messiah's kingdom. (三)第五描述推翻并破坏以色列(9:1-10);在其中添加了王国及其在弥赛亚的王国最后的辉煌修复的承诺。

The style is peculiar in the number of the allusions made to natural objects and to agricultural occupations.样式是在向自然对象和农业职业特有的典故数量。Other allusions show also that Amos was a student of the law as well as a "child of nature."其他典故还表明阿莫斯是对法律的学生,以及一个“自然的孩子。”These phrases are peculiar to him: "Cleanness of teeth" [ie, want of bread] (4:6); "The excellency of Jacob" (6:8; 8:7); "The high places of Isaac" (7:9); "The house of Isaac" (7:16); "He that createth the wind" (4:13).这些词组特有对他说:“洁净的牙齿”[即,面包要](4:6),他说:“阁下的雅各”(6时08分,8时07分),“以撒的高处​​”(7 :9),“以撒的房子”(7:16),“他说,createth风”(4:13)。Quoted, Acts 7:42.引,行为7时42分。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Amos阿莫斯

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯M灰色

It will be seen from the opening verse that Amos, like Hosea, was a prophet sent to Israel, though his home, Tekoa, was in Judah.我们将看到从开幕诗的阿莫斯,像何西阿,被送往以色列的先知,虽然他的家,提哥亚,在犹大了。He was contemporary with Hosea for a while, though the latter prophesied longer than he.他用了一段时间何西阿当代,尽管后者预言比他长。After the introduction (1:1-3) there follows a series of messages concerning Gentile nations (1:4-2:3), each beginning with the words "For three transgressions . . . and for four, I will not turn away the punishment," an orientalism, meaning that it was not for three or four transgressions merely, but an innumerable number, that the judgments predicted were to fall.入门后(1:1-3)有如下的关于与三年越轨的字眼是“外邦人国家(1:4-2:3),每学年开始一系列消息。与四,我不会拒绝处罚,“一个东方,这意味着它是三个或四个越轨不仅仅是,而是无数的数量,即判断预测是下降。

These messages are succeeded by one to Judah (2:4, 5) while the remainder of the book is concerned with Israel.这些消息是由一个成功的犹大(2:4,5),而其余的书是与以色​​列有关。The messages of Amos are more orderly than Hosea, and admit of homiletic divisions like the following: The first, beginning at chapter 2, verse 6, and concluding with the chapter, contains, (1), an indictment for sin (6-8), aggravated by the divine goodness toward them (9-12); and (2), a declaration of the judgment to follow (13-15).阿摩司的信息超过何西阿有序,和说教部门承认如下:第一,首先是在第2章,第6节和总结,包括,(1),一个为罪起诉(6-8 ),加剧了对他们神圣的善(9-12)和(2),判决遵循(13-15)的声明。This sin is greed (6), lust (7) and oppression (8).本罪是贪婪(6),欲望(7)和压迫(8)。The marginal references frequently give the meaning of expressions in the prophets.边际引用常常会在先知表达的意思。Compare Exodus 22:26 with verse 8 for example, and Jeremiah 11:21 with verse 12.比较第8节,例如,耶利米与12节11点21出埃及记22时26分。

God will press them as a cart full of sheaves presseth the ground (2:13, RV).按上帝的意志作为车的滑轮presseth地面(2:13,RV)全它们。In other words none shall escape the Assyrian hosts when they come down against them (14-16).换句话说都不应逃避亚述主机当他们来对他们(14-16)下。The second discourse is limited to the third chapter, and contains, after the introduction, verses 1 and 2, (1), the prophet's justification of his message (3-8); (2) an indictment for sin (9, 10); (3), a declaration of punishment (11-15).第二个话语仅限于第三章,并包含,出台后,诗句1和2,(1),先知的贺电理由(3-8),(2)为罪起诉(9,10) (3),申报的处罚(11-15)。When God says, "You only have I known," etc., (2), He means what is expressed in Deuteronomy 7:6, Psalm 147:19, 20, and other places.当上帝说,“只要我知道,”等,(2),他的意思是什么在申命记7时06分,诗篇147:19,20,和其他地方表示。 Israel's punishment is proportioned to her privilege.以色列的惩罚是匀称她的特权。Amos prophesied because he could not do otherwise, is practically the interpretation of verses 3-8.阿莫斯预言,因为他无法不这样做,实际上是在3-8节解释。

As two do not walk together except they are agreed, or have made an appointment; as a lion does not roar when it has no prey, etc. so the fact that Amos prophecies is an evidence that Jehovah hath spoken to him (8).作为两个不一起走,除非他们都同意,或已作出委任;作为一个狮子不咆哮时,有没有猎物,等于是事实上,阿莫斯的预言是一个证据,耶和华对他说(8)。 Notice the suggestion of the preservation of a faithful remnant in the "two legs" or "piece of an ear" of a sheep taken out of the mouth of the lion (12).请注意,一个在“两条腿”或“部分的耳朵”所采取的狮子口(12)出了羊忠实的残余保护的建议。Messages of this character continue till the seventh chapter when a series of visions begins.这种性质的消息持续到第七章的时候开始的一系列设想。In the first vision (1-3), Jehovah is withholding the coming judgment at the prophet's intercession, and the same is true of the second (4-6), but not of the rest (7-9; 8:1-3; 9:1-10).在第一视觉(1-3),耶和华是隐瞒在先知的代祷来判断,同样是第二个(4-6)真实的,但不是休息(7-9; 8:1-3 ; 9:1-10)。And yet notice the conclusion of the last message growing out of the vision of the Lord beside the altar (9:8, 9).然而请注意,最后越来越多的祭坛旁边的主(9时08分,9)视力出消息的结论。

He will not "utterly destroy."他不会“完全摧毁”。He will sift Israel "among all nations" as He has been doing all these centuries, but only the chaff will be destroyed.他将筛以色列“所有国家之间”,因为他一直在做所有这些百年,但只有糠将被销毁。

This thought is amplified in the epilogue of the book (9:11-15), where the prophet definetely reveals the history of Israel in the latter days: (1) the kingdom is to be restored (11); (2) Israel is to be the head of the nations (12); (3) the land of Palestine is to be greatly increased in fruitfulness (13); (4) the cities are to be rebuilt (14); (5) the blessing is to be perpetual (15).这种思想被放大在书后记(9:11-15),其中先知definetely揭示了以色列在后几天的历史:(1)英国是要恢复(11),(2)以色列要的国家(12)头;(3)巴勒斯坦土地将被大大丰产(13)增加;(4)城市要重建(14),(5)要祝福永久(15)。 Questions 1.问题1。To which kingdom was Amos sent?为了这王国阿莫斯发送?2.2。What "orientalism" is employed by him and what is its meaning?什么“东方”是由他雇用的是什么意思?3.3。How do the messages of Amos differ in form from those of Hosea?如何阿摩司的信息从不同的何西阿的形式?4.4。Name some of the sins of Israel at this time.名字在这个时候,以色列的罪孽一些。5.5。Have you examined the marginal references?你检查了边际参考?6.6。How would you interpret 2:3-8?你会如何​​解释2:3-8?7.7。What change in the character of Amos' messages take place at chapter 7?什么是符合Amos的性格变化采取的消息在第7章的地方?8.8。What five promises are given Israel for the latter days?什么five承诺是给予后者天以色列?


