Apocrypha, Deuterocanonical Books伪经,次经书籍

General Information一般资料

The Apocrypha are books of the Old Testament included in Roman Catholic and Orthodox Bibles as deuterocanonical (added to the earlier canon), but excluded from the Hebrew Bible and from most Protestant Bibles. It is not certain why the term apocrypha (hidden things) was originally applied to them, but they were considered less authoritative than the other biblical books because of their relatively late origin (c. 300 BC - AD 100). 伪经是在罗马天主教和次经(添加到早期佳能)包括东正教圣经旧约的书籍,但是从希伯来文圣经和新教圣经最排斥,而不是某些为什么长期伪经(隐藏的东西)是原本适用于他们,但他们被认为低于其他圣经书籍权威,因为他们相对较晚的起源(约公元前300年 - 公元100)。Except for 2 Esdras, which was in Latin, they were part of the Septuagint.除2埃斯德拉斯,这在拉美是,他们是七十的一部分。The other books placed after the Old Testament in the Revised Standard Version are the following: 1 and 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to the Book of Esther, Wisdom, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Baruch and the Letter (Epistle) of Jeremiah, Additions to Daniel (Prayer of Azariah, Song of the Three Hebrew Children, History of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon), the Prayer of Manasseh, and 1 and 2 Maccabees.之后,在标准修订版旧约放在其他书籍如下:1和2埃斯德拉斯,托比书,朱迪思,到以斯帖,智慧,西拉奇(Ecclesiasticus),巴鲁克和耶利米书(书信)图书添置,丹尼尔(祷告亚撒利雅,三国希伯来语儿童歌曲,对苏珊娜,贝尔和龙史),玛拿西的祷告,1和2马加比添置。

Roman Catholic Bibles also list 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh as apocryphal.罗马天主教圣经也清单1和2埃斯德拉斯和玛拿西的猜测祈祷。The Greek Orthodox Bible omits 2 Esdras but adds 3 Maccabees and Psalm 151, with 4 Maccabees as an appendix.希腊东正教圣经省略2埃斯德拉斯,但增加了4作为附录马加比3马加比和诗篇151。The Apocrypha are important sources for Jewish history and religious developments in the 1st and 2d centuries BC.伪经是犹太人的历史,在第一和2D公元前数百年的宗教发展的重要来源。

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Bibliography 参考书目
BM Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha (1957); BL Mack.BM,对伪经(1957)介绍梅茨格; BL马克。Wisdom and the Hebrew Epic: Ben Sira's Hymn in Praise of the Fathers (1986); RH Pfeiffer, History of New Testament Times, with an Introduction to the Apocrypha (1949).智慧和希伯来史诗:本西拉的歌中赞美的父亲(1986年); RH菲佛,新约时代的历史,向伪经介绍(1949年)。


Apocrypha伪经

General Information一般资料

Apocrypha (Greek apokryphos,"hidden") is a word coined by the 5th-century biblical scholar Saint Jerome for the biblical books received by the church of his time as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament (see Septuagint), but that were not included in the Hebrew Bible.伪经(希腊apokryphos,“隐藏”)是由5世纪的圣经学者圣杰罗姆创造由他的时间教会收到的旧约(见七十)希腊版本的一部分圣经书一个字,但不包括在希伯来文圣经。 In the Authorized, or King James, Version, the books are either printed as an appendix or are omitted altogether; they are not considered canonical by Protestants.在授权,或国王詹姆斯版,印刷的书籍要么作为附录或完全省略,他们不认为新教徒规范。

The Septuagint was received by the Christian church from Hellenistic Judaism. The books included in the Septuagint that were excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews from their canon were Judith, the Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, and the two books of Maccabees. 该译本是收到来自希腊犹太教的基督教教堂,在七十包含的是被从他们的佳能非希腊犹太人排除书籍朱迪思,在所罗门,Tobit回归,西拉奇(Ecclesiasticus),巴鲁克智慧,和两个书籍的马加比。 Of these, Judith and Tobit are best described as edifying historical fiction, and Baruch, as an appendage to the Book of Jeremiah, written in the person of Jeremiah's secretary.其中,朱和托比书是最好的形容为启发历史小说,和巴鲁克,作为对耶利米书,在耶利米的秘书人的书面附属物。Wisdom and Sirach are testimonies to the wisdom tradition of Israel otherwise represented in the books of Proverbs, Job, and Ecclesiastes.智慧和西拉奇是以色列的智慧传统的证词,否则在箴言书,作业和传道书代表。The books of Maccabees are historical works in the tradition of the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles.在马加比的书籍在书籍的塞缪尔,国王和历代传统的历史著作。Also generally included with the Apocrypha are the two books of Esdras, additions to the Book of Esther (Esther 10:4-10), the Song of the Three Young Men (Daniel 3:24-90), Susanna (Daniel 13), Bel and the Dragon (Daniel 14), and the Prayer of Manasseh.一般还附带伪经是埃斯德拉斯两书,对埃丝特(以斯帖10:4-10),该三名男青年宋(但以理书3:24-90),苏珊娜(丹尼尔13)图书增加,贝尔和龙(丹尼尔14),和玛拿西祷告。

Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians still follow the Septuagint and include in the canon of the Bible all the Apocrypha, except the two books of Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh. They generally refer to the Protestant Apocrypha as deuterocanonical books, however, and reserve the term Apocrypha for those books entirely outside the biblical canon, which Protestants call the pseudepigrapha. 罗马天主教和东正教徒仍然按照七十,其中包括在所有的圣经伪经佳能除埃斯德拉斯两书和玛拿西祷告,他们通常是指作为次经伪经新教书籍,但是,并保留期限伪经为完全超出圣经佳能,其中新教徒致电pseudepigrapha那些书。

With the growth of a historical perspective in biblical studies during the 19th century, the value of the Apocrypha as historical sources came to be generally recognized.随着一个在19世纪圣经的研究历史的角度看增长,作为史料价值伪经后来被普遍认同。Derived from the period 300BC to New Testament times, the Apocrypha shed valuable light on the period between the end of the Old Testament narrative and the opening of the New Testament.从期间300BC到新约时代派生的伪经棚上之间的旧约叙述的结束和新约开放期间宝贵的光。They are also important sources of information on the development of belief in immortality, the resurrection, and other questions of eschatology, as well as the increasing impact of Hellenistic ideas on Judaism.他们也很重要的信息来源,对发展中不朽的信仰,复活,和末世其他问题,以及在希腊的思想越来越犹太教的影响。

Rev. Bruce Vawter牧师布鲁斯Vawter


Apocrypha伪经

Advanced Information先进的信息

Apocrypha; hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which found a place in the LXX.伪经;隐藏,伪,在给予一定的发现,在LXX地方古籍的名称。and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word.旧约和拉丁语武加大版本,并追加到所有伟大的译本,他们在十六世纪,但没有被视为在任何意义上的启发字部位视为索赔。

The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (qv), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Tobit, Judith, etc.旧约伪经包括十四书籍,其中主要是在马加比书(请参阅),埃斯德拉斯的书籍,是智慧之书,书的巴鲁克的以斯帖,Ecclesiasticus(西拉奇),Tobit回归书,朱等

The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is unworthy of regard as being comparable in importance to the Bible.新约伪经包含了非常广泛的文献,其中蕴藏着其非使徒的起源不同的证据,并且是被圣经中的重要性,可比的方面不值得。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Old Testament Apocrypha旧约伪经

Advanced Information先进的信息

The word "apocrypha" is from the Greek ta apokrypha, "the hidden things," although there is no strict sense in which these books are hidden.单词“伪经”是从希腊TA apokrypha“的隐藏的东西,”虽然没有严格意义上的这些书是隐藏的。Some thirteen books comprise the Apocrypha: I and II Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (which is also entitled the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach), Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah, the Additions to Daniel, the Prayer of Manasses, and I and II Maccabees.有些thirteen书籍包括伪经:我和第二埃斯德拉斯,托比书,朱迪,其余的埃丝特,智慧的所罗门,Ecclesiasticus(这也是题为耶稣的儿子西拉奇智慧),巴鲁克,在耶利米书,该丹尼尔,Manasses的祷告,我和二马加比添置。 Both the status of these books and the use of the term "apocrypha" have been in confusion since the early days of the church.这两种状态的这些书籍和术语“伪经”的使用已经混乱,因为教会的初期。In the restricted sense the word denotes the above-named books in contradistinction to the Pseudepigrapha, or false writings; but in the broader sense the word refers to any extracanonical scripture.在限制意义上的词是指在对比的Pseudepigrapha,或虚假的著作为上述书籍,但在更广泛意义上的字是指任何extracanonical经文。 Sometimes the term takes on a disparaging meaning, especially when used of the "apocryphal" gospels; this is to say they are spurious or heterodoxical.有时这个词带上了轻蔑的含义,尤其是当了“未经证实”福音使用,这是说他们是虚假的或heterodoxical。 A further difficulty attending the restricted use of the term is that some of the Apocrypha are pseudonymous, whereas some of the Pseudepigrapha are not pseudonymous.另一个困难出席了长期限制使用的是,一些伪经假名,而在Pseudepigrapha有些不假名。RH Charles broke the accepted order by including III Maccabees in the Apocrypha and transferring II Esdras to the Pseudepigrapha.RH查尔斯打破了包括伪经第三马加和转移II埃斯德拉斯到Pseudepigrapha接受的订单。 The acient rabbinic practice was to regard all such writings as "outside books," and his designation was continued by Cyril of Jerusalem, who used Apocrypha in the same sense, ie, scriptures outside the canon.该acient拉比的做法是,所有这些著作视为“外书”,并指定由他的西里尔耶路撒冷,谁使用在同样的意义,即伪经经文外,佳能继续。 In modern times CC Torrey has revived this signification so that all such books, including the Pseudepigrapha, are called Apocrypha.在近代CC托里复苏这个意义,使所有这类书籍,包括Pseudepigrapha,被称为伪经。 Therefore to use the term Pseudepigrapha is a concession to an unhappy usage.因此,要使用术语Pseudepigrapha是一个不愉快的使用特许权。

How did the Apocrypha secure a place in some of our English Bibles?如何安全的伪经在我们的英语圣经一些地方?The Jews uniformly denied canonical status to these books, and so they were not found in the Hebrew Bible; but the manuscripts of the LXX include them as an addendum to the canonical OT.犹太人拒绝统一规范的地位,这些书,所以他们没有发现在希伯来文圣经,但手稿的LXX包括作为规范OT增编的。In the second century AD the first Latin Bibles were translated from the Greek Bible, and so included the Apocrypha.在公元二世纪的第一个拉美圣经被翻译从希腊圣经,所以包括伪经。Jerome's Vulgate distinguished between the libri ecclesiastici and the libri canonici with the result that the Apocrypha were accorded a secondary status.杰罗姆的武加大区分的libri ecclesiastici和libri canonici与该伪经被赋予次要地位的结果。However, at the Council of Carthage (397), which Augustine attended, it was decided to accept the Apocrypha as suitable for reading despite Jerome's resistance to their inclusion in the Vulgate.然而,在理事会的迦太基(397),其中奥古斯丁出席,会议决定接纳为尽管杰罗姆的阻力,在武加大将其列入适合阅读的伪经。 In 1548 the Council of Trent recognized the Apocrypha, excepting I and II Esdras and the Prayer of Manasses, as having unqualified canonical status.在1548年安理会的遄达伪经确认,除为具有典型的不合格状态和第二埃斯德拉斯和Manasses祈祷。Moreover, anyone who disputed this ecclesiastical decision was anathematized.此外,谁该教会的决定是有争议的诅咒。The Reformers repudiated the Apocrypha as unworthly and contradictory to the doctrines of the uncontroverted canon; however, Luther did admit that they were "profitable and good to read."改革者推翻了伪经为unworthly和矛盾的无可争议的经典教义,但是,路德没有承认自己是“盈利和良好的阅读。” The Coverdale and Geneva Bibles included the Apocrypha but set them apart from the canonical books of the OT.该Coverdale和日内瓦圣经包括伪经,但设置从OT的典型的书籍他们分开。After much debate the British and Foreign Bible Society decided in 1827 to exclude the Apocrypha from its Bibles; soon afterward the American branch concurred, and this action generally set the pattern for English Bibles thereafter.经过反复辩论,英国和外国圣经协会决定在1827年以排除从圣经伪经;此后不久,美国分行同意,这个动作一般设置为英文圣经模式一次。 Among Protestant communions only the Anglican Church makes much use of the Apocrypha today.在基督教圣餐只有圣公会使多大的伪经今天使用。

Many literary genres appear in the Apocrypha: popular narrative, religious history and philosophy, morality stories, poetic and didactic lyrics, wisdom literature, and apocalyptic.许多文学体裁出现在伪经:流行叙事,宗教史,哲学,道德故事,诗意的歌词和说教,智慧文学和启示。Most of these books were written in Palestine between 300 BC and AD 100, and the language of composition was either Hebrew or Aramaic, and occasionally Greek.这些书籍大多是写在巴勒斯坦之间的公元前300年和公元100,无论是构成语言希伯来文或阿拉姆,偶尔希腊。They generally reflect the Jewish religious viewpoint of late OT times with certain additions which were emphasized.他们普遍反映后期OT次犹太与其中某些补充强调宗教的观点。Almsgiving became an expression of good works meritorious to salvation (see Tob. 12:9).施舍成为了优秀作品表达有功救赎(见TOB。12:9)。The Apocrypha, and to a greater extent the Pseudepigrapha, evince an amplified doctrine of the Messiah beyond what the OT reveals.伪经,并在更大程度上Pseudepigrapha,表示出一种超越什么OT放大显示弥赛亚主义。Two types of messianic expectation predominate: the heavenly Son of man, taken from Daniel and embellished by Enoch, and the earthly Davidic king described in the Psalms of Solomon.两种类型占主导地位的救世主的期望:人天堂的儿子,取自丹尼尔和诺点缀,和地上的大卫国王所罗门的诗篇描述。The doctrine of resurrection of the body, so seldom mentioned in the OT, is ubiquitous in the Apocrypha and shows an advance over the OT idea of Sheol.对身体的复活学说,所以很少在旧约中提到,是无处不在的伪经,并显示超过有关阴间OT思想进步。The hope for immortality was greatly influenced by Greek thought.为不朽的希望是很大的影响希腊思想。Throughout the Aprocrypha is a highly developed angelology which is a natural consequence of the impact of dualism upon Jewish religious thought after the Exile.整个Aprocrypha是一个高度发达的天使这是一个二元论后,流亡国外后,犹太宗教思想影响的必然结果。The NT cites none of the books of the Apocrypha, although there are frequent parallels of thought and language, as in the case of Eph.新台币列举的伪经书都没有,虽然有相似之处频繁的思想和语言中的弗的情况下。6:13-17 and Wisd. 6:13-17和Wisd。Sol.溶胶。5:17-20, and Heb. 5:17-20,和希伯来书。11 and Ecclus.11 Ecclus。44.44。But to admit these parallels is not necessarily to admit dependence by NT authors upon the Apocrypha, and even if a clear case of dependence can be made, it does not follow that the NT author regarded these books as authoritative.但要承认这些相似之处不一定承认新台币作者后,伪经的依赖,即使依赖明确的情况下,可,这并不表示新台币作者视为权威的这些书。

DH Wallace卫生署华莱士

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RH Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, I; BM Metzger, An Introduction of the Apocrypha; WOE Oesterley, The Books of the Apocrypha; RH Pfeiffer, A History of NT Times with an Introduction of the Apocrypha; EJ Goodspeed, The Story of the Apocrypha; CC Torrey, The Apocryphal Literature; HM Hughes, The Ethics of Jewish Apocryphal Literature; H. Wace, ed., Apocrypha, 2 vols; JH Charlesworth, ed., The OT Pseudepigrapha, Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments. RH查尔斯,伪经和Pseudepigrapha的OT,我;骨髓梅茨格,一个伪经介绍,WOE Oesterley,对伪经的书籍; RH菲佛,处新台币倍的伪经介绍历史; EJ古德斯皮德,故事在伪经; CC托里的猜测文学; HM休斯,犹太猜测文学的道德规范; H. WACE,ED,伪经,2卷; JH查尔斯沃思,教育署,OT Pseudepigrapha,启示文学和圣经。


Introduction to the Apocrypha介绍伪经

General Information一般资料

(From the New English Bible)(摘自新英文圣经)

The term 'Apocrypha', a Greek word meaning 'hidden (things)', was early used in different senses.术语“伪经”,一个希腊词意思是“隐藏的(事物)”,是早期采用不同的感觉。It was applied to writings which were regarded as so important and precious that they must be hidden from the general public and reserved for the initiates, the inner circle of believers.这是适用于其中作为如此重要和珍贵,他们必须隐藏从一般公众和同修,内圆的信徒视为保留著作。It came to be applied to writings which were hidden not because they were too good but because they were not good enough, because, that is, they were secondary or questionable or heretical.它后来被应用到其中隐藏的不是因为他们太优秀,而是因为他们不够好,因为,那就是,他们是中学或可疑或异端著作。 A third usage may be traced to Jerome.第三个使用可追溯到杰罗姆。He was familiar with the Scriptures in their Hebrew as well as their Greek form, and for him apocryphal books were those outside the Hebrew canon, hence the alternative term deutero-canonical.他是在他们的希伯来语,以及他们熟悉圣经希腊形式,并为他猜测书籍以外的希伯来语佳能的,因此替代任期deutero规范的。

The usage here adopted is based on that of Jerome.这里所采用的使用是根据杰罗姆的。The Apocrypha in this translation consists of fifteen books or parts of books.本翻译伪经包括十五书籍或书籍的部分。 They are:它们是:

These works are outside the Palestinian canon; that is, they form no part of the Hebrew Scriptures, although the original language of some of them was Hebrew.这些作品以外的巴勒斯坦佳能,也就是说,他们没有形成希伯来圣经的一部分,虽然他们中的一些原始语言是希伯来语。With the exception, however, of the Second Book of Esdras, they are all in the Greek version of the Old Testament made for the Greek-speaking Jews in Egypt.随着例外,但是,第二本书的埃斯德拉斯,他们都是在为埃及的希腊讲犹太人所做的旧约希腊文版本。As such they were accepted as biblical by the early Church and were quoted as Scripture by many early Christian writers, for their Bible was the Greek Bible.因此他们被接受为圣经由早期教会,被认为圣经引述许多早期基督教作家,为他们的圣经是希腊圣经。

In Greek and Latin manuscripts of the Old Testament these books are dispersed throughout the Old Testament, generally in the places most in accord with their contents.在旧约的希腊文和拉丁手稿这些书是分散在整个旧约,一般在它们的内容符合大多数地方。The practice of collecting them into a separate unit, a practice which dates back no farther than AD 1520, explains why certain of the items are but fragments; they are passages not found in the Hebrew Bible, and so have been removed from the books in which they occur in the Greek version.对收集到一个单独的单元,这种做法可以追溯到公元没有超出1520年,他们的做法也解释了为什么一些项目只是片段,它们的通道并不在希伯来文圣经中,所以已经从书本中删除它们发生在希腊的版本。 To help the reader over this disunity and lack of context the present translators have resorted to various devices.为了帮助在这个不团结和翻译方面,当前缺乏的读者纷纷使出各种设备。We have added the name Daniel to the titles of the stories of Susanna and of Bel and the Snake as a reminder that these tales are to be read with the Book of Daniel.我们已经添加了名称丹尼尔的苏珊娜和贝尔的故事和作为提醒,这些故事都是与但以理书阅读蛇的标题。A note we have inserted after the title, The Song of the Three, indicates that this item is to be found in the third chapter of the Greek form of Daniel.我们有一个标题后插入值得注意的是,在三首歌曲,表示这个项目是要在希腊形式的丹尼尔第三章找到。And the six additions to the Book of Esther are so disjointed and unintelligible as they stand in most editions of the Apocrypha that we have provided them with a context by rendering the whole of the Greek version of Esther.和六个增加至以斯帖记是如此脱节和难以理解的,因为他们在大部分的伪经,我们提供了一个上下文渲染的希腊文版本的埃丝特整个他们版本的立场。

The text used in this translation of the Apocrypha is that edited by HB Swete in The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint .在这个伪经翻译使用的文字是由HB Swete 在希腊根据译本旧约编辑。In places Swete includes two texts, and we have chosen to translate the Codex Sinaiticus text of Tobit and Theodotion's version of the additions to the Book of Daniel, namely, The Song of the Three, Daniel and Susanna, and Daniel, Bel, and the Snake.在一些地方Swete包括两个文本,我们选择了翻译法典西奈抄本的Tobit回归和Theodotion的的补充版本文字的但以理书,即三,丹尼尔和苏珊娜,和丹尼尔,贝尔宋和蛇。 For Ecclesiasticus we have used, in addition to Codex Vaticanus as printed in Swete's edition, the text edited by JHA Hart in Ecclesiasticus: the Greek Text of Codex 248, and constant reference has been made to the various forms of the Hebrew text.对于Ecclesiasticus我们曾用在Swete的印版除食品Vaticanus,文字由JHA哈特在Ecclesiasticus编辑:法典248希腊文本,并参考了不断的希伯来文的各种形式。 For the Second Book of Esdras, which apart from a few verses is not extant in a Greek form, we have based our translation on the Latin text of RL Bensly's The Fourth Book of Ezra. Throughout we have consulted the variant readings given in critical editions of the Greek, the texts of the versions, and the suggestions of editors and commentators.对于埃斯德拉斯,其中除了少数的诗句是不是在希腊形成现存的第二本书,我们的基础上,RL拉丁文字的翻译Bensly的本以斯拉四书。纵观我们已征询变种在关键的版本给出的读数希腊,该版本的文本,编辑和评论员的建议。

Alternative readings cited from Greek manuscripts (referred to as witnesses ) and the evidence of early translations (Vss., that is Versions) are given, as footnotes, only when they are significant either for text or for meaning.替代读数引自希腊手稿(简称证人 )和早期翻译的证据(VSS的,就是版本)给出,作为脚注,只有当它们要么是文字或意义重大。In a few places where the text seems to have suffered in the course of transmission and in its present form is obscure or unintelligible we have made a slight change in the text and marked our rendering of it probable reading, and we have indicated any evidence other than the evidence afforded by the context.在一个文本似乎已在传输过程中,并在其目前的形式出现少数地方是模糊或难以理解我们已作出了在文字略有变化,标志着我们对它可能读渲染我们有任何证据表明其他所提供的证据比由上下文。 Where an alternative interpretation seemed to deserve serious consideration it has been recorded as a footnote with Or as indicator.凡有另一种解释似乎值得认真考虑它已被记录为一个脚注作为指标。

In order to preserve the verse numbering of the Authorized (King James) Version of 1611 we have, when necessary, added at the foot of the page those passages which are found in the manuscripts on which the Authorized Version ultimately rests but which are absent from the earlier manuscripts now available.为了维护诗歌的授权(国王詹姆斯)版本的1611年我们在页面的脚说,必要时,编号那些被发现在手稿上的授权版本,但最终取决于这些缺席通道现在可用的早期手稿。 We have not sought to achieve consistency in the treatment of proper names any more than did our predecessors.我们没有寻求实现在任何超过前人没有正确处理地名的一致性。We have continued to use familiar English forms, especially when the reference is to well-known Old Testament characters or places.我们继续使用熟悉的英文形式,特别是当提到的是著名的旧约人物或地方。Sometimes as an aid to the correct pronunciation we have had recourse to such expedients as the affixing of an acute accent to the word Sidè or the introduction of a diphthong, as in our Soud for Sud.有时作为一个正确的发音,我们不得不在我们的南基Soud求助于作为一种急性口音的字边或一个双元音引进贴上这样的权宜之计,援助。 In general it may be said that Greek spellings have been Latinized, but the Greek forms of place-names have not been brought into line with the Hebrew.一般情况下,可以说,希腊拼法已经拉丁化,但地名希腊形式尚未一致带来的希伯来语。

We have not aimed at consistency in our treatment of weights and measures.我们不是针对我们的重量和治疗措施的一致性。We have rendered terms into the nearest English equivalents only when these seemed suitable and natural in the context.我们提供到最近的英语当量只有当这些似乎在合适的范围内,自然。

In the text of the First and Second Books of the Maccabees the dates given it reckoned according to the Greek or Seleucid era.在给定的日期马加比第一​​和第二书籍文本它估计根据希腊或塞琉古的时代。As a help to the reader we added at the foot of the page the nearest dates according to the Christian era.作为对读者帮助我们增加在页面脚下根据最近的日期基督教时代。

This translation of the Apocrypha shares with other parts of The New English Bible the aim of providing a rendering which will be both faithful to the text translated and genuinely English in idiom.这与新英文圣经的其他部分提供一个渲染这将是既要真正在翻译和英语成语的文字忠实的目标股的伪经翻译。The translators have endeavoured to convey the meaning of the original in language which will be the closest natural equivalent.译者一直在努力传达的语言本义,这将是最接近自然相等。They have tried to avoid free paraphrase on the one hand and, on the other, formal fidelity resulting in a translation which would read like a translation.他们试图避免一方面意译和自由,另一方面,正规翻译这将阅读就像一个翻译造成的保真度。It is their hope that by their labours these documents, valuable in themselves and indispensable for the study of the background of the New Testament, have been made more intelligible and more readily accessible.这是他们希望通过自己的劳动这些文件,在自己和为新约背景研究不可缺少的宝贵,已变得更加清晰,更容易获得。

The Place of the Apocrypha该伪经广场

The place of the Apocrypha in the biblical canon has long been the center of controversy.该伪经的圣经佳能地方长期以来一直是争论的中心。

Written between 200 (or somewhat earlier)-50 BC, certain of the books contain doctrines not uniformly accepted at that time by Jews, namely a clear teaching on the resurrection of the body (2 Macc.7.9-12) and angelology (Tob. 12.15), both of which were opposed by the powerful party, the Sadducees (Acts 23.6-8).写在200(或有点早)-50公元前的书籍包含不统一当时犹太人所接受的学说,即对身体(2 Macc.7.9 - 12)复活和天使(Tob.明确的教学一定12.15),两者都是反对强大的党,撒都该人(徒23.6-8)。Questions concerning the Apocrypha raised among Jews were also raised in the same or divergent form in Christian circles, especially by those church writers who were in contact with the Hebrew tradition.关于犹太人的问题所提出的伪经中也提出,在基督教界在相同或不同的形式,特别是那些教会作家谁在与希伯来人的传统联系。 Some Christian writers, Augustine among them, put these books on a par with the rest of the Old Testament and quoted them equally.一些基督教作家,其中奥古斯丁,把这些书相提并论与旧约的休息,并引述他们同样。Jerome, who in 390 AD was commissioned to make a new translation of the whole Bible into Latin, studied Hebrew with a rabbi.杰罗姆,谁在公元390委托,使之成为整个拉丁美洲的圣经新译本,研究与拉比希伯来语。His avowed purpose was to translate the Old Testament according to the "Hebrew original" ( secundum Hebraicam veritatem ), with the result that he was opposed to translating the Apocrypha because they were not in the Hebrew.他公开宣称的目的是为了翻译旧约根据“希伯来原有的”( 继发孔型Hebraicam veritatem),与他反对伪经翻译的结果,因为他们是在希伯来文没有。In the end, he yielded to the pressure of the bishops and included these writings in the translation which came to be known as the Vulgate and which remained the official translation of the Latin church for many centuries.最后,他屈服于压力的主教,其中包括在翻译这后来被称为武加大,哪些仍是拉丁美洲教会许多世纪官方称这些著作的翻译。 Paradoxically, Jerome himself often quoted the Apocrypha without distinguishing them from the books of the Hebrew canon.奇怪的是,自己经常引用杰罗姆没有区别的希伯来语佳能他们的伪经的书籍。

Following the decrees by the synods of Hippo (393 AD) and Carthage (397 AD), the Apocrypha were uniformly included in the canon of the Latin church.继由河马(393 AD)和迦太基(397 AD)的主教会议的法令,伪经一律列入拉丁教会佳能。Nevertheless, questions concerning them continued to be raised right up to the Council of Trent in the sixteenth century.然而,关于这些问题,继续提高直至在十六世纪至安理会的遄达。

It had been natural for the leaders of the Reformation in the sixteenth century, with their emphasis on the supremacy and the purity of the Bible, to reject the Apocrypha, especially because an appeal was made for these books by Catholics against some of the basic positions of the Reformation.它被自然的改革领导人在十六世纪,他们的重点是至高无上的圣经和纯洁性,反对伪经,特别是因为上诉是由天主教徒这些书籍对一些基本立场的改革。 In 1546 AD the Council of Trent published a list of books to be received "with equal devotion and reverence," which included the Apocrypha, with the exception of 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh.在1546 AD安理会的遄达出版的书籍清单,收到“以同样的奉献和崇敬,”其中包括伪经与1和2埃斯德拉斯和玛拿西祷告除外。In time, the Apocrypha came to be designated by Roman Catholics as "deuterocanonical," in distinction to the "protocanonical" books of the Hebrew canon.随着时间的推移,伪经来到罗马天主教徒被指定为“次经”中区分了“protocanonical”的希伯来文经典书籍。 This special designation is not intended to suggest an inferior status, but simply a reception into the canon later than the protocanonical books.这种特殊的称号,是不是要提出一个劣势的地位,但只是一个接收到佳能不迟于protocanonical书籍。For the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Synod of Jerusalem (1672 AD) affirmed the validity of the longer canon; however, a universally binding conciliar decision has not been made, and hence a diversity of opinion still exists.对于东正教教会,耶路撒冷(1672年)主教会议肯定了佳能有效期较长,但具有普遍约束力的conciliar的决定尚未作出,因此一个见仁见智的多样性仍然存在。

Today, the question of the canonical status of the Apocrypha is no longer so vehemently argued either in Protestant or Catholic circles.如今,规范的伪经地位问题不再那么激烈地争论了新教或天主教界人士任。Scholarly biblical criticism has shown the presence of the same literary forms in both proto- and deuterocanonical writings.学术圣经批评,显示了在两个原和次经著作相同的文学形式的存在。One of the results of biblical scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century has been to reduce the controversy, while not completely eliminating it, as witnessed by the inclusion of these books in the present Bible, though in a location and sequence different from those in Bibles published exclusively under Catholic auspices.对在二十世纪下半叶圣经奖学金的结果之一是减少争议,虽然没有完全消除它,因为由这些书籍包含在本圣经的见证下,在一个位置和序列虽然来自不同在圣经出版完全根据天主教主持。 Theologians now find themselves comfortable with a much more flexible concept of scriptural inerrancy, and consequently of inspiration, than was possible after the great religious controversies of the sixteenth century and before the era of modern biblical scholarship in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.神学家们现在发现自己的圣经无误更加灵活的概念舒适,因此灵感,比后十六世纪伟大的宗教争议,前现代在十九世纪和二十世纪圣经奖学金时代成为可能。 The usefulness of a book is less likely to be judged on the basis of its inclusion in, or exclusion from, the canon, but rather by the light it sheds for understanding the rest of the Bible.一本书的用处是不太可能在其列入,或从佳能,而是由光它对于理解圣经rest鸡舍排斥的基础上判断。The Apocrypha have something in common with what came before them and with what followed them; they therefore act as a link between the Old and the New Testaments and so help us to understand both.伪经有什么东西在他们面前,并跟随他们来到什么共同的,他们因此作为旧之间的联系和新约,从而帮助我们理解两者。


Susanna苏珊娜

General Information一般资料

The story of Susanna is told in the Book of Susanna in the Apocrypha.而苏珊娜的故事告诉了苏珊娜在伪经书。Falsely accused of adultery by elders who had failed in their attempt to seduce her, and condemned to death, Susanna is rescued by the divinely inspired Daniel, whose clever cross-examination exposes her accusers.虚假的由长辈谁没有履行他们的企图勾引她,通奸被告被判死刑,苏珊娜是救出了神圣的丹尼尔,他的聪明质证公开她的指控。


The Apocrypha, Aristeas, Aristobulus, and the Pseud-epigraphic Writings伪经,Aristeas,阿里斯托布鲁斯和Pseud,碑铭著作

Advanced Information先进的信息

From Book 1, Chapter 3, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, by Alfred Edersheim从第1册,第3章, 生活和耶稣的弥赛亚时代,由阿尔弗雷德爱德生

The translation of the Old Testament into Greek may be regarded as the starting-point of Hellenism.该翻译成希腊文旧约可视为希腊文化的出发点。It rendered possible the hope that what in its original form had been confined to the few, might become accessible to the world at large.它提供的可能,希望在其原来的形式是什么一直局限在少数,可能会成为整个世界的访问。[a Philo, de Vita Mos. [A斐洛,德维塔MOS。ed.编辑。Mangey, ii.Mangey,II。 p.140.] But much yet remained to be done.140。]但是仍然有许多尚未完成。If the religion of the Old Testament had been brought near to the Grecian world of thought, the latter had still to be brought near to Judaism.如果旧约宗教被带到附近的希腊思想的世界里,后者还有待接近犹太教带来的。 Some intermediate stage must be found; some common ground on which the two might meet; some original kindredness of spirit to which their later divergences might be carried back, and where they might finally be reconciled.一些中间阶段,必须找到,有些共同点,这两个可能满足;一些精神,他们的原kindredness到后来的分歧可能会携回,并在他们可能最终重归于好。

As the first attempt in this direction, first in order, if not always in time, we mark the so-called Apocryphal literature, most of which was either written in Greek, or is the product of Hellenising Jews.由于在这个方向的尝试,首先在命令,如果不总是及时,我们纪念所谓的猜测文学,其中大部分要么写在希腊,或者是犹太人的Hellenising产品。 [1 All the Apocrypha were originally written in Greek, except 1 Macc., Judith, part of Baruch, probably Tobit, and, of course, the 'Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach.'] [1所有的伪经书面最初在希腊,除1排雷。,朱迪思,巴鲁克,大概Tobit回归的一部分,并且,当然,“耶稣的智慧的西拉奇的儿子。”]

Its general object was twofold.它的一般对象是双重的。First, of course, it was apologetic, intended to fill gaps in Jewish history or thought, but especially to strengthen the Jewish mind against attacks from without, and generally to extol the dignity of Israel.首先,当然,这是歉疚,为了填补犹太人的历史或思想差距,特别是加强对从没有攻击犹太人心中,并普遍歌颂以色列的尊严。 Thus, more withering sarcasm could scarcely be poured on heathenism than in the apocryphal story of 'Bel and the Dragon,' or in the so-called 'Epistle of Jeremy,' with which the Book of 'Baruch' closes.因此,更多的枯萎讽刺几乎无法被倒在异教比在未经证实的故事“贝尔与龙”,或所谓的“杰里米书信”,与其中的“巴鲁克”图书关闭。 The same strain, only in more lofty tones, resounds through the Book of the 'Wisdom of Solomon,' [b Comp.一脉相承的,只有在更崇高的色调,通过了“所罗门的智慧”,[B比赛图书辚。x.X.xx.] along with the constantly implied contrast between the righteous, or Israel, and sinners, or the heathen. XX。]随着之间的正义,或以色列,并罪人,或异教徒不断暗示对比。

But the next object was to show that the deeper and purer thinking of heathenism in its highest philosophy supported, nay, in some respects, was identical with, the fundamental teaching of the Old Testament.但接下来的目的是表明,在其最高哲学思想异教更深,更纯的支持,不仅如此,在某些方面,是与中,旧约的基本教学相同。 This, of course, was apologetic of the Old Testament, but it also prepared the way for a reconciliation with Greek philosophy.这当然是旧约的歉疚,但同时也准备与希腊哲学和解的方式。We notice this especially in the so-called Fourth Book of Maccabees, so long erroneously attributed to Josephus, [1 It is printed in Havercamp's edition of Josephus, vol.我们注意到,特别是在所谓的第四本书的马加比这个,只要错误地归因于约瑟夫,[1这是印在Havercamp的约瑟夫,第版。 ii.II。pp. 497-520.页497-520。 The best edition is in Fritzsche, Libri Apocryphi Vet.最好的版本是在弗里切,Libri Apocryphi兽医。Test.测试。(Lips. 1871).] and in the 'Wisdom of Solomon.'(Lips. 1871)],然后在“所罗门的智慧”。

