Book of Baruch巴鲁克 书

A book in the Old Testament Apocrypha一个在旧约伪经书

General Information一般资料

Baruch, considered a canonical book of the Bible by Roman Catholics, follows the Book of Lamentations.巴鲁克,认为是由罗马天主教圣经的规范书,遵循哀歌书。It is not found in the Hebrew Bible and is included in the Apocrypha by Protestants.它是没有发现在希伯来文圣经,并在伪经包括由新教徒。The book, a brief compilation of verses from the books of Job, Daniel, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, is named after Baruch (fl. 600 BC), secretary of the prophet Jeremiah.书中,来自约伯书诗句简要汇编,丹尼尔,以赛亚,耶利米,命名巴鲁克(楼之公元前600年),先知耶利米的秘书。 Its dependence upon later works such as Daniel, however, suggests a composition date in the 2d century BC.它在后来的依赖,如丹尼尔的作品,但是,显示了他在2D世​​纪公元前组成的日期。Written in three sections, it contains liturgical prayers and a homily on wisdom.在三段写的,它包含了礼仪的祈祷和对智慧的讲道。


Book of Baruch巴鲁克书

General Information一般资料

Baruch is a book of the Old Testament in those versions of the Bible following the Septuagint (generally Roman Catholic and Orthodox).巴鲁克是对那些在下面的圣经译本(一般罗马天主教和东正教)版本旧约书。Baruch is included with the Apocrypha in the King James Version; it does not appear in the Hebrew Bible.巴鲁克是包含在国王詹姆斯版伪经,它不会出现在希伯来文圣经。The book is attributed to Baruch, trusted friend and secretary of the prophet Jeremiah.该书是由于巴鲁克,值得信赖的朋友和先知耶利米的秘书。Addressed to the Jews exiled in Babylon, the work was written partly in prose and partly in poetry.给流亡在巴比伦的犹太人,部分作品被写在散文和诗歌部分。The prose section (1-3:8) comprises an admission of sin, a promise of deliverance after repentance, and a prayer asking mercy and praising God.散文节(1-3:8),包括一个罪恶的录取,解脱后的忏悔的承诺,并要求祈祷上帝怜悯和赞美。The poetry section (3:9-5:9) consists of verses in praise of wisdom and of God's commandments and of verses urging the exiles to be courageous and comforted.该诗节(3:9-5:9)由在智慧和神的诫命和诗句要求流亡者勇敢和安慰赞美诗句。Chapter 6, which claims to be a letter of Jeremiah addressed to the exiles in Babylon, is a warning against idolatry.第6章,号称是耶利米信在巴比伦流亡者,是对偶像崇拜的警告。The three parts of the book were probably written at different times.本书的三个部分很可能是写在不同的时间。Baruch may have been compiled as late as the 1st or 2nd century AD by an Alexandrian editor using original Hebrew manuscripts; it has been preserved in a Greek version.巴鲁克可能已被编译成的第一或由亚历山大使用原来的希伯来手稿编辑公元2世纪后期,它一直处于希腊的版本保存。

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Baruch巴鲁克

Advanced Information先进的信息

Baruch, blessed.巴鲁克,祝福。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Baruch巴鲁克

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Hebrew Barûkh, blessed, Benedict; Septuagint Barouch). (希伯来文Barûkh,祝福,本笃;七十Barouch)。