Amos阿莫斯

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. NAME一,名称

The third among the Minor Prophets of the Old Testament is called, in the Hebrew Text, "'Ams."之间的旧约小先知三是所谓的,在希伯来文“,”AMS“。The spelling of his name is different from that of the name of Isaias's father, Amoç; whence Christian tradition has, for the most part, rightly distinguished between the two.他的名字拼写是从对伊萨亚斯的父亲,AMOC名称不同;何处基督教的传统,在大多数情况下,正确地两者之间的区别。The prophet's name, Amos, has been variously explained, and its exact meaning is still a matter of conjecture.先知的名字,阿莫斯,一直不同地解释,其确切含义仍然是一个猜想的问题。

II. II。LIFE AND TIMES生活和时代

According to the heading of his book (i,1) Amos was a herdsman of Thecua, a village in the Southern Kingdom, twelve miles south of Jerusalem.根据他的书的标题(I,1)阿莫斯是一个Thecua,在南王国,十二英里以南的耶路撒冷村牧民。Besides this humble avocation, he is also spoken of in vii, 14, as a simple dresser of sycamore-trees.除了这个不起眼的副业,他也说在七,14,作为一种梧桐树简单的修整。Hence, as far as we know, there is no sufficient ground for the view of most Jewish interpreters that Amos was a wealthy man.因此,据我们所知,没有大多数犹太口译员认为,阿莫斯是一个富有的人的充分理由。Thecua was apparently a shepherd's town, and it was while following his flock in the wilderness of Juda, that, in the reigns of Ozias and Jeroboam, God called him for a special mission: "Go, prophesy to My people Israel" (vii, 15). Thecua显然是一个牧羊人的城市,它是在遵循他的羊群在犹大旷野,即,在Ozias和耶罗波安的统治,神呼吁建立一个特殊的使命他:“去吧,预言我的子民以色列”(七, 15)。In the eyes of the humble shepherd this must have appeared a most difficult mission.在不起眼的牧羊人的眼睛这一定出现了最艰巨的任务。At the time when the call came to him, he was "not a prophet, nor the son of a prophet" (vii, 14), which implies that he had not yet entered upon the prophetical office, and even that he had not attended the schools wherein young men in training for a prophet's career bore the name of "the sons of a prophet".在通话时向他走来,他“不是先知,也不是先知的儿子”(七,14),这意味着他还没有进入办公室后,预言,甚至认为他没有出席其中学校在先知的职业培训的年轻人承受着的“先知的儿子”的名称。 Other reasons might well cause Amos to fear to accept the divine mission.其他原因很可能导致阿莫斯害怕接受神圣使命。He, a Southerner, was bidden to go to the Northern Kingdom, Israel, and carry to its people and its leaders a message of judgment to which, from their historical circumstances, they were particularly ill-prepared to listen.他是南方人,是bidden去北部,英国,以色列,并开展对本国人民和领导人的判断消息是,从他们的历史条件下,他们特别准备不足听。 Its ruler, Jeroboam II (c. 781-741 BC), had rapidly conquered Syria, Moab, and Ammon, and thereby extended his dominions from the source of the Orontes on the north to the Dead Sea on the south.它的统治者,耶罗波安二世(约781-741年),已经迅速征服了叙利亚,摩押和亚扪,从而延长从上到死海,南源北奥龙特斯他的领地。 The whole northern empire of Solomon thus practically restored had enjoyed a long period of peace and security marked by a wonderful revival of artistic and commercial development.整个北方帝国的所罗门因此几乎恢复了享有一个和平和一个美妙的艺术和商业的发展长期的安全性显着复苏。Samaria, its capital, had been adorned with splendid and substantial buildings; riches had been accumulated in abundance; comfort and luxury had reached their highest standard; so that the Northern Kingdom had attained a material prosperity unprecedented since the disruption of the empire of Solomon.撒马利亚,其资本,一直装饰着华丽和大量建筑物;财富已经积累了丰富,舒适性和豪华已达到的最高标准,因此,北方王国已经达到了一个物质繁荣以来,所罗门帝国破坏是前所未有的。 Outwardly, religion was also in a most flourishing condition.从表面上看,宗教也是在最繁华的条件。The sacrificial worship of the God of Israel was carried on with great pomp and general faithfulness, and the long enjoyment of national prosperity was popularly regarded as an undoubted token of the Lord's favour towards His people.而以色列的神祭祀崇拜进行与大排场和一般的忠诚,对国家的繁荣和长期享受普遍地作为主的青睐无疑对他的人民视为象征。 It is true that public morals had gradually been infected by the vices which continued success and plenty too often bring in their train.诚然,公共道德已逐渐被罪恶的持续成功和大量往往把他们培养感染。Social corruption and the oppression of the poor and helpless were very prevalent.社会腐败和压迫的穷人和无助的非常普遍。 But these and similar marks of public degeneracy could be readily excused on the plea that they were the necessary accompaniments of a high degree of Oriental civilization.但这些和公共退化类似的商标可以很容易地原谅的抗辩,他们是一个东方文明的高度必要的伴奏。Again, religion was debased in various ways.再次,宗教是贬值以不同的方式。Many among the Israelites were satisfied with the mere offering of the sacrificial victims, regardless of the inward dispositions required for their worthy presentation to a thrice-holy God.其中许多以色列人都满意的殉葬只是产品,无论其值得介绍到三次,圣洁的神所要求的外来处置。Others availed themselves of the throngs which attended the sacred festivals to indulge in immoderate enjoyment and tumultuous revelry.其他受益于该成群结队的参加神圣的节日沉迷于无节制的享受和动荡的狂欢自己。Others again, carried away by the freer association with heathen peoples which resulted from conquest or from commercial intercourse, even went so far as to fuse with the Lord's worship that of pagan deities.还有一些人,带走了与人民的异教徒从征服或商业往来,导致自由结社,竟然以融合与主的崇拜异教神的。Owing to men's natural tendency to be satisfied with the mechanical performance of religious duties, and owing more particularly to the great proneness of the Hebrews of old to adopt the sensual rites of foreign cults, so long as they did not give up the worship of their own God, these irregularities in matters of religion did not appear objectionable to the Israelites, all the more so because the Lord did not punish them for their conduct.由于男性的自然倾向与宗教职务的机械表现感到满意,并由于更多的,特别是到老希伯来伟大倾向性采用国外邪教的感官仪式,只要他们不放弃自己的崇拜自己的上帝,在宗教事务这些违规行为并没有出现不良的以色列人,更是因为主没有对其进行惩罚他们。 Yet it was to that most prosperous people, thoroughly convinced that God was well-pleased with them, that Amos was sent to deliver a stern rebuke for all their misdeeds, and to announce in God's name their forthcoming ruin and captivity (vii, 17).然而,这是该最繁华的人民,彻底相信,上帝是与他们良好的高兴,阿莫斯被送往提供他们所有的不端行为严厉谴责,并宣布在上帝的名,即将到来的毁灭和圈养(七,17) 。

Amos's mission to Israel was but a temporary one.阿摩司的使命,以色列不过是暂时的。It extended apparently from two years before to a few years after an earthquake, the exact date of which is unknown (i, 1).这显然​​是从两年延长到地震后前几年,确切日期是未知的(I,1)。It met with strong opposition, especially on the part of Amasias, the chief priest of the royal sanctuary in Bethel (vii, 10-13).它遭到强烈反对,特别是对Amasias,在伯特利的皇家圣殿大祭司(七,10-13)的一部分。 How it came to an end is not known; for only late and untrustworthy legends tell of Amos's martyrdom under the ill-treatment of Amasias and his son.它是如何走到了尽头不知道,只迟到,不可靠的传说阿摩司的下Amasias和他的儿子虐待殉难告诉。It is more probable that, in compliance with Amasias's threatening order (vii, 12), the prophet withdrew to Juda, where at leisure he arranged his oracles in their well-planned disposition.这是更可能的是,在与Amasias的威胁令(七,12)的规定,撤回到犹大的先知,凡在闲暇他安排在自己精心策划的性格他的神谕。

III. III。ANALYSIS OF PROPHETICAL WRITING分析预言写作

The book of Amos falls naturally into three parts.在阿摩司书属于自然分为三个部分。The first opens with a general title to the work, giving the author's name and the general date of his ministry (i, 1), and a text or motto in four poetical lines (i, 2), describing under a fine image the Lord's power over Palestine.首先打开一个总冠军的工作,给作者的名字和他的部一般的日期(I,1),和一个文本或四个(I,2)诗行的座右铭,在一个良好形象描述主功率超过巴勒斯坦。 This part comprises the first two chapters, and is made up of a series of oracles against Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Juda, and, finally, Israel.这部分包括前两章,是由一对大马士革,加沙,轮胎,以东,亚扪人,摩押人,犹大,最后,以色列神谕串联起来。Each oracle begins with the same numerical formula: "For three crimes of Damascus [or Gaza, or Tyre, etc., as the case may be], and for four, I will not revoke the doom"; it next sets forth the chief indictment; and finally pronounces the penalty.每个Oracle开始具有相同数值的公式:“三年大马士革犯罪[或加沙,或轮胎等,视情况而定],并为四个,我不会撤销厄运”,它规定了行政旁边起诉书,最后宣告的刑罚。 The heathen nations are doomed not because of their ignorance of the true God, but because of their breaches of the elementary and unwritten laws of natural humanity and good faith.在异教徒的国家,是注定不是因为他们对真神的无知,但由于人类对自然和诚实信用的基本法律和不成文的违规行为。As regards Juda and Israel, they will share the same doom because, although they were especially cared for by the Lord who drew them out of Egypt, conquered for them the land of Chanaan, and gave them prophets and Nazarites, yet they have committed the same crimes as their pagan neighbours.至于犹大和以色列,他们将共享相同的厄运,因为,虽然他们特别照顾,由主谁提请埃及出来,征服了他们的土地Chanaan,并给他们先知和Nazarites,但他们犯了作为他们的异教徒邻居同样的罪行。 Israel is rebuked more at length than Juda, and its utter destruction is vividly described.以色列指责在犹大的长度比多,它的彻底破坏被形象地描述。