The first postulate here would be the acknowledgment of truth among the Gentiles, which was the outcome of Wisdom, and Wisdom was the revelation of God.第一个假设这里将是在外邦人中确认的事实,这是智慧的结果,智慧是上帝的启示。This seems already implied in so thoroughly Jewish a book as that of Jesus the Son of Sirach.这似乎已经暗示在如此彻底的犹太人,作为耶稣的儿子西拉奇书。[a Comp.[A比赛。for ex.为前。Ecclus.Ecclus。xxiv.二十四。6.] Of course there could be no alliance with Epicureanism, which was at the opposite pole of the Old Testament.6]当然不可能有任何与享乐主义,这在旧约的对立面是联盟。But the brilliancy of Plato's speculations would charm, while the stern self-abnegation of Stoicism would prove almost equally attractive.但是,柏拉图的揣测辉煌会的魅力,而严厉的淡泊自我克制将被证明是几乎同样的吸引力。The one would show why they believed, the other why they lived, as they did.一个展示为什么他们会认为,其他为什么他们住,因为他们做到了。Thus the theology of the Old Testament would find a rational basis in the ontology of Plato, and its ethics in the moral philosophy of the Stoics.因此,旧约神学会发现,在柏拉图的本体论,并在其道德哲学的斯多葛伦理学的理性基础。

Indeed, this is the very line of argument which Josephus follows in the conclusion of his treatise against Apion.事实上,这是非常一致的说法约瑟夫在他的论文对阿皮翁结论如下。[b ii.[B第二。39, 40.] This, then, was an unassailable position to take: contempt poured on heathenism as such, [c Comp.39,40] 那么,这是一个至高无上 ​​的地位采取:蔑视倒在异教因此,[C比赛。also Jos. Ag.也圣何塞银。Ap.鸭。ii.II。34.] and a rational philosophical basis for Judaism.34] 和理性的犹太教哲学基础。

They were not deep, only acute thinkers, these Alexandrians, and the result of their speculations was a curious Eclecticism, in which Platonism and Stoicism are found, often heterogeneously, side by side.他们不深,只有急性思想家,这些Alexandrians,以及他们猜测的结果是一个奇怪的折衷主义,其中柏拉图和淡泊被发现,往往不均匀,相映成趣。 Thus, without further details, it may be said that the Fourth Book of Maccabees is a Jewish Stoical treatise on the Stoical theme of 'the supremacy of reason', the proposition, stated at the outset, that 'pious reason bears absolute sway over the passions,' being illustrated by the story of the martyrdom of Eleazar, and of the mother and her seven sons.因此,如果没有进一步的细节,可以说,在马加比四书是一个犹太人坚忍的论文上,命题在一开始就表示:“理性至上”,即“虔诚的理由负有绝对的坚忍主题挥洒过激情,“正说明了对埃莱亚萨殉难的故事,以及母亲和她的七个儿子。 [d Comp.[D比赛。2 Macc.2排雷。vi.六。18-vii.18 - VII。41.]41。]

On the other hand, that sublime work, the 'Wisdom of Solomon,' contains Platonic and Stoic elements [2 Ewald (Gesch. d. Volkes Isr., vol. iv. pp. 626-632) has given a glowing sketch of it.另一方面,即崇高的工作,“所罗门的智慧”,包含了柏拉图和斯多葛要素[2埃瓦尔德(Gesch. D. Volkes ISR。,第四卷,第626-632)赋予了它发光的素描。Ewald rightly says that its Grecian elements have been exaggerated; but Bucher (Lehre vom Logos, pp. 59-62) utterly fails in denying their presence altogether.], chiefly perhaps the latter, the two occurring side by side.埃瓦尔德正确地说,它的希腊元素被夸大了,但布赫尔(Lehre VOM标志,第59-62)完全否认它们的存在完全失败],主要可能是后者,两个发生并排。Thus [e Ch.因此[E通道。vii.七。22-27.] 'Wisdom,' which is so concretely presented as to be almost hypostatised, [3 Compare especially ix.22-27]“智慧”,这是如此具体地提出了以几乎hypostatised,[3比较,特别是九。1; xviii.1;十八。14-16, where the idea of passes into that of the.14-16日,在这里传递到了这一想法。

Of course the above remarks are not intended to depreciate the great value of this book, alike in itself, and in its practical teaching, in its clear enunciation of a retribution as awaiting man, and in its important bearing on the New Testament revelation of the.] is first described in the language of Stoicism, [f Vv.当然,上述言论是无意贬低这本书很有价值,都在自己,并在实际教学中,其明确的阐述了报应作为等待的人,在其重要的影响和对新约的启示。]是首先在淡泊的语言描述,[F VV。22-24.] and afterwards set forth, in that of Platonism, [g Vv. 22-24],后来提出的柏拉图,[G维维的。25-29.] as 'the breath of the power of God;' as 'a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty;' 'the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of His goodness.' 25-29]为“神的力量的气息;”作为“一个纯粹的影响从全能荣耀流动;'”这一永恒的光,上帝的力量unspotted镜面亮度,图像他的善良。“ Similarly, we have [a In ch.同样,我们在CH [一个。viii.八。7.] a Stoical enumeration of the four cardinal virtues, temperance, prudence, justice, and fortitude, and close by it the Platonic idea of the soul's pre-existence, [b In vv. 7]的四项基本原则美德,节制,谨慎,公正,刚毅坚忍的枚举,并关闭它的灵魂的前生柏拉图的思想,[b在维维。19, 20.] and of earth and matter pressing it down.19,20]和地球与物质按了下去。[c ix.[C IX。15.] How such views would point in the direction of the need of a perfect revelation from on high, as in the Bible, and of its rational possibility, need scarcely be shown. 15。]如何将这些意见点了一个完美的启示,需要从高的方向,如圣经,其合理的可能性,需要很少表现出来。

But how did Eastern Judaism bear itself towards this Apocryphal literature? 但怎么东部犹太教承担实现这一猜测文学本身?We find it described by a term which seems to correspond to our 'Apocrypha,' as Sepharim Genuzim,' 'hidden books,' ie, either such whose origin was hidden, or, more likely, books withdrawn from common or congregational use. Although they were, of course, carefully distinguished from the canonical Scriptures, as not being sacred, their use was not only allowed, but many of them are quoted in Talmudical writings. 我们发现它描述了一个术语这似乎符合我们的“伪经”,作为Sepharim Genuzim“,”隐书“,即上述两种情况,其起源是隐藏的,或者更可能的是,从普通的书籍或撤回众使用,虽然他们是,当然,从规范圣经仔细区分,视为不神圣的,它们的使用不仅是允许的,但其中不少是在Talmudical著作引用。 [1 Some Apocryphal books which have not been preserved to us are mentioned in Talmudical writings, among them one, 'The roll of the building of the Temple,' alas, lost to us! [1一些没有被保留,我们猜测书籍中提到Talmudical著作,其中之一,“该寺庙的建筑卷,”唉,失去了我们!Comp.比赛。Hamburger, vol.汉堡,第ii.II。pp. 66-70.]页66-70。]

In this respect they are placed on a very different footing from the so-called Sepharim Chitsonim, or 'outside books,' which probably included both the products of a certain class of Jewish Hellenistic literature, and the Siphrey Minim, or writings of the heretics. Against these Rabbinism can scarcely find terms of sufficient violence, even debarring from share in the world to come those who read them.在这方面,它们被放置在一个由所谓的Sepharim Chitsonim非常不同的立足点,或“外书”,这可能既包括产品的犹太希腊文学的某些类,而Siphrey微量,或异端著作针对这些Rabbinism,几乎无法找到足够的暴力方面,甚至debarring在世界的份额来从那些谁读它们。 [d Sanh 100.] This, not only because they were used in controversy, but because their secret influence on orthodox Judaism was dreaded.[D San​​h 100]这不仅是因为他们使用的争议,而是因为他们对正统犹太教的影响是可怕的秘密。

For similar reasons, later Judaism forbade the use of the Apocrypha in the same manner as that of the Sepharim Chitsonim.出于类似的原因,后来犹太教禁止在作为Sepharim Chitsonim的同样方式使用该伪经。But their influence had already made itself felt.但他们的影响力已经使自己感觉。The Apocrypha, the more greedily perused, not only for their glorification of Judaism, but that they were, so to speak, doubtful reading, which yet afforded a glimpse into that forbidden Greek world, opened the way for other Hellenistic literature, of which unacknowledged but frequent traces occur in Talmudical writings.伪经,更贪婪地细读,不仅为他们的犹太教颂扬,但他们是这么说,可疑阅读,这还没有给予禁止进入希腊世界的一瞥,开辟其他古希腊文学的方式,其中未确认但频繁的痕迹出现在Talmudical著作。 [2 Comp.[2比赛。Siegfried, Philo von Alex.齐格弗里德,斐洛冯亚历克斯。pp. 275-299, who, however, perhaps overstates the matter.]页275-299,谁的时候,也许夸大了的事。]

To those who thus sought to weld Grecian thought with Hebrew revelation, two objects would naturally present themselves.对于那些谁从而寻求焊接希腊与希伯来思想的启示,两个对象自然会展示自己。 They must try to connect their Greek philosophers with the Bible, and they must find beneath the letter of Scripture a deeper meaning, which would accord with philosophic truth.他们必须尝试连接与圣经的希腊哲学家,他们必须找到下方的圣经信更深的意义,这将符合哲学真理。So far as the text of Scripture was concerned, they had a method ready to hand.至于圣经的文字而言,他们有一个方法准备出手。 The Stoic philosophers had busied themselves in finding a deeper allegorical meaning, especially in the writings of Homer.在斯多葛哲学家已经忙着寻找自己更深寓言的意义,特别是在荷马的著作。

By applying it to mythical stories, or to the popular beliefs, and by tracing the supposed symbolical meaning of names, numbers, &c., it became easy to prove almost anything, or to extract from these philosophical truths ethical principles, and even the later results of natural science.通过应用到神话故事,或到民间信仰,并通过跟踪应该象征性意义的名称,数量,&C, 它成为容易证明几乎所有的东西,或提取从这些哲学真理的伦理原则,甚至后来的结果自然的科学。[1 Comp.[1比赛。Siegfried, pp. 9-16; Hartmann, Enge Verb.齐格弗里德,页9-16;哈特曼,恩格动词。d.D.A. Test.A.测试。mit d.麻省理工学院D.N., pp. 568-572.] Such a process was peculiarly pleasing to the imagination, and the results alike astounding and satisfactory, since as they could not be proved, so neither could they be disproved. N.,页568-572。]这样的过程是独有的令人高兴的想象力,其结果惊人的一致好评和满意,因为他们不能证明,这样既不能将它们反驳。This allegorical method [2 This is to be carefully distinguished from the typical interpretation and from the mystical, the type being prophetic, the mystery spiritually understood.] was the welcome key by which the Hellenists might unlock the hidden treasury of Scripture.这个寓言的方法[2这是必须认真从典型的解释和神秘的尊贵,类型被预言,神秘精神的理解。]是欢迎的关键其中Hellenists可能解开圣经隐藏的宝库。

In point of fact, we find it applied so early as in the 'Wisdom of Solomon.'在事实来看,我们发现它应用在这么早的“所罗门的智慧”。[3 Not to speak of such sounder interpretations as that of the brazen serpent (Wisd. xvi. 6, 7), and of the Fall (ii. 24), or of the view presented of the early history of the chosen race in ch.[3不要说作为铜蛇(Wisd.十六,6,7),这种健全的解释,以及秋季(白介素24),或对所选择的种族的早期历史的观点提出了在CH 。x., we may mention as instances of allegorical interpretation that of the manna (xvi. 26-28), and of the high-priestly dress (xviii. 24), to which, no doubt, others might be added.十,我们可能会提到,作为寓言解释的甘露(xvi. 26-28)和(xviii. 24)的高祭司礼服,为这,毫无疑问,其他人可能会增加实例。

But I cannot find sufficient evidence of this allegorical method in the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach.但我不能找到这个在耶稣的儿子西拉奇智慧的寓言方法的充分证据。The reasoning of Hartmann (us, pp. 542-547) seems to me greatly strained.哈特曼的推理(我们,第542-547),在我看来大大紧张。Of the existence of allegorical interpretations in the Synoptic Gospels, or of any connection with Hellenism, such as Hartmann, Siegfried, and Loesner (Obs. ad. NT e Phil. Alex) put into them, I cannot, on examination, discover any evidence.其中在对观福音寓言解释的存在,或任何与希腊,如哈特曼,齐格弗里德和Loesner连接(Obs.广告。NT发送菲尔。ALEX)放进去放,我不能,经检验,发现任何证据。 Similarity of expressions, or even of thought, afford no evidence of inward connection.表达式的相似性,甚至思想,能力不向内连接的证据。Of the Gospel by St. John we shall speak in the sequel.由圣约翰的福音,我们将在续集中发言。In the Pauline Epistles we find, as might be expected, some allegorical interpretations, chiefly in those to the Corinthians, perhaps owing to the connection of that church with Apollos.在保罗书信,我们发现,可以预料,一些寓言的解释,主要是在那些科林蒂安,也许是由于该教堂与亚波罗连接。Comp here 1 Cor.比赛在这里1肺心病。ix.九。9; x.9; X.4 (Philo, Quod deter. potiori insid. 31); 2 Cor.4(斐洛,狴阻止potiori insid 31); 2肺心病。iii.三。16; Gal.16;加尔。iv.四。21.21。Of the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Apocalypse we cannot here speak.]在书信向希伯来和启示,我们不能在这里发言。]

But as yet Hellenism had scarcely left the domain of sober interpretation.但目前还几乎没有离开过希腊的清醒解释域。it is otherwise in the letter of the Pseudo-Aristeas, to which reference has already been made.否则它是在伪Aristeas信,参考哪些已经取得的。[4 See p.[4见第25.] Here the wildest symbolism is put into the mouth of the High-Priest Eleazar, to convince Aristeas and his fellow-ambassador that the Mosaic ordinances concerning food had not only a political reason, to keep Israel separate from impious nations, and a sanitary one, but chiefly a mystical meaning. 25]在这里,最疯狂的象征,是投入的高牧师埃莱亚萨口,说服Aristeas和他的同胞大使说,马赛克条例有关食品不仅是政治的原因,保持以色列分开不虔诚国家和卫生之一,但主要是一个神秘的意义。 The birds allowed for food were all tame and pure, and they fed on corn or vegetable products, the opposite being the case with those forbidden.食品允许的鸟类都驯服和纯洁,他们在玉米或蔬菜产品,相反的是与那些被禁止的情况下喂养。

The first lesson which this was intended to teach was, that Israel must be just, and not seek to obtain aught from others by violence; but, so to speak, imitate the habits of those birds which were allowed them.第一个教训,这是为了教导是,以色列必须公正,而不是试图通过暴力取得他人的任何事物,但是,可以这么说,模仿那些被允许他们鸟类的习性。 The next lesson would be, that each must learn to govern his passions and inclinations.下一课会,即每个人都必须学会管理自己的情绪和倾向。Similarly, the direction about cloven hoofs pointed to the need of making separation, that is, between good and evil; and that about chewing the cud to the need of remembering, viz.同样,关于偶蹄方向指出了决策的分离,也就是善恶的需要,并认为有关咀嚼反刍的记忆,即需要。God and His will.上帝和他的意志。 [1 A similar principle applied to the prohibition of such species as the mouse or the weasel, not only because they destroyed everything, but because they latter, from its mode of conceiving and bearing, symbolized listening to evil tales, and exaggerated, lying, or malicious speech.] [1类似的原则适用于如鼠标或黄鼠狼这些物种,禁止不只是因为他们摧毁了一切,而是因为他们后者,其模式的构想和轴承,象征听邪恶的故事,和夸大,说谎,或恶意讲话。]

In such manner, according to Aristeas, did the High Priest go through the catalogue of things forbidden, and of animals to be sacrificed, showing from their 'hidden meaning' the majesty and sanctity of the Law.在这样的方式,根据Aristeas,没有大祭司经过禁物目录,并要被牺牲的动物,从他们的“玄机”的威严和法律的尊严显示。 [2 Of course this method is constantly adopted by Josephus.[2当然这种方法是不断通过约瑟夫。Comp.比赛。for example, Ant.例如,蚂蚁。 iii.三。1.1。6; 7.6,7。7.]7。]

This was an important line to take, and it differed in principle from the allegorical method adopted by the Eastern Jews.这是一个重要的线来取,并在原则上不同于由东方犹太人采取了寓言的方法。 Not only the Dorshey Reshumoth, [3 Or Dorshey Chamuroth, searchers of difficult passages.不仅Dorshey Reshumoth,[3或者Dorshey Chamuroth,搜索困难的段落。Zunz.聪茨。Gottesd.Gottesd。Vortr.Vortr。p.323.323。note b.] or searches out of the subtleties of Scripture, of their indications, but even the ordinry Haggadist employed, indeed, allegoric interpretations.注二]或圣经的微妙的迹象,搜索出来,但即使是ordinry Haggadist就业,的确,寓言的解释。Thereby Akiba vindicated for the 'Song of Songs' its place in the Canon.从而秋叶平反了其在佳能地方“诗经之歌”。Did not Scripture say: 'One thing spake God, twofold is what I heard,' [a Ps.没有圣经说:“有一点说话的神,有两个是我所听到的,”[一个PS。lxii.LXII。11; Sanh.11; Sanh。34 a.] and did not this imply a twofold meaning; nay, could not the Torah be explained by many different methods? A. 34],并没有这意味着双重意义;不,不能托拉被许多不同的方法解释?[4 The seventy languages in which the Law was supposed to have been written below Mount Ebal (Sotah vii. 5). [4其中法本来已低于摩以巴录(Sotah七5)书面seventy语言。

I cannot help feeling this may in part also refer to the various modes of interpreting Holy Scripture, and that there is an allusion to this Shabb.我不禁感慨,部分也指解释圣经的各种模式,这可能,而且有一个这个Shabb典故。88 b, where Ps.88 B,其中聚苯乙烯。lxviii. LXVIII。12. 12。and Jer.和哲。xxiii.二十三。29, are quoted, the latter to show that the word of God is like a hammer that breaks the rock in a thousand pieces.29,被引用,后者表明上帝的话像一把锤子,打破了千枚岩。Comp.比赛。Rashi on Gen. xxxiii. Rashi上将军三十三。20.] What, for example, was the water which Israel sought in the wilderness, or the bread and raiment which Jacob asked in Bethel, but the Torah and the dignity which it conferred?20。]什么,例如,水是以色列在旷野中寻找,或面包和衣服的雅各在伯特利要求,但托拉和尊严它赋予?But in all these, and innumerable similar instances, the allegorical interpretation was only an application of Scripture for homiletical purposes, not a searching into a rationale beneath, such as that of the Hellenists.但所有这些,和无数类似的情况下,寓言的解释只是一个homiletical目的应用圣经,而不是寻找到一个道理,如下面的Hellenists的。

The latter the Rabbis would have utterly repudiated, on their express principle that 'Scripture goes not beyond its plain meaning.'后者的拉比会完全否定,表达对他们的原则是“圣经去不超过其普通含义。”[5 Perhaps we ought here to point out one of the most important principles of Rabbinism, which has been almost entirely overlooked in modern criticism of the Talmud. [5也许我们应该在这里指出的Rabbinism,已几乎完全掌握在犹太法典现代批评忽略了最重要的原则之一。It is this: that any ordinance, not only of the Divine law, but of the Rabbis, even though only given for a particular time or occasion, or for a special reason, remains in full force for all time unless it be expressly recalled (Betsah 5 b).它是这样的:任何条例,不仅是神圣的法律,但拉比,即使只给一个特定的时间或场合,或特殊原因,仍然除非它是明确指出在所有时间全部力量( Betsah 5 B)。Thus Maimonides (Sepher ha Mitsv.) declares the law to extirpate the Canaanites as continuing in its obligations.因此迈蒙尼德(Sepher公顷Mitsv。)宣布消灭的法律义务,在其持续的迦南人。The inferences as to the perpetual obligation, not only of the ceremonial law, but of sacrifices, will be obvious, and their bearing on the Jewish controversy need not be explained.至于永久义务的推论,不仅是礼仪性的法律,但牺牲,将是明显的,他们对犹太人的争议轴承不需要解释。Comp.比赛。Chief Rabbi Holdheim.首席拉比侯德海姆。d.D.Ceremonial Gesetz in Messasreich, 1845.]典礼Gesetz中Messasreich,1845]

They sternly insisted, that we ought not to search into the ulterior object and rationale of a law, but simply obey it. But it was this very rationale of the Law which the Alexandrians sought to find under its letter. 他们严肃地坚持,我们不应该搜索到不可告人的目的和法律理由,而只是服从它,但它是这个法该Alexandrians试图找到在其信函的基本理由。 It was in this sense that Aristobulus, a Hellenist Jew of Alexandria, [b About 160 BC] sought to explain Scripture.正是在这个意义上,阿里斯托布鲁斯,亚历山大Hellenist的犹太人,[B约160 BC]寻求解释圣经。 Only a fragment of his work, which seems to have been a Commentary on the Pentateuch, dedicated to King Ptolemy (Philometor), has been preserved to us (by Clement of Alexandria, and by Eusebius [a Praepar. Evang. vii. 14. 1 ; vii. 10. 1-17; xiii. 12.]).只有他的工作,这似乎一直是在摩西五评,献给国王托勒密(Philometor)的片段,一直保存到我们(由克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,并通过尤西比乌斯[A Praepar。Evang七14。 1;七,十月1日至17号;第十三12])。According to Clement of Alexandria, his aim was, 'to bring the Peripatetic philosophy out of the law of Moses, and out of the other prophets.'根据克莱门特亚历山大,他的目标是,“带出了摩西,并指出其他先知法律巡回哲学。”

Thus, when we read that God stood, it meant the stable order of the world; that He created the world in six days, the orderly succession of time; the rest of the Sabbath, the preservation of what was created.因此,当我们读到神站着,这意味着世界稳定的秩序,也就是说,他在六天内创造了世界,时间有序继承;的安息日休息,什么是创建保存。 And in such manner could the whole system of Aristotle be found in the Bible.而在这样的方式可以对整个系统的亚里士多德在圣经中被发现。But how was this to be accounted for?这又是怎么被占?Of course, the Bible had not learned from Aristotle, but he and all the other philosphers had learned from the Bible.当然,圣经并没有学会从亚里士多德,但他和所有其他philosphers已经从圣经的教训。Thus, according to Aristobulus, Pythagoras, Plato, and all the other sages had really learned from Moses, and the broken rays found in their writings were united in all their glory in the Torah.因此,根据阿里斯托布鲁斯,毕达哥拉斯,柏拉图,和所有其他圣人真正学到了摩西,并在他们的著作中找到破射线在其所有在美国的托拉荣耀。

It was a tempting path on which to enter, and one on which there was no standing still.这是一个诱人的道路上进入,其上也没有停滞不前。It only remained to give fixedness to the allegorical method by reducing it to certain principles, or canons of criticism, and to form the heterogeneous mass of Grecian philosophemes and Jewish theologumena into a compact, if not homogeneous system.它不仅保持给fixedness的寓言方法减少到一定的原则,或批评大炮,并组建成一个紧凑的希腊和犹太theologumena philosophemes异构群众,如果不均质的系统。This was the work of Philo of Alexandria, born about 20 BC It concerns us not here to inquire what were the intermediate links between Aristobulus and Philo.这是亚历山大的斐洛的工作,约生于公元前20它涉及我们不要在这里询问什么是阿里斯托布鲁斯和斐洛​​之间的中间环节。 Another and more important point claims our attention.另外,更重要的一点要求我们的注意。

If ancient Greek philosophy knew the teaching of Moses, where was the historic evidence for it?如果知道了古希腊哲学的摩西,在那里是因为它的历史证据教学?If such did not exist, it must somehow be invented.如果这些不存在,它必须以某种方式被发明。Orpheus was a name which had always lent itself to literary fraud, [b As Val.奥菲斯是它一直借给自己的文学诈骗案VAL,[B的名字。Kenaer puts it, Daitr. Kenaer所说的那样,Daitr。de Aristob.德Aristob。 Jud.达瓦慈善会。p.73.] and so Aristobulus boldly produces (whether of his own or of others' making) a number of spurious citations from Hesiod, Homer, Linus, but especially from Orpheus, all Biblical and Jewish in their cast. 73]等阿里斯托布鲁斯大胆生产(无论是自己或他人制作)由赫西奥德,荷马,莱纳斯的杂散引用的次数,特别是从奥菲斯,都在他们的圣经和犹太演员。 Aristobulus was neither the first nor the last to commit such fraud.阿里斯托布鲁斯既不是第一个也不是最后犯下这种欺诈行为。The Jewish Sibyl boldly, and, as we shall see, successfully personated the heathen oracles.犹太女巫大胆,而且,正如我们将会看到,成功personated异教徒神谕。And this opens, generally, quite a vista of Jewish-Grecia literature.而这种开放,一般,相当多的犹太格雷西亚文学的前景。In the second, and even in the third century before Christ, there were Hellenist historians, such as Eupolemus, Artapanus, Demetrius, and Aristeas; tragic and epic poets, such as Ezekiel, Pseudo-Philo, and Theodotus, who, after the manner of the ancient classical writers, but for their own purposes, described certain periods of Jewish history, or sang of such themes as the Exodus, Jerusalem, or the rape of Dinah.在第二,甚至在公元前三世纪,有Hellenist历史学家,如Eupolemus,Artapanus,德米特里,和Aristeas;悲剧和史诗诗人,如以西结书,伪斐洛和西奥多托斯,谁后的方式古代经典作家,而是为自己的目的,描述了犹太历史的某些时期,或为出埃及记,耶路撒冷,或强奸黛娜等主题演唱。

The mention of these spurious quotations naturally leads us to another class of spurious literature, which, although not Hellenistic, has many elements in common with it, and, even when originating with Palestinian Jews is not Palestinian, nor yet has been preserved in its language. We allude to what are known as the Pseudepigraphic, or Pseudonymic Writings, so called because, with one exception, they bear false names of authorship.这些虚假报价自然使我们提到的另一个伪文学,这虽然不是希腊,有许多共同的元素与它的类,而且,即使在与巴勒斯坦的犹太人起源不是巴勒斯坦人,但也一直保存在其语言, 我们暗示什么作为Pseudepigraphic,或Pseudonymic所谓著作,已知的原因,但有一个例外,他们承担的作者假名。 It is difficult to arrange them otherwise than chronological, and even here the greatest difference of opinions prevails.这是很难安排他们并非按时间顺序,甚至在这里最大的不同意见为准。

Their general character (with one exception) may be described as anti-heathen, perhaps missionary, but chiefly as Apocalyptic.他们的一般性质(有一个例外)可能被形容为反异教徒,也许传教,但主要是作为启示。They are attempts at taking up the key-note struck in the prophecies of Daniel; rather, we should say, to lift the veil only partially raised by him, and to point, alike as concerned Israel, and the kingdoms of the world, to the past, the present, and the future, in the light of the Kingship of the Messiah.他们是在服用了主旨袭击了丹尼尔的预言尝试,相反,我们应该说,只有解除部分由他提出的面纱,并以点带面的关注以色列的一致好评,和世界的王国,以过去,现在和未来,在弥赛亚的王权光。 Here, if anywhere, we might expect to find traces of New Testament teaching; and yet, side by side with frequent similarity of form, the greatest difference, we had almost said contrast, in spirit, prevails.在这里,如果在任何地方,我们可以期望找到新约教学的痕迹;,然而,通过频繁的形式相似,最大的区别并肩,我们几乎可以说相反,在精神,各行其道。

Many of these worksmust have perished.其中许多作品必须灭亡。In one of the latest of them [a 4 Esdras xiv.鉴于他们最新的[4埃斯德拉斯十四之一。44, 46.] they are put down at seventy, probably a round number, having reference to the supposed number of the nations of the earth, or to every possible mode of interpreting Scripture.44,46] 他们放下七十,可能是一个整数,在参考了地球各国应该数,或每一个可能的解释圣经的模式。They are described as intended for 'the wise among the people,' probably those whom St. Paul, in the Christian sense, designates as 'knowing the time' [b Rom.他们被描述为目的“的民间智慧,”大概那些人圣保罗,在基督教的意义上,指定为'知道时间“[B光盘。xiii.十三。11.] [1 The of St. Paul seems here used in exactly the same sense as in later Hebrew.11] [1圣保罗似乎在这里完全相同的意义上使用在以后的希伯来文。The LXX.在LXX。render it so in five passages (Ezr. v. 3; Dan. iv. 33; vi. 10; vii. 22, 25).] of the Advent of the Messiah.呈现五个通道(Ezr.诉3;丹四33;六10;七,22,25)会这样。]对弥赛亚的来临。Viewed in this light, they embody the ardent aspirations and the inmost hopes [2 Of course, it suits Jewish writers, like Dr. Jost, to deprecate the value of the Pseudepigrapha.从这个角度看,它们所体现的殷切期望和[2当然内心深处的希望,它适合犹太作家一样,乔斯特博士,贬低的Pseudepigrapha价值。

Their ardour of expectancy ill agrees with the modern theories, which would eliminate, if possible, the Messianic hope from ancient Judaism.] of those who longed for the 'consolation of Israel,' as they understood it.他们的预期热情病与现代理论,这将消除,如果可能的同意,从古代犹太教救世主的希望。]那些谁渴望为“以色列的安慰,”因为他们的理解。 Nor should we judge their personations of authorship according to our Western ideas.我们也不应判断其personations作者根据我们的西方思想。[3 Comp.[3比赛。Dillmann in Herzog's Real-Encykl.Dillmann在赫尔佐格的Real - Encykl。vol.第一卷。xii.十二。p.301.] Pseudonymic writings were common in that age, and a Jew might perhaps plead that, even in the Old Testament, books had been headed by names which confessedly were not those of their authors (such as Samuel, Ruth, Esther).301。] Pseudonymic著作常见于年龄,和一个犹太人或许申辩甚至在旧约,书籍已为首的名,这样明白地不属于它们的作者的(如塞缪尔,露丝,以斯帖)。 If those inspired poets who sang in the spirit, and echoed the strains, of Asaph, adopted that designation, and the sons of Korah preferred to be known by that title, might not they, who could no longer claim the authority of inspiration seek attention for their utterances by adopting the names of those in whose spirit they professed to write?如果这些谁唱的精神,鼓舞诗人亚萨呼应的菌株,通过了这一称号,和可拉的儿子宁愿由该称号,他们可能没有,谁不能再索赔管理局寻求灵感注意对于采用这些精神,他们声称在其写的名字的言论?

The most interesting as well as the oldest of these books are those known as the Book of Enoch, the Sibylline Oracles, the Paler of Solomon, and the Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis. Only the briefest notice of them can here find a place. 最有意思的,以及这些书是最古老的以诺书的女巫甲骨文,所罗门的苍白,而书Jubilees,或创世纪著名的小,只有其中最短的通知可以在这里找到一个地方。 [1 For a brief review of the 'Pseudepigraphic Writings,' see Appendix I.] [1有关的简要回顾“Pseudepigraphic著作,”见附录一]

The Book of Enoch, the oldest parts of which date a century and a half before Christ, comes to us from Palestine. 以诺书,其中日期的世纪和公元前一半的最古老的部分,涉及到我们从巴勒斯坦。It professes to be a vision vouchsafed to that Patriarch, and tells of the fall of the Angels and its consequences, and of what he saw and heard in his rapt journeys through heaven and earth.它自称是赐予那个族长远见,以及对天使及其后果秋季告诉和他所看到和听到在他全神贯注的旅程通过天地。Of deepest, though often sad, interest, is what it says of the Kingdom of Heaven, of the advent of Messiah and His Kingdom, and of the last things.其中最深的,虽然经常伤心,利息,就是它的天国说,对弥赛亚和他的王国的到来,和过去的事情。

On the other hand, the Sibylline Oracles, of which the oldest portions date from about 160 BC, come to us from Egypt.在另一方面, 女巫甲骨文,其中最古老的部分,从公元前约160日,我们从埃及来。It is to the latter only that we here refer.它是后者,我们才在这里提及。Their most interesting parts are also the most characteristics.他们最有趣的部分也是最具特色。In them the ancient heathen myths of the first ages of man are welded together with Old Testament notices, while the heathen Theogony is recast in a Jewish mould. Thus Noah becomes Uranos, Shem Saturn, Ham Titan, and Japheth Japetus.在他们的第一个年龄段的人的古代异教徒神话焊接与旧约的通知,而异教徒的神谱是改写犹太模具, 因此诺亚成为Uranos,闪土星,咸土卫六,和雅弗Japetus。

Similarly, we have fragments of ancient heathen oracles, so to speak, recast in a Jewish edition.同样,我们古代异教徒神谕片段,可以这么说,重铸一个犹太版。The strangest circumstance is, that the utterances of this Judaising and Jewish Sibyl seem to have passed as the oracles of the ancient Erythraean, which had predicted the fall of Troy, and as those of the Sibyl of Cumae, which, in the infancy of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus had deposited in the Capitol.最奇怪的情况是,这本Judaising和犹太女巫的言论似乎已经作为古代Erythraean,它曾预测秋季特洛伊神谕过去了,截至Cumae女巫的,其中,在罗马的婴儿,塔克文纽斯Superbus已存放在国会大厦。

The collection of eighteen hymns known as the Psalter of Solomon dates from more than half a century before our era.而作为著名的所罗门诗篇 eighteen赞美诗集日期之前我们这个时代从超过半个世纪。No doubt the original was Hebrew, though they breathe a somewhat Hellenistic spirit.毫无疑问,原来是希伯来语,尽管他们呼吸有点希腊精神。They express ardent Messianic aspirations, and a firm faith in the Resurrection, and in eternal rewards and punishments.他们表示热烈的弥赛亚的愿望,并在复活和永恒的奖惩坚定的信念。

Different in character from the preceding works is The Book of Jubilees, so called from its chronological arrangement into 'Jubilee-periods', or 'Little Genesis.'不同性质的作品是从前面的书Jubilees,所以从它的顺序排列为“银禧时段”叫,或“小创世记”。 It is chiefly a kind of legendary supplement to the Book of Genesis, intended to explain some of its historic difficulties, and to fill up its historic lacunae.它主要是一个传奇的补充,使创世记样,意在解释其历史的一些困难,并填补了历史空白。It was probably written about the time of Christ, and this gives it a special interest, by a Palestinian, and in Hebrew, or rather Aramaean.这可能是写了关于基督的时间,这给它的一个巴勒斯坦特殊的兴趣,并在希伯来文,或者更确切地说,Aramaean。 But, like the rest of the Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphic literature which comes from Palestine, or was originally written in Hebrew, we possess it no longer in that language, but only in translation.但是,像文学的猜测和Pseudepigraphic其中来自巴勒斯坦,或最初是在希伯来文写的休息,我们拥有它不再是语言,但只有在翻译。

If from this brief review of Hellenist and Pseudepigraphic literature we turn to take a retrospect, we can scarcely fail to perceive, on the one hand, the development of the old, and on the other the preparation for the new, in other words, the grand expectancy awakened, and the grand preparation made.如果从这个Hellenist和Pseudepigraphic文学,我们又采取了回顾简要回顾,我们可以几乎无法察觉,一方面,旧的发展,并为新的其他的准备,换句话说,盛大的预期惊醒,和盛大配制而成。 One step only remained to complete what Hellenism had already begun.只有保持一个步骤完成什么希腊已经开始。That completion came through one who, although himself untouched by the Gospel, perhaps more than any other prepared alike his co-religionists the Jews, and his countrymen the Greeks, for the new teaching, which, indeed, was presented by many of its early advocates in the forms which they had learned from him.这通过一个人来完成,虽然他自己的福音,也许比任何其他都不变prepared他的教友的犹太人,希腊人和他的同胞,为新的教学,这确实,是由早期的许多介绍主张在了他们曾从他学的形式。 That man was Philo the Jew, of Alexandria.这名男子被斐洛犹太人,亚历山大。


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者爱德生提到许多参考来源,他的作品。As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list.作为一个书目资源,我们创建了一个单独的爱德生参考清单。 All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.他表示在括号内的所有引用引用作品的页码。


Apocrypha伪经

Advanced Catholic Information高级天主教信息

(Both Old and New Testaments)(老和新约)