The disciple of Jeremiah, and the traditional author of the deuto-canonical book, which bears his name.耶利米的弟子,以及deuto规范的书,他的名字命名的传统作家。He was the son of Nerias (Jeremiah 32:12, 32:16; 36:4, 8, 32; Baruch 1:1), and most probably the brother of Saraias, chief chamberlain to King Sedecias (Jeremiah 32:12; 51:59; Baruch 1:1).他是Nerias儿子(耶利米书32:12,32:16,36:4,8,32;巴鲁克1:1),最可能的Saraias,首席管家的弟弟王Sedecias(耶32:12; 51 :59;巴鲁克1:1)。After the temple of Jerusalem had been plundered by Nebuchadnezzar (599 BC), he wrote under the dictation of Jeremiah the oracle of that great prophet, foretelling the return of the Babylonians, and read them at the risk of his life in the hearing of the Jewish people.之后,耶路撒冷的圣殿是由尼布甲尼撒二世(公元前599)掠夺,他写了耶利米下,甲骨文,伟大的先知听写,预言了巴比伦的回报,并阅读了他的生命危险,在他们的听力犹太人民。 He wrote also the second and enlarged edition of the prophecies of Jeremiah after the first had been burned by the infuriated king, Joachim (Jer. 36).他写道也是耶利米的预言第二,扩大后的第一个版本被激怒了国王,约阿希姆(耶36)烧毁。Throughout his life he remained true to the teachings and ideals of the great prophet, although he seems at times to have given way to feelings of despondence, and perhaps even of personal ambition (cf. Jer. 45).终其一生,他仍然忠实于教义和先知的伟大理想,虽然他在让位给有感情的郁时代看来,也许个人野心(参耶45),即使。He was with Jeremiah during the last siege of Jerusalem and witnessed the purchase by the prophet of his ancestral estate in Anathoth (Jer. 32).他与耶利米在耶路撒冷的最后围困和见证了他在亚拿突祖传产业(耶32)先知购买。After the fall of the Holy City and the ruin of the Temple (588 BC), Baruch lived probably for some time with Jeremiah at Masphath.后圣城下降和寺(588年)毁,巴鲁克可能与耶利米住在Masphath一段时间。His enemies accused him of having prompted the prophet to advise the Jews to remain in Juda, instead of going down into Egypt (Jer. 43), where, according to a Hebrew tradition preserved by St. Jerome (In Isaiah 30:6, 7), both died before Nebuchadnezzar invaded that country.他的敌人指责促使先知,向犹太人留在犹大他,而不是去到埃及(耶43)下,在这里,根据希伯来传统,圣杰罗姆(在以赛亚书30:6,7保存),两者前死亡尼布甲尼撒入侵该国。 This tradition, however, conflicts with the data found in the opening chapter of the Prophecy of Baruch, wherein we are told of Baruch writing his book in Babylonia, reading it publicly in the fifth year after the burning of the Holy City, and apparently being sent to Jerusalem by the Jewish captives with sacred vessels and gifts destined to the sacrificial service in Yahweh's Temple.这个传统,但是,与在巴鲁克预言,其中我们巴鲁克写在巴比伦他的书,阅读后的圣城燃烧五年才公开告诉开篇中的数据冲突,显然是送往耶路撒冷的神圣的船只和注定要在耶和华的圣殿祭祀服务礼品犹太俘虏。 It conflicts likewise with various traditions, both Jewish and Christian, which perhaps contains some particles of truth, but which do not allow us to determine the date, pace, or manner of Baruch's death, with anything like probability.它也与各种冲突的传统,无论是犹太教和基督教,这也许包含了一些真相颗粒,但不容许我们这样的可能性,以确定与任何日期,速度,或巴鲁克的死亡方式。