The second part (chaps. iii-vi) consists of a series of addresses which expand the indictment and the sentence against Israel set forth in ii, 6-16.第二部分(见第三章和- VI)由一组地址的扩大和对以色列的起诉书载于二规定,判决6-16系列。Amos's indictment bears (1) on the social disorders prevalent among the upper classes; (2) on the heartless luxury and self-indulgence of the wealthy ladies of Samaria; (3) on the too great confidence of the Israelites at large in their mere external discharge of religious duties which can in no way secure them against the approaching doom.阿莫斯的起诉书,关系之间的上层阶级普遍的社会障碍(1)(2)在无情的豪华和撒玛利亚的富裕女士们自我放纵;(3)对以色列人过大在大的信心,他们只是其中履行宗教职责的外部安全,绝不可以对即将到来的厄运的。 The sentence itself assumes the form of a dirge over the captivity which awaits the unrepenting transgressors, and the complete surrender of the country to the foreign enemy.句子本身假定在人工饲养的等待unrepenting违规者的挽歌形式,与国家完全投降外敌。

The third section of the book (chaps. vii-ix, 8b.), apart from the historical account of Amasias's opposition to Amos (vii, 10-17), and from a discourse (viii, 4-14) similar in tone and import to the addresses contained in the second part of the prophecy, is wholly made up of visions of judgment against Israel.该书的第三部分(chaps. VII - IX,8B。)除了从Amasias反对阿莫斯(七,10-17)的历史记录,并从话语,(八,4-14)相似,语气和进口在预言的第二部分中的地址,是完全由对以色列的判断视野。 In the first two visions--the one of devouring locusts, and the other of consuming fire--the foretold destruction is stayed by divine interposition; but in the third vision, that of a plumb-line, the destruction is permitted to become complete.在前两个梦想 - 在蝗虫吞噬之一,而其他的消费火 - 毁灭的预言是神住的干预,但在第三个愿景,一个铅垂线的,破坏获准成为完成。The fourth vision, like the foregoing, is symbolical; a basket of summer fruit points to the speedy decay of Israel; while in the fifth and last the prophet beholds the Lord standing beside the altar and threatening the Northern Kingdom with a chastisement from which there is no escape.第四个目标,如前述,是象征性的,一个夏天的水果分篮子以色列迅速衰减,而在第五次和最后的先知beholds主站在祭坛旁边,并威胁与惩罚的北国,从其中有没有逃脱。 The book concludes with God's solemn promise of the glorious restoration of the House of David, and of the wonderful prosperity of the purified nation (ix, 8c-15).书中的结论与上帝的对大卫家的光荣​​恢复庄严承诺,以及精彩的纯化民族繁荣(九,8C - 15)。

IV. IV。LITERARY FEATURES OF THE BOOK书的文学特征

It is universally admitted at the present day that these contents are set forth in a style of "high literary merit".人们普遍承认在目前​​的一天,这些内容载于“高文学性”的风格等等。This literary excellence might, indeed, at first sight appear in strange contrast with Amos's obscure birth and humble shepherd life.这个文学的卓越实力,的确,出现在第一眼与阿莫斯的模糊出生卑微的牧羊人生活奇怪的反差。A closer study, however, of the prophet's writing and of the actual circumstances of its composition does away with that apparent contrast.深入研究,然而,先知的写作和其组成的实际情况,摒弃了这种明显的反差。 Before Amos's time the Hebrew language had gradually passed through several stages of development, and had been cultivated by several able writers.在阿莫斯的时间希伯来文已逐渐通过几个发展阶段,并得到一些能够培养作家。Again, it is not to be supposed that the prophecies of Amos were delivered exactly as they are recorded.再次,这是不被假定阿摩司的预言是完全按照他们提供的记录。Throughout the book the topics are treated poetically, and many of its literary features are best accounted for by admitting that the prophet spared no time and labour to invest his oral utterances with their present elaborate form.贯穿全书的主题是治疗诗意,它的许多功能是最好的文学占了承认先知不遗余力的时间和劳动力,与他们目前的投资形式阐述了他的口头言论。 Finally, to associate inferior culture with the simplicity and relative poverty of pastoral life would be to mistake totally the conditions of Eastern society, ancient and modern.最后,联想到的简单性和田园生活相对贫困下的文化将是完全错误的东方社会,古代和现代的条件。For among the Hebrews of old, as among the Arabs of the present day, the sum of book-learning was necessarily small, and proficiency in knowledge and oratory was chiefly dependent not on a professional education, but on a shrewd observation of men and things, a memory retentive of traditional lore, and the faculty of original thought.对于旧的希伯来人之中的,因为其中的阿拉伯人至今,在书本学习的总和是一定小,在知识和演讲能力,是不是主要依赖于专业教育,但在男女的事情精明的观察,记忆的传统知识,而保持原以为教师。

V. AUTHORSHIP AND DATE五,作者和日期

Apart from a few recent critics, all scholars maintain the correctness of the traditional view which refers the book of Amos to the Judean prophet of that name.此外,最近一些批评,所有的学者保持了传统的看法,是指在阿摩司书的那名犹太先知的正确性。They rightly think that the judgments, sermons, and visions which make up that sacred writing centre in a great message of doom to Israel.他们认为正确的判断,布道,和远见从而弥补了在厄运的消息,以色列的伟大神圣的写作中心。The contents read like a solemn denunciation of the incurable wickedness of the Northern Kingdom, like a direct prediction of its impending ruin.内容阅读就像是北国的严正谴责无法治愈的邪恶,就像一个即将毁灭的直接预测。The same scholars regard likewise the general style of the book, with its poetical form and striking simplicity, abruptness, etc., as proof that the work is a literary unit, the various parts of which should be traced back to one and the same mind, to the one and holy prophet, whose name and period of activity are given in the title to the prophecy, and whose authorship is repeatedly affirmed in the body of the book (cf. vii, 1, 2, 4, 5, 8; viii, 1, 2; ix, 1, etc.).同样的学者认为同样的书一般风​​格,其诗的形式和惊人的简单,唐突等作为证明,这项工作是文艺单位,各地区应追溯到同一个心灵,以一个圣洁的先知,他的名字和时间的活动是在给定的预言冠军,而其作者是多次在书中(参见七,1,2,4,5,8的身体肯定;八,1,2,九,1等)。

To confirm the traditional view of Jews and Christians in regard to authorship and date, the two following facts have also been brought forth:为了确认犹太人和关于作者和日期基督徒传统的观点,以下两个事实也带来了:

first, as was to be expected from a shepherd like Amos, the author of the prophecy uses throughout imagery drawn mainly from rural life (the wagon loaded with sheaves, the young lion in its den growling over its prey, the net springing up and entrapping the bird, the remnants of the sheep recovered by the shepherd out of the lion's mouth, cattle-driving, etc.);首先,就像是从一个像阿莫斯牧羊人,笔者的预言来自各地农村生活(带滑轮装载车,在其书房小狮子在咆哮的猎物,净如雨后春笋和包埋主要意象使用预期鸟,是由狮子口,牛驾驶等)进行回收牧羊人的羊的残余;

in the second place, there is a close agreement between the state of the Northern Kingdom under Jeroboam II, as described by Amos, and that of the same Kingdom as it is made known to us in the fourth book of Kings and the prophecy of Osee which is commonly ascribed to the same (the eighth) century BC在第二位,有之间的下耶罗波安二所描述的阿莫斯,北王国国家密切协议,并同英国,因为它是在对国王第四册和已知的Osee预言告诉我们,这就是通常归因于相同(八)世纪公元前