The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been written either by Biblical personages or men in intimate relations with them.本文的范围,需要在这些成分的信奉已书面圣经人士或与他们亲密关系的男子任。Such known works as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache (Teaching) of the Twelve Apostles, and the Apostolic Canons and Constitutions, though formerly apocryphal, really belong to patristic literature, and are considered independently.这样的著名作品作为牧人书,对巴拿巴书信中,十二使徒十二使徒遗训(教学),以及使徒大炮和宪法虽然以前猜测,真正属于教父文学,被认为是独立的。 It has been deemed better to classify the Biblical apocrypha according to their origin, instead of following the misleading division of the apocrypha of the Old and New Testaments.它已被认为是更好地进行分类圣经伪经根据其来源,而不是跟随在旧约和新约伪经师误导。Broadly speaking, the apocrypha of Jewish origin are coextensive with what are styled of the Old Testament, and those of Christian origin with the apocrypha of the New Testament.从广义上讲,犹太血统伪经与什么是旧约风格coextensive,以及与新约伪经基督教起源的。The subject will be treated as follows:该主题将被视为如下:

Name and Notion名称和理念

Etymologically, the derivation of Apocrypha is very simple, being from the Greek apokryphos , hidden, and corresponding to the neuter plural of the adjective.词源,是伪经推导很简单,从希腊apokryphos,隐藏和对应的复数是中性的形容词。The use of the singular, "Apocryphon", is both legitimate and convenient, when referring to a single work.而使用单数,“Apocryphon”,是既合法又方便,当提到一个单一的工作。When we would attempt to seize the literary sense attaching to the word, the task is not so easy.当我们试图抓住文学常识附加到Word,任务也不是那么容易。It has been employed in various ways by early patristic writers, who have sometimes entirely lost sight of the etymology.它一直以各种方式聘请年初教父作家,谁有时完全失去了对词源的视线。Thus it has the connotation "uncanonical" with some of them.因此,它的内涵“uncanonical”与其中的一些。St. Jerome evidently applied the term to all quasi-scriptural books which in his estimation lay outside the canon of the Bible, and the Protestant Reformers, following Jerome's catalogue of Old Testament Scriptures -- one which was at once erroneous and singular among the Fathers of the Church -- applied the title Apocrypha to the excess of the Catholic canon of the Old Testament over that of the Jews.圣杰罗姆一词显然适用于所有准圣经的书籍,在他的估计超出了圣经佳能居士,和新教改革者,以下杰罗姆的目录旧约圣经 - 一这是一次错误的和父亲之间的奇异教会 - 应用到了以上的犹太人旧约伪经天主教教会过剩称号。Naturally, Catholics refuse to admit such a denomination, and we employ "deuterocanonical" to designate this literature, which non-Catholics conventionally and improperly know as the "Apocrypha".当然,天主教徒拒绝承认这样一个宗派,我们采用“次经”指定这个文学,非天主教徒传统和正确认识的“伪经”。 (See CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.)(见旧约佳能)。

The original and proper sense of the term apocryphal as applied to the pretended sacred books was early obscured.对适用于该假装神圣的书籍杜撰一词原和正确感是早期遮蔽。But a clue to it may be recognized in the so-called Fourth Book of Esdras, which relates that Estrus (Era) by divine inspiration composed ninety-four books.但它的线索可能承认所谓的第四本书的埃斯德拉斯,其中涉及由组成94书籍神圣的灵感发情(时代)。Of these, twenty-four were restorations of the sacred literature of the Israelites which had perished in the Captivity; they were to be published openly, but the remaining were to be guarded in secret for the exclusive use of the wise (cf. Dan., ix, 4, 9, where the prophet is bidden to shut up and seal an inspired book until an appointed time).其中,有24人是以色列人的神圣的文学曾在圈养丧​​生修复,他们将被公开发表,但其余人将在秘密守卫为明智(参丹独占使用。 ,九,4,9,这里的先知是bidden关闭和密封an直到指定的时间启发书)。Accordingly it may be accepted as highly probable that in its original meaning an apocryphal writing had no unfavorable import, but simply denoted a composition which claimed a sacred origin, and was supposed to have been hidden for generations, either absolutely, awaiting the due time of its revelation, or relatively, inasmuch as knowledge of it was confined to a limited esoteric circle.因此,它可以被接纳为极有可能在其本义一个未经证实写作没有不利进口,而只是表示作文声称神圣的起源,是应该被隐藏了几代人,无论是绝对,等待适当时间它的启示,或相对,生死时刻,作为它的知识仅限于在有限的深奥循环。 However, the name Apocrypha soon came to have an unfavourable signification which it still retains, comporting both want of genuineness and canonicity.但是,名称伪经很快就来到了不利的意义它仍然保留,comporting既真实性和canonicity想要的。 These are the negative aspects of the modern application of the name; on its positive side it is properly employed only of a well defined class of literature, putting forth scriptural or quasi-scriptural pretensions, and which originated in part among the Hebrews during the two centuries preceding Christ and for a space after, and in part among Christians, both orthodox and heterodox, in the early centuries of our era.这些都是现代应用程序的名称的消极方面,其积极的一面是正确的就业只是一种文学作品定义的类,将提出圣经或准圣经的野心,并在部分之间的希伯来起源于两几个世纪前基督和后,在基督徒,既正统和异端在我们这个时代的世纪初,部分空间。

I. APOCRYPHA OF JEWISH ORIGIN一,伪经的犹太血统

Ancient literature, especially in the Orient, used methods much more free and elastic than those permitted by our modern and Occidental culture.古代文学,特别是在东方,使用的方法更为自由和比我们的现代西方文化允许的弹性。Pseudographic composition was in vogue among the Jews in the two centuries before Christ and for some time later.Pseudographic成分是流行的犹太人在基督之前的两个世纪,并在一段时间以后。The attribution of a great name of the distant past to a book by its real author, who thus effaced his own personality, was, in some cases at least, a mere literary fiction which deceived no one except the ignorant.在一个遥远的过去到其真正的作者,谁从而抹去了自己的个性书伟大的名字的归属,是,至少在某些情况下,仅仅文学小说的欺骗除了无知没有人。 This holds good for the so-called "Wisdom of Solomon", written in Greek and belonging to the Church's sacred canon.这包含了所谓的“智慧的所罗门”写在希腊和属于教会的神圣经典,好。In other cases, where the assumed name did not stand as a symbol of a type of a certain kind of literature, the intention was not without a degree of at least objective literary dishonesty.在其他情况下,当化名没有站作为一个文学的某种类型的象征,其意图并非没有客观的,至少文学不诚实的程度。

(1) Jewish Apocalypses(1)犹太人的启示

The most important and valuable of the extant Jewish apocrypha are those which have a large apocalyptic element; that is, which profess to contain visions and revelations of the unseen world and the Messianic future.最重要的和有价值的现存犹太伪经是那些有一个大的启示元素,也就是说,它信奉含有理想和启示的看不见的世界和未来的救世主。 Jewish apocalyptic literature is a theme which deserves and has increasingly received the attention of all interested in the development of the religious thought of Israel, that body of concepts and tendencies in which are fixed the roots of the great doctrinal principles of Christianity itself, just as its Divine Founder took His temporal generation from the stock of orthodox Judaism.犹太启示文学是一个主题,值得和日益得到了所有在以色列的宗教思想的发展有兴趣的注意,即观念和倾向身在其中固定的伟大教义的基督教本身原则的根源,正如它的创始人把他从神的正统犹太教股票的时间产生。 The Jewish apocalypses furnish the completing links in the progress of Jewish theology and fill what would otherwise be a gap, though a small one, between the advanced stage marked by the deuterocanonical books and its full maturity in the time of Our Lord; a maturity so relatively perfect that Jesus could suppose as existing in the popular consciousness, without teaching de novo , the doctrines of future retribution, the resurrection of the body, and the existence, nature, and office of angels.犹太人的启示提供的犹太神学进步的联系,并填写完成,否则会是一个什么差距,虽然是小一间由次经书籍和其完全成熟的标志,在我们的主时间的高级阶段;这样一个成熟比较完善的,耶稣可以假设在现有的流行意识没有教学从头 ,未来报应,身体的复活,而存在,性质,和办公室的天使学说。Jewish apocalyptic writing is an attempt to supply the place of prophecy, which had been dead for centuries, and it has its roots in the sacred oracles of Israel.犹太世界末日写作是企图供应的预言,这已经死了几百年的地方,它在以色列的神圣神谕的根源。Hebrew prophecy on its human side had its springs, its occasions, and immediate objects in the present; the prophets were inspired men who found matter for comfort as well as rebuke and warning in the actual conditions of Israel's theocratic life.希伯来预言其人力方面有其泉水,其场合,而在目前的直接对象;先知受到启发男子谁发现的舒适性以及训斥和以色列的神权政治生活中的实际情况,警告的问题。 But when ages had elapsed, and the glowing Messianic promises of the prophets had not been realized; when the Jewish people had chafed, not through two or three, but many generations, under the bitter yoke of foreign masters or the constantly repeated pressure of heathen states, reflecting and fervent spirits, finding no hope in the actual order of things, looked away from earth and fixed their vision on another and ideal world where God's justice would reign unthwarted, to the everlasting glory of Israel both as a nation and in its faithful individuals, and unto the utter destruction and endless torment of the Gentile oppressors and the unrighteous.但是,当时代已经过去了,而发光的先知弥赛亚的承诺没有实现,当犹太人民恼火,而不是通过两个或三个,但许多代,在外国主人苦枷锁或异教徒不断反复的压力状态,反映和热情的精神状态,发现没有对事物的实际秩序的希望,看着从地球距离和固定在另一个​​与理想世界的眼光里上帝的公义将统治unthwarted,对以色列永恒的辉煌都作为一个国家,并在其忠实的人,和你们的完全破坏和詹蒂莱压迫者和不义无尽的折磨。 Apocalyptic literature was both a message of comfort and an effort to solve the problems of the sufferings of the just and the apparent hopelessness of a fulfilment of the prophecies of Israel's sovereignty on earth.启示文学既是信息的舒适和努力解决的只是痛苦和一个以色列的主权在地球上实现的预言显然无望的问题。But the inevitable consequence of the apocalyptic distrust of everything present was its assumption of the guise of the remote and classic past; in other words, its pseudonymous character.但是,目前的一切世界末日不信任的必然后果是它的远程和经典过去幌子假设,换句话说,它的假名字符。Naturally basing itself upon the Pentateuch and the Prophets, it clothed itself fictitiously with the authority of a patriarch or prophet who was made to reveal the transcendent future.当然立足于五经和先知本身,它本身虚构与衣服的族长或先知谁是揭示了未来超越的权威。But in their effort to adjust this future to the history that lay within their ken the apocalyptic writers unfolded also a philosophy of the origin and progress of mundane things.但在他们的努力来调整这个未来的历史,在他们县打好世界末日作家展开也是起源和世俗哲学事情的进展。A wider view of world-politics and a comprehensive cosmological speculation are among the distinctive traits of Jewish apocalyptic.一批世界更广泛的政治观点和全面的宇宙投机之间的犹太世界末日的鲜明特征。The Book of Daniel is the one book of the Old Testament to which the non-inspired apocalypses bear the closest affinity, and it evidently furnished ideas to several of the latter.但以理书是旧约其中非灵感启示承担最接近的亲和力一本书,它显然提供思路,后者多。An apocalyptic element existing in the prophets, in Zacharias (i-vi), in Tobias (Tobias, xiii), can be traced back to the visions of Ezechiel which form the prototype of apocalyptic; all this had its influence upon the new literature.一个世界末日的元素中存在的先知撒迦利亚(I - VI)在托拜厄斯(托比亚斯,十三),都可以追溯到Ezechiel的愿景构成了世界末日的原型;所有这一切都在新文学的影响力。Messianism of course plays an important part in apocalyptic eschatology and the idea of the Messias in certain books received a very high development.当然弥赛亚末世启示录中起着重要组成部分,在某些书籍的messias的想法得到了非常高的发展。But even when it is transcendent and mystic it is intensely, almost fanatically, national, and surrounded by fanciful and often extravagant accessories.但即使它是超越性和神秘的是强烈的,几乎狂热,国家和幻想,往往奢侈配件包围。It lacks the universal outlook of some of the prophets, especially the Deutero-Isaias, and is far from having a uniform and consistent physiognomy.它缺乏的先知,特别是Deutero -伊萨亚斯一些普遍性的前景,并从有一个统一的和一致的面相远。Sometimes the Messianic realm is placed upon the transfigured earth, centering in a new Jerusalem; in other works it is lifted into the Heavens; in some books the Messias is wanting or is apparently merely human, while the Parables of Henoch with their pre-existent Messias mark the highest point of development of the Messianic concept to be found in the whole range of Hebrew literature.有时弥赛亚境界是理想化放在地上后,在新耶路撒冷为中心;在其他作品是进入天堂的解除,在一些书的messias显然是希望或只是人,而与他们的前存在的寓言的过敏弭赛亚标志的救世主的概念将在整个范围内的希伯来文献中找到发展的最高点。

(a) The Book of Henoch (Ethiopic)(一)过敏性图书(埃塞俄比亚)

See the separate Catholic Encyclopedia article under this title.看到这个标题下单独的天主教百科全书文章。

(b) Assumption of Moses(二)假设摩西

Origen, "De Principiis", III, ii, 1, names the Assumption of Moses -- Analepsis Mouseos -- as the book cited by the Epistle of Jude, 9, where there is an allusion to a dispute between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses.奥利,“德Principiis”,三,二,一,名称摩西升天- Analepsis Mouseos -作为书由裘德,9,书信那里是对迈克尔和撒旦之间对争端典故引身体的摩西。Aside from a few other brief references in patristic literature, nothing more was known of this apocryphon until the Latin manuscript containing a long portion of it was discovered by Ceriani in the Ambrosian Library, at Milan, and published by him in 1861.除了其他一些简短的参考文献中的教父,仅此而已被称为本apocryphon,直至拉丁美洲手稿包含它的一个长期的部分是由Ceriani发现在安布罗西安图书馆在米兰,和他在1861年出版。 Its identity with the ancient work is established by a quotation from the latter in the Acts of the Nicene Council.它与古代的身份得到确定的工作由来自尼西亚会议在后者的报价行为。The book purports to be a series of predictions delivered in written form to the safe-keeping of Josue (Joshua) by Moses when the latter, in view of his approaching death, appointed Josue as his successor.这本书看来是一种以书面形式送达摩西的若苏埃(约书亚)保管预测系列,当后者,在他接近死亡的观点,任命他的继任者若苏埃。 The ostensible purpose of these deliverances is to confirm the Mosaic laws and the admonitions in Deuteronomy.这些deliverances表面目的是确认镶嵌法律和申命记的告诫。The entire history of Israel is outlined.以色列的整个历史概述。In a vehement and glowing style the book delineates under its prophetic guise the impiety of Israel's Hasmonean rulers and Sadducean priests.在激烈的风格,闪耀在其书中描绘先知幌子以色列哈斯蒙尼统治者和Sadducean牧师不虔诚。The historical allusions come down to the reign of an insolent monarch who is plainly Herod the Great, and a powerful ruler who shall come from the West and subjugate the people -- a reference to the punitive expedition of Quintilius Varus, 4 BC But the Messias will intervene and execute Divine wrath upon the enemies of the nation, and a cataclysm of nature, which is depicted with truly apocalyptic sublimity, will forerun the beginning of the new era.历史典故归结为一个傲慢的君主谁显然是希律大帝统治时期,一个强大的统治者谁应来自西方和征服的人 - 到Quintilius内翻,公元前4年的惩罚性远征参考,但该messias会后,干预和执行国家的敌人神的愤怒,和对自然,这与真正的世界末日的崇高描绘的灾难,将forerun新时代的开始。 Strangely there is no mention of a resurrection or a judgment of individuals.奇怪的是没有一个复活或个人的判断提及。 The book then returns to the doings of Moses and Josue.书中然后返回到摩西和若苏埃的所作所为。The manuscript breaks off abruptly at chapter xii, and the portion cited by Jude must have belonged to the lost conclusion.这份手稿突然脱落在第十二章,和裘德列举的部分必须有属于失去结论。This apocalypse has with solid reasons been assigned to the early years after Herod's death, between 4 BC and AD 10.这启示了坚实的理由与被分配到后希律王死后的最初几年,公元前和公元4至10。It is evident that neither of Herod's sons, Philip and Antipas, had yet reigned thirty-four years, since the writer, hazarding a prediction that proved false, says that the sons should enjoy shorter reigns than their father.很明显,希律王的儿子,菲利普和安提帕没有,尚未在位34年,自作家,hazarding预测被证明虚假,说,儿子应该享有比他们的父亲更短统治。 Thus the latest possible date of composition is fixed at AD 30.因此,最新的组成​​可能的日期是固定在公元30。The author was a Jew, and in all likelihood a Palestinian one.作者是一个犹太人,并在所有的可能性巴勒斯坦之一。He belonged neither to the Pharisees of the type of Christ's epoch, nor to the Sadducees, since he excoriates both alike.他既不属于基督的时代类型的法利赛人,也没有撒都该人,因为他excoriates都一样。He must have been either a Zealot, that is an ultra-Nationalist and Messianist, or a fervid Essene.他一定是无论是狂热者,这是一个极端民族主义和Messianist,或激越厄。He wrote in Hebrew or Aramaic.他写在希伯来文或阿拉姆语。The Latin text is translated from a Greek version.拉丁文字翻译从希腊的版本。

(c) Book of the Secrets of Henoch (Slavonic Henoch) (三)图书的过敏的秘密(斯拉夫过敏)

In 1892 attention was called to Slavonic manuscripts which on examination proved to contain another Henoch book differing entirely from the Ethiopic compilation.注意在1892年呼吁于考试证明包含另一个不同的过敏书从埃塞俄比亚编译完全斯拉夫手稿。"The Book of the Secrets of Henoch" contains passages which satisfy allusions of Origen to which there is nothing corresponding in the Ethiopic Henoch.他说:“对过敏的秘密之书”包含段落的渊源典故,以满足这没有什么,在埃塞俄比亚过敏相应的。The same may be said about citations in the "Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs".同样可以说,大约在“十二始祖约”引文。Internal evidence shows that the new Henoch was composed by an Alexandrian Jew about the beginning of our Era, and in Greek.内部证据表明,新的过敏是由犹太人组成的亚历山大对我们这个时代的开始,在希腊。The work is sharply marked off from the older book by the absence of a Messias and the want of reference to a resurrection of the dead.这项工作是急剧标志着开来,由一个弭赛亚的情况下,参考了,死人复活要老的书。 It mingles many bizarre details concerning the celestial realm, the angels, and stars, with advanced ideas on man's destiny, moral excellence, and the punishment of sin.它混合了许多奇怪的细节有关天体的境界,天使,星星,与人的命运,美德和罪恶的惩罚的先进思想。The patriarch is taken up through the seven heavens to the very throne of the Eternal.族长是采取通过7天到永恒非常宝座。 Some of the details throw interesting light on various obscure allusions in the Bible, such as the superimposed heavens, the presence of evil powers "in heavenly places", Ezechiel's strange creatures full of eyes.在一些细节上的各种模糊扔在圣经典故,如叠加天空,邪恶的力量存在“天上”,Ezechiel的眼睛充满奇怪生物,有趣的光。

(d) Fourth Book of Esdras(d)第四书埃斯德拉斯

The personage serving as the screen of the real author of this book is Esdras (Ezra), the priest-scribe and leader among the Israelites who returned from Babylonia, to Jerusalem.该人士作为这本书的真正作者屏幕服务是埃斯德拉斯(以斯拉),祭司,文士和以色列人之间的领导人谁返回从巴比伦,耶路撒冷。 The fact that two canonical books are associated with his name, together with a genuine literary power, a profoundly religious spirit pervading Fourth Esdras, and some Messianic points of contact with the Gospels combined to win for it an acceptance among Christians unequalled by any other apocryphon.在两个典型的书籍都与他的名字,与真正的文学力量,一种深刻的宗教精神普及的第四埃斯德拉斯,并与它相结合,为赢得经由任何其他apocryphon无与伦比的基督徒接受福音的接触点,一些弥赛亚在一起的事实。 Both Greek and Latin Fathers cite it as prophetical, while some, as Ambrose, were ardent admirers of it.希腊和拉丁教父引用它作为预言,而有些,如刘汉铨,被它的热情崇拜者。Jerome alone is positively unfavourable.杰罗姆单是积极不利的。Notwithstanding this widespread reverence for it in early times, it is a remarkable fact that the book never got a foothold in the canon or liturgy of the Church.尽管这为它在早期的普遍尊敬,这是一个显着的事实,这本书从来没有得到在佳能或教会的礼仪立足之地。Nevertheless, all through the Middle Ages it maintained an intermediate position between canonical and merely human compositions, and even after the Council of Trent, together with Third Esdras, was placed in the appendix to the official edition of the Vulgate.不过,所有通过它保持着中世纪的典型,只是人类之间组成的中间位置,甚至在安理会的遄达,连同第三埃斯德拉斯,在附录放置到正式版的武加大。 Besides the original Greek text, which has not survived, the book has appeared in Latin, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions.除了原有的希腊文,它不活了下来,这本书出现在拉丁美洲,叙利亚,亚美尼亚,埃塞俄比亚和阿拉伯语版本。The first and last two chapters of the Latin translation do not exist in the Oriental ones and have been added by a Christian hand.第一个和最后两章的拉丁翻译中不存在的,东方的,并已获得一个基督徒的手说。And yet there need be no hesitation in relegating the Fourth Book of Esdras to the ranks of the apocrypha.尽管如此,仍然有需要时没有relegating第四本书的埃斯德拉斯的伪经的行列犹豫。Not to insist on the allusion to the Book of Daniel in xii, 11, the date given in the first version (iii, 1) is erroneous, and the whole tenor and character of the work places it in the age of apocalyptic literature.不就暗示坚持到丹尼尔在第十二,11日,在第一个版本(三,1)给定日期的书是错误的,整个男高音和工作性质的地方,在它的启示文学时代。 The dominant critical dating assigns it to a Jew writing in the reign of Domitian, AD 81-96.占主导地位的关键约会分配到一个犹太人在多米提安,公元81-96年间写作。Certainly it was composed some time before AD 218, since it is expressly quoted by Clement of Alexandria.当然这是由前一段时间公元218,因为它是明确的克莱门特亚历山大引用。The original text, iii-xiv, is of one piece and the work of a single author.原始文本,III -十四,是一件和一个单一的作者的工作。 The motive of the book is the problem lying heavily upon Jewish patriots after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.这本书的动机是趴在犹太爱国者问题严重后,耶路撒冷提图斯破坏。The outlook was most dark and the national life seemed utterly extinguished.前景最黑暗和国家生活似乎完全扑灭。In consequence, a sad and anxious spirit pervades the work, and the writer, using the guise of Esdras lamenting over the ruin of the first city and temple, insistently seeks to penetrate the reasons of God's apparent abandonment of His people and the non-fulfilment of His promises.结果,悲伤和焦虑的精神贯穿工作,作家,使用过的第一个城市和寺庙废墟感叹埃斯德拉斯幌子,执意旨在渗透到上帝的子民明显放弃的原因及不履行他的承诺。 The author would learn the future of his nation.笔者就学习他的民族的未来。His interest is centered in the latter; the universalism of the book is attenuated.他的兴趣是集中在后者;书的普遍衰减。 The apocalypse is composed of seven visions.启示录是由七个愿景。The Messianism of Fourth Esdras suffers from the discouragement of the era and is influenced by the changed conditions produced by the advent of Christianity.弥赛亚的第四埃斯德拉斯遭受挫折的时代,是由基督教的来临生产条件的变化的影响。Its Messias is mortal, and his reign merely one of happiness upon earth.它的messias是凡人,他的统治只是在地上的幸福之一。 Likewise the eschatology labours with two conflicting elements: the redemption of all Israel and the small number of the elect.同样,有两个相互矛盾的末世劳动力要素:赎回所有以色列和少数的选举。All mankind sinned with Adam.全人类的罪与亚当。The Fourth Book of Esdras is sometimes called by non-Catholics Second Esdras, as they apply the Hebrew form, Ezra, to the canonical books.第四本书的埃斯德拉斯有时也被称为非天主教徒第二埃斯德拉斯,因为它们适用的希伯来文的形式,以斯拉,以典型的书籍。

(e) Apocalypse of Baruch(五)启示巴鲁克

For a long time a Latin fragment, chapters lxxviii-lxxxvii, of this pseudograph had been known.很长一段时间的拉丁片段,章节LXXVIII - lxxxvii,这pseudograph已知道。In 1866 a complete Syriac text was discovered by Monsignor Ceriani, whose researches in the Ambrosian Library of Milan have so enriched the field of ancient literature. 1866年一个完整的叙利亚文发现了主教Ceriani,其在米兰的安布罗图书馆的研究有这么丰富的古代文学领域。The Syriac is a translation from the Greek; the original was written in Hebrew.叙利亚文是从希腊文翻译,原来是希伯来文写的。 There is a close relation between this apocalypse and that of Fourth Esdras, but critics are divided over the question, which has influenced the other.这之间有一个启示和第四埃斯德拉斯的密切关系,但批评者对这个问题,这影响了其他分歧。The probabilities favour the hypothesis that the Baruch apocryphon is an imitation of that of Esdras and therefore later.支持这一假设的可能性,该巴鲁克apocryphon是埃斯德拉斯,模仿的,因此以后。The approximate dates assigned to it range between AD 50 and 117.分配给它在公元50至117范围内的大约日期。The "Apocalypse of Baruch" is a somewhat artificial production, without the originality and force of Fourth Esdras.而“巴鲁克启示录”是一个有点人为生产,没有独创性和第四埃斯德拉斯力量。It deals in part with the same problems, viz., the sufferings of the theocratic people, and their ultimate triumph over their oppressors.它涉及同样的问题,即,对政教合一的人民的苦难,以及他们对他们的压迫者最终胜利的一部分。When certain passages are freed from evident Christian interpolations, its Messianism in general is earthly, but in the latter part of the book the Messias's realm tends unmistakably towards a more spiritual conception.当某些段落是从明显基督教插值中解脱出来,它一般是地上的弥赛亚,但在书的后半部分的messias的境界往往无误地迈向更精神的概念。 As in Fourth Esdras, sin is traced to the disobedience of Adam.正如在第四埃斯德拉斯,罪是追溯到亚当抗命。

Greater importance is attached to the law than in the related composition, and the points of contact with the New Testament are more striking.更重要的是附着在法比在相关的成分,并与新约的接触点更加突出。The author was a Pharisee, but one who, while adopting a distinctly Jewish view, was probably acquainted with the Christian Scriptures and freely laid them under contribution.作者是一个法利赛人,而是一个谁,同时采取明显的犹太观点,可能是熟悉基督教圣经和自由奠定下他们的贡献。 Some recent students of the "Apocalypse of Baruch" have seen in it a composite work, but the majority of critics hold with better reason to its unity.在“启示录巴鲁克”最近的一些学生都看到了在这一个综合的工作,但多数的批评与更好的理由,以保持其统一性。The book is lengthy.该书是漫长的。It speaks in the person of Baruch, the secretary of Jeremias.它讲的巴鲁克,在赫雷米亚斯书记的人。It opens with a palpable error of chronology.它打开一个明显错误的年表。Baruch announces the doom of the city and temple of Jerusalem of the Babylonian epoch.巴鲁克宣布城市和巴比伦时代的耶路撒冷圣殿毁灭。However, not the Chaldeans, but angels, will bring about the destruction.然而,并非迦勒,但天使,会带来破坏。Another and pre-existent Holy City is reserved by God, since the world cannot exist without a Jerusalem.另一个和前存在圣城保留上帝,因为世界离不开耶路撒冷。The artificiality and tediousness of the apocalypse are redeemed by a singular breadth of view and elevation of doctrine, with the limitation noted.而矫揉造作和沉闷的启示是赎回的观点和学说高程奇异的广度,注意与限制。

(f) The Apocalypse of Abraham(六)亚伯拉罕启示

The Apocalypse of Abraham has recently been translated from Slavonic into German.亚伯拉罕的启示最近被翻译成德语从斯拉夫。 It relates the circumstances of Abraham's conversions and the visions thereupon accorded him.它涉及亚伯拉罕的转换的情况,并随即给予他的远见。His guide in the a celestial realms is Jael, an angel distinct from God, but possessing divine powers in certain regards.他在一个天体领域指南雅亿,一个天使从神不同,但在某些方面拥有神圣的权力。The work has affinities with Fourth Esdras and the "Apocalypse of Baruch".这项工作已与第四埃斯德拉斯和“启示录巴鲁克”亲疏。 The origin of evil is explained by man's free will.邪恶的起源的解释是人的自由意志。The Elect, or Messias, will gather the dispersed tribes, but God alone will punish the enemies of Israel.选民,或弭赛亚,将聚集分散的部落,但只有上帝会惩罚以色列的敌人。Particularism and the transcendence of the last cosmic stage are the notes of this apocalypse.特殊论和宇宙的最后阶段超越是这个启示的音符。Its data, however, are so vague that it is impossible to fix the time of its composition.它的数据,但是,如此模糊,这是不可能解决的组成时间。

(g) The Apocalypse of Daniel(七)启示丹尼尔

The Apocalypse of Daniel is the work of a Persian Jew of the twelfth century, and is unique in foretelling two Messiases: one, the son of Joseph (Christ), whose career ends in his failure and death; the other the son of David, who will liberate Israel and reign on earth gloriously.丹尼尔的启示是一个第十二届世纪波斯犹太人的工作,并在预言two Messiases独特:一,约瑟夫(基督),在他的职业生涯结束的儿子衰竭而死亡,另外大卫的儿子,谁将会解放以色列和地球上的统治光荣。

(2) Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin(2)传奇伪经的犹太血统

(a) Book of Jubilees or Little Genesis(一)图书或小的jubilees成因

Epiphanius, Jerome, and others quote a work under the title "The Jubilees" or "The Little Genesis".埃皮法尼乌斯,杰罗姆和其他报价,题目是“在五十年节”或“小创世纪”的工作。St. Jerome testifies that the original was in Hebrew.圣杰罗姆证明,原来是希伯来语。It is cited by Byzantine authors down to the twelfth century.它援引拜占庭作者下降到12世纪。After that we hear no more of it until it was found in an Ethiopic manuscript in the last century.之后,我们没有听到更多的它,直到它在上个世纪埃塞俄比亚手稿发现。A considerable Latin fragment has also been recovered.有相当拉丁美洲片段也被收回。The Book of the Jubilees is the narrative of Genesis amplified and embellished by a Jew of the Pharisee period.的书Jubilees是叙事的成因扩增和法利赛人时期的犹太人点缀。It professes to be a revelation given to Moses by the "Angel of the Face".它自称的,由“天使的脸”,以摩西的启示。There is a very systematic chronology according to the years, weeks of years, and jubilees.有一个很系统的年表根据这些年来,数周,五十年节。A patriarchal origin is ascribed to the great Jewish feasts.父系起源归因于伟大的犹太节日。The angelology is highly developed, but the writer disbelieved in the resurrection of the body.高度发达的天使,但笔者在复活的身体不信。The observance of the Law is insisted on.该法的遵守是坚持。It is hard to fix either the date or the religious circle in which the work arose.这是很难修复日期或宗教界在其中工作出现了。 Jerusalem and the Temple still stood, and the Book of Henoch is quoted.耶路撒冷和圣殿仍然有效,而过敏书是引用。As for the lowest date, the book is employed by the Jewish portion of the "Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs".至于最低的日期,这本书是受​​雇于了“的十二始祖约”犹太部分。Estimates vary between 135 BC and AD 60.公元前135年之间的不同估计和AD 60。Among the lost Jewish apocrypha, the one worthy of special notice here is;在丢失的犹太伪经,一个特别值得注意的是在这里;

(b) The Book of Jannes and Mambres(二)雅尼和Mambres图书

II Timothy, iii, 8, applies these names to the Egyptian magicians who reproduced some of the wonders wrought by Moses.提摩太,三,八,适用于这些名称复制到谁的摩西所造成的奇观一些埃及魔术师。The names are not found in the Old Testament.的名字都没有出现在旧约。Origen remarks that St. Paul does not quote "from public writings but from a sacred book which is called Jannes and Mambres".奥利言论圣保罗不引用“从公共著作而是来自一个神圣的书,被称为雅尼和Mambres”。The names were known to Pliny, and figure in the Talmudic traditions.的名字被称为普林尼,并在塔木德传统的数字。Recently R. James in the "Journal of Theological Studies", 1901, II, 572-577, claims to have found a fragment of this lost apocryphon in Latin and Old English versions.最近R.在“神学研究杂志”詹姆斯,1901年,二,572-577,声称已经发现了这个在拉丁美洲和旧英文版本丢失apocryphon片段。

(c) Third Book of Esdras(c)第三书埃斯德拉斯

This is also styled by non-Catholics the First Book of Esdras, since they give to the first canonical Esdrine writing the Hebrew form Ezra.这也是风格的非天主教徒的第一本书的埃斯德拉斯,因为他们给的第一个规范Esdrine书面希伯来文的形式以斯拉。Third Esdras is one of the three uncanonical books appended to the official edition of the Vulgate.第三埃斯德拉斯是追加到正式版的武加大三个uncanonical书籍之一。It exists in two of the oldest codices of the Septuagint, viz., Vaticanus and Alexandrinus, where it precedes the canonical Esdras.它存在于该译本,即,Vaticanus和Alexandrinus,它先于规范埃斯德拉斯最古老的抄本两种。The same is true of manuscripts of the Old Latin and other versions.同样是对旧拉丁美洲和其他版本的手稿真实。Third Esdras enjoyed exceptional favour in the early ages of the Church, being quoted as Scripture with implicit faith by the leading Greek and Latin Fathers (See Cornely, Introductio Generalis, I, 201).第三埃斯德拉斯享有在教会的早期时代特殊的青睐,被视为与隐信仰圣经引述领先希腊和拉丁教父(见Cornely,Introductio Generalis,我,201)。St. Jerome, however, the great minimizer of sacred literature, rejected it as apocryphal, and thenceforward its standing was impaired.圣杰罗姆,然而,文学的神圣伟大的最小化,拒绝为猜测它,从那时起它的地位被削弱。 The book in fact is made up for the most part of materials taken from the inspired books of Paralipomenon, Esdras, and Nehemias, put together, however, in great chronological confusion.其实书是在弥补了由灵感的Paralipomenon图书,埃斯德拉斯,并采取内赫米亚斯大部分材料,放在一起,但是,在伟大的时间顺​​序混乱。 We must suppose that it was subsequent to the above Scriptures, since it was evidently composed in Greek and by an Alexandrian Jew.我们必须假设,这是以后的上述经文,因为它显然是在希腊和由亚历山大犹太人组成。The only original part of the work is chapters iii-v, 6.只有原来的工作部分是章节III - V,6。This recounts a contest between three young Hebrews of the bodyguard of King Darius, each striving to formulate the wisest saying.这叙述希伯来人之间的三个年轻的国王大流士保镖,每个努力制定明智说较量。The victory is awarded to Zorobabel (Zerubbabel), who defends Truth as the strongest force, and the audience shouts: "Great is Truth and powerful above all things!"这场胜利是颁发给Zorobabel(所罗巴伯),谁捍卫真理的最强的力量,观众呼喊:“!大是高于一切的事情真相和强大的” ( Magna est veritas et proevalebit. ) The date of composition is not ascertainable except within very wide limits.麦格纳VERITAS等proevalebit EST)的组成日期不能确定,除非在很宽的限制。These are on one side c.这些都是在一边角300 BC, the latest time assigned to Paralipomenon-Esdras-Nehemias, and on the other, c.公元前300年,最新的时间分配给Paralipomenon,埃斯德拉斯-内赫米亚斯,并在其他角AD 100, the era of Josephus, who employed Third Esdras.公元100年,在约瑟夫,谁雇用第三埃斯德拉斯时代。There is greater likelihood that the composition took place before our Era.有更大的可能性,组成了我们这个时代之前的地方。