In the Catholic Bible "the Prophecy of Baruch" is made up of six chapters, the last of which bears the special title of an "epistle of Jeremiah", and does not belong to the book proper.在天主教圣经“的巴鲁克预言”是由六个章节,其中蕴藏着一个“耶利米书信”特殊称号的最后,不属于书正确的。 The Prophecy opens with an historical introduction (1:1-14), stating first (1-2) that the book was written by Baruch at Babylon in the fifth year after Jerusalem had been burned by the Chaldeans, and next (verses 3-14) that it was read in an assembly of King Jechonias and other Babylonian exiles upon whom it produced the most beneficial effects.打开的预言与历史介绍(1:1-14),说明第一个(1-2),该书的作者是巴鲁克在第五个年头后,耶路撒冷曾在巴比伦的迦勒底人被烧伤,而旁边(诗句3 - 14),这是在国王Jechonias巴比伦流亡者和其他人后,它产生的最有益的影响装配阅读。The first section in the body of the book (1:15; 3:8) contains a twofold confession of the sins which led to the exile (1:15-2:5; 2:6-13), together with a prayer that God may at length forgive His people (2:14; 3:8).在书的第一部分身体(1:15; 3:8)包含了罪而导致的流亡(1:15-2:5; 2:6-13)双重的供述,一起祈祷上帝会原谅他在长人(2:14; 3:8)。While the foregoing section has much in common with the Book of Daniel (Dan. 9:4-19), Baruch's second section (3:9; 4:4) closely resembles passages in Job 28, 38.虽然上述部分有许多共同点与但以理书(但9:4-19),巴鲁克的第二部分(3:9,4:4)非常类似于在工作28通道,38。 It is a beautiful panegyric of that Divine Wisdom which is nowhere found except in the Law given to Israel; only in the guise of the Law has Wisdom appeared on the earth and become accessible to man; let, therefore, Israel prove faithful again to the Law.这是一个神圣的智慧,这是行不通,除非给予以色列的法律发现美丽的颂词,只有在法律的幌子已经出现在地球上的智慧,成为访问的人;让,因此,以色列再次证明忠实的法。 The last section of the Book of Baruch extends from 4:5 to 5:9.在书的最后一节的巴鲁克从4:5到5:9延伸。It is made of up four odes, each beginning with the expression, "Take courage" (4:5, 21, 27, 30), and of a psalm closely connected with the eleventh of the apocryphal Psalms of Solomon (4:36; 5:9).这是四个颂歌制成,每个表达式的开始,“要勇敢”(4:5,21,27,30),以及与之密切相关的所罗门猜测诗篇第十一届(4点36分连接的诗篇; 5:9)。Chapter 6 contains as an appendix to the whole book "The Epistle of Jeremiah", sent by that prophet "to them that were to be led away captive into Babylon" by Nebuchadnezzar.第6章作为整个书“耶利米书信”附录载,发送的先知“,以他们是被俘虏到巴比伦领走”的尼布甲尼撒。 Because of their sins they were to be removed to Babylon and to remain there "for a long time, even to seven generations".因为他们的罪孽他们将被删除,以巴比伦,并保留在那里“很长一段时间,甚至七代”。In that heathen city they would witness the gorgeous worship paid to "gods of gold, and of silver, and of stone, and of wood", but should not conform to it.在这种异教徒的城市,他们将见证华丽崇拜支付给“金神,银,和石头,和木”,但不应该顺应它。All such gods, it is argued in various ways, are powerless and perishable works of man's hands; they can do neither harm nor good; so that they are not gods at all.所有这些神,它是在各种方式认为,是男人的手无力和易腐的作品,他们能做到既不损害也不好,所以他们不是神的。

It is certain that this sixth chapter of Baruch is truly distinct from the rest of the work.可以肯定,这巴鲁克第六章是真正从剩下的工作不同。Not only its special title, "The Epistle of Jeremiah", but also its style and contents clearly prove that it is a writing wholly independent of the Prophecy of Baruch.不仅其特殊的头衔,他说:“耶利米书信”,但其风格和内容也清楚地证明,这是一个写作的全资独立的巴鲁克预言。Again, while some Greek manuscripts that have Baruch have not the "Epistle", others, among the best, have it separate from the Book of Baruch and immediately before the Lamentations of Jeremiah.同样,虽然有一些巴鲁克希腊手稿都没有了“书信”,其他名列前茅,有它单独从巴鲁克书,并立即前耶利米哀歌。The fact that the sixth chapter of Baruch bears the title, "The Epistle of Jeremiah", has been, and is still in the eyes of many, a decisive reason for holding the time-honoured view that the great prophet is its author.事实表明,巴鲁克第六章的标题是,他说:“耶利米书信”,已经,并且仍然在很多人看来,对于持有时间考验的伟大先知认为,它的作者是决定性的原因。 It is also urged that the vivid and accurate description of the splendid, but infamous, worship of the Babylonian gods in Baruch, vi, makes for the traditional authorship, since Jer.它还敦促的灿烂,但臭名昭著的生动,准确的描述,在巴鲁克,六巴比伦的神的崇拜,使得对传统的著作权自哲。13:5, 6, probably speaks of the twofold journey of Jeremiah to the Euphrates.13:5,6,大概谈到了耶利米双重旅程到幼发拉底河。 Finally it is affirmed that a certain number of Hebraisms can be traced back to a Hebrew original point in the same direction.最后是肯定的Hebraisms一定数量可追溯到同一方向希伯来原点。Over against this traditional view, most contemporary critics argue that the Greek style of Baruch, vi, proves that it was originally written not in Hebrew, but in Greek, and that consequently Jeremiah is not the author of the Epistle ascribed to him.在对这种传统的观点,最现代的批评者认为,巴鲁克,六,希腊风格的证明,它最初是希伯来文写的,而是在希腊,而因此耶利米不是归因于他的书信的作者。 For this and for other reasons suggested by the study of the contents of Baruch, vi, they think that St. Jerome was decidedly correct when he called this writing pseudepigraphos, that is, inscribed with a false name.对于这一点,对于由巴鲁克,VI的内容研究显示等原因,他们认为正确的圣杰罗姆是决然写这篇文章时,他叫pseudepigraphos,即用一个假名字刻。 However this may be, an important study of the Canon of Holy Writ proves that, despite the assertions of Protestants to the contrary, Baruch 6 has always been recognized by the Church as an inspired work.然而,这可能是,一个对圣经佳能重要的研究证明,尽管有相反的新教徒的说法,巴鲁克6一直由教会确认为灵感的工作。