It is true that Amos's authorship of numerous passages, and notably of ix, 8c-15, has been and is still seriously questioned by some leading critics.诚然,阿莫斯的著作的许多​​段落,和第九,8C - 15,尤其是已经并仍然严重,一些领导的批评质疑。But in regard to most, if not indeed to all such passages, it may be confidently affirmed that the arguments against the authorship are not strictly conclusive.但对于大多数,如果不是确实给所有这些通道,它可以自信地肯定,对作者的论点是没有严格的定论。Besides, even though the later origin of all these passages should be conceded, the traditional view of the authorship and date of the book as a whole would not be materially impaired.此外,虽然所有这些经文后来的原产地应当承认,对作者和整个书的日期传统观点不会受到重大损害。

VI. VI。RELIGIOUS TEACHINGS OF AMOS阿摩司宗教教义

Two facts contribute to give to the religious doctrine of Amos a special importance.两个事实贡献给宗教教义的阿莫斯一个特殊的重要性。On the one hand, his prophecies are wellnigh universally regarded as authentic, and on the other, his work is probably the earliest prophetical writing which has come down to us.一方面,他的预言是wellnigh普遍认为是真实的,另一方面,他的工作可能是最早预言写作已下降到我们。So that the book of Amos furnishes us with most valuable information concerning the beliefs of the eighth century BC, and in fact, concerning those of some time before, since, in delivering the Divine message to his contemporaries, the prophet always takes for granted that they are already familiar with the truths to which he appeals.所以说,阿摩司书furnishes与最宝贵的关于本公元前八世纪的信息我们的信念,而事实上,关于对前一段时间的,因为在神的讯息传递给他同时代的,先知总是理所当然地认为他们已经与真理,他呼吁熟悉。 Amos teaches a most pure monotheism.阿莫斯教一个最纯粹的一神教。Throughout his book there is not so much as a reference to other deities than the God of Israel.在他的书中有没有这么一个比以色列的神等神灵参考了。He often speaks of "the Lord of Hosts", meaning thereby that God has untold forces and powers at His command; in other words, that He is omnipotent.他经常说的是“上帝的主机”的含义,从而上帝无尽的力量,在他的命令的权力;换句话说,他是万能的。His descriptions of the Divine attributes show that according to his mind God is the Creator and Ruler of all things in heaven and on earth; He governs the nations at large, as well as the heavenly bodies and the elements of nature; He is a personal and righteous God who punishes the crimes of all men, whether they belong to the heathen nations or to the chosen people.他的神圣属性的描述表明,根据他的头脑和神是造物主在天地万物的统治者,他统治广大的国家,以及天体和大自然的元素,他是个人谁和公义的神的惩罚所有的人的罪行,无论他们属于异教徒的国家或所选择的人。 The prophet repeatedly inveighs against the false notions which his contemporaries had of God's relation to Israel.先知多次inveighs对他同时代的神与以色列错误观念。He does not deny that the Lord is their God in a special manner.他不否认,主是他们的一种特殊方式的神。But he argues that His benefits to them in the past, instead of being a reason for them to indulge with security in sins hateful to God's holiness, really increase their guilt and must make them fear a severer penalty.但他认为,他的利益,他们在过去的一个原因,而不是被他们沉迷在仇恨罪神的圣洁的安全性,真正增加自己的罪责,必须使他们害怕严厉的处罚。 He does not deny that sacrifices should be offered to the Divine Majesty; but he most emphatically declares that the mere outward offering of them is not pleasing to God and cannot placate His anger.他不否认,牺牲应给予的神圣陛下,但他最强调声明,只是他们向外发行不讨神喜悦并不能安抚他的愤怒。On the day of the Lord, that is on the day of retribution, Israelites who shall be found guilty of the same crimes as the heathen nations will be held to account for them severely.在主,报应上的一天是一天,以色列人谁应认定为异教徒国家的同一罪将举行他们的帐户严重。It is true that Amos argues in a concrete manner with his contemporaries, and that consequently he does not formulate abstract principles.诚然,阿莫斯认为在与他同时代的具体方式,而且因此他不制订抽象的原则。 Nevertheless, his book is replete with truths which can never become superfluous or obsolete.然而,他的书是真理,而不可能成为充满多余或过时。

Finally, whatever view may be taken of the authorship of the concluding portion of the book of Amos (vii, 8c.-15), the Messianic bearing of the passage will be readily admitted by all who believe in the existence of the supernatural.最后,无论大家认为可能是对的阿摩司书结论部分(七,8c. - 15)作者采取了通过弥赛亚轴承会很容易地承认所有谁在相信超自然的存在。It may also be added that this Messianic prophecy is worded in a manner that offers no insuperable objection to the traditional view which regards Amos as its author.它也可以说,这是弥赛亚的预言的方式,也无法提供不可逾越的反对传统的看法,视其作者阿莫斯措辞。

Publication information Written by FE Gigot.出版信息FE Gigot写。Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress.转录由托马斯J. Bress。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

For reference to Introductions to the Old Testament, see Bibliography to AGGEUS; recent Commentaries on Amos by TROCHON (1886); KNABENBAUER (1886); ORELLI (Eng. tr., 1893); FILLION (1896); DRIVER (1898); SMITH (1896); MITCHELL (2nd ed., 1900); NOWACK (2nd ed., 1903); MARTI (1903); HORTON (1904).对于引用的旧约介绍,请参阅书目AGGEUS;最近评上阿莫斯由TROCHON(1886年); KNABENBAUER(1886年); ORELLI(工程学训练班,1893年);菲利安(1896年);驱动程序(1898年); SMITH (1896年);米切尔(第二版,1900年); NOWACK(第二版,1903);马蒂(1903年);霍顿(1904年)。


Book of Amos阿摩司书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

This Biblical book, one of the twelve so-called "Minor Prophets," opens with the announcement of God's intention to punish evildoers (i. 2).这圣经的书,十二个一个,这样的所谓“小先知”,打开与上帝的意图来惩罚恶人(一,二)公告。Damascus (i. 3-5), Gaza (i. 6-9), Tyre (i. 9, 10), Edom (i. 11, 12), Ammon (i. 13-15), Moab (ii. 1-3), and Judah are taken up in turn until Israel (ii. 6) is reached.大马士革(一3-5),加沙(一6-9),轮胎(一9,10),以东(一11,12),亚扪人(一13-15),摩押(白介素1 -3),和犹大是采取交替上升,直到以色列(白介素6)为止。The prophet is vehement because the crimes of the people have been committed in the face of the fact that God redeemed His people from Egypt (ii. 10), destroyed the Amorites (ii. 9), and sent prophets (ii. 11) whom, however, Israel would not allow to prophesy (ii. 12).先知是激烈的,因为人民的罪行已在神救赎来自埃及(白介素10)他的人,摧毁了亚摩利人(白介素9),并派先知(白介素11)其实面对谁犯但是,以色列不会允许预言(白介素12)。 In the third and fourth chapters the prophet addresses himself directly to the kingdom of Israel.在第三和第四章的先知地址本人直接向以色列王国。The nations are summoned to the mountains of Samaria to witness the wrongs there practised (iii. 9).各国都召集到撒马利亚山见证有实行错(III. 9)。The punishment that is impending will be so severe that only few will escape (iii. 12).该处罚是即将会如此严重,只有很少人会逃跑(III. 12)。Because of the women of Samaria, who were cruel to the poor and the needy (iv. 1), prosperity will cease (iv. 2), and not even sacrifice will avail (iv. 4, 5).因为撒玛利亚的,谁是残酷的穷人和有需要的(iv. 1)妇女,繁荣将停止(iv. 2),甚至不会牺牲将利用(iv. 4,5)。God had tried to teach Israel by affliction; but neither famine, drought, blasting of the crops, attacks of insects, pestilence, defeat in war (iv. 6-10), nor even treatment like that of Sodom could induce Israel to repent.上帝曾试图教导以色列的痛苦,但既不是饥荒,干旱,农作物爆破,昆虫的袭击,瘟疫,战争(iv. 6-10)失利,甚至也没有像所多玛,治疗可诱导以色列悔改。Complete destruction, therefore, is foretold (v. 1-3).完全破坏,因此,预言(五1-3)。