(d) Third Book of Machabees(四)第三书Machabees

Third Book of Machabees is the title given to a short narrative which is found in the Alexandrine codex of the Septuagint version and various private manuscripts.对Machabees三书是给一个简短的叙述是在七十版本和各种私人手稿发现亚历山大抄本的称号。It gives an account of an attempted desecration of the Temple at Jerusalem by the Egyptian king, Ptolemy IV (Philopator) after his victory over Antiochus the Great at Raphia, 217 BC, and the miraculous frustration of his endeavour to wreak vengeance upon the Egyptian Jews through a massacre with elephants.它给在耶路撒冷的一个神殿企图亵渎帐户的埃及国王托勒密四(Philopator)后,他在安提阿哥在Raphia,217 BC的伟大胜利,他的奇迹般的努力受挫后,埃及犹太人发泄报复通过与大象的大屠杀。This apocryphon abounds in absurdities and psychological impossibilities, and is a very weak piece of fiction written in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew, and probably designed to encourage its countrymen in the midst of persecutions.这apocryphon盛产荒谬和心理不可能性,是一个非常薄弱的​​小说写的作品在希腊由亚历山大犹太人,可能旨在鼓励在其同胞的迫害之中。 It rests on no ascertainable historical fact, but apparently is an extravagant and varying version of the occurrence related by Josephus, "Against Apion", 1I, 5.它建立在没有确定的历史事实,但显然是一个由约瑟夫相关的发生奢侈和不同版本,“反对阿皮翁”,1I,5。The date cannot be determined.日期无法确定。Since the book shows acquaintance with the Greek additions to Daniel, it cannot be earlier than the first century BC, and could scarcely have found such favour among Christians if composed later than the first century after Christ.由于书显示与希腊增加丹尼尔相识,也不能比公元前一世纪早期,几乎无法发现和基督教徒之间的这种主张,如果组成不迟于一世纪后,基督。 The Syrian Church was the first to give it a friendly reception, presumably on the strength of its mention in the Apostolic Constitutions.叙利亚教会是第一个给它一个友好的接待,在其提到的使徒宪法实力大概。Later, Third Machabees was admitted into the canon of the Greek Church, but seems never to have been known to the Latins.后来,第三Machabees被获准进入希腊教会佳能,但似乎从来就已经知道的拉丁人。

(3) Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers(3)杜撰的诗篇和祈祷

(a) Psalms of Solomon(一)诗篇所罗门

This is a collection of eighteen psalms composed in Hebrew, and, as is commonly agreed, by a Pharisee of Palestine, about the time of Pompey's capture of Jerusalem, 63 BC The collection makes no pretensions to authorship by Solomon, and therefore is not, strictly speaking, apocryphal.这是一个十八诗篇收集希伯来文组成的,而且,正如共同商定,由巴勒斯坦法利赛人,对庞培的耶路撒冷,63捕获公元前收集时间不作任何伪装由所罗门作者,因此也没有,严格来说,杜撰。 The name of the wise king became associated with it later and doubtless was the means of preserving it.而聪明的国王的名字成为后来和与之相关的无疑是维护它的意思。The spirit of these psalms is one of great moral earnestness and righteousness, but it is the righteousness of the Pharisees, consisting in the observance of the legal traditions and ceremonial law.这些诗篇精神是伟大的道德和正义语重心长地之一,但它是法利赛人的义,在法律传统和礼仪遵守法律组成。The Hasmonean dynasty and the Sadducees are denounced.在哈斯蒙尼王朝和撒都该人的谴责。A Messianic deliverer is looked for, but he is to be merely human.一个是寻找救世主的拯救者,但他仅仅是人类。He will reign by holiness and justice, and not by the sword.他将统治的神圣和正义,而不是用剑。Free will and the resurrection are taught.自由意志和复活的教导。The Psalms of Solomon are of value in illustrating the religious views and attitudes of the Pharisees in the age of Our Lord.所罗门的诗篇是价值说明的宗教观点和我们的主时代的法利赛人的态度。The manuscripts of the Septuagint contain at the end of the canonical Psalter a short psalm (cli), which, however, is "outside the number", ie of the Psalms.该手稿的septuagint包含在规范诗篇短诗篇(CLI),其中,然而,“外数”,即结束的诗篇。Its title reads: "This psalm was written by David himself in addition to the number, when he had fought with Goliath."它的标题写着:“这诗的作者是大卫自己,除了号码,当他与巨人战斗。”It is based on various passages in the Old Testament, and there is no evidence that it was ever written in Hebrew.它是根据旧约各通道,并没有什么,这是有史以来在希伯来文的书面证据。

(b) Prayer of Manasses (Manasseh)(二)祈祷的Manasses(玛)

A beautiful Penitential prayer put in the mouth of Manasses, King of Juda, who carried idolatrous abominations so far.一个美丽的忏悔祈祷,因此在Manasses口,犹大王,谁进行盲目崇拜的可憎为止。The composition is based on II Paralipomenon, xxxiii, 11-13, which states that Manasses was carried captive to Babylon and there repented; while the same source (18) refers to his prayer as recorded in certain chronicles which are lost.的组成是基于二Paralipomenon,三十三,11月13日,其中指出Manasses进行圈养,以巴比伦和有悔改;而同一来源(18),是指他的祈祷在这些失去了一定的编年史记录。 Learned opinion differs as to whether the prayer which has come down to us was written in Hebrew or Greek.据悉意见有所不同,是否已下降到我们的祷告是在希伯来文或希腊文写的。Several ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint contain it as an appendix to the Psalter.在七十几个古代手稿包含作为附录它的诗篇。It is also incorporated in the ancient so-called Apostolic Constitutions.它也纳入古代所谓的使徒宪法。In editions of the Vulgate antedating the Council of Trent it was placed after the books of Paralipomenon.在武加大日期提前安理会的遄达版本它被安置后的Paralipomenon书籍。The Clementine Vulgate relegated it to the appendix, where it is still to be found in reprints of the standard text.在克莱门汀武加大转移到附录,它还是要在标准文本重印发现。The prayer breathes a Christian spirit, and it is not entirely certain that it is really of Jewish origin.基督徒的祈祷呼吸的精神,它并不完全肯定,这是真正的犹太血统。

(4) Jewish Philosophy(4)犹太哲学

(a) Fourth Book of Machabees(一)四书Machabees

This is a short philosophical treatise on the supremacy of pious reason, that is reason regulated by divine law, which for the author is the Mosaic Law.这是一个短的虔诚的原因,那是神圣的法律,这对于作者是镶嵌法规定的理由至上的哲学论文。In setting up reason as the master of human passion, the author was distinctly influenced by Stoic philosophy.在设立作为人类激情大师的原因,作者是明显受斯多葛哲学。>From it also he derived his four cardinal virtues: prudence, righteousness (or justice), fortitude, temperance; phronesis, dikaiosyne, andreia, sophrosyne , and it was through Fourth Machabees that this category was appropriated by early Christian ascetical writers.>从他也得到他的四个基本美德:谨慎,正义(或公正),坚韧,节制; 实践智慧,dikaiosyne,andreia,sophrosyne,并通过四Machabees是,这一类是由早期基督教苦修作家挪用。 The second part of the book exhibits the sufferings of Eleazar and the seven Machabean brothers as examples of the dominion of pious reason.该书的第二部分展品作为虔诚的原因统治的例子埃莱亚萨和七个Machabean兄弟的痛苦。The aim of the Hellenistic Jewish author was to inculcate devotion to the Law.而希腊化的犹太人作者的目的是向青少年灌输献身法。He is unknown.他还是个未知数。 The work was erroneously ascribed to Josephus by Eusebius and others.这项工作是由错误地归因于约瑟夫尤西比乌斯等。It appears to have been produced before the fall of Jerusalem, but its date is a matter of conjecture.它似乎已经在耶路撒冷的秋天生产的,但它的日期是一个猜想的问题。

II. II。APOCRYPHA OF JEWISH ORIGIN WITH CHRISTIAN ACCRETIONS增生的伪经与基督教犹太血统

(a) Sibylline Oracles(一)女巫甲骨文

See the separate Catholic Encyclopedia article under this title.看到这个标题下单独的天主教百科全书文章。

(b) Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.在十二始祖(二)圣经。

This is an extensive pseudograph, consisting of;这是一个广泛的pseudograph,组成的;
  1. narrations in which each of the twelve sons of Jacob relates his life, embellished by Midrashic expansions of the Biblical data解说其中雅各的十二个儿子各有关他的生活,由圣经数据Midrashic扩展点缀
  2. exhortations by each patriarch to the practice of virtues, or the shunning of vices illustrated in his life每个族长规劝的美德的实践,还是恶习回避说明了他的生命
  3. apocalyptic portions concerning the future of the twelve tribes, and the Messianic times世界末日的部分有关的十二个部落的未来,救世主的时代

The body of the work is undoubtedly Judaic, but there are many interpolations of an unmistakably Christian origin, presenting in their ensemble a fairly full Christology, but one suspected of Docetism.该机构的工作无疑是犹太人,但也有许多插一个明白无误地基督教的起源,在他们的合奏呈现一个相当完整的基督,但一Docetism怀疑。 Recent students of the Testaments assign with much probability the Jewish groundwork to the Hasmonean period, within the limits 135-63 BC Portions which extol the tribes of Levi and Juda are interpreted as an apology for the Hasmonean pontiff-kings.最近的圣经学生分配得多的概率为基础的犹太哈斯蒙尼时期,公元前135-63的范围内部分的赞美利维和犹大部落的哈斯蒙尼作为教皇,国王道歉解释。 The remaining ten tribes are supposed to be yet in existence, and are urged to be faithful to the representatives of the priestly and royal power.其余十族都应该是还存在,并呼吁要忠实的祭司和王权的代表。In this defence of the Machabean dynasty, and by a writer with Pharisaic tendencies, probably a priest, the Testaments are unique in Jewish literature.在这个Machabean王朝,并与Pharisaic倾向,可能是一个牧师作家防守,在犹太圣经文学是唯一的。 True, there are passages in which the sacerdotal caste and the ruling tribes are unsparingly denounced, but these are evidently later insertions.诚然,也有在其中sacerdotal种姓和部落unsparingly谴责执政的段落,但这些显然后插入。 The eschatology is rather advanced.在末世是相当先进的。The Messias is to spring from the tribe of Levi (elsewhere, however, from Juda); he is to be the eternal High-Priest -- a unique feature of the book -- as well as the civil ruler of the nation.春天的messias是从利未支派(在其他地方,但是,从犹大),他是要成为永恒的高牧师 - 一书的独特功能 - 以及民族民间统治者。During his reign sin will gradually cease.在他的统治罪恶将逐渐停止。The gates of paradise are to be opened and the Israelites and converted Gentiles will dwell there and eat of the tree of life.天堂的大门将被打开,以色列人和转换外邦人要住那里,吃的生命树。The Messianic kingdom is therefore to be an eternal one on earth, therein agreeing with the Ethiopic Henoch.王国的救世主,因此成为地球上永恒的,其中过敏与埃塞俄比亚同意。The Testaments exist complete in Greek, Armenian, Latin, and Slavonic versions.圣经中存在的希腊,亚美尼亚,拉丁和斯拉夫语版本的完整。 Aramaic and Syriac fragments are preserved.阿拉姆语和叙利亚片段保存。

(c) The Ascension of Isaias(三)伊萨亚阿森松

The Ascension of Isaias consists of two parts:阿森松岛的伊萨亚斯由两部分组成:
  1. The Martyrdom of Isaias, in which it is told that the prophet was sawn in two by the order of the wicked King Manasses.伊萨亚斯的殉难,其中有先知告诉记者,在两个锯由邪恶的国王Manasses秩序。
  2. The Ascension proper.该阿森松正确的。

This purports to be the description by Isaias of a vision in which he was rapt up through the seven heavens to the presence of the Trinity, and beheld the descent of the Son, "the Beloved", on His mission of redemption.这看来是由其中的一个,他全神贯注通过7天到三位一体的存在视力伊萨亚斯的描述,看见儿子的血统“的宠儿”,对他的救赎使命。 He changes his form in passing through the inferior celestial circles.他的变化,通过他的下天界传递形式。The prophet then sees the glorified Beloved reascending.先知然后看到心爱reascending荣耀。The Martyrdom is a Jewish work, saving some rather large interpolations.是一个犹太人殉难的工作,节省了一些相当大的插值。The rest is by Christian hands or perhaps a single writer, who united his apocalypse with the Martyrdom.其余的是由基督教的手或者一个作家,谁团结与殉难他启示。There are tokens that the Christian element is a product of Gnosticism, and that our work is the same with that much in favour among several heretical sects under the name of the "Anabaticon", or "Ascension of Isaias".有令牌,基督教元素是诺斯替主义的产品,我们的工作是与该间下的“Anabaticon”,或“伊萨亚斯升天”的名义几个邪教一样多的青睐。 The Jewish portion is thought to have appeared in the first century of our era; the remainder, in the middle of the second.犹太部分被认为是在我们的时代一世纪出现,其余在第二中间。Justin, Tertullian, and Origen seem to have been acquainted with the Martyrdom; Sts.贾斯汀,良,和奥利似乎已经熟悉的殉难; STS。Jerome and Epiphanius are the earliest witnesses for the Ascension proper.杰罗姆和埃皮法尼乌斯是正确的阿森松岛最早的证人。The apocryphon exists in Greek, Ethiopic, and Slavonic manuscripts.该apocryphon存在于希腊,埃塞俄比亚和斯拉夫手稿。

(d) Minor Jewish-Christian Apocrypha(四)小犹太-基督教伪经

Space will permit only an enumeration of unimportant specimens of apocryphal literature, extant in whole or part, and consisting of空间将只允许不重要的猜测文学标本枚举,在全部或部分,包括现存

Probably with this second class are to be included the "Testaments of Job" and "Zacharias", the "Adam Books", the "Book of Creation", the "Story of Aphikia" (the wife of Jesus Sirach).也许是这个被列入第二类的“求职圣经”和“撒迦利亚”中,“亚当书”,在“创作书”,有“Aphikia故事”(即耶稣西拉奇的妻子)。 These works as a rule appeared in the East, and in many cases show Gnostic tendencies.作为一项规则,这些作品出现在东方,而且在许多情况表明诺斯底倾向。Further information about some of them will be found at the end of articles on the above personages.对其中一些进一步的信息会被发现在上述人士文章结尾。

III. III。APOCRYPHA OF CHRISTIAN ORIGIN伪经基督教起源

The term Christian here is used in a comprehensive sense and embraces works produced both by Catholics and heretics; the latter are chiefly members of the various branches or schools of Gnosticism, which flourished in the second and third centuries. 基督教一词用在这里是一个全面的意识,既包含了由天主教徒和异教徒生产工程;后者主要是各分支机构或学校的诺斯替主义,其中在第二和第三世纪蓬勃发展的成员。 The Christian apocryphal writings in general imitate the books of the New Testament and therefore, with a few exceptions, fall under the description of Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypses.在一般的基督教未经著作模仿,只有少数例外的新约书,因此,因此属于福音,行为,书信和启示说明。

(1) APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS(1)杜撰的福音

The term apocryphal in connection with special Gospels must be understood as bearing no more unfavourable an import than "uncanonical".在特殊福音连接长期杜撰必须被理解为没有更多的不利影响比“uncanonical”进口。 This applies to the Gospel of the Hebrews and in a less degree to that of the Egyptians, which in the main seem to have been either embodiments of primitive tradition, or a mere recasting of canonical Gospels with a few variations and amplifications.这适用于福音和希伯来人在一个不太程度的埃及人,其中在主似乎已经有一些变化和扩增或实施方案的原始的传统,或仅仅是重新塑造的典型福音。 It is true, all the extant specimens of the apocryphal Gospels take the inspired evangelical documents as their starting-point.这是事实,所有的猜测福音现存标本作为自己的出发点启发福音文件。But the genuine Gospels are silent about long stretches of the life of Our Lord, the Blessed Virgin, and St. Joseph.但真正的福音是关于我们的上帝,圣母和圣若瑟生活很长一段沉默。Frequently they give but a tantalizing glimpse of some episode on which we would fain be more fully informed.经常给他们不过是一些我们会fain得到更充分的了解情节诱人的一瞥。This reserve of the Evangelists did not satisfy the pardonable curiosity of many Christians eager for details, and the severe and dignified simplicity of their narrative left unappeased imaginations seeking the sensational and the marvellous.这是福音储备没有满足许多基督徒渴望的细节情有可原的好奇心,以及他们留下严重的和有尊严的叙事简单unappeased想像力寻求轰动和神奇。 When, therefore, enterprising spirits responded to this natural craving by pretended Gospels full of romantic fables and fantastic and striking details, their fabrications were eagerly read and largely accepted as true by common folk who were devoid of any critical faculty and who were predisposed to believe what so luxuriously fed their pious curiosity.因此,当进取精神的反应是浪漫的寓言和幻想和惊人的细节充分假装福音这一自然渴求,他们捏造了如饥似渴地阅读和主要接纳为真正由民间常用谁是缺乏任何重要的教师,谁是倾向于相信是什么让他们的豪华美联储虔诚的好奇心。 Both Catholics and Gnostics were concerned in writing these fictions.天主教徒和诺斯替教派都担心在写这些小说。The former had no other motive than that of a pious fraud, being sometimes moved by a real though misguided zeal, as witness the author of the Pseudo-Matthew: Amor Christi est cui satisfecimus. But the heretical apocryphists, while gratifying curiosity, composed spurious Gospels in order to trace backward their beliefs and peculiarities to Christ Himself.前者没有比一个虔诚的欺诈行为,其他的动机,有时被感动一个真正的热情虽然被误导,作为见证的伪马修作者:奥马尔斯蒂EST崔satisfecimus但邪教apocryphists,而可喜的好奇心,组成杂散福音以便追查落后他们的信仰和基督自己的特殊性。 The Church and the Fathers were hostile even towards the narratives of orthodox authorship.教会和父亲甚至对正统作者的叙述充满敌意。It was not until the Middle Ages, when their true origin was forgotten even by most of the learned, that these apocryphal stories began to enter largely into sacred legends, such as the "Aurea Sacra", into miracle plays, Christian art, and poetry.直到中世纪,当他们的真正起源甚至最被人遗忘的教训,这些杜撰的故事开始进入神圣的传说,如“金叶萨克拉”,进入奇迹戏剧,基督教艺术和诗歌,在很大程度上。 A comparison of the least extravagant of these productions with the real Gospels reveals the chasm separating them.一个最奢侈的这些作品与真正的福音的比较揭示了鸿沟把它们分开。Though worthless historically, the apocryphal Gospels help us to better understand the religious conditions of the second and third centuries, and they are also of no little value as early witnesses of the canonicity of the writings of the four Evangelists.虽然毫无价值​​的历史上,猜测福音帮助我们更好地了解第二和第三世纪的宗教状况,他们不作为的四个福音早证人正规的著作也没有什么价值。 The quasi-evangelistic compositions concerning Christ which make no pretensions to be Gospels will be treated elsewhere.准福音成分有关基督这使没有伪装被福音书将被视为其他地方。They are all of orthodox origin.他们是正统出身的。(See AGRAPHA.) (见AGRAPHA。)

.

(a) Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin(一)猜测福音天主教原产地

The Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James 该Protoevangelium雅可比,或婴儿詹姆斯福音
or Protoevangelium of James或Protoevangelium詹姆斯

It purports to have been written by "James the brother of the Lord", ie the Apostle James the Less.它宣称已通过,即使徒詹姆斯减“詹姆斯主的兄弟”写的。It is based on the canonical Gospels which it expands with legendary and imaginative elements, which are sometimes puerile or fantastic.它是基于它与传说中的和富有想象力的元素,有时是梦幻般的幼稚或扩大典型福音。The birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin are described in the first eleven chapters and these are the source of various traditions current among the faithful.出生,教育,婚姻的圣母中描述了前十一章,这些都是其中的忠实当前各种传统来源。They are of value in indicating the veneration paid to Mary at a very early age.他们表示支付的价值在很小的时候就对玛丽的崇拜。For instance it is the "Protoevangelium" which first tells that Mary was the miraculous offspring of Joachim and Anna, previously childless; that when three years old the child was taken to the Temple and dedicated to its service, in fulfilment of her parents' vow.比如,它是“Protoevangelium”,这首先告诉玛丽是约阿希姆和安娜,以前没有孩子的奇迹般的后代,当三岁的孩子被带到寺和专门服务,在她父母的誓言履行。 When Mary was twelve Joseph is chosen by the high-priest as her spouse in obedience to a miraculous sign -- a dove coming out of his rod and resting on his head.当玛丽是十二约瑟夫是选择由高神父作为她的配偶在服从奇迹般的标志 - 鸽子走出他的杆和在他的头上休息。The nativity is embellished in an unrestrained manner.点缀的诞生是在无拘无束的方式。Critics find that the "Protoevangelium" is a composite into which two or three documents enter.批评者认为,“Protoevangelium”是一个复合成两个或三个文件输入。It was known to Origen under the name of the "Book of James".这是众所周知的渊源下的“詹姆斯书”的名称。There are signs in St. Justin's works that he was acquainted with it, or at least with a parallel tradition.有在圣贾斯汀的作品,他认识了它,或至少平行的传统标志。The work, therefore, has been ascribed to the second century.这项工作,因此,一直冲高到第二个世纪。Portions of it show a familiarity with Jewish customs, and critics have surmised that the groundwork was composed by a Jewish-Christian.它的部分显示出与犹太习俗的熟悉和评论家推测的基础是由一个犹太 - 基督教组成。The "Protoevangelium" exists in ancient Greek and Syriac recensions.而“Protoevangelium”存在于古希腊和叙利亚的recensions。There are also Armenian and Latin translations.也有亚美尼亚和拉丁美洲的翻译。

Gospel of St. Matthew福音的圣马太

This is a Latin composition of the fourth or fifth century.这是第四或第五世纪的拉丁组成。It pretends to have been written by St. Matthew and translated by St. Jerome.它假装已经写的圣马太和翻译的圣杰罗姆。Pseudo-Matthew is in large part parallel to the "Protoevangelium Jacobi", being based on the latter or its sources.伪马修在很大程度上是平行的“Protoevangelium雅可比”,是对后者或其来源为基础。It differs in some particulars always in the direction of the more marvellous.它不同于在一些细节总是在更奇妙的方向。Some of its data have replaced in popular belief parallel ones of the older pseudograph.它的一些数据已经取代在民间信仰上了年纪的pseudograph平行的。Such is the age of fourteen in which Mary was betrothed to Joseph.这就是十四岁,其中玛丽约瑟夫订婚。A narrative of the flight into Egypt is adorned with poetic wonders.一个飞行进入埃及装饰与诗意的叙述是奇迹。The dragons, lions, and other wild beasts of the desert adore the infant Jesus.在龙,狮子和其它猛兽的沙漠崇拜婴儿耶稣。 At His word the palm-trees bow their heads that the Holy Family may pluck their fruit.在他的词的棕榈树低头的神圣家族可能采摘的水果。The idols of Egypt are shattered when the Divine Child enters the land.埃及的偶像破灭了,当儿童进入神圣的土地。The "Gospel of the Nativity of Mary" is a recast of the Pseudo-Matthew, but reaches only to the birth of Jesus.在“圣母降生的福音”是一个伪马修重铸,但只达到了耶稣的诞生。It is extant in a Latin manuscript of the tenth century.它是在十世纪的拉丁手稿现存。

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy阿拉伯语福音的婴儿

The Arabic is a translation of a lost Syriac original.阿拉伯是一个失去了原有的叙利亚文译本。The work is a compilation and refers expressly to the "Book of Joseph Caiphas, the High-Priest", the "Gospel of the Infancy", and the "Perfect Gospel".这项工作是一个汇编和明确提到了“约瑟夫Caiphas书,高牧师”中,“福音的婴儿”,和“完美的福音”。Some of its stories are derived from the Thomas Gospel, and others from a recension of the apocryphal Matthew.它的一些故事都来源于托马斯福音,和其他人从马修校订的猜测。However there are miracles, said to have occurred in Egypt, not found related in any other Gospel, spurious or genuine, among them the healings of leprosy through the water in which Jesus had been washed, and the cures effected through the garments He had worn.不过也有奇迹,据说在埃及发生的,没有发现任何其他福音,虚假或真实的,其中通过在耶稣被冲洗的麻风病医治,并通过他穿衣服所带来的治疗相关。 These have become familiar in pious legend.这些都成为虔诚的传说熟悉。So also has the episode of the robbers Titus and Dumachus, into whose hands the Holy Family fell.所以还具有劫匪提图斯和Dumachus,到谁的手中神圣家庭下跌插曲。Titus bribes Dumachus not to molest them; the Infant foretells that thirty years thence the thieves will be crucified with Him, Titus on His right and Dumachus on His left and that the former will accompany Him into paradise.提图斯贿赂Dumachus不要骚扰他们,对婴儿预示这30年那里的盗贼将与他同钉在十字架上,提图斯对他的右边,他的左Dumachus,而前者将陪同他进入天堂。 The apocryphon abounds in allusions to characters in the real Gospels.该apocryphon盛产在现实的福音人物典故。Lipsius opines that the work as we have it is a Catholic retouching of a Gnostic compilation. Lipsius认为该工作,我们有它是一个诺斯底编译天主教修饰。It is impossible to ascertain its date, but it was probably composed before the Mohammedan era.这是不可能的,以确定其日期,但它可能是前穆罕默德时代组成。It is very popular with the Syrian Nestorians.这是非常流行与叙利亚景教。An originally Arabic "History of Joseph the Carpenter" is published in Tischendorf's collection of apocrypha.一个原本阿拉伯语“木匠约瑟的历史”发表在提申多夫的伪经的集合。It describes St. Joseph's death, related by Our Lord to His disciples.它描述了圣若瑟死亡,由我们的主,以他的弟子有关。 It is a tasteless and bombastic effort, and seems to date from about the fourth century.它是一种无味,夸夸其谈的努力,似乎至今约四世纪。

Gospel of Gamaliel福音加马利亚

Dr. A. Baumstark in the Revue Biblique (April, 1906, 253 sqq.), has given this name to a collection of Coptic fragments of a homogeneous character, which were supposed by another Coptic scholar, Reveillout, to form a portion of the "Gospel of the Twelve Apostles" (qv inf. ).A. Baumstark博士在歌剧Biblique(4月,1906年,253 SQQ),给了这个名字是一个同质化的性格,这是由另一科普特学者,Reveillout应该,科普特片段集合形成的部分“福音十二使徒”(QV INF)。These fragments have been referred to a single Gospel also by Lacau, in "Fragments d'apocryphes coptes de la bibliothèque nationale" (Cairo, 1904).这些碎片已被提到了一个单一的福音也Lacau,在“碎片D' apocryphes coptes德拉国家图书馆”(开罗,1904年)。The narrative is in close dependence on St. John's Gospel.叙述是在圣约翰的福音密切的依赖。The author did not pose seriously as an evangelist, since he explicitly quotes from the fourth canonical Gospel.笔者并不构成严重作为一个传播者,因为他明确地从第四典型福音报价。He places the relation in the mouth of Gamaliel of Acts, v, 34.他在地方的行为,V,34口加马利亚的关系。Baumstark assigns it to the fifth century.Baumstark分配到五世纪。The writer was evidently influenced by the "Acta Pilati".作者显然是受了“文献皮拉蒂”。

The Transitus Mariæ or Evangelium Joannis该Transitus Mariæ或Evangelium Joannis

The Transitus Mariæ or Evangelium Joannis, which is written in the name of St. John the Apostle, and describes the death of Mary, enjoyed a wide popularity, as is attested by the various recensions in different languages which exist.该Transitus Mariæ或Evangelium Joannis,这是写在圣约翰使徒的名字,并介绍了玛丽死亡,享有广泛的知名度,因为是由不同的语言中存在的各种的recensions证明。 The Greek has the superscription: "The Account of St. John the Theologian of the Falling Asleep of the Holy Mother of God".希腊有上标:“对圣约翰的神的圣母入睡神学家帐户”。One of the Latin versions is prefaced by a spurious letter of Melito, Bishop of Sardis, explaining that the object of the work was to counteract a heretical composition of the same title and subject.在拉丁美洲版本之一是开头由美利托,主教撒狄假信,解释说,工作的目的是抵消了相同的标题和主题邪教组成。There is a basis of truth in this statement as our apocryphon betrays tokens of being a Gnostic writing worked over in an orthodox interest.有一个真理在这个声明的基础,我们apocryphon背叛写的是一个诺斯底曾在正统的兴趣超过标记。A "Transitus Mariæ" is numbered among the apocrypha by the official list of the "Decretum of Gelasius" of the fifth or sixth century.A“Transitus Mariæ”中的编号由伪经的“格拉西Decretum”第五或第六世纪的正式名单。It is problematic, however, whether this is to be identified with our recast Transitus or not.这是有问题的,但是,这是否是与我们重铸Transitus或没有确定。Critics assign the latter to the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century.批评者分配后者第四月底或第五世纪初。The relation of the Transitus to the tradition of Mary's Assumption has not yet been adequately examined.该Transitus关系到玛丽的假设传统尚未得到充分研究。However, there is warrant for saying that while the tradition existed substantially in portions of the Church at an early period, and thus prepared the way for the acceptance of mythical amplifications, still its later form and details were considerably influenced by the Transitus and kindred writings.然而,对于说,虽然传统的存在大大在教会的部分在早期阶段,因此准备的神话扩增接受的方式,仍是其后来的形式和细节相当的Transitus和类似的著作影响权证。 Certainly the homilies of St. John Damascene, "In Dormitionem Mariæ", reveal evidence of this influence, eg the second homily, xii, xiii, xiv.当然,圣约翰大马士革颂歌:“在Dormitionem Mariæ”,揭示了这种影响的证据,如第二次讲道,十二,十三,十四。Going further back, the "Encomium" of Modestus, Bishop of Jerusalem, in the seventh century (PG, LXXXVI, 3311), and the Pseudo-Dionysius of the fifth (De divinis nominibus, iii), probably suppose an acquaintance with apocryphal narratives of the Death and Assumption of the Blessed Virgin.更进一步回来,“推崇”的Modestus主教耶路撒冷,在第七世纪(PG,捌拾陆,3311),和第五伪狄奥尼修斯(德divinis nominibus,三),可能与未经证实的假设叙述一个熟人在死亡和圣母升天。These narratives have a common groundwork, though varying considerably in minor circumstances.这说明有一个共同的基础,但不同情况相当轻微。The Apostles are preternaturally transported from different quarters of the globe to the Virgin's deathbed, those who had died being resuscitated for the purpose.使徒是preternaturally运输从不同季度全球对圣母的临终,那些谁已经死亡正在复苏为目的。The "Departure" takes place at Jerusalem, though the Greek version places Mary first at Bethlehem.而“出发”发生在耶路撒冷的地方,虽然希腊版本地方玛丽首次在伯利恒。A Jew who ventures to touch the sacred body instantly loses both hands, which are restored through the mediation of the Apostles.一个犹太人谁合资触摸神圣的身体瞬间失去了双手,这是通过调解使徒恢复。Christ accompanied by a train of angels comes down to receive His mother's soul.由天使陪同下火车基督归结到接收他的母亲的灵魂。 The Apostles bear the body to Gethsemani and deposit it in a tomb, whence it is taken up alive to Heaven.使徒承担机构Gethsemani和存款在坟墓里,何处是采取了活着上天堂。(See ASSUMPTION; MARY.) (见假设;玛丽)

(b) Judaistic and Heretical Gospels(二)Judaistic和邪教福音

Gospel according to the Hebrews福音根据希伯来人

Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, and St. Epiphanius speak of a "Gospel according to the Hebrews" which was the sole one in use among the Palestinian Judeo-Christians, otherwise known as the Nazarenes.亚历山德里亚,俄,尤西比乌斯,和圣埃皮法尼乌斯克莱门特说是一个“福音根据希伯来人”,这是唯一在使用的人占巴勒斯坦犹太基督徒,否则被称为拿撒勒。 Jerome translated it from the Aramaic into Greek.杰罗姆的阿拉姆语翻译成希腊文。It was evidently very ancient, and several of the above mentioned writers associate it with St. Matthew's Gospel, which it seems to have replaced in the Jewish-Christian community at an early date.这显然​​是非常古老的,和上述作家的几个关联圣马太的福音它,它似乎已经在犹太 - 基督教社会早日更换。The relation between the Gospel according to the Hebrews and our canonical Matthew Gospel is a matter of controversy.根据之间的希伯来人,我们的典型福音马太福音的关系是一个有争议的问题。The surviving fragments prove that there were close literal resemblances.幸存的片段证明有密切的字面相似之处。Harnack asserts that the Hebrew Gospel was entirely independent, the tradition it contained being parallel to that of Matthew.哈纳克断言,希伯来福音是完全独立的,它包含了传统被平行的马修说。Zahn, while excluding any dependence on our Greek canonical Matthew, maintains one on the primitive Matthew, according to which its general contents were derived from the latter.赞恩,而排除任何对我们的希腊典型马修的依赖,保持在原始马修之一,根据它的内容大致是从后者获得。This Gospel seems to have been read as canonical in some non-Palestinian churches; the Fathers who are acquainted with it refer to it with a certain amount of respect.这福音似乎已经阅读一些非巴勒斯坦教会作为规范;的谁是熟悉它的父亲是指具有一定的尊重它。Twenty-four fragments have been preserved by ecclesiastical writers.二十个片段都被保存下来的教会作家。These indicate that it had a number of sections in common with the Synoptics, but also various narratives and sayings of Jesus, not found in the canonical Gospels.这表明,它在与对观福音常见的节数,但也各种说明和耶稣的说法,而不是在发现典型福音。The surviving specimens lack the simplicity and dignity of the inspired writings; some even savour of the grotesque.幸存的标本缺乏的启发著作简单性和尊严,有的甚至是怪诞品味。We are warranted in saying that while this extra-canonical material probably has as its starting-point primitive tradition, it has been disfigured in the interests of a Judaizing Church.我们有理由这样说,虽然这课外典型材料可能作为其出发点原始的传统,它已经在一个犹太化的教会的利益毁容。(See AGRAPHA.) (见AGRAPHA。)

Gospel According to the Egyptians福音据埃及人

It is by this title that Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Hippolytus, and Epiphanius describe an uncanonical work, which evidently was circulated in Egypt.这是亚历山大,奥利,西波吕和埃皮法尼乌斯克莱门特描述一个uncanonical的工作,这显然是在埃及分发了这个称号。 All agree that it was employed by heretical sects -- for the most part Gnostics.大家都同意,这是受雇于邪教 - 大部分诺斯替教派。The scanty citations which have been preserved in the Fathers indicate a tendency towards the Encratite condemnation of marriage, and a pantheistic Gnosticism.在已保存的父亲微薄的引文表明对婚姻Encratite谴责的倾向,和泛神论诺斯替主义。The Gospel according to the Egyptians did not replace the canonical records in the Alexandrian Church, as Harnack would have us believe, but it seems to have enjoyed a certain popularity in the country districts among the Coptic natives.按照埃及人的福音并没有取代在亚历山大教会的规范记录,哈纳克希望我们相信的,但似乎都享有当地人之间的科普特全国各区一定的知名度。 It could scarcely have been composed later than the middle of the second century and it is not at all impossible that it retouched some primitive material not represented in the canonical Gospels.它可以几乎已经组成最迟在第二个世纪中叶,它是在所有不可能不在于它修饰的一些原始材料不规范的福音表示。