With regard to the original language of the Book of Baruch proper (chaps. 1-5), a variety of opinions prevail among contemporary scholars.关于正确的巴鲁克(chaps. 1-5),其中的各种当代学者的意见为准原书的语言。Naturally enough, those who simply abide by the title which ascribes the Book to Baruch, admit that the whole work was originally written in Hebrew.很自然,那些谁只是遵守所有权,归咎到巴鲁克书,承认整个工作最初是在希伯来文写的。On the contrary, most of those who question or reject the correctness of that title think that this writing was totally, or at least partially, composed in Greek.相反,那些谁的问题或拒绝该称号的正确性大多数人认为,这写是完全或至少部分,在希腊组成。It is indeed true that the Greek literary features of the various sections do not point back with equal force to a Hebrew original.这的确不错,各个部分的希腊文学的特征点与不等于力量希伯来原回。Yet, it can hardly be doubted that the whole of Baruch proper in its extant Greek form looks like a translation.然而,也难以被怀疑的是,巴鲁克适当的形式在其现存的希腊翻译看起来像一个整体。The linguistic evidence is also confirmed by the following considerations:该语言的证据也证实了以下事项:

It is highly probable that Theodotion (end of the second century of our era) translated the Book of Baruch from a Hebrew original.它极有可能Theodotion(对我们这个时代的第二个世纪末)从希伯来文翻译原来的巴鲁克书。

There are some marginal notes of the Syro-Hexaplar text stating that a few words in the Greek "are not found in the Hebrew".还有的Syro - Hexaplar指出,在希腊的几句话:“是不是在希伯来文发现”一些文字旁注。

Baruch 1:14 says that the book was meant to be read publicly in the Temple; hence it must have been composed in Hebrew for that purpose. 1时14分巴鲁克说,书是为了读公开在寺庙,因此它必须是在希伯来文组成的这一目的。