In vain does the prophet admonish Israel to seek the Lord, not Beth-el (v. 4-6).在徒然先知告诫以色列寻求主,而不是伯特利(五4-6)。Samaria persists in being wicked and unjust (v. 7, 8).撒马利亚坚持在被邪恶和不公正的(7节,8)。Once more the prophet calls upon Israel to repent (v. 14); and, as before, Israel fails to do so.一旦更多的先知呼吁以色列悔改(14节)和以前一样,以色列不这样做。Besides injustice and irreligion, Israel indulges in luxurious and riotous living (vi. 1-6).除了不公正和反宗教,纵容以色列(VI. 1-6)在豪华和缤纷生活。This, too, is a factor which inevitably leads to captivity (vi. 7).这也是一个因素,不可避免地导致圈养(VI. 7)。With chap.随着第二章。vii.七。begins a series of visions, which continues to chap.开始的愿景系列,继续第二章。ix.九。6.6。A plague of grasshoppers (vii. 1-3) and a fire (vii. 4-6) are followed by a third plague; and the plumb-line is set up against the city and against the family of Jeroboam (vii. 7-9).一个蝗虫(vii. 1-3)和消防(vii. 4-6)鼠疫是鼠疫之后第三个,以及铅垂线是对立的城市和反对耶罗波安家族(vii. 7 UP - 9)。The prophet's audacity brings upon him the hostility of the reigning house; and he is ordered to confine his prophetical activity to the land of his birth, Judah.先知的勇气后,他带来了统治的房子敌意,他被命令限制他的预言的活动,他的出生,犹大地。Amos disclaims being a prophet, or the son of a prophet, and reiterates the certainty of coming misfortune (vii. 10-17).阿莫斯声明是一个先知,或一个先知的儿子,并重申未来的不幸(vii. 10-17)确定性。The last vision, representing God Himself standing at the altar and announcing the terrible catastrophe (ix. 1-6), emphasizes the hopelessness of escape from divine vengeance.最后的视野,代表上帝站在祭坛,并宣布了可怕的灾难(ix. 1-6),强调从神圣的复仇逃生无望。The book ends (ix. 7-15) in words of comfort.书挡(ix. 7-15)在安慰的话。The remnant shall return and in the future the land will yield abundantly (13-15).的残余应回归和未来的土地将产生十分(13-15)。For critical view of the Book of Amos, see Amos.为使阿摩司书批评的看法,见阿莫斯。GBLGBL

Gerson B. Levi格尔森乙利维

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。


Amos阿莫斯

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

Home and Occupation.家庭和职业。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

First to Write down Prophecy.首先写下的预言。

Repentance and Forgiveness.忏悔和宽恕。

Personality of Amos.人格阿莫斯。

Superscription of the Book.上标一书。

The Present Form of the Book.书的现有形式。

Editorial and Later Additions.编辑和后来添置。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Home and Occupation.家庭和职业。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Jewish prophet of the eighth century BC; date of birth and death unknown.犹太先知在公元前八世纪,出生和死亡日期不详。Among the minor prophets there is none whose personality is so familiar as that of Amos.在未成年人的先知有没有这样的个性是那个熟悉的阿莫斯。His name occurs not only in the superscription of the book, but several times (vii. 8, 10 et seq., 14; viii. 2) in the body of it.他的名字不仅出现在书上标,而是多次(vii. 8,10及以下,14;八2)在它的身体。 His home was in Tekoa in Judah, five miles to the south of Bethlehem.他的家在提哥亚在犹大,五英里的伯利恒南部。The original title of his book was merely "The Words of Amos of Tekoa"; the rest, "who was among the herdsmen," is a later addition emphasizing the fact gleaned from vii.他的原书的标题是仅仅是“对提哥亚阿莫斯词”,其余的,“谁是牧民之间”,是一个后来此外强调从七所得的事实。14, that Amos had been a herdsman before he became a prophet.14,阿莫斯一直是牧民之前,他成为先知。From the margin this notice appears to have intruded itself into the text.从保证金本通知似乎已经侵入到文本本身。The attempt has been made to discover a northern Tekoa for his home, but there is no need for that.企图已发现了他的家北部提哥亚,但有没有这个需要。That Amos was from Judah is the simplest interpretation of vii.这是从犹大阿莫斯是最简单的解释第七。13.13。Amos himself tells us what his profession was: he was a herdsman and one who tended sycamore-figs (vii. 14).阿莫斯本人告诉我们他的职业是:他是一个牧民和一个谁往往桑树无花果(vii. 14)。At Tekoa sycamores are not grown, but Amos could very well have been the proprietor of a sycamore-grove at some distance from Tekoa, in the Shefelah, the hill country leading down to Philistia, where there were sycamoretreesin "abundance" (I Kings, x. 27).在提哥亚sycamores都没有增长,但阿莫斯很可能已经在Shefelah了在一些提哥亚距离桑树林老板,山上下到非利士全国领先,那里有sycamoretreesin“丰”(王,十,27)。 He makes this statement of his occupation to Amaziah, the chief priest of Bethel, who, startled by the ominous utterances of Amos, advises him to make his escape to Judah and there to earn his livelihood by his profession of prophet.他让他这个职业语句亚玛谢,对伯特利,谁,由阿莫斯不祥的话语吓了一跳首席牧师,劝告他,使他逃到犹大和有赚取了他的先知他的职业生活。 Amos denies both premises involved in this rebuke.阿莫斯否认这一指责既涉及楼宇。He does not need to take fees for his prophecies, because he is well-to-do, and he is no prophet either by profession or extraction, but was called by God from behind his flock by special summons.他并不需要为他的预言费,因为他是富裕的,做的,他没有先知无论是专业或提取,但被神呼召他从后面由一群特殊的传票。 Amos' attitude marks a turning-point in the development of Old Testament prophecy.阿莫斯的态度标志着旧约预言发展的转折点。 It is not mere chance that Hosea, Isaiah (ch. vi.), Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and almost all of the prophets who are more than unknown personages to whom a few prophetical speeches are ascribed, give first of all the story of their special calling.它不是单纯的机会,何西阿,以赛亚(章六),耶利米,以西结,和几乎所有的先知谁比未知的人士多一些人预言的讲话是认定所有,给所有其特殊的故事第一调用。

First to Write down Prophecy.首先写下的预言。

All of them thereby seek to protest against the suspicion that they are professional prophets, because the latter discredited themselves by flattering national vanities and ignoring the misdeeds of prominent men.所有这些,从而寻求以抗议怀疑他们是专业的先知,因为后者抹黑由国家面盆奉承自己,忽视了突出男人的劣迹。But Amos marks an epoch in Old Testament prophecy also in another respect.但阿莫斯标志着旧约的预言在另一个方面也具有划时代。He is the first of the prophets to write down the messages he has received.他是先知先写下来,他已收到的消息。It is easy to understand the reason for this innovation.这是很容易明白,这种创新的原因。He feels himself called to preach in Beth-el, where there was a royal sanctuary (vii. 13), and there to announce the fall of the reigning dynasty and of the northern kingdom.他觉得自己所谓的鼓吹在伯特利,那里有一个皇家圣(vii. 13),那里宣布王朝的统治和英国北部下降。But he is denounced by the head priest Amaziah to King Jeroboam II.但他谴责祭司亚玛谢头国王耶罗波安二。(vii. 10 et seq.), and is advised to leave the kingdom (verses 12 et seq.).(vii. 10及以下),并劝喻他们离开王国(诗句12页起)。Though nothing more is learned than the answer he gave Amaziah (verses 14 et seq.), there is no reason to doubt that he was actually forced to leave the northern kingdom and to return to his native country.虽然没有什么更多的是比他给的答案据悉亚玛谢(诗句14及以下),没有理由怀疑,他竟是被迫离开英国北部,并回到他的祖国。 Being thus prevented from bringing his message to an end, and from reaching the ear of those to whom he was sent, he had recourse to writing.作为从而阻止把他的信息结束,并从到达的那些人,他被送到耳朵,他诉诸文字。If they could not hear his messages, they could read them, and if his contemporaries refused to do so, following generations might still profit by them.如果他们不能听到他的消息,他们可以阅读它们,如果他的同时代人拒绝这样做,继代他们仍可能盈利。No earlier instance of a literary prophet is known, nor is it likely that there was any; but the example he gave was followed by others in an almost unbroken succession.没有一个文学先知早期实例是已知的,也不是有任何可能,但他给的例子是在一个几乎不间断的继承别人后面。It is true, it can not be proved that Hosea knew the book of Amos, though there is no reason to doubt that he was acquainted with the latter's work and experiences.这是真实的,它不能证明何西阿知道阿摩司书,虽然没有理由怀疑,他对后者的工作和经验,熟悉。It is quite certain, on the other hand, that Isaiah knew his book, for he follows and even imitates him in his early speeches (compare Amos, v. 21-24, iv. 6 et seq., v. 18 with Isa. i. 11-15; Amos, iv. 7 et seq. with Isa., etc., ix. 7 et seq., ii. 12).这是很肯定的,另一方面,也知道他的以赛亚书,为他跟随模仿,甚至在他早期的演讲他(比较阿莫斯,诉21-24,四,6及以下,诉与伊萨18。一11-15;阿莫斯,四第7页起与ISA等,九7页起,二12)。。。。。 Cheyne concludes with great probability that Amos wrote the record of his prophetical work at Jerusalem, after his expulsion from the northern kingdom, and that he committed it to a circle of faithful followers of YHWH residing there.进益最后以极大的概率阿莫斯说他在耶路撒冷的预言工作记录后,他从英国北部驱逐,他承诺到一个居住的耶和华的忠实追随者有圈。