Gospel of St. Peter福音的圣彼得

The existence of an apocryphal composition bearing this name in Christian antiquity had long been known by references to it in certain early patristic writers who intimate that it originated or was current among Christians of Docetic views.一个未经证实的轴承在古代基督教这个名字的组成存在早已知道在某些早期教父作家谁亲密,它起源或者是其中的Docetic意见基督徒当前引用。 Much additional light has been thrown on this document by the discovery of a long fragment of it at Akhmîn in Upper Egypt, in the winter of 1886-87, by the French Archæological Mission.许多额外的光已被扔在这个文件,它是一个在上埃及Akhmîn长片段的发现,在1886年至1887年冬天,由法国考古团。 It is in Greek and written on a parchment codex at a date somewhere between the sixth and ninth century.它是在一个日期介于第六和第九世纪,希腊和羊皮纸上写的手抄本。The fragment narrates part of the Passion, the Burial, and Resurrection.该片段讲述了激情,埋葬和复活的一部分。It betrays a dependence, in some instances literal, on the four inspired Gospels, and is therefore a valuable additional testimony to their early acceptance.它暴露了依赖,在某些情况下文字上的四福音书的启发,因此是一个宝贵的附加证明他们早日接受。While the apocryphon has many points of contact with the genuine Gospels, it diverges curiously from them in details, and bears evidence of having treated them with much freedom.虽然apocryphon已与真正的福音接触点多,它发散好奇地从他们的细节,并承担治疗的有很大的自由度他们的证据。 No marked heretical notes are found in the recovered fragment, but there are passages which are easily susceptible of a heterodox meaning.无明显邪教笔记被发现在回收的片段,但也有段落是很容易的非正统的含义容易受到影响。One of the few extra-canonical passages which may contain an authentic tradition is that which describes Christ as placed in mockery upon a throne by His tormentors.为数不多的课外典型的段落可能包含真正的传统之一,就是它描述为放置在嘲弄后的宝座由他折磨基督。Pseudo-Peter is intermediate in character between the genuine Evangels and the purely legendary apocrypha.伪彼得之间的真正Evangels和纯粹的传奇人物伪经中间。Its composition must be assigned to the first quarter or the middle of the second century of the Christian era.其组成必须被分配到第一季度或者是在公元二世纪中叶。C. Schmidt thinks he has found traces of what is perhaps a second Gospel of Peter in some ancient papyri (Schmidt, Sitzungsberichte der königlichen preuss. Akademie zu Berlin, 1895; cf. Bardenhewer, Geschichte, I, 397, 399). C.施密特认为他已经发现了什么,也许是彼得在一些古老的纸莎草纸的第二个福音(施密特,Sitzungsberichte DER königlichen普罗伊斯AKADEMIE祖柏林,1895年;比照巴登黑韦尔,历史馆,我,397,399)的痕迹。

Gospel of St. Philip福音圣菲

Only one or two quotations remain of the Gospel of St. Philip mentioned by Epiphanius and Leontius of Byzantium; but these are enough to prove its Gnostic colouring.只有一个或两个报价仍然福音的圣菲的埃皮法尼乌斯和拜占庭Leontius提到,但这些都足以证明其诺斯底着色。

Gospel of St. Thomas福音圣托马斯

There are two Greek and two Latin redactions of it, differing much from one another.有两个希腊和两个拉美节录起来,彼此非常不同。A Syriac translation is also found.叙利亚文翻译也有发现。A Gospel of Thomas was known to many Fathers.福音的托马斯是众所周知的许多父亲。The earliest to mention it is St. Hippolytus (155-235), who informs us that it was in use among the Naasenes, a sect of Syrian Gnostics, and cites a sentence which does not appear in our extant text.最早提到它是圣希波吕托斯(155-235),谁告诉我们,在使用当中Naasenes,叙利亚诺斯替教派的教派是,并引用了一句没有出现在我们现存的文字。 Origen relegates it to the heretical writings.奥利relegates到异端著作。St. Cyril of Jerusalem says it was employed by the Manichæans; Eusebius rejects it as heretical and spurious.圣西里尔耶路撒冷说,这是由摩尼教就业;尤西比乌斯拒绝它视为异端和杂散。It is clear that the original Pseudo-Thomas was of heterodox origin, and that it dates from the second century; the citations of Hippolytus establish that it was palpably Gnostic in tenor.很明显,原来的伪托马斯是非正统的起源,而且它从第二世纪日期;的引文希波吕托斯建立,这是palpably在男高音诺斯底。 But in the extant Thomas Gospel there is no formal or manifest Gnosticism.但在现存的托马斯福音有没有正式或舱单诺斯替主义。The prototype was evidently expurgated by a Catholic hand, who, however, did not succeed in eradicating all traces of its original taint.原型显然删减由天主教的手,谁,但是,并没有成功地消除了其原有的污点的所有痕迹。The apocryphon in all its present forms extravagantly magnifies the Divine aspect of the boy Jesus.在所有目前的形式apocryphon奢华放大的男孩耶稣神圣的一面。In bold contrast to the Infancy narrative of St. Luke, where the Divinity is almost effaced, the author makes the Child a miracle-worker and intellectual prodigy, and in harmony with Docetism, leaves scarcely more than the appearance of humanity in Him.在大胆对比的是圣卢克,那里的神几乎抹去婴儿期的叙述,笔者让孩子一个奇迹 - 工人和智力神童,并与Docetism和谐,树叶几乎超过了人类在他的外观了。This pseudo-Gospel is unique among the apocrypha, inasmuch as it describes a part of the hidden life of Our Lord between the ages of five and twelve.这个伪福音是唯一的伪经,因为它描述了我们之间的5场和12岁的主隐藏生活的一部分。But there is much that is fantastic and offensive in the pictures of the exploits of the boy Jesus.但仍然有很多是别出心裁,在耶稣的男孩利用图片进攻。His youthful miracles are worked at times out of mere childish fancy, as when He formed clay pigeons, and at a clap of His hands they flew away as living birds; sometimes, from beneficence; but again from a kind of harsh retribution.他的青春奇迹曾在单纯幼稚的幻想超时,因为当他形成粘土鸽子,并在他的手拍他们飞走了鸟类的生活,有时从善行;但再次从严酷的一种报应。

Gospel of St. Bartholomew福音圣巴塞洛缪

The so-called Decretum of Gelasius classes the Gospel of St. Bartholomew among the apocrypha.本格拉修班的圣巴塞洛缪之间的伪经福音所谓Decretum。The earliest allusion to it is in St. Jerome's works.最早的典故,它是在圣杰罗姆的作品。Recently scholars have brought to light fragments of it in old Coptic manuscripts.最近学者们带来了它的光的碎片在旧科普特人手稿。 One of these Orientalists, Baumstark, would place its composition in the first part of the fourth century.其中的一个东方学家,Baumstark,将其放置在第四世纪的第一个组成部分。A Gospel of Matthias is mentioned by Origen and Eusebius among the heretical literature along with the Peter and Thomas Gospels. 马蒂亚斯一个福音所提到的奥利和尤西比乌斯之间随着彼得和托马斯福音异端文献。Hippolytus states that the Basilidean Gnostics appealed to a "secret discourse" communicated to them by the Apostle Matthias who had received instruction privately from the Lord.希波吕托斯指出Basilidean诺斯替教派呼吁“秘密话语”传达给他们的使徒马蒂亚斯谁收到了从主指令私人。Clement of Alexandria, who was credulous concerning apocryphal literature, quotes with respect several times the "Tradition of Matthias".克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,谁是轻信有关猜测文学,报价方面多次的“马蒂亚斯传统”。

Gospel of the Twelve Apostles福音十二使徒

A Gospel of the Twelve Apostles was known to Origen (third century).一个十二使徒福音是众所周知的奥利(三世纪)。Other patristic notices give rise to some uncertainty whether the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles of antiquity was really distinct from that of the Hebrews.其他教父通知书带来一些不确定性是否古代的十二门徒福音真正从希伯来人的不同。The greater probabilities oppose their identity.概率越大反对他们的身份。Recently the claim has been made by M. Reveillout, a Coptic scholar, that the lost Gospel has been in a considerable measure recovered in several Coptic fragments, all of which, he asserts, belong to the same document.最近声称已经取得了由M. Reveillout,一个科普特学者,即失去了福音已在几个科普特碎片,所有这一切,他断言,属于同一个文件被恢复了相当大的程度。But this position has been successfully combated by Dr. Baumstark in the in the "Revue Biblique" (April, 1906, 245 sqq.), who will allow at most a probability that certain brief sections appertain to a Gospel of the Twelve Apostles, written originally in Greek and current among Gnostic Ebionites as early as the second century.但是,这一立场已成功地打击中,在“歌剧Biblique”(4月,1906年,245 SQQ),谁允许最多一个简短的某些部分appertain到了十二门徒福音,书面概率博士Baumstark原本在希腊和各像第二世纪初诺斯底以便尼派电流。 There exists a late and entirely orthodox Syriac "Gospel of the Twelve Apostles", published by J. Rendel Harris (Cambridge, 1900).存在一个完全正统叙利亚晚,由J. rendel哈里斯(剑桥,1900年)出版的“十二使徒福音”。

Other Gospels其他福音

It is enough to note the existence of other pseudo-Gospels, of which very little is known beside the names.这是足以说明其他伪福音,其中很少是已知存在的名称旁边。There was a Gospel of St. Andrew, probably identical with the Gnostic "Acts of Andrew" (qv, inf.); a Gospel of Barnabas, a Gospel of Thaddeus, a Gospel of Eve, and even one of Judas Iscariot, the last in use among the Gnostic sect of Cainites, and which glorified the traitor.一个圣安德鲁,可能与诺斯底“安德鲁行为”(QV,INF)相同的福音 ; 的巴拿巴福音,是赛迪斯福音,福音的前夕,甚至犹大之一,在过去在当中,Cainites诺斯底教派,并美化了汉奸的使用。

(2) PILATE LITERATURE AND OTHER APOCRYPHA CONCERNING CHRIST(2)彼拉多文学等伪经有关基督

While Christianity was struggling against the forces of Roman paganism, there was a natural tendency to dwell upon the part which a representative of the Roman Empire played in the supreme events of Our Lord's life, and to shape the testimony of Pontius Pilate, the procurator of Judea, even at the cost of exaggeration and amplification, into a weapon of apologetic defence, making that official bear witness to the miracles, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Christ.虽然基督教对罗马异教的力量挣扎,有一种自然倾向停留后,部分的罗马帝国的代表在我们的主的生命至高无上的事件起,并塑造本丢彼拉多,对检察官作证犹太甚至不惜夸张和放大的成本变成了歉疚防御武器,,使得该官员见证奇迹,受难和复活的基督。 Hence arose a considerable apocryphal Pilate literature, of which the Gospel of Gamaliel really forms a part, and like this latter apocryphon, it is characterized by exaggerating Pilate's weak defence of Jesus into strong sympathy and practical belief in His divinity.因此出现了相当猜测彼拉多文学,其中福音加马利亚真的形式的一部分,像这样后者apocryphon,它是通过夸大成坚强的同情和他的神的信仰实际彼拉多对耶稣的防御薄弱的特点。

Report of Pilate to the Emperor.彼拉多向皇帝报告。

In the apocryphal Acts of Peter and Paul there is embodied a letter purporting to have been sent by Pontius Pilate to the Emperor Claudius.在彼得和保罗的猜测行为确实是体现了一封信看来已被本丢彼拉多送到皇帝克劳。This briefly relates the fatuous crime of the Jews in persecuting the Holy One promised to them by their God; enumerates His miracles and states that the Jews accused Jesus of being a magician.在此简要地涉及迫害圣地之一的神的承诺,向他们的犹太人昏庸犯罪;列举了他的奇迹,并指出,犹太人被指控为魔术师耶稣。 Pilate at the time believing this, delivered Him to them.相信在这个时候彼拉多,他交付给他们。After the Resurrection the soldiers whom the governor had placed at the tomb were bribed by the leaders to be silent, but nevertheless divulged the fact.复活后的人省长曾在墓放置士兵贿赂的领导人保持沉默,但仍透露了这个事实。The missive concludes with a warning against the mendacity of the Jews.在所撰最后提出了对犹太人的谎言警告。This composition is clearly apocryphal though unexpectedly brief and restrained.这显然​​是杜撰的成分虽然意外简短和克制。 It is natural, to attempt to trace a resemblance between this pseudograph and certain references of ecclesiastical writers to Acta or Gesta of Pilate.这是自然的,试图追查这pseudograph之间和教会作家的某些参考文献或Gesta彼拉多相似。Tertullian (Apologia, xxi) after giving a sketch of the miracles and Passion of Christ, subjoins: "All these things Pilate . . . announced to Tiberius Cæsar."良后给人一种奇迹和耶稣受难记素描(辩解,XXI),subjoins:“所有这些事情彼拉多宣布提比略凯撒。”A comparison between this pericope and the Pseudo-Pilate report reveals a literary dependence between them, though the critics differ as to the priority of these documents.这pericope之间和伪彼拉多报告揭示了它们之间的比较文学的依赖,但批评者不同,以这些文件的优先级。 In chapters 35, 38, and 48 of Justin's Apologia , that Father appeals confidently as a proof of the miracles and Passion of Jesus to "Acts" or records of Pontius Pilate existing in the imperial archives.在35章,38和48贾斯汀的辩解 ,自信作为奇迹的证明和耶稣受难的“行为”或本丢彼拉多档案中记录的帝国现有的父亲提出的上诉。While it is possible that St. Justin may have heard of such a report, and even probable that the procurator transmitted some account of the events at Jerusalem to Rome, it is on the other hand admissible that Justin's assertion was based on nothing more than hypothesis.虽然它是可能的圣贾斯汀可能听说过这样的报道,甚至可能传染一些检察官在耶路撒冷发生的事件,以罗马,这是另一方面受理的贾斯汀的说法是没有依据的假设以上。 This is the opinion of the majority of the experts.这是专家的多数意见。During the persecutions under Maximin in the fourth century spurious anti-Christian Acts of Pilate were composed in Syria, as we learn from Eusebius.在第四世纪的迫害下极大极小杂散反基督教行为彼拉多组成的叙利亚,我们从尤西比乌斯学习。It is probable that the pseudographic letter was forged as an offset to these.它很可能是伪造的pseudographic信当作抵消这些。

Acta Pilati (Gospel of Nicodemus)文献皮拉蒂(福音的尼哥底母)

See the separate Catholic Encyclopedia article under this title.看到这个标题下单独的天主教百科全书文章。

The Minor Pilate Apocrypha小额彼拉多伪经

The minor Pilate apocrypha, the Anaphora Pilati , or "Relation of Pilate", is frequently found appended to the texts of the Acta.次要彼拉多伪经的照应皮拉蒂 ,或“彼拉多的关系”,是经常发现附 ​​加的文献的文本。It presupposes the latter work, and could not have been composed before the middle of the fifth century.它的前提是后者的工作,不可能一直由前第五世纪中叶。It is found in manuscripts combined with the Paradoseis or "Giving up of Pilate", which represents the oldest form of the legend dealing with Pilate's subsequent life.它存在于与Paradoseis或“让彼拉多起来”,这代表了与彼拉多后来的生活中最古老的传说处理相结合的手稿。 A still later fabrication is found in the Latin Epistola Pilati ad Tiberium. There exists a puerile correspondence consisting of a pretended Letter of Herod to Pilate and Letter of Pilate to Herod. They are found in Greek and Syriac in a manuscript of the sixth or seventh century.一个再后来被发现在制造拉丁Epistola皮拉蒂广告泰伯利亚。存在一个对应的薄利多销的希律假装信彼拉多和希律王信彼拉多组成他们在希腊,并在第六或第七手稿叙利亚发现世纪。 These pseudographs may be as old as the fifth century.这些pseudographs可能高达五世纪的历史。

The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea亚利马太的约瑟的叙事

The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea -- furnishing imaginary details of the two thieves crucified with Christ, and the begging of the body from Pilate -- seems to have enjoyed popularity in the Middle Ages in the Byzantine East, judging from the number of Greek manuscripts which remain.与基督钉在十字架上的两个小偷家具虚构的细节,并从彼拉多身体乞讨 - - 亚利马太的约瑟的叙事似乎都享有在拜占庭东中世纪的普及,从数量来看希腊手稿它依然存在。The oldest of those published belongs to the twelfth century.而出版的最古老的属于12世纪。The relation is appended to some Latin texts of the Acta Pilati, under the title "Historia Josephi".关系附加到了文献皮拉蒂一些拉丁文本,标题下的“Historia Josephi”。It may be read in English in Walker's and the Ante-Nicene Fathers' collection of the apocrypha.这可能是阅读英语沃克的和前厅尼西亚教父“的伪经的集合。

The Legend of Abgar传说的阿布加尔

The oldest form of the Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa, is found in Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica, I, xiii), who vouches that he himself translated it from the Syriac documents in the archives of Edessa, the metropolis of Eastern Syria.而在耶稣和阿布加尔,埃德萨国王的伪函授最古老的形式,被发现在尤西比乌斯(Historia Ecclesiastica,我,十三),谁vouches,他本人翻译从埃德萨档案中的文件它的叙利亚,在大都市东方叙利亚。The two letters are accompanied by an introduction which probably is an excerpt from the same source.这两个字母是伴随着介绍这可能是从同一来源的摘录。According to this, Abgar V, Toparch or King of Edessa, suffering from an incurable disease, and having heard the fame of Christ's miracles sends a courier to Jerusalem, bearing a letter to Jesus, in which he declared Him to be a god, or the son of a god, and invites Him to Edessa, justifying the request partly by his desire to be cured, partly by his wish to offer to Jesus an asylum against the malignant Jews.根据这种情况,阿布加尔V,Toparch或埃德萨国王,患不治之症,并听取了基督的奇迹成名发送快递到耶路撒冷,轴承,以耶稣的信,他在其中宣布他为神,或一个神的儿子,并请他埃德萨,理由是他的愿望部分要求被治愈,部分由他希望提供耶稣针对该恶性犹太人避难。 Our Lord replied as follows:我们的主答复如下:

Blessed are you because you have believed in Me without seeing Me.祝福你,因为我相信你有没有看到我。For it is written that those who have seen Me, will not believe Me; and that those who have not seen Me will believe and love Me.它是写那些谁见过我,不会相信我,并认为那些谁没有见过我会相信和爱我。But as to your prayer that I come to you, it is necessary that I fulfil here all that for which I have been sent, and that after I have fulfilled it, that I be taken up to Him who has sent Me.但正如你祈祷,我到你们这里来,这是必要的,我在这里完成所有的,我已经发送出去,之后我已经完成它,我向他采取谁派我。 But after my taking up I shall send you one of My disciples, who will heal your pains, and keep life for you and yours.但我接手后,我会送你我的弟子,谁就会治愈你的痛苦之一,保持你和你的生活。

Accordingly, after the Ascension, "Judas Thomas" an Apostle, despatches to Edessa Thaddeus, one of the seventy Disciples, who cures the King of his disease, and preaches Christ to the assembled people.因此,在阿森松岛,“犹大托马斯”的使者,向埃德萨撒迪厄斯急件,七十个门徒之一的,谁治愈他的病国王,并宣扬基督的组装人。 This, adds Eusebius, happened in the year 340, ie of the Seleucid era; corresponding to AD 28-29.这增加了尤西比乌斯,发生在340年的塞琉古的时代,即,对应于公元28-29。The pleasing story is repeated with variations in later sources.令人高兴的故事是重复的,在以后的来源变化。The "Teaching of Addai", a Syrian apocryphon (qv infra ), reproduces the correspondence with additions.而“Addai教学”,叙利亚apocryphon(请参阅下文 ),再现与补充的对应关系。

The authenticity of the alleged letter of Christ has always been strongly suspected when not absolutely denied.对基督的信被指控的真实性一直强烈怀疑时并非绝对否认。As early as the sixth century the Gelasian Decretum brands this correspondence as spurious.早在六世纪的Gelasian Decretum品牌此对应的虚假。Its legendary environment and the fact that the Church at large did not hand down the pretended epistle from Our Lord as a sacred document is conclusive against it.其传奇的环境和所广大教会没有倒手,从我们的主假装书信作为一种神圣的文件是反对的确凿事实。As for the letter of Abgar, its genuineness was formerly favoured by many skilled in this literature, but since the discovery of the "Teaching of Addai", published in 1876, the presumption against the authentic character of Abgar's epistle, owing to the close resemblance of a portion to passages in the Gospels, has become an established certainty.至于阿布加尔信,其真实性以前的青睐,许多在这个文学熟练,但自“的Addai教学”于1876年出版的,反对的阿布加尔的书信真实性格推定,发现由于近似一个在福音的段落部分,已成为一个既定的确定性。 Lipsius, a high authority, is of the opinion that the Abgar correspondence goes back to the reign of the first Christian ruler of Edessa, Abgar IX (179-216), and that it was elicited by a desire to force a link uniting that epoch with the time of Christ. Lipsius,高权威,是认为阿布加尔函授追溯到第一届埃德萨,阿布加尔IX(179-216)基督教统治者的统治,而且它是由一个希望团结力量引起了那个时代的联系与基督的时间。

Letter of Lentulus信Lentulus

A brief letter professing to be from Lentulus, or Publius Lentulus, as in some manuscripts, "President of the People of Jerusalem", addressed to "the Roman Senate and People", describes Our Lord's personal appearance.一个简短的信自称是从Lentulus,或Publius Lentulus在一些手稿,“耶路撒冷人民的总统”,给“罗马参议院和人民”,介绍我们的主的个人外观。It is evidently spurious, both the office and name of the president of Jerusalem being grossly unhistorical.这显然​​是虚假的,无论是办公室和耶路撒冷被粗暴文保总统的名字。No ancient writer alludes to this production, which is found only in Latin manuscripts.没有古代作家暗示这种生产,这是只有在拉丁美洲手稿发现。It has been conjectured that it may have been composed in order to authenticate a pretended portrait of Jesus, during the Middle Ages.据推测,它可能已经组成,以验证在中世纪的耶稣假装肖像。An English version is given in Cowper's Apocryphal Gospels and Other Doeuments Relating to Christ (New York, 6th ed., 1897).一个英文版本给出了考贝的猜测和关于基督福音 (纽约,第6版,1897年) 其他Doeuments。

(3) APOCRYPHAL ACTS OF THE APOSTLES(3)未经证实使徒行传

The motive which first prompted the fabrication of spurious Acts of the Apostles was, in general, to give Apostolic support to heretical systems, especially those of the many sects which are comprised under the term Gnosticism.的动机,首先提示的行为制造虚假的使徒是,在一般情况下,给使徒支持邪教系统,特别是为根据的长期诺斯替主义包括许多教派的人。 The darkness in which the New Testament leaves the missionary careers, and the ends of the greater number of the Apostles, and the meagre details handed down by ecclesiastical tradition, left an inviting field for the exercise of inventive imaginations, and offered an apt means for the insidious propagation of heresy.黑暗中,新约离开传教事业,以及更多的使徒的结束,并交给教会的传统了微薄的细节,离开了创造性的想像力行使邀请领域,并提供一个恰当的手段阴险的异端的传播。 The Jewish-Christian Church, which early developed un-Catholic tendencies in the form of Ebionitism, seems first to have produced apocryphal histories of the Apostles, though of these we have very few remains outside the material in the voluminous Pseudo-Clement.犹太 - 基督教教堂,早期开发的Ebionitism形式联合国天主教倾向,似乎首先已经产生的使徒杜撰历史,虽然这些我们都在外面大量伪克莱门特材料仍然很少。 The Gnostic Acts of Peter, Andrew, John, Thomas, and perhaps Matthew, date from the early portion of the third century or perhaps a little earlier.彼得,安德鲁,约翰,托马斯,也许马修诺斯底行为,日期从第三个世纪初的部分或者早一点。They abound in extravagant and highly coloured marvels, and were interspersed by long pretended discourses of the Apostles which served as vehicles for the Gnostic predications.他们比比皆是,在奢侈和高度彩色奇迹,并分别由使徒它作为车辆的诺斯底predications担任穿插长期假装话语。 Though the pastors of the Church and the learned repudiated these as patently heretical writings, they appealed to the fancy and satisfied the curiosity of the common people.虽然教会牧师和教训否定这些作为显然邪教的著作,他们呼吁花哨,满足了老百姓的好奇心。Not only were they utilized by Manichæans in the East and Priscillianists in the West, but they found favour with many unenlightened Catholics.他们不仅利用了在东方和西方Priscillianists摩尼教,但他们发现有许多无知的天主教徒的青睐。 Since it was impossible to suppress their circulation entirely, they were rendered comparatively harmless by orthodox editing which expunged the palpable errors, especially in the discourses, leaving the miracle element to stand in its riotous exuberance.由于这是不可能完全压制他们的流通,他们提供比较正统编辑其中勾销了明显的错误,特别是在论述,留下的奇迹元素站在其缤纷繁荣无害。 Hence most of the Gnostic Acts have come down to us with more or less of a Catholic purification, which, however, was in many cases so superficial as to leave unmistakable traces of their heterodox origin.因此大多数的诺斯底行为已回落到我们更多的还是一个天主教净化,其中,然而,在如此肤浅的,以休假的非正统来源很多情况下是明白无误的痕迹较少。 The originally Gnostic apocryphal Acts were gathered into collections which bore the name of the periodoi (Circuits) or praxeis (Acts) of the Apostles, and to which was attached the name of a Leucius Charinus, who may have formed the compilation.原来诺斯底猜测行为聚集到集合承担了其中的periodoi(集成电路)或praxeis的使徒(徒)的名称,并以这是附加了一个Leucius Charinus,谁可能已经形成了编辑的名字。The Gnostic Acts were of various authorship.诺斯底行为的各种著作。Another collection was formed in the Frankish Church in the sixth century, probably by a monk.另一个集合形成于六世纪法兰克教会,可能是由一名僧人。In this the Catholic Acts have been preserved; it is by no means uniform in its various manuscript representatives.在这个天主教的法令已被保存下来,它绝不是在统一的各种手稿的代表。By a misunderstanding, the authorship of the whole, under the title "Historia Certaminis Apostolorum", was ascribed to an Abdias, said to have been the first Bishop of Babylon and a disciple of the Apostles.通过一个误区,整个作者,题目是“Historia Certaminis Apostolorum”,被赋予一个Abdias,说已经在巴比伦的第一位主教和使徒的门徒。The nucleus of this collection was formed by the Latin Passiones, or Martyrdoms, of those Apostles who had been neglected by the Gnostic Acts, viz., the two Jameses, Philip (Matthew?), Bartholomew, Simon, and Jude.这一集的核心是形成了由拉美Passiones,或Martyrdoms那些谁已经由诺斯底行为,即,两个Jameses,菲利普(马修?),巴塞洛缪,西蒙,和裘德忽视使徒。 The literature grew by accretions from heretical sources and eventually took in all the Apostles, including St. Paul.文献增长来源从邪教增生的和最终在所有使徒,包括圣保罗了。The motive of these non-heretical apocrypha was primarily to gratify the pious curiosity of the faithful regarding the Apostolic founders of the Church; sometimes local interests instigated their composition.这些非邪教伪经的动机主要是为了取悦的忠实虔诚的好奇心有关教会的使徒的创始人,有时局部利益唆使其组成。 After the model of the Gnostic Acts, which were of Oriental derivation, they abound in prodigies, and like those again, they take as their starting-point the traditional dispersion of the Twelve from Jerusalem.诺斯底后的行为,这是东方的推导模型,他们盛产天才,像那些再次,他们认为他们的出发点是从耶路撒冷十二采取传统的分散。 Regarding the historical value of these apocryphal narratives, it requires the most careful criticism to extricate from the mass of fable and legend any grains of historical truth.关于这些猜测叙述的历史价值,它需要最谨慎的批评,以摆脱的寓言和传说的历史真理任何谷物的质量。Even respecting the fields of the Apostolic missions, they are self-contradictory or confused.即使尊重的使徒使命的领域,他们是自我矛盾或困惑。In general their details are scientifically worthless, unless confirmed by independent authorities, which rarely happens.一般情况下他们的详细资料是科学毫无价值,除非由独立机构,而很少发生的证实。Much of their apocryphal matter was taken up by the offices of the Apostles in the Latin breviaries and lectionaries, composed in the seventh and eighth centuries at an extremely uncritical period.他们杜撰的问题大部分是由办公室的使徒在拉丁美洲breviaries并在第七和第八世纪组成的一个极其不加批判时期lectionaries。

(a) Gnostic Acts of the Apostles(一)诺斯底使徒行传

Acts of St. Peter使徒圣彼得

There exist a Greek and a Latin Martyrdom of Peter, the latter attributed to Pope Linus, which from patristic citations are recognized as the conclusion of an ancient Greek narrative entitled "Acts, or Circuits of St. Peter".存在一个希腊和拉丁殉难的彼得,后者由于教皇利努斯,从教父引文作为一个古希腊题为“行为,或圣彼得电路”叙述的结论确认。 Another manuscript, bearing the name "Actus Petri cum Simone", contains a superior translation with several passages from the original narrative preceding the Martyrdom.另外手稿,印上“ACTUS的Petri暨西蒙娜”,包含了从原来的叙事前殉难的几个段落高级翻译。The work betrays certain tokens of Gnosticism, although it has been purged of its grossest features by a Catholic reviser.这项工作一定的诺斯替主义背叛令牌,虽然它一直是其粗暴功能清除由天主教审校。It describes the triumph of St. Peter over Simon Magus at Rome, and the Apostle's subsequent crucifixion.它描述了在西蒙在罗马的圣彼得法师的胜利,和使徒随后受难。These Acts as we have them are of high antiquity, though it is impossible to always discern whether patristic writers are quoting from them or an earlier tradition.这些行为,我们有他们的高古,虽然这是不可能始终辨别是否教父作家是从早期的传统,或引用。Undoubtedly Commodian (c. 250) employed our extant Acts of Peter.毫无疑问Commodian(约250)聘用彼得我们现存的行为。

Acts of St. John使徒圣约翰

The heretical character imputed to these by certain Fathers is fully confirmed by extant fragments, which show a gross Docetism, and an unbridled phantasy.邪教性质归罪于这些某些父亲是完全证实了现存的片段,它显示出总Docetism,以及肆无忌惮的幻想。Doubtless the author intermingled valuable Ephesian traditions with his fables.毫无疑问,笔者与他的寓言混合宝贵以弗所传统。There are reasons of weight to regard the work as having been composed, together with the Acts of St. Peter, and probably those of St. Andrew, by a single person, in the latter half of the second century, under the name of a disciple of St. John, called Leucius.有份量的理由方面的工作为已组成,连同圣彼得的行为,并可能圣安德鲁的,由一个人,在公元二世纪后半期下的一个名字,圣约翰弟子,叫Leucius。 Clement of Alexandria was acquainted with the pseudograph.克莱门特亚历山大是熟悉的pseudograph。The Johannine Acts of the Pseudo-Prochorus (compare the canonical Acts, vi, 5) are a Catholic working-over of Gnostic material.对伪Prochorus(比较规范的行为,六,5)约翰行为是一个天主教工作过的诺斯底料。

Acts of St. Andrew圣安德鲁行为

Pseudographic Acts of St. Andrew are noted by several early ecclesiastical writers, as in circulation among Gnostic and Manichæan sects.圣安德鲁Pseudographic行为是注意到一些早期教会作家,如摩尼教和诺斯底教派之间的循环。The original form has perished except in a few patristic quotations.原来的形式已灭亡除少数教父的报价。But we possess three individual Acts under different names, which prove to be orthodox recensions of an original comprehensive Gnostic whole.但是,我们拥有不同的名字,这被证明是一个原始全面诺斯替整个正统的recensions三个独立的行为。These are:它们是:
  1. "The Acts of Andrew and Matthias" (or Matthew as given by some authorities) “行为的安德鲁和马蒂亚斯”(或如一些机关马修给出)
  2. "Acts of Peter and Andrew" (the original language of the above is Greek) “使徒彼得和安德鲁”(以上原文是希腊文)
  3. "The Martyrdom of the Apostle Andrew" has come down in both Greek and Latin recensions.他说:“传道者安德鲁殉难”已回落在希腊和拉丁的recensions。The Latin text is the original one, and cannot be earlier than the fifth century.拉丁文字是原来的,并且不能超过五世纪早期。It purports to be a relation of the heroic death of St. Andrew by eyewitnesses who are "presbyters and deacons of the Church of Achaia".这看来是一个对圣安德鲁目击者谁是“长老和执事的亚该亚教会”壮烈牺牲的关系。 It has enjoyed credit among historians in the past, but no reliance can be placed on its data.它的销量在过去的历史学家之间的信贷,但不能依赖于它的数据可以放在。

(See APOSTOLIC CHURCHES; ANDREW, ST., APOSTLE.)(见使徒的教会;黄宏发,ST,使徒。)

The Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew的行为和殉难圣马修

The Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew are in literary dependence on the Acts of St. Andrew (qv, supra ), and hence the reading "Matthew" may be an error for "Matthias", since evidently the companion of Peter and Andrew is intended.的行为和殉难圣马太是在圣安德鲁(QV )的行为文学的依赖,因此读“马太效应”可能是一个“马蒂亚斯”的错误,因为显然,彼得和安德鲁同伴意。The work exists in Greek and a later Latin.工作中存在希腊和拉丁以后。There is also a Coptic-Ethiopic martyrdom legend of St. Matthew.还有一个圣马太科普特,埃塞俄比亚殉难的传说。(See MATTHEW, ST., APOSTLE; APOSTOLIC CHURCHES).(见马太福音,ST,使徒;使徒教会)。

Acts of St. Thomas行为的圣托马斯

No Apostolic apocryphon has reached us in a completeness equal to that of the Thomas Acts.没有使徒apocryphon已达到了完整性相当于托马斯行为我们。They are found in Greek, Syriac, and Ethiopic recensions.他们发现,在希腊,叙利亚和埃塞俄比亚的recensions。Their Gnostic traits pierce through the Catholic re-touching; in fact, the contents show a conscious purpose to exalt the dualistic doctrine of abstention from conjugal intercourse.事实上,内容显示有意识的目的,发扬从夫妻性交的弃权二元学说,它们贯穿天主教重新感人诺斯底特征。Scholars are much inclined to attribute the original to a Syrian origin and an author who was an adherent of Bardesanes.学者们更倾向于属性原为叙利亚来源和作者是谁的Bardesanes贴壁。The signs point strongly to the third century as the era.强烈的迹象显示,在第三个世纪的时代。The translation of the remains of St. Thomas to Edessa in 232 may have furnished the inspiration for the composition.对圣托马斯的遗体翻译232埃德萨可能提供的的组成灵感。The Acts relate the prodigies performed by the Apostle in India, and end with his martyrdom there.此法案涉及的使徒在印度进行的天才,并与他的殉难那里结束。They are interspersed with some remarkable hymns; some of real literary beauty but with strong Gnostic colouring.他们穿插着一些显着的赞美诗,一些真正的文学之美,但具有很强的诺斯底着色。Recent researches have revealed elements of truth in the historical setting of the narrative.最近的研究已经发现,在叙述历史背景的真实元素。The Acts of St. Thomas are mentioned by Epiphanius and Augustine as in use in different heretical circles.圣托马斯的行为都提到埃皮法尼乌斯和奥古斯丁在不同的邪教各界使用。St. Ephrem of Syria refers to apocryphal Thomas Acts as in circulation among the Bardesanites (see THOMAS, ST., APOSTLE).圣叙Ephrem指杜撰托马斯在各Bardesanites流通行为(见托马斯,意法半导体。,使徒)。

Acts of St. Bartholomew使徒圣巴塞洛缪

We possess a Greek Martrydom, dating in its present form from the fifth or sixth century; also a Latin "Passio Bartholomæi".我们拥有一个希腊Martrydom,以其目前的形式建于五,六世纪,也是拉美“Passio Bartholomæi”。Both are tainted with Nestorianism, and seem to have come from a single Bartholomew legend.两者都沾染景教,而且似乎已经从一个单一的巴塞洛缪的传说来。The Greek text recounts the marvels by which the Apostle overthrew idolatry and converted a king and his subjects in "India".希腊文字叙述了其中使徒推翻偶像崇拜的奇迹,并转换为“印度”的国王和他的臣民。The whole is a legendary tissue.整个是个传奇的组织。(See BARTHOLOMEW, ST., APOSTLE). (见巴塞洛缪,ST,,使徒)。

(b) Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles(二)天主教猜测使徒行传

Acts of Sts.行为STS。Peter and Paul 彼得和保罗

These are to be distinguished from the Gnostic Acts of Peter and the orthodox Acts of Paul.这些都可以从彼得和保罗的正统行为的诺斯底行为区别开来。The manuscripts which represent the legend fall into two groups:该手稿的代表分成两个组的传说掉落:

Lipsius regards the journey section as a ninth-century addition; Bardenhewer will have it to belong to the original document. Lipsius视为第九世纪的征途除了部分;巴登黑韦尔将它属于原始文件。This section begins with Paul's departure from the island of Mileto, and is evidently based on the canonical narrative in Acts.本节开始与保罗的从Mileto岛出发,显然是在行为规范上的叙事基础。The Jews have been aroused by the news of Paul's intended visit, and induce Nero to forbid it.犹太人已引起了保罗的打算访问的消息,并诱导尼禄禁止它。Nevertheless the Apostle secretly enters Italy; his companion is mistaken for himself at Puteoli and beheaded.然而使徒秘密进入意大利,他的同伴误以为自己是在Puteoli并斩首。In retribution that city is swallowed up by the sea.在报复的城市是大海所吞没。Peter receives Paul at Rome with Joy.彼得接到保罗在罗马与喜悦。The preaching of the Apostles converts multitudes and even the Empress.对使徒讲道转换众人,甚至皇后。Simon Magus traduces the Christian teachers, and there is a test of strength in miracles between that magician and the Apostles, which takes place in the presence of Nero, Simon essays a flight to heaven but falls in the Via Sacra and is dashed to pieces.西蒙法师traduces基督教的教师,有一个奇迹测试强度之间的魔术师和使徒,这需要在Nero在场,西蒙散文上天飞行,但在威盛萨克拉的下降,并冲向件。 Nevertheless, Nero is bent on the destruction of Peter and Paul.然而,尼禄执意的彼得和保罗的破坏。The latter is beheaded on the Ostian Way, and Peter is crucified at his request head downward.后者是被斩首的Ostian之路,彼得在他的请求头钉在十字架上向下。Before his death he relates to the people the "Quo Vadis?"他去世之前,他关系到人民的“现状Vadis?”story.故事。Three men from the East carry off the Apostles' bodies but are overtaken.三名男子带走东方使徒的尸体,但超越。St. Peter is buried at "The place called the Vatican", and Paul on the Ostian Way.圣彼得被埋葬在“梵蒂冈的地方叫”,并在Ostian路保罗。These Acts are the chief source for details of the martyrdom of the two great Apostles.这些行为是对的两个伟大的使徒殉难细节的主要来源。They are also noteworthy as emphasizing the close concord between the Apostolic founders of the Roman Church.他们也强调了罗马教会之间的使徒创始人的密切和谐值得注意。The date (AD 55) of composition is involved in obscurity.的组成日期(公元55)参与默默无闻。Lipsius finds traces of our Acts as early as Hippolytus (c. 235), but it is not clear that the Fathers adduced employed any written source for their references to the victory over Simon Magus and the work of the Apostles at Rome. Lipsius发现只要希波吕托斯(公元前235)早期我们行为的痕迹,但目前尚不清楚,父亲援引雇用任何书面的参考源到超过西蒙magus胜利和在罗马的使徒工作。 Lipsius assigns the kernel of the Martyrdom to the second century; Bardenhewer refers the whole to the first half of the third.Lipsius分配的殉难内核的第二个世纪,巴登黑韦尔是指整体到第三年上半年。The Acts of Peter and Paul undoubtedly embody some genuine traditions.彼得和保罗的行为无疑体现了一些真正的传统。(See PETER, ST., APOSTLE; PAUL, ST., APOSTLE; SIMON MAGUS).(见彼得,ST,使徒,保罗,ST,使徒;西蒙magus)。

Acts of St. Paul使徒圣保罗

Origen and Eusebius expressly name the praxeis Paulou ; Tertullian speaks of writings falsely attributed to Paul: " Quod si Pauli perperam inscripta legunt. "奥利和尤西比乌斯明确的名称praxeis Paulou;良的著作中谈到错误地归因于保罗:“ 狴市圣保利perperam inscripta legunt。”He is cautioning his readers against the tale of Thecla preaching and baptizing herself.他告诫反对Thecla说教和洗礼自己的故事他的读者。Hitherto it was supposed that he referred to the "Acts of Paul and Thecla".迄今它本来他提到了“保罗和Thecla行为”。 The "Acta Pauli", presumed to be a distinct composition, were deemed to have perished; but recently (1899) a Coptic papyrus manuscript, torn to shreds, was found in Egypt, and proves to contain approximately complete the identical Acts of Paul alluded to by a few ecclesiastical writers.在“文献圣保利”,推定为一个独特的组合,被视为已死亡,但最近(1899年)的科普特人手稿纸莎草纸,撕成碎片,是在埃及发现,并证明含有大约完成相同的行为暗示保罗由少数教会作家。 This find has established the fact that the long-known Acts of Paul and Thecla and the apocryphal correspondence of St. Paul with the Corinthian Church, as well as the Martyrdom of St. Paul, are really only excerpts from the original Pauline Acts.这一发现建立了事实,保罗和Thecla和圣保禄教堂的科林斯杜撰的信件,以及圣保罗殉难长期已知行为,都是从原来的宝莲行为真的只摘录。 The newly-discovered document contains material hitherto unknown as well as the above-noted sections, long extant.新发现的文件中包含了前所未有的物质以及上述提到的部分,长现存。It begins with a pretended flight of St. Paul from Antioch of Pisidia, and ends with his martyrdom at Rome.它始于圣保罗从皮西迪亚安提阿假装飞行,并与他在罗马殉道结束。The narrative rests on data in the canonical books of the New Testament, but it abounds in marvels and personages unhinted at there, and it disfigures traits of some of those actually mentioned in the Sacred Writings.叙述取决于在新约中的典型的书籍资料,但它在奇迹和有unhinted人士比比皆是,而且毁损的实际,在神圣的著作中提到的一些特征。 The Acts of Paul, therefore, adds nothing trustworthy to our knowledge of the Apostle of the Gentiles.保罗的行为,因此,增加了对我们没有什么值得信赖的外邦人宗徒的知识。Fortunately the above-cited passage of Tertullian (De Baptismo, xvii) informs us of its authorship and aim.幸运的是,良以上列举的通道(德Baptismo,十七)通知其作者和我们的目标。The African writer observes that the pseudo-history was the work of a priest of Asia Minor, who on the discovery of the fraud, was deposed from an ecclesiastical charge, and confessed that he forged the book out of love for St. Paul.非洲作家指出,伪历史,是一个小亚细亚,谁对发现的欺诈行为,被废黜从教会牧师负责的工作,并交待,他伪造了圣保禄爱书了。 Experts ascribe its composition to the second century.专家归咎于其组成的第二个世纪。It was already known when Tertullian wrote, and during the first centuries enjoyed a considerable popularity, both East and West.这是已知的,当良写道,并在第一世纪享有相当的知名度,无论东方和西方。In fact Eusebius classes it among the antilegomena, or works having locally quasi-canonical authority.事实上它尤西比乌斯类之间的antilegomena,有本地或工程准规范的权威。

Acts of Paul and Thecla使徒保罗和Thecla

The early detachment of these as well as the Martyrdom from the Acts of St. Paul may be accounted for by ecclesiastical use as festal lections.这些早期支队以及来自圣保罗的行为殉难可能占了教会的节日lections使用。Despite Tertullian's remark regarding this pseudograph, it enjoyed an immense and persistent popularity through the patristic period and the Middle Ages.尽管良的关于这pseudograph句话,它享有通过教父时期和中世纪的一个巨大的和持续的人气。This favour is to be explained mainly by the romantic and spirited flavour of the narrative.这有利于将被主要由叙事浪漫气息和昂扬的解释。Exceptional among the apocryphists, the author kept a curb upon his fertile imagination, and his production is distinguished by its simplicity, clearness, and vigour.各apocryphists特殊,笔者一直在他丰富的想像力路边,他的生产是由它的简单,清晰,和活力区别开来。It deals with the adventures of Thecla, a young woman of Iconium, who upon being converted by St. Paul's preaching, left her bridegroom and lived a life of virginity and missionary activity, becoming a companion of St. Paul, and preaching the Gospel.它涉及的Thecla,一个年轻女子的伊康,谁在被圣保罗的说教转换,离开了她的新郎和生活的贞操和传教活动的生活,成为圣保罗的伴侣,并传福音的冒险。 She is persecuted, but miraculously escapes from the fire and the savage beasts of the arena.她是迫害,但奇迹般地从火与舞台上的野蛮兽逃脱。The relief into which abstention from the marriage-bed is brought in these Acts makes it difficult to escape from the conclusion that they have been coloured by Encratite ideas.将它从婚姻床弃权在这些行为带来救济,难以逃脱的结论,他们已被Encratite思想色彩。Nevertheless the thesis of Lipsius, supported by Corssen, that a Gnostic Grundschrift underlies our present document, is not accepted by Harnack, Zahn, Bardenhewer, and others.尽管如此,论文的Lipsius,由Corssen支持,一个诺斯底Grundschrift我们现在的基础文件,是不是哈纳克,赞恩,巴登黑韦尔和其他人所接受。 The apocryphon follows the New Testament data of St. Paul's missions very loosely and is full of unhistorical characters and events.该apocryphon遵循圣保罗的使命新约中的数据是非常松散和非历史人物和事件的完整。 For instance, the writer introduces a journey of the Apostles, to which there is nothing analogous in the Sacred Books.例如,作者引入了一个使徒旅程,对此并没有什么类似的圣书。However, there are grains of historical material in the Thecla story.但是,也有在Thecla故事历史材料颗粒。A Christian virgin of that name may well have been converted by St. Paul at Iconium, and suffered persecution.该名称的基督教处女很可能已转为由圣保罗在伊康,并遭受迫害。Gutschmid has discovered that a certain Queen Tryphena was an historical personage (Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, X, 1864). Gutschmid发现,一定女王Tryphena是一个历史人物(Rheinisches博物馆献给Philologie,X,1864)。(See THECLA.)(见THECLA。)

Acts of St. Philip使徒圣菲

The extant Greek fragments supply us with all but five (10-14) of the fifteen Acts composing the work.现存希腊片段供应所有,但十五组成的工作行为五(10-14)我们。Of these 1-7 are a farrago of various legends, each, it would seem, with an independent history; 8-14 is a unit, which forms a parasitic growth on the ancient but somewhat confused traditions of the missionary activity of an Apostle Philip in Hierapolis of Phrygia.其中1-7是各种传说,每个farrago,这似乎与一个独立的历史; 8-14是一个单位,从而形成了对菲利普的使徒传教活动,但有些困惑古代传统寄生增长在希拉波利斯的Phrygia。Zahn's view, that this document is the work of an ill-informed Catholic monk of the fourth century, is a satisfactory hypothesis.赞恩认为,这份文件是一个不了解情况的第四个世纪天主教僧侣的工作,是一种理想的假设。The largest fragment was first published by Batiffol in "Analecta Bollandiana", IX (Paris, 1890).最大的片段首次公布Batiffol在“Analecta Bollandiana”,第九章(巴黎,1890年)。 A Coptic "Acts of Philip" is also to be noted.一个科普特“菲利普行为”,也是要注意的。(See PHILIP, ST., APOSTLE.) (见弘,圣,使徒。)

There are Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Armenian histories of the missions and death of St. James the Greater, the son of Zebedee.有很多的任务和圣雅各福群越大,西庇太的儿子死亡拉丁语,科普特人,埃塞俄比亚和亚美尼亚的历史。Lipsius assigns the Latin to about the third century.Lipsius分配给有关的第三个世纪拉丁美洲。Coptic and Armenian Acts and Martyrdom of St. James the Less depend mostly on the Hegesippus tradition, preserved by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., IV, xxii).科普特和亚美尼亚行为和殉难圣雅各福群欠主要依赖于传统的Hegesippus由尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书。,四,22)保存。

Acts of St. Matthew使徒圣马太

The Apostolic Acts of the Pseudo-Abdias contain a Latin "Passio Sancti Matthæi", which preserves an Abyssinian legend of St. Matthew, later than the Coptic Martyrdom noticed in connection with the Gnostic Acts of that saint.对伪Abdias使徒行为包含拉丁文“Passio Sancti Matthæi”,维护着一个阿比西尼亚传说圣马太晚于圣与该行为有关的诺斯底发现的科普特殉难。The correct historical setting indicates that the recension was the work of an Abyssinian of the sixth century, who wished to date the establishment of the Abyssinian Church (fourth century) back to the Apostolic times.正确的历史背景表明,校订是一个六世纪,谁希望当日的阿比西尼亚教会(第四世纪)回到使徒时代建立的阿比西尼亚工作。 However, the kernel of the narrative is drawn from older sources.然而,叙事内核来自旧的来源。The Abdias Passio places St. Matthew's martyrdom in Abyssinia.该Abdias Passio地方阿比西尼亚圣马太殉难。(See MATTHEW, ST., APOSTLE.) (见马太,圣,使徒。)

Teaching of Addai (Thaddeus)教学的Addai(萨德斯)

In 1876 an ancient Syriac document, entitled "The Teaching of Addai, the Apostle", was published for the first time.1876​​年古叙利亚文的文件,题为“教学Addai,使徒”,被公布的第一次。It proved to closely parallel the Abgar material derived by Eusebius from the Edessa archives, and indeed purports to have been entrusted to those archives by its author, who gives his name as Labubna, the son of Senaak.事实证明,密切平行阿布加尔材料从埃德萨档案尤西比乌斯所得,实际上看来是被它的作者,谁给的Labubna,对Senaak儿子托付给他的名字这些档案。 It is full of legendary but interesting material describing the relations between Jesus and King Abgar of Edessa.这是传说中的,但有趣的描述耶稣和国王之间的关系埃德萨阿布加尔材料充分。Thaddeus,or Addai, one of the seventy disciples, is sent, after the Resurrection, in compliance with Christ's promise, to Abgar, heals the ruler and Christianizes Edessa with the most prompt and brilliant success.撒迪厄斯或Addai,对七十弟子之一,被发送后,在与基督复活的承诺,要遵守阿布加尔,愈合的统治者和Christianizes最迅速和辉煌成就埃德萨。 Notable is the story of the painting of Jesus made at the instance of Abgar's envoy to the former.值得注意的是耶稣在阿布加尔的特使,以实例做画前的故事。Since the narrative of a Gaulish pilgrim who visited Edessa about 390 contains no allusion to such a picture, we may reasonably conclude that the Teaching of Addai is of later origin.由于朝圣者的高卢谁访问了约390埃德萨叙述中没有这样的图片典故,我们可以合理地得出结论认为,Addai教学后的起源。 Critics accept the period between 399-430.批评者接受之间的399-430期。The Thaddeus legend has many ramifications and has undergone a number of variations.该撒迪厄斯传说有许多分支,并已经历了若干变化。There is a Greek "Acts of Thaddeus", which identifies Addai with Thaddeus or Lebbæus, one of the Twelve.有希腊行为“撒迪厄斯”,其中确定与撒迪厄斯或Lebbæus,在十二个Addai。(See ABGAR; EDESSA). (见阿布加尔;埃德萨)。

Acts of Simon and Jude西蒙和裘德行为

A Latin Passio, which Lipsius attributes to the fourth or fifth century, narrates the miracles, conversions, and martyrdoms of these Apostles.一个拉丁Passio,这Lipsius属性第四或第五世纪,叙述了奇迹,转换,以及这些使徒martyrdoms。 It is found in the Abdias collection.它被发现在该Abdias集合。The scene is Persia and Babylonia.现场是波斯和巴比伦。It has been recognized that the historical setting of these Acts agrees remarkably with what is known of the conditions in the Parthian empire in the first century after Christ.人们已经认识到,这些行为非常同意与历史背景是什么,在第一世纪后,基督帕提亚帝国的已知条件。

The Acts of St. Barnabas圣巴拿巴的行为

The Acts of St. Barnabas appear to have been composed toward the end of the fifth century by a Cypriot.圣巴拿巴的行为似乎已经走向了第五世纪末由塞组成。They are ascribed to St. Mark the Evangelist, and are historically worthless.他们是归因于圣马克的传播者,而且历史上毫无价值。They are extant in the original Greek and in a Latin version.他们是在原希腊语和拉丁语中的现存版本。The narrative is based upon the mutual relations and activities of Barnabas, Mark, and Paul, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.叙事是基于相互关系和活动的巴拿巴,马克,保罗在使徒行传的记载。

Gesta MatthiæGesta Matthiæ

This is the latest of the pseudo-Acts, having been composed by a monk of Trèves, in the twelfth century, as a prelude to an account of the translation of the sacred relic, and the body of St. Matthias to that city, and their subsequent rediscoveries.这是已被组成由特雷韦斯和尚,在十二世纪作为一个神圣的遗物翻译帐户的前奏,以及圣马提亚身体到那个城市,伪行为,最新消息,随后将其重新发现。 It pretends to have derived the history of the Apostle's career from a Hebrew manuscript.它假装有来自希伯来手稿的使徒的职业生涯的历史。(See MATTHIAS, ST., APOSTLE.) (见马蒂亚斯,ST,,使徒。)

(c) Quasi-Apostolic Acts(三)准使徒行为

It must suffice to mention "Acts of St. Mark", of Alexandrian origin, and written in the fourth or fifth century; "Acts of St. Luke", Coptic, not earlier than end of fourth; "Acts of St. Timothy", composed by an Ephesian after 425; "Acts of St. Titus", of Cretan origin, between 400-700; "Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena", connected with the legends about St. Paul and St. Andrew.它必须足够提及的“圣马可行为”的亚历山大的起源,并在第四或第五世纪书面;比四月底,科普特人,不早“的圣卢克行为”,“圣提摩太行为”组成由425以弗所后,“圣提多行为”,在克里特岛的起源,400-700之间,“对Xanthipp​​e和Polyxena行为”,其中约圣保罗和圣安德鲁的传说相连。

(4) APOCRYPHAL DOCTRINAL WORKS(4)杜撰教义务

Testamentum Domini Nostri JesuTestamentum多米尼Nostri Jesu

It was known that a Syriac work of this name existed, and an extract was published in 1856.据了解,这名叙利亚的工作存在,并摘录了1856年出版。In 1899 Monsignor Rahmani, Patriarch of the United Syrians, published from a late manuscript the Syriac text, a Latin introduction and translation. 1899年主教拉赫马尼,联合国叙利亚人祖师,从晚手稿出版的叙利亚文字,拉美引进和翻译。The work is in two books.这项工作是在两书。It begins with an apocalypse of the approaching day of Antichrist alleged to have been uttered by Our Lord after His Resurrection.它开始据称已被我们的主复活了一声后,他用了近一天的敌基督的启示。Between this and the body of the work there is a very loose connection, as the main portion represents Christ as enacting, even to small details, laws for the governance and ritual of the Church.这与该机构的工作有一个非常松散的连接,作为主要部分代表作为制定,甚至到小细节,为治理和教会仪式的法律基督。The writer places on Our Lord's lips descriptions of liturgical observances prevalent in his own and earlier periods.在我们的主的嘴唇在他自己和更早的时期盛行的礼仪纪念活动描述作家的地方。There are evident points of contact between the Testament and the ancient ecclesiastico-liturgical Canones Hippolyti, Apostolic Constitutions, and Apostolic Canons.有明显的接触点之间的圣经和古ecclesiastico,礼仪Canones Hippolyti,使徒宪法和使徒大炮。 Monsignor Rahmani assigns the Testament to the second century, and places the above works in the relation of dependence on it.主教拉赫马尼分配到第二个世纪的约,并将其放置在其上的依赖关系上述作品。But critics unanimously refuse to accord a high antiquity to the Testament, dating it in the fourth or fifth century, and inverting the dependence mentioned.但批评者一致拒绝给予很高的古代的遗嘱,约会在第四或第五世纪,它和反相的依赖提及。On the ground that there is no indication of an acquaintance with the book outside the Orient, and that Arabic and Coptic recensions of it are known, Dr. A. Baumstark regards the work as a compilation originating in Monophysite circles, and current in the national Churches of that sect in Syria and Egypt.理由是,没有一个与外界的东方书熟人迹象,而且它的阿拉伯语和科普特人的recensions是已知的,博士A. Baumstark认为这是一个在基督一性界发起编制工作,目前在全国教会该教派在叙利亚和埃及。The apocalyptic opening has been found in a Latin manuscript of the eighth century, and published by MR James, "Apocrypha Anecdota" (Cambridge, 1893).世界末日的开放已发现了八世纪的拉丁手稿,以及MR詹姆斯,“伪经Anecdota”(剑桥,1893年)出版。

The Preaching of Peter or Kerygma Petri.而彼得或Kerygma的Petri说教。

Clement of Alexandria repeatedly quotes from a kerygma Petrou , concerning whose credibility he obviously has no doubt.克莱门特亚历山大一再报价从kerygma彼得鲁 ,关于它的公信力,显然已毫无疑问。On the other hand, Eusebius classes it as apocryphal.另一方面,它作为尤西比乌斯类杜撰。A certain "Doctrine of Peter", mentioned by a later writer, was probably identical with the "Preaching".某“学说的彼得”,由以后的作家所说,可能是与“说教”相同。From the scanty remains of this work we can form but a very imperfect idea of it.从这项工作的微薄,但仍然可以形成一个很完美的想法。 It spoke in St. Peter's name and represented him above all as a teacher of the Gentiles.它在谈到圣彼得的名字,并代表上述作为外邦人的老师都他。The doctrinal parts occur in a framework of an account of the missionary journeys.在理论部分发生在一个帐户的传教行程框架。The pseudograph was probably suggested by the text, II Peter, i, 5.该pseudograph可能是所建议的文本,彼得,我,5。A work which was so well accredited in the days of Clement of Alexandria (c. 140-215), and which was known to the "Gnostic Heracleon" (c. 160-170), must have come from almost Apostolic antiquity.这是一个如此出色的认证,亚历山大(公元前140-215),克莱门特的天,这是众所周知的“诺斯底Heracleon”(长160-170)的工作,必须有来自几乎使徒古代。 Scholars favour the first quarter of the second century.学者赞成第一季度的第二个世纪。The fragments which remain betray no signs of heterodox origin.其中的片段仍出卖非正统出身的迹象。There is a Syriac "Preaching of Simon Peter in the City of Rome."有一个叙利亚的“西门彼得讲道在罗马城”。

Two Ways or Judicium Petri两种方法或Judicium的Petri

This is a moralizing treatise ascribed to St. Peter, and prefixed to the Didache.这是一个道德说教论文归因于圣彼得大教堂,并前缀的十二使徒遗训。It is of Jewish-Christian origin, and probably was based on the so-called "Epistle of Barnabas".这是犹太 - 基督教的起源,大概是在所谓的“巴拿巴书信”的基础。

Preaching of Paul保罗讲道

The only witness to this work is the treatise "De Rebaptismo" in the pseudo-Cyprian writings.唯一的见证这项工作的论文“德Rebaptismo”的伪塞浦路斯著作。According to this it represented Christ as confessing personal sins, and forced by His mother to receive baptism.根据这一它表现为个人的罪孽忏悔基督和他的母亲被迫接受洗礼。

(5) APOCRYPHAL EPISTLES(5)杜撰的书信

Pseudo-Epistles of the Blessed Virgin伪书信的圣母

These are all composed in Latin and at late dates.这些都是由拉丁美洲和最晚日期。

Pseudo-Epistle of St. Peter to St. James the Less伪书信向圣雅各福群欠圣彼得

The Pseudo-Clementine homilies contain as a preface two letters, the first of which purports to be from Peter to James the Less, beseeching him to keep his (Peter's) preaching secret.伪克莱门汀讲道包含两个字母作为序言,其中第一个看来是由彼得詹姆斯少,恳求他继续他(彼得)鼓吹的秘密。(See CLEMENTINE PSEUDO-WRITINGS.)(见克莱门汀伪著作。)

Pseudo-Epistles of St. Paul; Correspondence with the Corinthians伪书信的圣保罗,与科林蒂安函授

The ancient Syrian (Edessene) Church revered as canonical a Third Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians, which is accompanied by a letter from the pastors of that Church, to which it is an answer.古代叙利亚(Edessene)教会尊为典型的圣保罗第三书信向科林蒂安,这是由来自该教会牧师的信,要它是伴随着一个答案。 But about the beginning of the fifth century the Syrian Church fell under the influence of the Greek, and in consequence the spurious letter gradually lost its canonical status.但对第五世纪初,叙利亚教会倒在了希腊的影响,在后果的虚假信逐渐失去它的规范地位。It was taken up by the neighbouring Armenians and for centuries has formed a part of the Armenian New Testament.这是采取了由邻近亚美尼亚,几个世纪以来已经形成了亚美尼亚新约的一部分。Latin and Greek writers are completely silent about this pseudograph, although Greek and Latin copies have been found.拉丁文和希腊作家是完全沉默对此pseudograph,尽管希腊和拉丁的副本已被发现。It was obviously suggested by the lost genuine Pauline letter referred to in I Cor.这显然​​是失去了真正的建议中提到宝莲林前向信。v, 9; vii, 1.五,9;七,1。 It was composed by a Catholic presbyter about l60-170, and is a disguised attack on some of the leading errors of Gnosticism.它组成了一个关于L60 - 170天主教牧师,并且是在领先的诺斯替主义的一些错误伪装的攻击。This correspondence long had an independent circulation, but recently it has been proved that the document was incorporated into the Acts of St. Paul (qv).长期以来,这种对应一个独立的循环,但最近已经证明,该文件到圣保罗(QV)的行为中。

Pseudo-epistle to the Laodiceans伪书信向老底嘉

In the genuine Epistle to the Colossians, Paul, after instructing them to send their Epistle to Laodicea, adds: "read that which is from the Laodiceans".在真正的书信向歌罗西书,保罗后,指示他们送书信,以老底嘉,补充说:“读到这从老底嘉是”。This most probably regards a circular letter, the canonical "Ephesians"; but it has been held to be a lost letter to the Laodicean Christians.这方面最有可能通函,​​规范“以弗所书”,但它已被认为是一个失去写信给老底嘉基督徒。The apocryphal epistle is a transparent attempt to supply this supposed lost sacred document.而未经证实的书信是一种透明的企图供应这个所谓的失去了神圣的文件。It consists of twenty short lines and is mainly made of matter taken from Philippians and other Epistles, and pieced together without sequence or logical aim.它由20短线,主要由来自腓和采取其他书信的事情,没有序列或逻辑拼凑在一起的目的。Our apocryphon exists only in Latin and translations from the Latin, though it gives signs of a Greek original.我们的apocryphon只存在于拉丁美洲和拉丁语翻译,但它给了希腊原始的迹象。It can hardly be the pseudo-Laodicean letter said by the Muratorian Fragment to have been invented by the heresiarch Marcion.它难以伪老底嘉信由穆拉多利片段已被heresiarch马吉安发明说。Despite its insipid and suspicious character, this compilation was frequently copied in the Middle Ages, and enjoyed a certain degree of respect, although St. Jerome had written of it: ab omnibus exploditur. (See LAODICEA.) The Muratorian Fragmentist mentions together with a spurious epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans, one to the Alexandrians, which was forged under the auspices of Marcion.尽管它的平淡和可疑人物,此汇编经常复制在中世纪,并享有一定程度的尊重,虽然有它的圣杰罗姆写:AB综合exploditur(见老底嘉)的穆拉多利Fragmentist提到连同杂散书信保罗的老底嘉,一到Alexandrians,这是根据马吉安的主持下伪造的。 We have no other certain knowledge of this apocryphon.我们没有其他本apocryphon一定的知识。

Pseudo-Correspondence of St. Paul and Seneca伪函授圣保罗和塞涅卡

This consists of eight pretended letters from the Stoic philosopher Seneca, and six replies from St. Paul.这包括八个假装来信斯多葛哲学家塞涅卡的,六个来自圣保罗的答复。They are identical with a correspondence alluded to by Jerome (de Viris Illustr., xii), who without passing judgment on their value, notes that they are read by many.它们是相同的信件提到了由Jerome(反Viris Illustr。,十二),谁没有传递自己的价值,他们是由许多阅读笔记判断。These letters, therefore, could not have been composed after the second half of the fourth century.这些信件,因此,不可能一直组成后的第四个世纪下半叶。They are based on the early traditions of Seneca's leanings towards Christianity and the contemporary residence at Rome of Paul and the philosopher.他们是基于塞涅卡的倾向对传统的早期基督教和保罗在罗马的住所和当代哲学家。 We will merely note the existence of a spurious Letter of St. John, the Apostle, to a dropsical man, healing his disease, in the Acts of St. John by the pseudo-Prochorus; one of St. James, the Bishop of Jerusalem, to Quadratus, in Armenian (Vetter, Litterarische Rundschau, 1896).我们将只注意到了圣约翰,使徒信存在虚假,在臌的人,愈合圣约翰行为他的病,由伪Prochorus;圣雅各福群之一,耶路撒冷主教,到前方,在亚美尼亚(Vetter,Litterarische评论报,1896年)。

(6) CHRISTIAN APOCRYPHAL APOCALYPSES(6)基督教杜撰的启示

Apocalypse of the Testamentum DN Jesu Christi.启示的Testamentum DN Jesu斯蒂。

(See the section on the Testamentum above.)(见关于Testamentum以上部分)。

The Apocalypse of Mary玛丽的启示

The Apocalypse of Mary is of medieval origin, and is probably merely the outcome of an extravagant devotion.玛丽的启示是中世纪的起源,并很可能仅仅是一个奢侈的奉献的结果。It describes the Blessed Mother's descent to Limbo, and exists in Greek manuscripts.它描述了圣母的后裔中间状态,并在希腊手稿的存在。It has been printed in the Tischendorf collection (Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti).它已载入的提申多夫集合(食品Apocryphus诺维Testamenti)。

Apocalypses of St. Peter启示的圣彼得大教堂

The Muratorian Fragment, written at Rome in the latter part of the second century, names the apocalypses of John and Peter side by side as the only ones received in the Church, remarking that some do not acknowledge the latter.该穆拉多利片段,在罗马写在第二个世纪后半叶,约翰和彼得的名字并排在教会收到的唯一的启示,陈述,有些不承认后者。 There is abundant evidence that the Petrine apocalypse was believed authentic in many quarters of the early Church, and enjoyed in a certain measure canonical authority.有大量证据表明,伯多禄的启示,相信在初期教会许多方面的地道,并在一定的措施,规范权力享受。Clement of Alexandria always credulous with regard to apocrypha even honoured it with a commentary; Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., VI, xiv, 1), places it almost on an equality with the antilegomena or better class of disputed writings; Jerome rejects it flatly.克莱门特亚历山大总是轻信关于伪经甚至荣幸与评论它;尤西比乌斯(。Hist.传道书,六,十四,1),地方几乎在与更好的antilegomena或有争议的著作类平等它,它断然拒绝杰罗 ​​姆。Notwithstanding this, as late as the middle of the fifth century it was publicly read in some churches of Palestine.尽管如此,迟至第五世纪中叶,它是公开的巴勒斯坦阅读一些教堂。The few citations of patristic writers were unable to convey an idea of its contents, but fortunately a considerable fragment of this ancient document was discovered at Akhmîn, Egypt, together with the pseudo-Petrine Gospel in the language of the original, viz., Greek.对少数引文教父作家无法传达其内容的想法,但幸运的是这个古老的文件相当大的片段被发现在Akhmîn,埃及,随着原,即,希腊语伪伯多禄福音在一起。 A quotation of Clement of Alexandria from the recovered parts enables us to identify the manuscript with certainty as a portion of the apocalypse of antiquity.克莱门特的亚历山大从收回部分报价使我们能够认同作为古代启示确定性部分手稿。The passage relates to a vision granted by Christ to the Twelve on a mountain, exhibiting the glory of two departing brethren, the splendour of heaven, and a gruesome picture of hell.在通过有关授予基督十二在山上,参展的两兄弟离开,天上的辉煌和荣耀地狱的可怕画面的愿景。The language has a Jewish-Christian savour.该语言有一个犹太 - 基督教细细品味。The apocryphon is attributed by critics to the first quarter of the second century and is therefore one of the earliest specimens of non-canonical literature.该apocryphon是归因于批评者的第二个世纪的第一个季度,因此对非正规文学的最早的标本之一。There exist under the names Apocalypse of St. Peter, Apocalypse of St. Peter through Clement, Liber Clementis, various Arabic and Ethiopic recensions of an apocalypse which has nothing in common with the ancient Greek one.存在下,圣彼得大教堂,圣彼得启示通过克莱门特,LIBER Clementis,各种阿拉伯语和埃塞俄比亚的一个启示是在没有任何共同之处与古希腊one的recensions名启示。

The Apocalypse of St. Paul在圣保罗启示

A prefatory notice pretends that this work was found in a marble case under the house of Paul at Tarsus, in the reign of King Theodosius (AD 379-395), and upon intelligence conveyed by an angel.阿前言通知假装这项工作是在一个大数下,保家大理石案中的国王狄奥(公元379-395)年间,发现,并呼吁由天使传达情报。 This indicates the date of the apocalypse's fabrication.这表明了启示的制造日期。It purports to reveal the secrets seen by the Apostle in his transport to the third heaven, alluded to in II Cor., xii, 2, and was composed in Greek.它宣称,揭示了在他的运输使徒看到了第三个秘密天堂,暗示在二肺心病。,第十二章,2,并在希腊组成。From this Pauline apocalypse must be distinguished a Gnostic work entitled the "Ascension of Paul", referred to by St. Epiphanius, but of which no remains have survived.从这个波利娜启示必须区分一个诺斯底工作题为“保升天”,简称由圣埃皮法尼乌斯,但其中没有仍然生存。There is a spurious "Apocalypse of John", of comparatively late origin.有一种虚假的“约翰启示录”,是比较晚的起源。

Regarding the so-called Apocalypse of St. Bartholomew see Gospel of St. Bartholomew.关于圣巴塞洛缪福音的圣巴塞洛缪所谓的启示。

IV. IV。THE APOCRYPHA AND THE CHURCH伪经和教会

At a very early period orthodox writers and, presumably, ecclesiastical authorities found it necessary to distinguish between the genuine inspired books and a multitude of spurious rivals -- a fact which is a very important element in the formation of the Christian canon.在一个非常初期的作家和正统,据推测,教会当局认为有必要区分真正的灵感书籍和众多的杂散竞争对手 - 这是一个事实,在基督教教会的形成非常重要的因素。Thus as early as about AD 170, the author of the descriptive Latin catalogue known as the "Muratorian Fragment" mentioned certain works as fictitious or contested.因此,早在大约公元170,拉丁美洲的描述为“穆拉多利片段称为”目录作者提到虚构的或有争议的某些作品。At the same time St. Irenæus called attention to the great mass of heretical pseudographic writings ( inenarrabilis multitudo apocryphorum et perperam scripturarum, Adv., Hær., I, xx).同时,圣irenæus称为注意邪教pseudographic著作伟大的群众(inenarrabilis multitudo apocryphorum等perperam scripturarum,进阶,Hær ,我,XX)。 Undoubtedly it was the large use in heretical circles, especially the Gnostic sects, made of this insinuating literature which first called forth the animadversions of the official guardians of doctrinal purity.毫无疑问,它是在邪教各界,特别是诺斯底教派这个影射文学这首先要求提出的理论纯度官方监护人animadversions提出,大量使用。 Even in the East, already the home of pseudographic literature, Origen (d. 254) exhibits caution regarding the books outside the canon (Comment. in Matth., serm. 28).即使在东方,已经是pseudographic文学的家中,俄利根(草254)展品谨慎有关外,佳能(Comment.在Matth。,SERM 28)的书籍。St. Athanasius in 387 found it necessary to warn his flock by a pastoral epistle against Jewish and heretical apocrypha (PG, XXVI, 1438).圣亚他那修在387发现有必要提醒的对犹太人和邪教伪经牧区书信(PG,二十六,1438)他的羊群。Another Greek Father, Epiphanius (312-403) in "Hæreses", 26, could complain that copies of Gnostic apocrypha were current in thousands.另一个希腊父,埃皮法尼乌斯在“Hæreses”,26(312-403),可以抱怨的诺斯底伪经数千份,在目前的。 Yet it must be confessed that the early Fathers, and the Church, during the first three centuries, were more indulgent towards Jewish pseudographs circulating under venerable Old Testament names.然而,必须承认,早期的教父,和教会,在第一三个世纪,更对在古老的旧约名称循环犹太pseudographs放纵。 The Book of Henoch and the Assumption of Moses had been cited by the canonical Epistle of Jude.对过敏和摩西升天书已被引用由裘德规范书信。Many Fathers admitted the inspiration of Fourth Esdras.许多父亲承认了第四埃斯德拉斯灵感。Not to mention the Shepherd of Hermas, the Acts of St. Paul (at least in the Thecla portion) and the Apocalypse of St. Peter were highly revered at this and later periods.且不说牧人书,圣保罗(至少在Thecla部分)和圣彼得启示高度尊敬的行为,后来在这个时期。Yet, withal, no apocryphal work found official recognition in the Western Church.然而,withal,没有杜撰的工作中发现,在西方教会正式承认。In 447 Pope Leo the Great wrote pointedly against the pseudo-apostolic writings, "which contained the germ of so many errors . . . they should not only be forbidden but completely suppressed and burned" (Epist. xv, 15).在447教皇利奥大写尖锐地反对伪使徒的著作“,它包含了如此多的错误胚芽。不仅自己要被禁止,但完全压制,并焚烧”(Epist.十五,15)。 The so-called Decretum de recipiendis et non recipiendis libris" is attributed to Pope Gelasius (495), but in reality is a compilation dating from the beginning of the sixth century, and containing collections made earlier than Gelasius. It is an official document, the first of the kind we possess, and contained a list of 39 works besides those ascribed to Leucius, "disciple of the devil", all of which it condemns as apocryphal. From this catalogue it is evident that in the Latin Church by this time, apocrypha in general, including those of Catholic origin, had fallen under the ecclesiastical ban, always, however, with a preoccupation against the danger of heterodoxy. The Synod of Braga, in Spain, held in the year 563, anathematizes any one "who reads, approves, or defends the injurious fictions set in circulation by heretics". Although in the Middle Ages these condemnations were forgotten and many of the pseudographic writings enjoyed a high degree of favour among both clerics and the laity, still we find superior minds, such as Alcuin, St. Bernard, St. Thomas Aquinas, pointing out their want of authority. An echo of the ancient condemnations occurs in the work De Festis BMV of Benedict XIV, declaring certain popular apocrypha to be impure sources of tradition. (See CANON OF SACRED SCRIPTURE.)所谓Decretum德recipiendis等非recipiendis Libris的“,是因为教皇格拉西(495),但在现实中是一个编译建于六世纪开始,包含集合了早于格拉西,这是一份正式文件,在我们所拥有的那种第一次,载有39除了归因于Leucius那些作品名单,“魔鬼的门徒”,所有这些谴责的猜测,从这个目录很明显,在这个时候,拉丁教会,伪经一般包括天主教出身的人,曾在教会的禁令有所下降,总是然而,与反对异端危险的当务之急。布拉加的主教,在西班牙,在今年563举行,anathematizes任何一个“谁读,批准,或由流通中的辩护异端“的有害小说,虽然在中世纪这些谴责和被遗忘的pseudographic许多著作享有的青睐中,既有神职人员和俗人的高度,我们仍然发现优越的头脑,如阿尔昆,圣伯纳德,多瑪斯,指​​出他们的权威想要的。一个古老的回声谴责发生在德Festis本笃十四BMV工作,宣布某些流行的伪经成为传统不纯来源(见佳能的圣经。)