Repentance and Forgiveness.忏悔和宽恕。

Amos is undoubtedly one of the grandest personalities among the Old Testament prophets; indeed, the most imposing of all, if the fact be considered that he is the first of the writing-prophets.阿莫斯无疑是其中的旧约先知的最隆重的人物之一,事实上,给人印象最深的是,如果事实被认为是他的写作,先知先。 His lofty conception of Deity, his uncompromisingly moral conception of the order of the universe, and his superiority to all religious narrowness, are admirable indeed.他的崇高概念的神,他的毫不妥协的道德观念的宇宙秩序,他的优势,所有宗教的狭隘,实在是令人钦佩。Leaving the above-mentioned "doxologies" aside, YHWH is in vii.离开上述“doxologies”不谈,耶和华是在七。 4, ix.4,IX。2 the Ruler of the universe, and in i., ii., and ix.2标尺的宇宙,并在一,二,,和第九。7 He is the Lord of all other nations as well as of Israel.7,他是所有其他国家主以及以色列。The standard by which He measures peoples is morality, and morality only.该标准的措施,其中他是人民的道德,道德只。It is by His inscrutable will that Israel was chosen among the peoples, but as a result it follows that God is doubly strict in His demands upon this nation, and doubly severe in His punishment of its transgressions (iii. 2).这是以色列人民之间的选择,但结果它遵循上帝是倍加严格根据本民族他的要求,并在他加倍的越轨行为的惩罚(III. 2)严重的将他的高深莫测。Ritualistic zeal and the richest burnt-offerings avail nothing in extenuation; such acts are contemptuous in the sight of YHWH, who may be served without any religious ceremonies, but not without morality (iii. 21-25, iv. 4, 5, 13).仪式在extenuation热情和最富有的燔祭利用什么;这种行为是轻蔑的耶和华,谁可能是没有任何宗教仪式服务视线,但不能没有道德(III. 21-25,四4,5,13。 )。Therefore let the nation not comfort itself with the hope of the "Day of YHWH," which will be a day of terror for Israel, and not of salvation (v. 18-20).因此,让民族与不舒适的的“耶和华日”,这将是对以色列的恐怖一天希望自己,拯救(五18-20)不。It is all over with Israel; the complete destruction is at hand (see especially ii. 5, v. 1 et seq., ix. 1-4).这是各地与以色列;完整的毁灭就在眼前(见特别是二第5,第1节及以下,九1-4。)

Personality of Amos.人格阿莫斯。

Distinct as are these fundamental principles of his discourses, Amos must by no means be considered as an uncompromising prophet of evil; it should not be forgotten that Israel's destruction is brought about by its sinfulness, and it is only because experience appears to show an unwillingness to repent, that the hope of forgiveness is cut off.鲜明的是他的话语这些基本原则,阿莫斯必须绝不被视为邪恶的毫不妥协的先知,它不应该忘记,以色列的破坏所带来的罪恶有关,而这只是因为经验似乎表明不愿意悔改,认为宽恕希望被切断。 Should this experience prove false and Israel actually repent, forgiveness and national life would be by no means hopeless; and therefore utterances like v. 4 and 14, however inconspicuous they may be in comparison with the denunciatory passages, are by no means to be overlooked, and certainly not to be held as spurious.如果这方面的经验证明虚假,以色列实际上悔改,宽恕和国家生活会绝不无望,因此如诉4和14的言论,不过他们可能会在不显眼的非难的通道相比之下,没有被忽视的手段,当然不被虚假举行。 It is certain, however, that Amos did not shrink from facing the possibility of the utter destruction of Israel.这是肯定的,但是,阿莫斯没有退缩面对以色列的彻底毁灭的可能性。

Amos has always been admired for the purity of his language, his beauty of diction, and his poetic art.阿莫斯一直钦佩他的语言的纯洁性,他的文辞之美,他的诗歌艺术。In all these respects he is Isaiah's spiritual progenitor.在所有这些方面,他是以赛亚的精神祖先。There is no need for astonishment that a rustic should have been capable of such diction.有没有必要惊讶,一个质朴的本来应该是这样的文辞的能力。

The period of the prophet's activity is the reign of Jeroboam II., king of Israel, whose dynasty he mentions in one of his prophecies (vii. 9), while the narrator of vii.先知的活动期是耶罗波安二,以色列王,他的王朝在他的预言之一(vii. 9)提到的统治,而七解说员。10, etc. (probably not identical with Amos), clearly states that Jeroboam was reigning at the time when Amos preached at Beth-el.10等(可能不与阿莫斯相同),明确指出,耶罗波安是在当阿莫斯在伯特利鼓吹在位时间。The superscription of the book (i. 1) mentions Uzziah, king of Judah, before Jeroboam, which is doubtless correct, inasmuch as Uzziah was a contemporary of Jeroboam; but the statement is at the same time puzzling, since it is not known that Amos was ever active in Judah.该书的(一1)上标之前提到耶罗波安,这无疑是正确的乌西雅,犹大王,生死时刻作为乌西雅是耶罗波安的当代,但声明同时令人费解的是,因为它不知道阿莫斯是空前活跃在犹大。

Superscription of the Book.上标一书。

The superscription adds that he "saw" his words two years before the earthquake.在上标补充说,他“看到”地震前两年他的话。Now Amos doubtless experienced an earthquake (iv. 11), and an earthquake under King Uzziah is testified to in Zech.现在阿莫斯无疑经历了一次地震(iv. 11),根据王乌西雅地震作证撒加利亚的。xiv.十四。5; but unfortunately this passage does not help us much, seeing that it is of late origin, and may itself be taken from Amos, iv.5,但遗憾的这段话并没有帮助我们很多,看到它是已故的起源,本身可能从阿莫斯,四所。11, or even from the heading of the book.11,甚至是从书的标题。On the other hand, the superscription may be based on the hints contained in the book itself, and indeed G. Hoffmann in Stade's "Zeitschrift," iii.在另一方面,上标,可以根据自己在书中所包含的暗示,甚至在体育场的“(杂志),”三G.霍夫曼。123, has tried to offer an explanation for the phrase "two years before the earthquake" which would deprive the words of every real significance.123,试图提供的“前两年地震”一词将剥夺每一个真正意义的话作出解释。 His explanation seems to be somewhat artificial, but has been accepted by such scholars as Cheyne and Marti.他的解释似乎有点做作,但已被作为进益和马蒂等学者所接受。Still, since the heading undoubtedly contains reliable and authentic statements, the possibility that the reference to the earthquake is also authentic must be admitted.尽管如此,由于标题无疑包含可靠和真实的陈述,可能性,对地震的参考,也是正宗必须承认。The question, however, remains whether all the prophecies united in the Book of Amos are to be understood as uttered in this same year.但问题仍然是否所有在阿摩司书预言美国将被理解为在这一年了一声。Their extent would not make this impossible, nor is it likely that Amos, rebuking the sins of Ephraim so openly, would have been tolerated many years before being denounced and expelled, as we read in vii.他们的幅度不使这不可能,也不是可能阿莫斯,驳斥以法莲的罪孽如此公开,本来容忍多年被批斗,被驱逐之前,正如我们在第七阅读。 10.10。In this case the earthquake in iv.在这种情况下,地震四。11 must be another than that mentionedin i.11必须比mentionedin岛另一1, because it could not be referred to two years before it actually happened.1,因为它不能被称为是前两年的实际情况。Moreover, it is unlikely that Amos should not have added new prophecies to those spoken during his stay in the northern kingdom, when he once proceeded to write down his utterances (compare Jer. xxxvi. 32).此外,它是不可能的阿莫斯不应该加入到在他留在英国北部的发言,当他一旦着手写下他的话语(比较耶三十六32)新的预言。 If i.如果一1 be admitted as authentic, the most probable conclusion is that "two years before the earthquake" was originally the date for only a part of the book, perhaps for only the introductory speech in i.1,作为地道的承认,最有可能的结论是,“两个地震前几年”原是只一书的部分日期,也许只在一介绍演讲2.2。