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES are extensive, and are in a separate listing in the Catholic Encyclopedia.书目附注是广泛的,并在一个天主教百科全书单独上市的。

George J. Reid乔治J里德

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I天主教百科全书第一卷

NOTE: This extensive article from the Catholic Encyclopedia contains numerous external references to other articles.注:本文从天主教百科全书广泛的文章包含许多其他物品的外部引用。Those references all are directed toward other articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia.这些引用都是直接针对在天主教百科全书其他物品。Nevertheless, the BELIEVE web-site contains separate presentations on the majority of those subjects.然而,不管相信网站载有关于这些议题的大多数单独介绍。


Apocrypha伪经

Orthodox Information东正教信息

DeuterocanonDeuterocanon

Apocrypha may have different meanings depending on how it is applied to the Old or New Testaments and whether it is being used by Catholics, Protestants or Orthodox Christians.伪经可能对如何将它应用到旧的或新约,是否是由天主教徒,新教徒或东正教徒用不同的含义。 For the most part, the term apocrypha refers to any collection of scriptural texts that falls outside the canon.在大多数情况下, 伪经一词是指任何超出佳能落在经文的集合。Since most English language bibles are from non-Orthodox sources, they sometimes are subtitled with Apocrypha meaning that it includes the Old Testament, so called Deuterocanonical Books that in the Orthodox Church are considered to be genuine parts of the Bible.由于大多数英文圣经来自非东正教来源,他们有时是字幕与伪经的意义,它包括旧约,故称,在东正教教堂被认为是真正的圣经部分次经书籍

Since mostly all of Christianity accept the same 27 books of the New Testament, the term apocrypha is used for both apocryphal books, and pseudoepigrapha books.由于大部分基督教都接受相同的27个新约书, 伪经长期使用两种猜测书籍,pseudoepigrapha书籍。

Old Testament旧约全书

The Apocrypha/Deuterocanonical Books are books of the Old Testament that are accepted by the Orthodox Christian Church but are not accepted by Protestants as part of its official canonical contents, but of close association with the Bible. /次经书是旧约所接受的正统基督教会,但不是由新教徒接受作为其正式的规范内容的一部分,但与圣经密切关联的书籍。

The word Deuterocanonical comes from the Greek words Deutero and canona meaning "second canon."本次经字来自希腊字Deuterocanona意思是“第二佳能。”The word apocrypha comes from the Greek word ἀπόκρυφα, meaning "hidden." 伪经这个词来自希腊字ἀπόκρυφα,意思是“隐藏”。They are included in the Orthodox Bible because they were included in the Septuagint which was in use at the time of Jesus, and the authors of the New Testament.它们包含在东正教圣经,因为它们在使用中译本的是在耶稣时代,和新约的作者包括在内。They are not called apocrypha by the Orthodox Church.他们不是所谓的伪经的东正教教堂。

The Books of the so called Apocrypha所谓的伪经的书籍

The Psalms are also numbered and divided up differently.的诗篇也不同编号和瓜分。

The Apocrypha in Roman Catholicism and Protestant churches在罗马天主教和新教教堂伪经

In an Orthodox Bible there are 49 books in the Old Testament canon.在一个东正教圣经有49旧约佳能书籍。Roman Catholics only accept seven so called Deuterocanonical books, so their Old Testament has a total of 46 books (sometimes counted as 47).罗马天主教徒只接受seven所谓次经书,所以他们的旧约有46书(有时高达47计算)总额。Because Protestants mistakenly reject the Septuagint altogether, their Old Testament canon has only 39 books.由于错误地拒绝新教徒共七十,其旧约佳能只有39书籍。

True Old Testament Apocrypha真正的旧约伪经

There are examples of false books from the Old Testament, there books are: Assumption of Moses, Ascension of Isaiah, Apocalypse of Elijah, Book of Enoch, Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, and another Book of Maccabees.有假书的例子,从旧约,有书籍是:假设摩西,以赛亚阿森松岛,以利亚的启示,以诺,在十二始祖约书,另有马加比书。 These books are not in the Old Testament canon of any church.这些书是不是在旧的任何教会约佳能。

New Testament新约全书

Apocryphal杜撰

Books of the apostolic times that were not included in the canon of scripture, but may have reputed apostolic or prophetic authorship, are called Apocryphal .使徒说的不包括在圣经宝典,但可能有知名作者使徒或先知时代,书籍被称为杜撰These writings of the early Christian church give accounts of the teachings of Jesus, aspects of the life of Jesus, accounts of the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives.早期的基督教教堂,这些著作给予耶稣的教诲账户,在耶稣的生命,神的性质的帐户,或他的使徒的教训和自己生活的各个方面。 These writings often have links with those books which are regarded as canonical.这些著作往往与那些为规范视为书籍的链接。 According to Orthodox teaching they may be read for personal edification but are not authoritative for doctrine.根据东正教教他们读的熏陶,但个人不主义权威。

Pseudoepigrapha Pseudoepigrapha

At the turn from the first century, many false writings about Christ were produced.在从第一世纪之交,关于基督的著作,产生许多假。These were the so-called apocryphal writings (not to be confused with the Old Testament apocrypha), also called pseudoepigrapha .这些是所谓的未经著作(不要与旧约伪经混淆),也称为pseudoepigrapha。These false writings carried the names of the apostles and introduced into Christian circles many fanciful and legendary stories about the childhood of Christ, the life of the Virgin Mary and the activities of the apostles.这些著作进行虚假的使徒将姓名和基督教界提出了许多幻想和传奇有关基督的童年,对圣母玛利亚的生活和使徒的活动的故事。

With the pseudoepigrapha, there also appeared the false teachings of gnosticism, the Christian heresy which transformed Christianity into a kind of spiritualistic, dualistic, intellectualistic philosophy.随着pseudoepigrapha,那里也出现了诺斯替主义的异端,基督教的异端邪说而变成了一个唯灵,二元,intellectualistic一种哲学基督教。 The Christians of the Orthodox faith had to contend with these false teachings.在东正教信仰的基督徒不得不与这些假教训。


Apocrypha伪经

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

§ I. §一。

§ II. §二。Apocryphal Books among the Jews.之间的犹太人杜撰书籍。

§ III. §三。Lists of Apocrypha; Classification.的伪经名单;分类。

§ IV. §四。Historical Apocrypha.历史伪经。

§ V. Historical Pseudepigrapha.§五,历史Pseudepigrapha。

§ VI. §六。Books of the Antediluvians.书籍的Antediluvians。

§ VII. §七。Testaments.圣经。

§ VIII. §八。Relating to Joseph, Isaiah, and Baruch.有关约瑟夫,以赛亚,和巴鲁克。

§ IX. §九。Lost Books.失落的书籍。

§ X. Prophetical Apocrypha.§十预言伪经。

§ XI. §十一。Apocalypses.启示。

§ XII. §十二。Lyrical Apocrypha.抒情伪经。

§ XIII. §十三。Didactic Apocrypha.说教的伪经。

§ XIV. §十四。Apocrypha in the Talmud.伪经的犹太法典。

§ I. §一。

The most general definition of Apocrypha is, Writings having some pretension to the character of sacred scripture, or received as such by certain sects, but excluded from the canon (see Canon).伪经的最一般的定义是,有一些著作预紧的神圣经文的性格,或如收到某些教派,但是从佳能(见佳能)排除在外。The history of the earlier usage of the word is obscure.对这个词的使用历史较早,是模糊的。It is probable that the adjective ἀπόκρυφος "hidden away, kept secret," as applied to books, was first used of writings which were kept from the public by their possessors because they contained a mysterious or esoteric wisdom too profound or too sacred to be communicated to any but the initiated.这是有可能的形容词ἀπόκρυφος“隐藏起来,秘而不宣,”适用于图书,是其中第一个是从他们的拥有者通过公共kept著作使用,因为它们包含了神秘或深奥的智慧太深刻或过于神圣的传达任何但启动。 Thus a Leyden magical papyrus bears the title, Μωϋσήως ἱερἁ βίβλος ἀπόκρυφος ἐπικαλουμήν ὀγδόη ἢ ἁγία, "The Secret Sacred Book of Moses, Entitled the Eighth or the Holy Book" (Dietrich, "Abraxas," 169).因此,一个神奇的纸莎草莱顿熊的称号,Μωϋσήωςἱερἁβίβλοςἀπόκρυφοςἐπικαλουμήνὀγδόηἢἁγία,“圣书的秘密摩西,题为第八届或圣书”(迪特里希,“卫矛尺,”169)。 Pherecydes of Syros is said to have learned his wisdom from τἁ φοινίκων ἀπόκρυφα βιβλία, "The Secret Books of the Phenicians" (Suidas, sv φερκύδης).在锡罗斯Pherecydes据说已经学会从τἁφοινίκωνἀπόκρυφαβιβλία,他说:“Phenicians秘密书”(Suidas,SVφερκύδης)他的智慧。 In the early centuries of our era many religious and philosophical sects had such scriptures; thus the followers of the Gnostic Prodicus boasted the possession of secret books (ἀποκρύφους) of Zoroaster (Clemens Alexandrinus, "Stromata," i. 15 [357 Potter]).在我们这个时代世纪初许多宗教和哲学派别有这样的经文,因此对诺斯底Prodicus的追随者吹嘘藏秘书琐罗亚斯德(ἀποκρύφους)(克莱门斯Alexandrinus,“Stromata,”岛15 [357波特]) 。IV Esdras is avowedly such a work: Ezra is bidden to write all the things which he has seen in a book and lay it up in a hidden place, and to teach the contents to the wise among his people, whose intelligence he knows to be sufficient to receive and preserve these secrets (xii. 36 et seq.).四埃斯德拉斯是公然这样的工作:以斯拉是bidden写所有他在一本书看到的东西,在一个隐蔽的地方在于它,并教的内容之间的人,他们的智慧,他明知是明智的足够的接收和保存这些秘密(xii. 36及以下)。(see Dan. xii. 4, 9; Enoch, i. 2, cviii. 1; Assumptio Mosis, x. 1 et seq.) In another passage such writings are expressly distinguished from the twenty-four canonical books; the latter are to be published that they may be read by the worthy and unworthy alike; the former (seventy in number) are to be preserved and transmitted to the wise, because they contain a profounder teaching (xiv. 44-47). (见丹十二4,9;。诺岛2,cviii 1; Assumptio MOSIS,十1起。)在另一段文字是这样明确从24杰出典型的书籍,后者是公布他们可能会受到同样值得和不值得读,前者(数量seventy)将被保留,并传送给明智的,因为它们包含profounder教学(xiv. 44-47)。In this sense Gregory of Nyssa quotes words of John in the Apocalypse as ἐν ἀποκρύφοις ("Oratio in Suam Ordinationem," iii. 549, ed. Migne; compare Epiphanius, "Adversus Hæreses," li. 3).在这个意义上的nyssa报价约翰字作为ἐνἀποκρύφοις启示格雷戈里(“Oratio在Suam Ordinationem,”三549,编辑米涅;。比较埃皮法尼乌斯,“Adversus Hæreses,”礼3)。The book contains revelations not to be comprehended by the masses, nor rashly published among them.书中包含不被群众所理解,也不贸然公布其中的启示。

Inasmuch, however, as this kind of literature flourished most among heretical sects, and as many of the writings themselves were falsely attributed to the famous men of ancient times, the word "Apocrypha" acquired in ecclesiastical use an unfavorable connotation; the private scriptures treasured by the sects were repudiated by the Church as heretical and often spurious.生死时刻,然而,蓬勃发展,因为这样的文学中最邪教,并作为自己的著作中许多人错误地归结为古代著名的男性中,“伪经:”在教会的使用获得了不利的内涵,私营经文珍惜由教派被否定了为异端邪说,往往寄生教会。 Lists were made of the books which the Church received as sacred scripture and of those which it rejected; the former were "canonical" (see Canon); to the latter the name "Apocrypha" was given.名单是由该教会的书籍作为神圣的经文和那些拒绝接受它,前者是“规范”(见佳能),后者命名为“伪经”获得优惠。The canon of the Church included the books which are contained in the Greek Bible but not in the Hebrew (see the list below, § III.); hence the term "Apocrypha" was not applied to these books, but to such writings as Enoch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, etc. (see below, § III.).教会的教会包括其中包含但在希伯来文在希腊圣经(见下面的列表中,§三)图书;因此称为“伪经”没有被应用到这些书,但作为诺等著作,在十二始祖,等圣经(见下文,§三)。 Jerome alone applies the word to all books which are not found in the Jewish canon (see "Prologus Galeatus").杰罗姆仅仅适用于所有的字是不是在犹太佳能(见“Prologus Galeatus”)找到的书籍。At the Reformation, Protestants adopted the Jewish canon, and designated by the name "Apocrypha" the books of the Latin and Greek Bibles which they thus rejected; while the Catholic Church in the Council of Trent formally declared these books canonical, and continued to use the word "Apocrypha" for the class of writings to which it had generally been appropriated in the ancient Church; for the latter, Protestants introduced the name "Pseudepigrapha."在改革,新教徒通过了犹太佳能,和命名为“伪经”的拉丁文和希腊文圣经,他们因此拒绝指定的书籍,而在安理会的遄达天主教会正式宣布这些书籍的规范,并继续使用单词“伪经”为其所已普遍被挪用的古代教会的著作类;对于后者,新教徒推出了名为“Pseudepigrapha。”

§ II. §二。Apocryphal Books among the Jews.之间的犹太人杜撰书籍。

Judaism also had sects which possessed esoteric or recondite scriptures, such as the Essenes (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 7), and the Therapeutæ (Philo, "De Vita Contemplativa," ed. Mangey, ii. 475).犹太教也有这样的爱色尼教派拥有深奥或深奥的经文,(约瑟夫,“BJ”二8,§ 7)和Therapeutæ(斐洛,“德维塔Contemplativa,”埃德。Mangey,二475)。Their occurrence among these particular sects is explicitly attested, but doubtless there were others.他们的这些特定教派之间发生的明确证实,但毫无疑问,还有其他的。Indeed, many of the books which the Church branded as apocryphal were of Jewish (sometimes heretical Jewish) origin.的确,该教会的猜测品牌的书籍很多都是犹太人(有时邪教犹太人)的起源。The Jewish authorities, therefore, were constrained to form a canon, that is, a list of sacred scriptures; and in some cases to specify particular writings claiming this character which were rejected and forbidden.犹太当局,因此,受到制约,形成佳能,就是一个神圣的经文名单;在某些情况下指定声称这是被拒绝和禁止特定人物的著作。 The former-so the distinction is expressed in a ceremonial rule (Yad. iii. 5; Tosef., Yad. ii. 13)-make the hands which touch them unclean-; the latter do not (see Canon).前者,所以区别是在礼仪规则表达(Yad.三5;。Tosef,亚得二13),使他们的手,触摸不洁-;后者不(见佳能)。 Another term used in the discussion of certain books is , properly "to lay up, store away for safe-keeping," also "withdraw from use."在某些书籍讨论使用另一个术语是,适当“奠定起来,储存保管了,”还“退出使用。”Thus, Shab.因此,沙巴。30b, "The sages intended to withdraw Ecclesiastes"; "they also intended to withdraw Proverbs"; ib. 30B,“打算撤回传道书圣人”,“他们还打算退出箴言”;兴业。13b, "Hananiah b. Hezekiah prevented Ezekiel from being withdrawn"; Sanh.13B,“希西家哈拿尼雅B.防止被撤销以西结书”; Sanh。100b (Codex Carlsruhe), "although our masters withdrewthis book" (Sirach), etc. It has frequently been asserted that the idea and the name of the Greek "Apocrypha" were derived from this Hebrew terminology. 100B(法典Carlsruhe),“虽然我们的主人withdrewthis书”(西拉奇)等,常常被人们断言,理念和希腊“伪经”的名义从该希伯来语术语而得。 (See Zahn, "Gesch. des Neutestamentlichen Kanons," i. 1, 123 et seq.; Schürer, in "Protestantische Realencyclopädie," 3d ed., i. 623, and many others; compare Hamburger,"Realencyklopädie," ii. 68, n. 4.) "Apocrypha" (ἀπόκρυφα βιβλία) is, it is said, a literal translation of , "concealed, hidden books." (见赞恩,“Gesch DES Neutestamentlichen Kanons。”一1,123及以下; Schürer,在“Protestantische Realencyclopädie,”3D版岛623,和其他许多;比较汉堡包,“Realencyklopädie,”二。 68,注4)“伪经”(ἀπόκρυφαβιβλία),它是说,一个直译的“隐蔽,隐藏的书籍。”Closer examination shows, however, that the alleged identity of phraseology is a mistake.仔细观察表明,然而,所谓的身份的用语是一个错误。Talmudic literature knows nothing of a class of -neither this phrase nor an equivalent occurs -not even in "Ab. RN" i.塔木德文学一无所知的一类,这句话也不是没有发生,即使是在“AB。RN”一等价1, though the error appears to have originated in the words used there.1,虽然有错误出现在那里的话起源使用。Nor is the usage identical: does not mean "conceal" (ἀποκρύπτειν translates not , but and its synonyms), but "store away"; it is used only of things intrinsically precious or sacred.也就是使用相同的:不等于“隐藏”(ἀποκρύπτειν转换,而是和它的同义词),但“商店离”,它是采用珍贵或神圣本质的东西而已。 As applied to books, it is used only of books which are, after all, included in the Jewish canon, never of the kind of literature to which the Church Fathers give the name "Apocrypha"; these are rather (Yer. Sanh. x. 1, 28a), or .适用于书籍,它是只用其中的书籍,毕竟,在犹太佳能在内,从来没有对文学的教会神父给命名为“伪经”种,这些都是相当(Yer. Sanh X。 1,28A)或。The only exception is a reference to Sirach.唯一的例外是一个西拉奇参考。The Book of (magical) Cures which Hezekiah put away (Pes. iv. 9) was doubtless attributed to Solomon.的书(神奇)治愈这希西家放好(Pes.四9),无疑归功于所罗门。This being the state of the facts, it is doubtful whether there is any connection between the use of and that of ἀπόκρυφος.这是事实的状态,这是令人怀疑是否有任何之间的使用和ἀπόκρυφος该连接。

§ III. §三。Lists of Apocrypha; Classification.的伪经名单;分类。

The following is a brief descriptive catalogue of writings which have been at some time or in some quarters regarded as sacred scripture, but are not included in the Jewish (and Protestant) canon.下面是一个简短的,其中有一段时间,或在神圣的经文作为某些方面被视为描述性著作目录,但不是在犹太人(和新教)佳能中。 For more particular information about these works, and for the literature, the reader is referred to the special articles on the books severally.如需有关这些作品特别是信息,而对于文学的读者可以参考有关书籍个别的特殊物品。

First, then, there are the books which are commonly found in the Greek and Latin Bibles, but are not included in the Hebrew canon, and are hence rejected by Protestants; to these, as has already been said, Protestants give the name "Apocrypha" specifically.第一,那么,有哪些是常用于希腊文和拉丁文圣经中找到的书籍,但不包括在希伯来文经典,并因此拒绝了新教徒;这些,正如已经说过,新教徒给予命名为“伪经“具体。 These are (following the order and with the titles of the English translation): I Esdras; II Esdras; Tobit; Judith; The Rest of the Chapters of the Book of Esther; Wisdom of Solomon; Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus; Baruch, with the Epistle of Jeremiah; Song of the Three Holy Children; History of Susanna; Destruction of Bel and the Dragon; Prayer of Manasses; I Maccabees; II Maccabees.这些都是(以下订单,并与职称英文翻译):我埃斯德拉斯;二埃斯德拉斯,托比书,朱迪思,对以斯帖记的章节休息;所罗门的智慧,智慧的耶稣,西拉奇的儿子,或Ecclesiasticus,巴鲁克,与耶利米书信;三国圣地儿童歌曲;的苏珊娜历史;销毁贝尔和龙;的Manasses祷告,我马加比,二马加比。 These, with the exception of I, II (III, IV) Esdras and the Prayer of Manasses, are canonical in the Roman Church.这些,在我的异常,II(III,IV)的Manasses埃斯德拉斯和祈祷,都在罗马教会的规范。Secondly, books which were pronounced apocryphal by the ancient Church.其次,书籍这是明显的古代教会杜撰。Of these we possess several catalogues, the most important of which are the Stichometry of Nicephorus; the Athanasian Synopsis; and an anonymous list extant in several manuscripts, first edited by Montfaucon (see Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., iii. 262 et seq.); further a passage in the "Apostolical Constitutions" (vi. 16), and the socalled Decree of Pope Gelasius ("Corpus Juris Canonici," iii. Distinctio 15).其中我们所拥有的几个目录,其中最重要的是对Nicephorus Stichometry;的阿他那修的简要说明;和一个匿名的名单现存的几个手稿,首先由蒙福孔编辑(见Schürer,“Gesch。”3D版,三262。及以下);进一步在“使徒宪法”(VI. 16)通过,而教皇格拉西所谓的法令(“民法大全Canonici,”三Distinctio 15)。References in the Fathers add some titles, and various Oriental versions give us a knowledge of other writings of the same kind.在父亲参考添加一些标题,以及各种东方版本给我们的其他同类著作的知识。A considerable part of this literature has been preserved, and fresh discoveries almost every year prove how extensive and how popular it once was.这方面的一个文学有相当一部分被保存下来,而且几乎每年都有新的发现证明如何广泛,它曾经是多么受欢迎。

A satisfactory classification of these writings is hardly possible; probably the most convenient scheme is to group them under the chief types of Biblical literature to which they are severally related-viz.:这些著作的一个令人满意的分类是几乎不可能,可能是最方便的方案是集团根据圣经文学它们个别相关,即它们的主要类型。

1. 1。Historical, including history proper, story books, and haggadic narrative.历史,包括历史正确的,故事书,并haggadic叙事。

2. 2。Prophetic, including apocalypses.预言,包括启示。

3. 3。Lyric; psalms.抒情;诗篇。

4. 4。Didactic; proverbs and other forms of "wisdom."说教,谚语和其他形式的“智慧”。The assignment of a book to one or another of these divisions must often be understood as only a potiori; a writing which is chiefly narrative may contain prophecy or apocalypse; one which is primarily prophetic may exhibit in parts affinity to the didactic literature.而对一个或多个这些部门另一本书分配必须经常被理解为只是一个potiori;写作是主要叙述可能包含预言或启示,一个是主要的预言可能在部分亲和力展出的说教文学。

§ IV. §四。Historical Apocrypha.历史伪经。

1. 1。First Maccabees.首先马加比。A history of the rising of the Jews under the leadership of Mattathias and his sons against Antiochus Epiphanes, and of the progress of the struggle down to the death of Simon, covering thus the period from 175-135 BC The book was written in Hebrew, but is extant only in Greek and in translations made from the Greek.一个犹太人的兴起下,玛他提亚和他的儿子对安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯领导和斗争的进展情况下来到西蒙死亡,从而覆盖从175-135 BC时期的书是在希伯来文写的,历史但现存的只有在希腊和从希腊提出的翻译。

2. 2。Second Maccabees.二马加比。Professedly an abridgment of a larger work in five books by Jason of Cyrene.自称an删节了五个由昔兰尼贾森书籍较大的工作。 It begins with the antecedents of the conflict with Syria, and closes with the recovery of Jerusalem by Judas after his victory over Nicanor.它是从与叙利亚的冲突的来路,并与耶路撒冷的犹大恢复后,他在尼卡诺尔胜利结束。 The work was written in Greek, and is much inferior in historical value to I Macc.这项工作是写在希腊,并在历史价值,我排雷逊色得多。Prefixed to the book are two letters addressed to the Jews in Egypt on the observance of the Feast of Dedication ().前缀的书有两个信在埃及的犹太人对奉献()节纪念活动。

3. 3。First Esdras.首先埃斯德拉斯。In the Latin Bible, Third Esdras.在拉丁美洲圣经第三埃斯德拉斯。A fragment of the oldest Greek version (used by Josephus) of Chronicles (including Ezra and Nehemiah), containing I Chron.一个最古老的希腊文版本的片段(由约瑟夫使用)的编年史(包括以斯拉和尼希米记),其中载我专栏。xxxv.-Neh.xxxv.,尼。viii.八。13, in a different, and in part more original, order than the Hebrew text and with one considerable addition, the story of the pages of King Darius (iii. 1-v. 6). 13,在不同的,部分更原始,比希伯来文秩序,有一个相当此外,国王大流士页的故事(III. 1 - V 6)。The book is printed in an appendix to the official editions of the Vulgate (after the New Testament), but is not recognized by the Roman Church as canonical.该书是在对印的武加大(后新约)正式版附录,但不被作为典型的罗马教会认可。

4. 4。Additions to Daniel.丹尼尔添置。

a. A.The story of Susanna and the elders, prefixed to the book, illustrating Daniel's discernment in judgment.而苏珊娜与长老,故事开头的书,说明在判断丹尼尔的鉴别力。

b. B.The destruction of Bel and the Dragon, appended after ch.而贝尔与龙破坏,CH后追加。xii., showing how Daniel proved to Cyrus that the Babylonian gods were no gods.十二,显示如何证明丹尼尔赛勒斯说,巴比伦的神没有神。

c. C.The Song of the three Jewish Youths in the fiery furnace, inserted in Dan.这三个犹太青年在火热的熔炉中插入丹,宋。iii.三。between verses 23 and 24. 23和24之间的诗句。These additions are found in both Greek translations of Daniel (Septuagint and Theodotion); for the original language and for the Hebrew and Aramaic versions of the stories, see Daniel.这些增加是在丹尼尔(七十和Theodotion)希腊文的翻译都发现,对原语和希伯来文和阿拉姆语版本的故事,见丹尼尔。

5. 5。Additions to Esther.以斯帖添置。In the Greek Bible, enlargement on motives suggested by the original story:在希腊圣经上所建议的动机扩大原有的故事:

a. A.The dream of Mordecai and his discovery of the conspiracy, prefixed to the book; the interpretation follows x.而末底改和他的前缀书的阴谋,发现梦想;解释如下十3;3;

b. B.Edict for the destruction of the Jews, after iii.法令对犹太人的破坏,后三。13;13;

c., d. C.,D.Prayers of Mordecai and Esther,after iv.末底改和以斯帖的祈祷后,四。17;17;

e. E.Esther's reception by the king, taking the place of v. 1 in the Hebrew;以斯帖的酒会由国王,走诉1在希伯来文的地方;

f. F.Edict permitting the Jews to defend themselves, after viii.法令允许犹太人为自己辩护后八。12.12。In the Vulgate these additions are detached from their connection and brought together in an appendix to the book, with a note remarking that they are not found in the Hebrew.在武加大这些增加是脱离他们的连接和聚集在书中附录了remarking他们没有发现在希伯来文的说明。

6. 6。Prayer of Manasses.祈祷的Manasses。Purports to be the words of the prayer spoken of in II Chron.看来是对在二专栏所说的祷告词。xxxiii.三十三。18 et seq.; probably designed to stand in that place.18及以下;可能旨在站在那个地方。In many manuscripts of the Greek Bible it is found among the pieces appended to the Psalms; in the Vulgate it is printed after the New Testament with III and IV Esd., and like them is not canonical.在希腊圣经许多手稿中发现它是附加到诗篇件,在武加大它打印后,与三和四防静电新约,和他们一样不规范。

7. 7。Judith.朱迪思。Story of the deliverance of the city of Bethulia by a beautiful widow, who by a ruse deceives and kills Holophernes, the commander of the besieging army.故事由一个漂亮的寡妇解脱的Bethulia城市,谁是一个诡计欺骗和杀害Holophernes,对包围的军队指挥官。 The book was written in Hebrew, but is preserved only in Greek or translations from the Greek; an Aramaic Targum was known to Jerome.这本书是希伯来文写的,但只在希腊或翻译从希腊保存; an阿拉姆Targum是众所周知的杰罗姆。

8. 8。Tobit. Tobit回归。The scene of this tale, with its attractive pictures of Jewish piety and its interesting glimpses of popular superstitions, is laid in the East (Nineveh, Ecbatana); the hero is an Israelite of the tribe of Naphtali, who was carried away in the deportation by Shalmaneser ("Enemessar").这个故事的场景,其吸引力的图片和虔诚的犹太民众迷信其有趣的一瞥,是奠定在东方(尼尼微,埃克巴塔那)的主人公是一个部落的拿弗他利,谁是中进行驱逐离开以色列人由撒缦以色(“Enemessar”)。 The story is related in some way to that of AḦiḳar.这个故事是在一些相关的AḦiḳar的方式。

9. 9。Third Maccabees.第三马加比。(See Maccabees, Books of.) A story of the persecution of the Egyptian Jews by Ptolemy Philopator after the defeat of Antiochus at Raphia in 217 BC; their steadfastness in their religion, and the miraculous deliverance God wrought for them. (见马加比,图书。)对埃及托勒密Philopator犹太人的迫害后,安提阿哥在公元前217 Raphia失败的故事,他们在他们的宗教坚定性,化腐朽为神奇的拯救上帝造成他们。The book, which may be regarded as an Alexandrian counterpart of Esther, is found in manuscripts of the Septuagint, but is not canonical in any branch of the Christian Church.这本书,这可能是作为一种对应以斯帖亚历山大认为,被发现在该译本手稿,但没有在任何基督教教会分支的规范。

§ V. Historical Pseudepigrapha.§五,历史Pseudepigrapha。

The books named above are all found in the Greek and Latin Bibles and in the Apocrypha of the Protestant versions.上面提到的书都发现,在希腊和拉丁圣经和新教版本的伪经。We proceed now to other writings of the same general class, commonly called "Pseudepigrapha."我们现在进行的相同的一般类俗称,其他著作“Pseudepigrapha。”

10. 10。The Book of Jubilees, called also Leptogenesis ("The Little Genesis"), probably , in distinction, not from the canonical Genesis, but from a larger Midrash, a .书的jubilees,所谓的还Leptogenesis(“小创世纪”),可能在区分,而不是从规范的成因,但是从更大的米德拉士,一个。 It contains a haggadic treatment of the history of the Patriarchs as well as of the history of Israel in Egypt, ending with the institution of the Passover, based on Gen. and Ex.它包含了历史的始祖haggadic治疗以及对以色列在埃及的历史,随着机构的逾越节结束,上将军和前基础。i.-xii.一至十二。It is a free reproduction of the Biblical narrative, with extensive additions of an edifying character, exhortations, predictions, and the like.这是一个自由的圣经叙事再现,与大量增加的一个启发性的人物,嘱托,预测,等等。It gets the name "Book of Jubilees" from the elaborate chronology, in which every event is minutely reckoned out in months, days, and years of the Jubilee period.它得到的名字源于精心年表“的jubilees书”,其中每一个事件每分钟计算出月,日和年期的银禧。The whole is in the form of a revelation made through an angel to Moses on Mt.整个是在通过一个天使在摩西山形成一个启示。Sinai, from which some writers were led to call the book the "Apocalypse of Moses."西奈半岛,从其中一些作家被带往呼吁书的“摩西的启示。”(See Apocalypse, § V. 10.) It was written in Hebrew, probably in the first century BC, but is now extant only in Ethiopic and in fragments of an old Latin translation, both made from an intermediate Greek version. (见启示,§五,10)这是希伯来文写的,可能是在公元前一世纪,但目前只在埃塞俄比亚和一个老拉丁语翻译,从中间希腊版本作了两个片段现存。Brief mention may be made here of several similar works containing Haggadah of early Hebrew history.简要提及可能在此处含有哈加达早期希伯来历史上几个类似的作品。

a. A."Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum," attributed to Philo.“LIBER Antiquitatum Biblicarum,”由于斐洛。This was first published, with some other works of Philo, at Basel in 1527 (see Cohn, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." 1898, x. 277 et seq.; Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., iii. 541 et seq., additional literature).这是首次出版,与其他一些作品的斐洛,在1527年在巴塞尔(见科恩,1898年,十277及以下“犹太人夸脱牧师 ”; Schürer,“Gesch。”3D版,三。 541及以下,其他文献)。Extends from Adam to the death of Saul, with omissions and additions-genealogical, legendary, and rhetorical-speeches, prophecies, prayers, etc. The patriarchal age is despatched very briefly; the Exodus, on the contrary, and the stories of the Judges, are much expanded.范围从亚当到扫罗死刑,增删,家谱,传奇,修辞,演讲,预言,祈祷等宗法年龄是寄发很简单,出埃及记,相反,和法官的故事,远远扩大。 The author deals more freely with the Biblical narrative than Jubilees, and departs from it much more widely.笔者交易更自由地与比五十年节圣经叙事,并从它离开更加广泛。The work is preserved in a Latin translation made from Greek; but it is highly probable that the original language was Hebrew, and that it was written at a time not very remote from the common era.这项工作是保存在希腊提出了拉丁翻译,但它极有可能是希伯来文的原文,而且它是一次没有太大的共同的时代远程写的。 Considerable portions of it are incorporated-under the name of Philo-in the Hebrew book, of which Gaster has published a translation under the title "Chronicles of Jerahmeel" (see Gaster, lc, Introduction, pp. xxx. et seq., and below, d).它的相当部分被纳入 - 的名义下,斐洛 - 在希伯来书,其中法莫替丁出版了一本翻译的标题下“记载的耶拉篾”(见法莫替丁,立法会,导言,第XXX。及以下,并下面,D)。

b. B.Later works which may be compared with this of Philo are the , and the , on which see the respective articles.后来这可能与此相比,斐洛工程的,以及,其上看到相应的文章。

c. C.To a different type of legendary history belongs the Hebrew Yosippon (qv).对于一个传奇历史的不同类型属于希伯来Yosippon(QV)。

d. D.The "Chronicles of Jerahmeel," translated by Gaster from a unique manuscript in the Bodleian (1899), are professedly compiled from various sources; they contain large portions excerpted from the Greek Bible, Philo (see above), and "Yosippon," as well as writings like the Pirḳe de R. Eliezer, etc.而“耶拉篾编年史”,由法莫替丁翻译从一个在牛津大学图书馆(1899)独特的手稿,都自称编制从各种来源,它们含有希腊圣经斐罗(见上文),并摘录部分大“Yosippon,”为以及著作像Pirḳe德河埃利泽等。

e. E.Any complete study of this material must include also the cognate Hellenistic writings, such as the fragments of Eupolemus and Artapanus (see Freudenthal, "Hellenistische Studien") and the legends of the same kind in Josephus.任何这种材料必须包括完整的研究还同源希腊如Eupolemus和Artapanus片段著作(见弗赖登塔尔“Hellenistische(研究)”)和约瑟夫在同一种传说。