The reign of Jeroboam II.耶罗波安二世统治的。lasted forty-one years, according to II Kings, xiv.历时41年,根据II国王,十四。23.23。Though it can not be fixed with certainty, this much may be said, that its termination must be placed between 750 and 740 BC Marti ("Ency. Bibl." article. "Chronology," p. 797) fixes his reign between 782 and 743 BC The activity of Amos could hardly have coincided with the close of his reign.虽然不能肯定地固定的,这么多可以说,其终止必须介于750和740公元前马蒂放置(“Ency。Bibl”的文章。“年表”,页797)修复了782和统治之间公元前743阿摩司活动很难有正好与他的王朝结束。 The fact alone that Isaiah's call can not have happened later than 740, while he so evidently draws on Amos' prophecies, is sufficient ground for placing Amos not later than 750.事实上仅是以赛亚的调用不能发生不迟于740,而他如此明显的阿莫斯“的预言画,是放置阿莫斯不得迟于750的充分理由。

The Present Form of the Book.书的现有形式。

The first indication that a distinction must be made between the prophecies of Amos and the book that bears his name is to be found in the narrative, vii.第一个迹象表明,必须区分之间的阿莫斯预言的书,他的名字命名了,是在叙述,七发现。10-17.10-17。This is inserted after the third of five visions which form a connected series.这是插入后的五个愿景形成了一个连接系列的第三个。The insertion in question is simply a comment on vii.在插入是一个简单的问题上七评论。9, and contains the threat of the overthrow of Jeroboam and his house.9,包含耶罗波安,他的房子被推翻的威胁。It is mentioned in vii.它提到七。10 that Amos' boldness resulted in his expulsion from the northern kingdom.10个Amos的勇气在他从英国北部驱逐的结果。It is not likely that Amos himself would have interrupted his series of addresses in this way.这是不可能的阿莫斯本人将有打断他的系列这样的地址。Moreover, he is not the narrator; another writer speaks of him in the third person.此外,他是不是解说员,另一位作家对他讲的第三人。Hence it is clear that his book has not come to us exactly as he wrote it.因此很显然,他的书还没有到我们这里来,他写的完全一样。 But, on the other hand, vii.但是,另一方面,七。10 et seq.10起。must have been written soon after the event by a writer who had thoroughly trustworthy accounts of Amos.必须已被写入事件后不久,由作家阿摩司谁曾彻底可信帐户。This is a fact of great importance.这是一个非常重要的事实。

Editorial and Later Additions.编辑和后来添置。

The book is well arranged in its general features.该书是妥善安排其一般特征。There is in chaps.在有章。 i.and ii.及ii。a coherent series of judgments on sinful and unrepentant peoples, aimed particularly at Israel.一个民族的罪恶和死不悔改的一系列连贯的判断,尤其是在针对以色列。In chaps.在章。vii.-ix.vii.-ix.are the above-mentioned five visions; in chaps.是上述五个愿景,在章。iii.-vi.iii.-vi.a series of discourses, loosely connected, whose beginning and end can not be fixed with certainty.一连串的话语,松散连接,其开始和结束,不能固定确定性。The same problem is presented in other prophetical books; the prophet himself would scarcely lay great stress on the separation of the single discourses when he wrote or dictated them.同样的问题,提出在其他预言书;先知自己也几乎趴在了他写道或支配他们的话语分离单个巨大的压力。There is no reason to doubt that this arrangement goes back to the first editors, working soon after the prophet's death or even delegated by him for this task.我们没有理由怀疑,这样的安排可以追溯到第一编辑,不久之后,先知的工作,甚至死亡由他委托的这项任务。This does not preclude the possibility of later changes and additions.这并不排除在以后的修改和补充的可能性。Since the investigations of Stade and Wellhausen, such changes have been assumed in increasing proportions.由于体育场和豪森的调查,这种变化已承担了越来越多的比例。The most complete and discriminating survey of those passages whose originality hitherto has been doubted is given by Cheyne ("Ency. Bibl." article "Amos").这些通道的原创性一直被怀疑和歧视最完整的调查给予进益(“Ency。Bibl。”条“阿莫斯”)。They can be grouped under the following titles: (1) Passages widening the horizon of the book, so as to include the southern kingdom of Judah.它们可以分为以下几个题目:(1)旅费扩阔视野的书,从而为包括南方的犹大王国​​。 (2) Additional predictions affirming a better future than the gloomy auguries of the old prophet. (2)额外的预测肯定比老先知的灰暗征兆更加美好的未来。(3) Additions giving expression to the loftier and more spiritual theology of a later time. (3)添置给予体现了以后,更崇高精神神学。(4) Glosses and explanations based on an erroneous conception of the texts.(4)掩盖和解释的基础上的文本错误的概念。

(1) The chief passage of the first group is ii.(1)第一组主要是通过第二。4, etc., the denunciation of Judah in the series of judgments against the nations.4,等等,犹大在对各国的一系列判决谴责。 The same judgment against Edom in i.禁止在岛以东相同的判断11 and 12 is perhaps also an addition, and the same has been surmised of the passage about Tyre in i. 11和12或许也是另外,同样一直是在一,通过关于轮胎推测9.9。The isolated verse i.隔离一节 2, in which Zion is spoken of as the fixed seat of YHWH, is also doubtful, and the same is true of the address to Zion in vi.2,其中锡安是作为耶和华固定座位发言,也值得怀疑,同样是在vi地址锡安真实。1, and the expression "like David" in vi.1,而“大卫像”在六。5.5。