§ VI. §六。Books of the Antediluvians.书籍的Antediluvians。

The Book of Jubilees makes repeated mention of books containing the wisdom of the antediluvians (eg, Enoch, iv. 17 et seq.; Noah, x. 12 et seq.) which were in the possession of Abraham and his descendants; also of books in which was preserved the family law of the Patriarchs (compare xli. 28) or their prophecies (xxxii. 24 et seq., xlv. 16).的书Jubilees使得重复包含的antediluvians智慧(例如,以诺,四17及以下。;诺亚,十12及以下)书提到它在亚伯拉罕和他的后代占有者;还书这是在保留了家庭法的始祖(比较四十一28)或他们的预言(xxxii. 24页起,四十五16)。These are all in the literal sense "apocryphal," that is, esoteric, scriptures.这些都是在字面意义上的“杜撰”,即,深奥,经文。A considerable number of writings of this sort have been preserved or are known to us from ancient lists and references; others contain entertaining or edifying embellishments of the Biblical narratives about these heroes.这一类的著作相当数量已被保存或已知我们从古老的名单和引用,其他包含有关这些英雄的圣经叙事娱乐或启发性的装饰。 Those which are primarily prophetic or apocalyptic are enumerated elsewhere (x., xi.); the following are chiefly haggadic:那些主要是世界末日的预言或列举其他地方(十,十一);以下是主要haggadic:

11. 11。Life of Adam and Eve.亚当和夏娃的生活。This is essentially a Jewish work, preserved-in varying recensions-in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, and Armenian.这实质上是一个犹太人的工作,保存在变中的recensions希腊文,拉丁文,斯拉夫语和亚美尼亚。It resembles the Testament literature (see below) in being chiefly occupied with the end of Adam's life and the burial of Adam and Eve.它类似于圣经文学主要是与亚当的生活和埋葬亚当和夏娃被占领的结束(见下文)。According to an introductory note in the manuscripts, the story was revealed to Moses, whence the inappropriate title "Apocalypse of Moses."据介绍,在注意手稿,故事显露摩西,何处不恰当的标题“摩西启示。”On the apocryphal Adam books see Adam, Book of.在猜测亚当亚当书看,书。

Other apocryphal books bearing the name of Adam are: The Book of Adam and Eve, or the Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan, extant in Arabic and Ethiopic; and The Testament of Adam, in Syriac and Arabic.其他印有未经证实的书籍亚当的名字是:亚当和夏娃的书,或亚当和夏娃与撒旦,现存在阿拉伯语和埃塞俄比亚的冲突,以及亚当约在叙利亚和阿拉伯语。 Both these are Christian offshoots of the Adam romance.这两个都是亚当浪漫基督教的分支。Apocalypses of Adam are mentioned by Epiphanius; the Gelasian Decree names a book on the Daughters of Adam, and one called the Penitence of Adam.亚当启示都提到埃皮法尼乌斯;的Gelasian法令名称上的亚当的女儿的书,一个叫亚当的忏悔。

Seven Books of Seth are said by Epiphanius ("Adversus Hæreses," xxxix. 5; compare xxvi. 8; also Hippolytus, "Refutatio," v. 22; see also Josephus, "Ant." i. 2, § 3) to have been among the scriptures of the Gnostic sect of Sethians.On the apocryphal books of Enoch see Apocalypse, § V., and Enoch, Books of.七赛斯书是说由埃皮法尼乌斯(“Adversus Hæreses,”三十九5;比较二十六8;也希波吕托斯“Refutatio,”22节;又见约瑟夫,“蚂蚁”一,二,§ 3)已跻身的诺斯底教派的经文Sethians.On以诺书看的猜测启示,§五,和伊诺克,图书。

The Samaritan author, a fragment of whose writing has been preserved by Eusebius ("Præp. Ev." ix. 17) under the name of Eupolemus, speaks of revelations by angels to Methuselah, which had been preserved to his time.撒玛利亚作者,其写作的片段已被尤西比乌斯(“Præp。EV”九17)保存下Eupolemus名称,谈到由天使启示给玛土撒拉,已被保存到他的时间。 A Book of Lamech is named in one of our lists of Apocrypha.一个被命名的拉麦书的伪经在我们的名单之一。

Books of Noah are mentioned in Jubilees (x. 12, xxi. 10).诺亚的书籍中提到五十年节(十12,21。10)。 Fragments of an Apocalypse of Noah are incorporated in different places in Enoch (which see).诺亚的一个启示片段纳入诺在不同的地方(即见)。A book bearing the name of Noria, the wife of Noah, was current among certain Gnostics (Epiphanius, "Adv. Hæreses," xxvi. 1).一本书印有诺里亚,诺亚的妻子,名字是当前在某些诺斯替教派(埃皮法尼乌斯,“进阶Hæreses,”二十六1)。 Shem transmits the books of his father, Noah (Jubilees, x. 14); other writings are ascribed to him by late authors.闪传输他的父亲,诺亚(五十年节,十14)的书籍,其他著作都归功于已故作家给他。Ham was the author of a prophecy cited by Isidore, the son of Basilides (Clemens Alexandrinus, "Stromata," vi. 6); according to others he was the inventor of magic (identified with Zoroaster; Clementine, "Recognitiones," iv. 27).火腿是一个预言的伊西多尔引,对巴西里德儿子(克莱门斯Alexandrinus,“Stromata,”六6)作者;根据其他人,他的神奇发明(确定与琐罗亚斯德,克莱门汀“Recognitiones,”四。 27)。

§ VII. §七。Testaments.圣经。

A special class of apocryphal literature is made up of the so-called "Testaments" of prominent figures in Bible history.一类特殊的猜测文学是由所谓的“圣经”在圣经历史上杰出的人物。Suggested, doubtless, by such passages as the Blessing of Jacob (Gen. xlix.), the Blessing of Moses (Deut. xxxiii.), the parting speeches of Moses (Deut. iv., xxix. et seq.) and Joshua (Josh. xxiii., xxiv.), etc., the Testaments narrate the close of the hero's life, sometimes with a retrospect of his history, last counsels and admonitions to his children, and disclosures of the future.建议,毫无疑问,通过为雅各祝福(创XLIX),摩西(申命记三十三)祝福,摩西(申命记四,二十九。及以下)和约书亚的临别讲话有关段落(乔希三章。,XXIV)等,圣经讲述了主人公的生活密切,有时用他的历史回顾,最后律师和他的孩子们告诫,和对未来的披露。 These elements are present in varying proportions, but the general type is well marked.这些因素都在不同的比例存在,但总的类型是做好记号。

12. 12。Testament of Abraham.约亚伯拉罕。Edited in Greek (two recensions) by MR James, "Texts and Studies," ii.在希腊(两个的recensions)涂谨申议员,“文本和研究,”二编辑。2; in Rumanian by Gaster, in "Proc. of Society of Biblical Archeology," 1887, ix. 2,在罗马尼亚的法莫替丁,在“进程内的圣经考古学会,”1887年,九。195 et seq.; see also Kohler, in "Jew. Quart. Rev."195页起,见也科勒,在“犹太人夸脱牧师。”1895, vii.1895年,七。581 et seq.581起。(See Abraham, Testament of, called also Apocalypse of Abraham).(见亚伯拉罕,圣经的,也叫亚伯拉罕的启示)。Narrative of the end of Abraham's life; his refusal to follow Michael, who is sent to him; his long negotiations with the Angel of Death.叙事的亚伯拉罕的生命结束,他的拒绝跟随迈克尔,谁是送给他;与死亡天使他长期的谈判。At his request, Michael shows him, while still in the body, this world and all its doings, and conducts him to the gate of heaven.在他的要求,迈克尔表明他,同时仍然在体内,这个世界和它的所有行为,并进行他到天堂的大门。The book is thus mainly Haggadah, with a little apocalypse in the middle.该书主要哈加达因此,与在中间小的启示。The Slavonic Apocalypse of Abraham (ed. by Bonwetsch, "Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und Kirche," 1897), translated from the Greek, gives the story of Abraham's conversion; the second part enlarges on the vision of Abraham in Gen. xv.而亚伯拉罕(由Bonwetsch主编,“家庭研究楚历史馆DER神学UND Kirche,”1897年)从希腊翻译,斯拉夫启示给人的亚伯拉罕的转换的故事;对亚伯拉罕在创世记十五眼光的第二部分扩大。

13. 13。Testaments of Isaac and Jacob.圣经以撒和雅各。Preserved in Arabic and Ethiopic.保存在阿拉伯语和埃塞俄比亚。They are upon the same pattern as the Testament of Abraham; each includes an apocalypse in which the punishment of the wicked and the abode of the blessed are exhibited.他们是在为亚伯拉罕的约相同的模式,每个包括在其中的邪恶和处罚的福地展出启示。The moral exhortation which properly belongs to the type is lacking in the Testament of Abraham, but is found in the other two.道德规劝,适当所属的类型是缺乏对亚伯拉罕约,但在其他两个发现。

14. 14。Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.旧约的十二始祖。The parting admonitions of the twelve sons of Jacob to their children.对雅各的十二个儿子的临别告诫自己的孩子。Each warns against certain particular sins and commends the contrary virtues, illustrating and enforcing the moral by the example or experience of the speaker.每个警告对某些特定的罪,并赞扬相反美德,说明和实施的例子或扬声器体验的道德。Thus, Gad warns against hatred, Issachar shows the beauty of simple-mindedness, Joseph teaches the lesson of chastity.因此,盖德对仇恨警告说,以萨迦显示了简单的意识美,约瑟夫教导贞洁的教训。In some (eg, in the Testament of Joseph) the legendary narrative of the patriarch's life fills a larger space, in others (eg, Benjamin) direct ethical teaching predominates.在某些(例如,在约瑟夫约)的族长的生命传奇的叙事填补了较大的空间,在其他(如本杰明)直接道德教学为主。

The eschatological element is also present in varying proportions-predictions of the falling away in the last days and the evils that will prevail; the judgment of God on the speaker's posterity for their sins (eg, Levi, xiv. et seq.; Judah, xviii. 22 et seq.; Zebulun, ix.); and the succeeding Messianic age (Levi, xviii.; Judah, xxiv. et seq.; Simeon, vi.; Zebulun, ix. et seq.).在末世的元素也是不同的,在过去​​几天下跌路程,所带来的弊端,将占上风的比例,预测目前,神在说话人的后代判断为他们的罪孽(如利维,十四及以下;。犹大,十八22及以下;。西布伦,九);和后续弥赛亚年龄(列维,十八;犹大,二十四及以下;。西麦,六;。西布伦,九及以下)。 A true apocalypse is found in the Test.一个真正的启示是发现在测试。of Levi, ii.利未,二。et seq.起。(see Apocalypse).(见启示)。 This eschatological element is professedly derived from a book written by Enoch (eg, Levi, x., xiv., xvi.; Judah, viii.; Simeon, v., etc.).这末世的元素是由自称来自诺(例如,列维,十,十四,十六,;犹大,第八;西缅,诉等)写了一本书。The work is substantially Jewish; the Christian interpolations, though numerous, are not very extensive, and in general are easily recognizable.这项工作是大量的犹太人,基督教插值,虽然很多,都不是很广泛,一般很容易辨认。

A Hebrew Testament of Naphtali has been published by Gaster ("Proceedings of Society of Biblical Archeology," December, 1893; February, 1894; see also "Chron. of Jerahmeel," pp. 87 et seq.), and is regarded by the editor and by Resch ("Studien und Kritiken," 1899, pp. 206 et seq.) as the original of which the Greek Testament is a Christian recension.希伯来文旧约的拿弗他已出版法莫替丁(“圣经考古学的学会学报”,12月,1893年,二月,1894年,又见“专栏的耶拉篾。”第87页起),是由视编辑器和原始其中希腊约是由一个基督教校订雷希(“(研究)UND Kritiken,”1899年,第206页起)。

15. 15。Testament of Job.约的工作。When the end of his life is at hand, Job narrates to his children the history of his trials, beginning with the cause of Satan's animosity toward him.当他的生命结束在手,就业叙述他的孩子们对他的审判历史,首先是撒旦对他的敌意的原因。After parting admonitions (45), he divides his possessions among his sons, and gives to his three daughters girdles of wonderful properties(46 et seq.).临别告诫后(45),他分在他的儿子他的财产,并给出了他的三个女儿(46起。)奇妙的属性腰带。The book is a Haggadah of the story of Job, exaggerating his wealth and power, his good works, and his calamities, through all of which he maintains unshaken his confidence in God.该书是有关职位的故事哈加达,夸大通过所有这些他认为他对上帝的信心有所动摇他的财富和权力,他的好作品,他的灾难。There are no long arguments, as in the poem; the friends do not appear as defenders of God's justice-the problem of theodicy is not mooted-they try Job with questions (see 36 et seq.).有没有长期争论中的诗句;的朋友不显示为捍卫上帝的正义的神义论问题不是酝酿,他们尝试与问题(见36页起)作业。Elihu is inspired by Satan, and is not forgiven with the others.伊莱休的灵感来自撒旦,并且不与他人原谅。See Kohler, in "Semitic Studies in Memory of Alexander Kohut," pp. 264-338 and 611, 612, and James, in "Apocrypha Anecdota," ii.见科勒,在“犹太人在亚历山大科胡特的研究,记忆”,第264-338和611,612,和詹姆斯的“伪经Anecdota,”二。 104 et seq.).104及以下)。

16. 16。Testament of Moses.旧约的摩西。The patristic lists of Apocrypha contain, in close proximity, the Testament of Moses and the Assumption of Moses.的伪经的教父名单包含,近在咫尺,旧约的摩西和摩西的假设。It is probable that the two were internally connected, and that the former has been preserved in our Assumption of Moses, the extant part of which is really a Testament-a prophetic-apocalyptic discourse of Moses to Joshua.这是可能的,这两个分别内部连接,而前者已在我们​​的假设摩西,现存的其中一部分是真正的旧约,摩西的预言,世界末日的话语约书亚保存。 See below, § x.见下文§十。 2.2。

17. 17。Testament of Solomon.约所罗门。Last words of Solomon, closing with a confession of the sins of his old age under the influence of the Jebusite, Shulamite.所罗门的遗言,用了他下的耶布斯人,Shulamite影响晚年的罪恶忏悔闭幕。It is in the main a magical book in narrative form, telling how Solomon got the magic seal; by it learned the names and powers of the demons and the names of the angels by whom they are constrained, and put them to his service in building the Temple; besides other wonderful things which he accomplished through his power over the demons.它是在主要在叙述形式神奇的书,告诉如何所罗门得到了魔术密封;通过它学到的名称和恶魔权力和由何人又受制于天使的名字,并把他们在建设自己的服务除了其他他通过他对恶魔力量来完成美好的事物;圣殿。 (See Fleck, "Wissenschaftliche Reise," ii. 3, 111 et seq.) A translation into English by Conybeare was given in "Jewish Quart. Rev."(见斑点,“Wissenschaftliche Reise,”二3,111页起)一个由科尼比尔翻译成英文是由于在“犹太夸脱。启示录”1899, xi.1899年,十一。1-45.1-45。

The Gelasian Decree names also a "ContradictioSalomonis," which may have described his contest in wisdom with Hiram, a frequent theme of later writers.该Gelasian法令名称也是一个“ContradictioSalomonis,”这可能说明在西贡,后来的作家频繁的主题他的智慧的较量。

A Testament of Hezekiah is cited by Cedrenus; but the passage quoted is found in the Ascension of Isaiah.阿希西家约是引经Cedrenus,但通过引用在以赛亚阿森松发现。

§ VIII. §八。Relating to Joseph, Isaiah, and Baruch.有关约瑟夫,以赛亚,和巴鲁克。

Other Apocrypha arethe following:其他伪经如下:

18. 18。Story of Aseneth.故事Aseneth。A romantic tale, narrating how Aseneth, the beautiful daughter of Potiphar, priest of On, became the wife of Joseph; how the king's son, who had desired her for himself, tried to destroy Joseph, and how he was foiled.一个浪漫的故事,讲述如何Aseneth,波提乏的美丽的女儿,对牧师,成为约瑟夫的妻子,如何国王的儿子,谁曾期望她为自己,试图摧毁约瑟夫,以及他是如何被挫败。 The romance exists in various languages and recensions.浪漫存在于各种语言和的recensions。The Greek text was published by Batiffol, Paris, 1889.希腊文出版Batiffol,巴黎,1889年。

A Prayer of Joseph is named in the anonymous list of Apocrypha, and is quoted by Origen and Procopius.一个名为约瑟的祈祷中的伪经匿名名单,由奥利和普罗科匹厄斯引用。In these fragments Jacob is the speaker.在这些片段雅各布是扬声器。

19. 19。Ascension of Isaiah, or Vision of Isaiah.阿森松岛的以赛亚,或以赛亚远景。Origen speaks of a Jewish apocryphal work describing the death of Isaiah.奥利讲一个犹太猜测描述死亡以赛亚工作。Such a martyrium is preserved in the Ethiopic Ascension of Isaiah, the first part of which tells how Manasseh, at the instigation of a Samaritan, had Isaiah sawn asunder.这种martyrium是保存在以赛亚埃塞俄比亚阿森松岛,其中的第一部分讲述了玛拿西,在一个见义勇为的怂恿下,已以赛亚锯成四分五裂。 The second part, the Ascension of Isaiah to heaven in the 20th year of Hezekiah, and what he saw and heard there, is Christian, though perhaps based on a Jewish vision.第二部分,在阿森松岛的以赛亚希西家20年到天堂,他所看到和听到在那里,是基督徒,虽然也许基于视觉上的犹太人。 Extensive Christian interpolations occur in the first part also.广泛基督教插值出现在第一部分也。A fragment of the Greek text is reproduced in Grenfell and Hunt, "The Amherst Papyri," London, 1900.一个希腊文字片段转载于格伦费尔和亨特说:“阿默斯特纸莎草纸,”伦敦,1900。

20. 20。The Rest of the Words of Baruch, or Paralipomena of Jeremiah.而巴鲁克,或Paralipomena耶利米的话休息。(Ceriani, "Monumenta," v. 1, 9 et seq.; J. Rendel Harris, "Rest of the Words of Baruch," 1889; Dillmann, "Chrestomathia Æthiopica," pp. 1 et seq.; Greek and Ethiopic.) Narrates what befell Baruch and Abimelech (Ebed-melech) at the fall of Jerusalem. (Ceriani,“Monumenta,”诉1,9及以下; J. rendel哈里斯,“对巴鲁克休息的话,”1889年Dillmann,“Chrestomathia Æthiopica,”第1页起;希腊和埃塞俄比亚。 )叙述什么降临在耶路撒冷秋天巴鲁克和亚比米勒(Ebed - melech)。Sixty-six years after, they sent a letter by an eagle to Jeremiah in Babylon.六十六年后,他们派出了由老鹰信耶利米在巴比伦。 He leads a company of Jews back from Babylonia; only those who are willing to put away their Babylonian wives are allowed to cross the Jordan; the others eventually become the founders of Samaria.他领导着一个犹太人从巴比伦回到公司,只有那些谁愿意放下他们的巴比伦妻子不准过境约旦,其余最终成为撒马利亚的创始人。 Jeremiah is spirited away.耶利米是千与千寻。After three days, returning to the body, he prophesies the coming of Christ and is stoned to death by his countrymen.三天后,回到身体,他预言基督的到来,并用石头打死他的同胞死亡。

§ IX. §九。Lost Books.失落的书籍。

Other haggadic works named in the Gelasian Decree are: the Book of Og, the Giant, "whom the heretics pretend to have fought with a dragon after the flood"; perhaps the same as the Manichean Γιγάτειος βίβλος.其他haggadic在Gelasian法令命名的作品有:噩,巨人书“,其中的异端假装与洪水后的龙战斗”,也许作为摩尼教Γιγάτειοςβίβλος相同。 (Photius, "Cod." 85), or τῶν Γιγάντων; The Penitence of Jannes and Jambres. (Photius,“鳕鱼。”85),或τῶνΓιγάντων;的雅尼和Jambres忏悔。(See Iselin, in "Zeitschrift für Wissensch. Theologie," 1894, pp. 321 et seq.) Both of these may well have been ultimately of Jewish origin. (见“(杂志)献给Wissensch。神学,”1894年,第321页起Iselin, )这两种可能已最终的犹太血统。

§ X. Prophetical Apocrypha.§十预言伪经。

1. 1。Baruch.巴鲁克。Purporting to be written by Baruch, son of Neriah, the disciple of Jeremiah, after the deportation to Babylon.看来是写的巴鲁克,对Neriah,对弟子的儿子耶利米后驱逐到巴比伦。The book is not original, drawing its motives chiefly from Jeremiah and Isaiah xl.这本书是不是原创,借鉴耶利米和以赛亚XL其动机为主。et seq.; affinity to the Wisdom literature is also marked in some passages, especially in ch.及以下;亲和力的智慧文学也标志着在一些段落,尤其是在CH。iii.三。The Epistle of Jeremiah to the captives in Babylon, which is appended to Baruch, and counts as the sixth chapter of that book, is a keen satire on idolatry.在耶利米书信在巴比伦,这是附加到巴鲁克,并作为该书第六章计数,俘虏是一个热衷于偶像崇拜的讽刺。

2. 2。Assumption of Moses.假设摩西。See above, Testament of Moses (§ VII. 16).见上面,旧约的摩西(§七16)。What now remains of this work, in an old Latin version, is prophetic in character, consisting of predictions delivered by Moses to Joshua when he had installed him as his successor.那么现在这项工作仍然存在,在一个古老的拉丁版本,是预言性质的,交付摩西约书亚当他安装了他的预言作为他的继任者组成。 Moses foretells in brief outline the history of the people to the end of the kingdom of Judah; then, more fully, the succeeding times down to the successors of Herod the Great, and the Messianic age which ensues.摩西在简述预示人民历史的犹大王国​​端,然后,更充分,接替倍下降到了希律王大的接班人,而救世主的时代,随之而来。 It is probable that the lost sequel contained the Assumption of Moses, in which occurred the conflict-referred to in Jude 9-between Michael and Satan for the possession of Moses' body.这是有可能失去的续集中的摩西升天,其中发生的冲突简称为摩西的身体藏在裘德9迈克尔和撒旦之间。

3. 3。Eldad and Medad.伊利达和Medad。Under this name an apocryphal book is mentioned in our lists, and quoted twice in the "Shepherd of Hermas" (ii. 34).根据这一名称的猜测书中提到在我们的名单,并引述了“牧人书”(白介素34)的两倍。It contained the prophecy of the two elders named in Num.它包含在数命名的两位长老的预言。xi.十一。26.26。§ XI.§十一。Apocalypses.启示。

Most of the prophetical Apocrypha are apocalyptic in form.伪经的预言大多是在形式上世界末日。 To this class belong: Enoch, The Secrets of Enoch, IV Esd., the Apocalypses of Baruch (Greek and Syriac), Apocalypse of Zephaniah, Apocalypse of Elijah, and others (see Apocalypse, and the special articles).属于这个类:以诺,以诺,四防静电的秘密,巴鲁克(希腊和叙利亚)的启示,西番雅的启示,以利亚启示,和其他(见启示和特殊物品)。 Apocalyptic elements have been noted above in the Assumption of Moses, the Ascension of Isaiah, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and others.启示元素已经注意到上述假设中的摩西,以赛亚的阿森松岛,在十二始祖的圣经,和其他人。

§ XII. §十二。Lyrical Apocrypha.抒情伪经。

1. 1。Psalm cli., in the Greek Bible; attributed to David, "when he had fought in single combat with Goliath."诗篇CLI在希腊圣经;归于大卫“时,他在与巨人唯一作战战斗。”

2. 2。Psalms of Solomon.诗篇所罗门。Eighteen in number; included in some manuscripts of the Greek Bible, but noted in the catalogues as disputed or apocryphal.在十八号,包括在希腊圣经的一些手稿,但作为有争议或未经证实的目录说明。Though ascribed to Solomon in the titles, there is no internal evidence that the author, or authors, designed them to be so attributed.虽然在冲高的标题所罗门,没有内部的证据表明,作者,或作者,设计他们如此归因。They were written in Hebrew-though preserved only in Greek-in Palestine about the middle of the first century BC, and give most important testimony to the inner character of the religious belief of the time and to the vitality of the Messianic hope, as well as to the strength of party or sectarian animosity.他们是希伯来文写的,虽然只在希腊和巴勒斯坦关于公元前一世纪中保存,并给予最重要的证明了对宗教信仰的时间内在性格和对救世主的希望的活力,以及至于政党或宗派仇恨的力量。 The five Odes of Solomon in "Pistis Sophia" are of Christian (Gnostic) origin.所罗门的五个“Pistis索菲亚”诗经是基督教(诺斯底)的起源。

3. 3。Five apocryphal psalms in Syriac, edited by Wright ("Proceedings of Society of Biblical Archeology," 1887, ix. 257-266).五杜撰的诗篇在叙利亚,编辑赖特(“社会的圣经考古学论文集”,1887年,九,257-266)。The first is Ps.首先是诗。 cli.CLI。(supra, § 1); it is followed by (2) a prayer of Hezekiah; (3) a prayer when the people obtain leave from Cyrus to return; and (4, 5) a prayer of David during his conflict with the lion and the wolf, and thanksgiving after his victory.(同上,§ 1),它是其次(2)希西家的祈祷(3)祈祷时,人们获取离开赛勒斯返回;(4,5)在与狮子冲突大卫的祷告与狼,和感恩之后他的胜利。§ XIII.§十三。Didactic Apocrypha.说教的伪经。

1. 1。The Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach (in the Latin Bible entitled Ecclesiasticus).耶稣的智慧,西拉奇儿子(在拉丁文圣​​经题为Ecclesiasticus)。Proverbs and aphorisms for men's guidance in various stations and circumstances; a counterpart to the Proverbs of Solomon.谚语和男子在各车站和情况指导警句,一个所罗门的箴言的对口。The author was a native of Jerusalem, and wrote in Hebrew; his work was translated into Greek by his grandson soon after 132 BC The Syriac translation was also made from the Hebrew, and recently considerable parts of the Hebrew text itself have been recovered.作者是耶路撒冷人,并在希伯来文写,他的作品被翻译成希腊由他的孙子后不久,公元前132叙利亚翻译也从希伯来文提出,最近的希伯来文本身相当部分已被追回。 The book is included in the Christian Bible-Greek, Latin, Syriac, etc.-but was excluded from the Jewish Canon (Tosef., Yad. ii. 13 et seq.).全书包括在基督教圣经希腊文,拉丁文,叙利亚文等,但是是从犹太佳能(Tosef.,亚得二13起。)排除在外。Many quotations in Jewish literature prove, however, its continued popularity.许多报价在犹太文学的证明,但是,它的继续流行。

2. 2。Wisdom of Solomon, Σοφία Σολομῶνος.智慧的所罗门,ΣοφίαΣολομῶνος。Written in Greek, probably in Alexandria; a representative ofHellenistic "Wisdom."写在希腊,可能是在亚历山大,一个代表ofHellenistic“智慧”。Solomon, addressing the rulers of the earth, exhorts them to seek wisdom, and warns them of the wickedness and folly of idolatry.所罗门,解决地球的统治者,激励他们寻求的智慧,并警告的邪恶和愚蠢的偶像崇拜他们。Noteworthy is the warm defense of the immortality of the soul, in which the influence of Greek philosophical ideas is manifest, as, indeed, it is throughout the book.值得注意的是灵魂,在其中的希腊哲学思想的影响是明显的不朽温暖防御,实际上,它是贯穿全书。

3. 3。Fourth Maccabees.第四马加比。The title is a misnomer; and the attribution of the work to Flavius Josephus is equally erroneous.标题是用词不当,以及工作的归属弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫同样是错误的。The true title is Περὶ αὐτοκράτορος λογισμοῦ, "On the Autonomy of Reason."真正的标题是Περὶαὐτοκράτοροςλογισμοῦ,“在理性的自治”。It is an anonymous discourse on the supremacy of religious intelligence over the feelings.这是对宗教的情报对感情至上匿名的话语。This supremacy is proved, among other things, by examples of constancy in persecution, especially by the fortitude of Eleazar and the seven brothers (II Macc. vi. 18, vii. 41).这至高无上证明,除其他外,通过恒定的例子在迫害,特别是由埃莱亚萨刚毅和七个兄弟(二排雷六18,七41)。The work was written in Greek; it is found in some manuscripts of the Septuagint, but is not canonical.这项工作是写在希腊,它是在发现一些手稿的译本,但不规范的。

§ XIV. §十四。Apocrypha in the Talmud.伪经的犹太法典。

There are no Jewish catalogues of Apocrypha corresponding to the Christian lists cited above; but we know that the canonicity of certain writings was disputed in the first and second centuries, and that others were expressly and authoritatively declared not to be sacred scripture, while some are more vehemently interdicted-to read them is to incur perdition.有没有相应的伪经引到上面列出的犹太基督教的目录,但我们知道,某些正规的著作是在第一和第二世纪的争议,而其他人明确和权威性宣布不被神圣的经文,而另一些则更强烈停职,读取它们是招致灭亡。 The controversies about Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon will be discussed in the article Canon, where also the proposed "withdrawal" of Proverbs, Ezekiel, and some other books will be considered.有关传道书及雅歌的争论将讨论的文章佳能,哪里还提出了“撤退”的谚语,以西结,和其他一些书籍将予以考虑。 Here it is sufficient to say that the school of Shammai favored excluding Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon from the list of inspired scriptures, but the final decision included them in the canon.这里是充分地说,学校的青睐排除沙麦传道书和所罗门从宋启发经文名单,但最后的决定包括在佳能他们。

Sirach, on the other hand, was excluded, apparently as a recent work by a known author; and a general rule was added that no books more modern than Sirach were sacred scripture.西拉奇,另一方面,被排除在外,显然是由著名作家最近的工作和一般的规则是说,没有书超过西拉奇现代被神圣经文。

The same decision excluded the Gospels and other heretical (Christian) scriptures (Tosef., Yad. ii. 13).同样的决定,排除了福音和其他邪教(基督教)的经文(Tosef.,亚得二13)。These books, therefore, stand in the relation of Apocrypha to the Jewish canon.这些书,因此,站在伪经有关犹太佳能。In Mishnah Sanh.在米示拿Sanh。 x.X.1, R. Akiba adds to the catalogue of those Israelites who have no part in the world to come, "the man who reads in the extraneous books" (), that is, books outside the canon of holy scripture, just as ἔξω, extra, are used by Christian writers (Zahn, "Gesch. des Neutestamentlichen Kanons," i. 1, 126 et seq.). 1,R.秋叶增加了那些以色列人谁没有在世界上的一部分来目录,“男人谁在无关的书籍读”(),也就是说,超出了圣经宝典的书,就如同ἔξω,额外的,由基督教作家使用(赞恩,“Gesch。DES Neutestamentlichen Kanons,”一1,126页起)。Among these are included the "books of the heretics" (), ie, as in Tosef., Yad.这其中包括了“异端书”(),即在Tosef。,亚得。 quoted above, the Christians (Bab. Sanh. 100b).上面引述的,基督徒(Bab. ​​Sanh。100B)。Sirach is also named in both Talmuds, but the text in the Jerusalem Talmud (Sanh. 28a) is obviously corrupt.西拉奇也是命名都Talmuds,但在耶路撒冷犹太法典(Sanh. 28A)文本显然是腐败。

Further, the writings of Ben La'anah () fall under the same condemnation (Yer. Sanh. lc); the Midrash on Ecclesiastes xii.此外,对本La'anah()的著作属于同一谴责(Yer. Sanh LC);在米德拉士传道书十二。12 (Eccl. R.) couples the writings of Ben Tigla () with those of Sirach, as bringing mischief into the house of him who owns them. 12(传道书R.)夫妇的著作与那些西拉奇本Tigla(),为使进入他的房子谁拥有他们的恶作剧。What these books were is much disputed (see the respective articles).这些书是什么,是非常有争议的(见各自的文章)。Another title which has given rise to much discussion is or (sifre ha-meram or ha-merom), early and often emended by conjecture to (Homeros; so Hai Gaon, and others).另一项引起不少讨论标题或(sifre HA - MERAM或HA - Merom处理器),早期和猜想往往emended至(Homeros,因此海Gaon,和其他)。See Homer in Talmud.见荷马在塔木德。The books of "Be Abidan," about which there is a question in Shab.的书籍“做Abidan”,讲述其中有一个在沙巴的问题。116a, are also obscure. 116A,也不清楚。

Crawford Howell Toy George F. Moore克劳福德豪威尔玩具乔治F.摩尔

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Texts: The Apocrypha (in the Protestant sense) are found in editions of the Greek Bible; see especially Swete, The Old Testament in Greek, 2d ed.; separately, Fritzsche, Libri Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Grœci, 1871.文本:伪经(在基督教意义上的)被发现在希腊圣经版本,见特别是Swete,在希腊,2版旧约;分开,弗里切,Libri Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Grœci,1871。Of the Pseudepigrapha no comprehensive corpus exists; some of the books are included in the editions of Swete and Fritzsche, above;没有全面的Pseudepigrapha语料库存在;的一些书籍都包括在Swete和弗里切的版本,以上;

and in Hilgenfeld, Messias Judœorum, 1869.在Hilgenfeld,弭赛亚Judœorum,1869年。 See also Fabricius, Codex Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti, 2 vols., 2d ed., Hamburg, 1722, 1723, which is not replaced by any more recent work.另见法氏囊,食品Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti,2卷,第2版,汉堡,1722年,1723年,这是不以任何最近的工作所取代。For editions (and translations) of most of these writings the literature of the respective articles must be consulted.对于这些作品的大多数版本(和翻译)的有关文章文学必须进行协商。Translations: The Authorized Version may best be used in the edition of CJ Ball, Variorum Apocrypha, which contains a useful apparatus of various readings and renderings;翻译:该授权版本,最好是在CJ球,集解伪经,其中包含了各种有用的仪器读数和透视版使用;

the Revised Version, Apocrypha, 1895; Churton, Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures, 1884; a revised translation is given also in Bissell's Commentary (see below).修订版,伪经,1895; Churton,Uncanonical和杜撰的经文,1884年,经修订的翻译给出比斯尔的评论也(见下文)。Of the highest value is the German translation, with introductions and notes, in Kautzsch, Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments, 2 vols., 1899.最高值是德语翻译,介绍和使用说明,在Kautzsch,模具Apokryphen UND Pseudepigraphen DES Alten约,2卷,1899年。Commentaries: Fritzsche and Grimm, Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apokryphen des Alten Bundes, 6 vols., 1851-60; Wace (and others), Apocrypha, 2 vols., 1888 (Speaker's Bible); Bissell, The Apocrypha of the Old Testament, 1890 (Lange series).评:弗里切和格林,Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载祖书房Apokryphen DES Alten Bundes,6卷,1851年至1860年; WACE(和其他),伪经,2卷,1888年(议长的圣经);比斯尔,在旧约伪经。 1890年(兰格系列)。The most important recent work on this whole literature is Schürer's Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes, 3d ed., vol.最重要的这整个文学最近的工作是Schürer的历史馆DES Jüdischen Volkes,3D版,第一卷。iii.三。(Eng. tr. of 2d ed.: Jew. People in the Time of Jesus Christ), where also very full references to the literature will be found.TGFM(工程学入门的2D版:犹太人在耶稣基督的时间人),在那里也很充分参考文献将found.TGFM



Also, see:此外,见:
Pseudepigrapha pseudepigrapha
New Testament Apocrypha新约圣经apocrypha

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