(2) The second group is represented by ix.(2)第二组的代表是九。8-15, canceled by Stade, Wellhausen, Cornill, Nowack, Cheyne, and many others, as spurious. 8-15,取消了体育场,豪森,Cornill,Nowack,进益,和许多人一样,为虚假。These verses do not form a single whole, but are composed of different passages.这些诗句没有形成一个整体,但不同的段落组成。Verses 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 seem to be mere fragments or insertions in the context.诗篇10,11,12,13和14似乎只是片段或插入的背景下。The last verse, which, by virtue of its inimitable originality, is unanimously ascribed to Amos, can not have formed the concluding verse of the book, but appears to have been the beginning of a new address.最后一节,其中,由于其独特的创意美德,是一致归因于阿莫斯,不能形成书的结论诗句,但似乎一直是一个新的地址开始。 If the verses 8-15 are to be taken in their entirety as a later addition, the original continuation must either have been lost through the mutilation of the manuscript, or have intentionally been stricken out on account of the too mournful survey of the future.如果经文8-15要在其作为一个整体采取后来此外,原有的延续必须要么已经失去了通过手稿切割,或故意被受灾对未来太悲哀调查帐户。 The latter suggestion is improbable, because verse 7 would have been rejected for the same reason, and because in other passages (see verses 1-4) the most terrible predictions have been retained.后者的建议是不可能的,因为第7节将被拒绝出于同样的原因,因为在其他段落(见1-4节)最可怕的预言都被保留下来。 If, on the other hand, the conclusion had been lost in consequence of the mutilation and then supplied at hazard, a more uniform continuation would have been expected in place of such a rugged one, with its disjointed and disconnected sentences.如果,另一方面,结论已经遗失在切割的结果,然后在危险供应,更均匀的延续本来预计在这样一个坚固的一个地方,其脱节和断开句子。 The possibility remains that verses 8-15 are a repeated elaboration of the original conclusion.诗句的可能性仍然是8-15是一种原始的结论反复阐述。It is erroneous to consider verse 11, concerning the restoration of the fallen tabernacle of David, as a specifically Judaic prediction; it can only assume this character through the addition of verse 12, which regards the subjection of the vassals of Judah as an essential feature of such reestablishment.这是错误的考虑11节,关于作为一个专门犹太预测的下降大卫帐幕恢复,它只能承担通过12节,除了这方面的一个必不可少的功能了犹大的附庸隶属该字符这样的重建。 The verse refers to the reestablishment of the united kingdom of Israel, founded by David and sundered after the death of Solomon.的诗句,是指以色列的英国重建,成立由大卫和所罗门去世后,切开的。Verses 8, 9, 11, 14, and 15 may possibly contain an original prediction directed, like vii.诗篇8,9,11,14和15有可能包含像原来预测第七指导。9, against the house of Jeroboam, and promising for the future the restoration of a united Israel, as pleasing to Jehovah.9,对耶罗波安的家,希望为未来的统一以色列恢复,为耶和华所喜悦的。Of course, conclusive proof of this theory can no longer be secured, nor can the original text of such prediction be restored with reasonable certainty.当然,这个理论的确凿证据可以不再受到保护,也可以这样预测的原文是合理确定恢复。

(3) The third group of additions are the doxologies iv.(3)增加第三组是doxologies四。 13, v. 8, ix.13日,8节,九。 56, which invoke YHWH as the Creator and Ruler of the world.56,其中援引的创造者和世界的统治者耶和华。While it is not impossible that they may have been written by Amos, the style of these additions indicates a much later period, possibly later than Deutero-Isaiah.虽然这不是不可能的,他们可能被阿莫斯写的,这些增加的作风表示非常后期,可能晚于第二以赛亚。Since all three passages interrupt the context, and iv.由于所有三个通道中断的情况下,和四。12 and v. 7 have inherent difficulties of their own, it may be suggested that the interpolator designed these doxologies to fill up gaps or illegible sentences in the manuscripts. 12日和7节有其自身固有的困难,它可能会提出,插补器设计这些doxologies填补空白的手稿或难以辨认的句子。

(4) To the fourth group, iii.(四)第四组,三。14 and viii.14和第八。11, and 12 may be assigned. 11和12可以转让。Other passages are open to discussion, particularly the enigmatical verse v. 26 (Wellhausen, Nowack, Cheyne), the difficulty of which is hardly solved by the suggestion of its being simply a marginal gloss.其他通道是开放的讨论,特别是阴阳怪气诗诉26(豪森,Nowack,进益),其困难是很难通过简单地将其作为一个边缘光泽建议解决。 Finally, there are many individual words of the text of this book which present numerous difficulties.最后,有这本书的文本存在不少困难很多个人说了算。

Concerning the problem which the severe logical attitude of Amos presents in the history of religion, compare especially F. Giesebrecht, "Die Geschichtlichkeit des Sinaibundes," p.关于问题,是严重的阿莫斯逻辑的态度,在宗教历史的礼物,比较特别F. Giesebrecht,“模具Geschichtlichkeit DES Sinaibundes”,第14; also K. Budde, "American Lectures on the History of Religions," vol.14;也K.布德,“关于美国宗教历史讲座”,第一卷。 iv.四。lecture iv.讲座IV。To ascribe the whole book to another age, the pre-Deuteronomic period of Josiah (638-621), on account of this and similar difficulties,as HJ Elhorst, "De Profetie van Amos" (Leyden, 1900), proposes, is entirely unwarranted and impossible.要归于整本书到另一个时代,约西亚(638-621)预申命记时期,在这个和类似的困难帐户,HJ Elhorst,“德Profetie面包车阿莫斯”(莱顿,1900),建议,是完全不必要的和不可能的。See the criticism of P. Volz in Schürer's "Theol. Literatur-zeitung," May 12, 1900.见P. Volz在Schürer的“Theol。Literatur -日报”,1900年5月12日批评。

Karl Budde Kaufmann Kohler Louis Ginzberg卡尔布德考夫曼科勒路易金兹伯格

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

Bibliography: See, besides the monographs and articles already referred to, the commentaries of Orelli, Hitzig, Steiner, Keil, Reuss.参考书目:你看,除了专着和文章已经提到,在Orelli,希齐格,施泰纳,KEIL,罗伊斯的评注。Nowack, Handcommentar zum AT, 1892, et seq.; Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten, 1892; JJP Valeton, Amos en Hosea, 1894; Smith, The Book of the Twelve Prophets, 1896; idem, The Expositor's Bible; Driver, Joel and Amos, in Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, 1897; Heilprin, Historical Poetry of the Ancient Hebrews, 1882, ii.KB Nowack,Handcommentar ZUM AT,1892年及以下;豪森,模具Kleinen Propheten,1892年; JJP Valeton,阿莫斯EN何西阿,1894年,史密斯,十二先知书,1896年,同上,在解释者的圣经;驱动程序,乔尔和阿莫斯,在剑桥圣经学校和学院,1897年; Heilprin,古代希伯来诗歌的历史,1882年,ii.KB

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

According to the rabbis (Lev. R. x., Eccl. R. i. 1) Amos was nick-named "the stutterer" by a popular etymology.根据拉比(利未记河十,传道书。传译一1)阿莫斯被尼克 - 命名为流行的词源“的口吃”。 The people, on hearing his bitter rebukes, retorted: "Has the Lord cast aside all His creatures to let His spirit dwell only on this stutterer?"该人,一听到他的苦责骂,反驳道:“有主唾弃他的所有动物,让他的精神只停留在这个口吃?”Regarding the teachings of Amos, the following utterance of Simlai, an amora of the beginning of the third century, is noteworthy: Six hundred and thirteen commandments were given to Moses; King David reduced them to eleven (Ps. xv.); Isaiah to six (Isa. xxxiii. 15); Micah to three (Micah vi. 8); Isaiah, a second time, to two (Isa. lvi. 1); but Amos to one: "Seek Me and Live!"至于阿莫斯的Simlai,一个第三世纪初阿莫拉以下话语,值得注意的教诲是:六113个戒律者给予摩西;大卫王减少他们十一(诗篇十五);以赛亚六(以赛亚书三十三15);米卡三(弥六8);以赛亚书,第二次,两个(赛LVI 1);但一个阿莫斯:“找我和Live!”(Mak. 24a).(Mak. 24A)。 According to rabbinical tradition (Suk. 52b, Pirḳe R. ha-Ḳadosh, viii., based on Micah v. 5 [4]), Amos is one of the "eight princes among men" alluded to in Micah, v. 5.根据犹太教的传统(Suk. 52B,PirḳeR.公顷卡多什,八,关于弥诉5 [4]为基础),阿摩司是在暗示米卡,诉5“八个男性诸侯”之一。K.K.

According to rabbinical tradition, Amos was killed by King Uzziah, who struck him on the forehead with a glowing iron (Gedaliah ibn YaḦyah in his "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," quoted by Heilprin in "Seder ha-Dorot," i. 3110, Venetian ed. of 1587, does not mention anything of this).根据犹太教的传统,阿莫斯被打死国王乌西雅,谁击中的额头上有一个发光的铁(在他的“Shalshelet公顷卡巴拉”,由Heilprin引述“家宴公顷Dorot,”一基大利3110伊本YaḦyah他,威尼斯版的1587。,没有提到这个东西)。

The story of the martyrdom of Amos, found in the pseudo-Epiphanean writings ("Vita Prophetarum"), is somewhat different; according to this version, Amos was killed by a blow on the temple struck by Amaziah, priest of Beth-el.该阿摩司殉难的故事,在伪Epiphanean著作(“维他Prophetarum”)发现,是略有不同;根据这个版本,阿莫斯被吹上的寺庙由亚玛谢,对伯特利祭司击中死亡。 LGLG



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