Besides this unity as regards its original language, Baruch presents a certain unity in point of subject-matter, so that most of those who maintain that the whole work was primitively written in Hebrew admit also its unity of composition.除此之外的团结,就其原始的语言,巴鲁克呈现在标的物点有一定的团结,使那些谁保持整个工作primitively在希伯来文写的大部分也承认其组成的统一。 There are, however, in the Book of Baruch many traces of the compilatory process whereby its various parts were apparently brought together.有,但是,在编纂的过程,即在它的各个部分显然汇聚了许多痕迹巴鲁克书。 The difference in literary form between 1-3:8, on the one hand and 3:9-5, is very great indeed, and, taken together with the abrupt manner in which the panegyric on Wisdom is introduced at 3:9, suggests a difference with respect to origin.在1-3:8之间的文学形式的差异,一方面与3:9-5,确实是很大的,而且采取了突然的方式,对智慧颂词是在3点09一起介绍,建议一个关于原产地的差异。 The two confessions of the sins which led to the exile in 1:15; 3:8, are put side by side without any natural transition.的罪而导致在1:15流亡两个口供; 3:8,都没有任何方面提出的过渡自然的一面。The literary differences between 3:9-4:4, and 4:5-5:9, are considerable, and the beginning of the third section at 4:5, is no less abrupt than that of the second at 3:9. 3:9-4:4之间,和4:5-5:9的,文学的差异相当大,而在4点05第三节开始时,是不低于第二次是在3点09分突然。Again, the historical introduction seems to have been composed as a preface to only 1:15-2:5.再次,历史的介绍,似乎已被一个只有1:15-2:5序言组成。In view of these and other such facts, contemporary critics generally think that the work is the outcome of a compilatory process, and that its unity is due to the final editor, who put together the various documents which obviously bore upon the exile.在这些和其他类似的事实,当代评论家普遍认为,这项工作是一个编纂的过程的结果,它的统一是由于最后的编辑,谁放在一起,显然后流亡孔的各种文件。 Such a literary method of composition does not necessarily conflict with the traditional authorship of the Book of Baruch.这种方法构成的文学并不一定与传统的巴鲁克书作者的冲突。Many of the sacred writers of the Bible were compilers, and Baruch may, and, according to the Catholic scholars who admit the compilatory character of the work inscribed to him, must, be numbered among them.对圣经的神圣作家许多编译器,和巴鲁克可能,而且,根据谁承认了对他的工作列入编纂的性​​格天主教学者,必须进行编号,其中。 The grounds of Catholics for this view are chiefly three:对这一观点的主要理由是天主教徒三:

The book is ascribed to Baruch by its title;该书是归因于巴鲁克其称号;

it has always been regarded as Baruch's work by tradition;它一直被视为巴鲁克的工作传统;

its contents present nothing than would be later than Baruch's time, or that should be regarded as foreign to the style and manner of that faithful disciple and secretary of Jeremiah.目前其内容不外乎将不迟于巴鲁克的时间,或应外国的风格和那忠实弟子和耶利米书记地认为。

Over against this view, non-Catholics argue:在反对这种观点,非天主教徒认为:

That its ultimate basis is simply the title of the book;其最终的基础是简单的书名;

that this title itself is not in harmony with the historical and literary contents of the work; and这个标题本身是不符合工作的历史和文学内容的和谐;和

that those contents, when impartially examined, point to a much later compiler than Baruch; in fact some of them go so far as to ascribe the composition of the book to a writer living after AD 70.这些内容,公正地考察时,指向一个比巴鲁克后编译器,事实上他们中的一些跑那么远,归咎于书作家组成公元70年后的生活。

Catholics easily disprove this last date for the Book of Baruch; but they do not so easily dispose of the serious difficulties that have been raised against their own ascription of the whole work to Baruch.天主教徒容易反驳这对于巴鲁克书的最后日期,但他们不那么容易处置已对他们的整个工作巴鲁克自己的归属提出了严重的困难。 Their answers are considered sufficient by Catholic scholars generally.他们的回答是天主教学者普遍认为足够。Should anyone, however, judge them inadequate, and therefore consider the Book of Baruch as the work of a later editor, the inspired character of the book would still remain, provided this later editor himself be regarded as inspired in his work of compilation.如果任何人,但是,他们的判断不足,所以他们觉得作为一个后来的编辑工作的巴鲁克书,书的启发字符将仍然存在,这以后的编辑提供自己被视为他的编制工作的启发。 That the Book of Baruch is "a sacred and canonical" writing has been defined by the Council of Trent; that it has just as much right to be held "inspired of God" as any other book of Holy Writ can readily be shown by a close study of the Canon of the Bible.这是巴鲁克书是“一个神圣和规范”写作已被安理会的遄达界定;它有同样多的权利,举行“启发神”作为神圣的任何其他令状书可以很容易地显示由关闭了佳能的圣经研究。 Its Latin rendering in our Vulgate goes back to the old Latin version anterior to St. Jerome, and is tolerably literal from the Greek text.它在我们的武加大拉丁渲染又回到了老拉丁语版本前方圣杰罗姆,并容忍来自希腊文的文字。

Publication information Written by Frances E. Gigot.出版信息写弗朗西斯E. Gigot。Transcribed by Janet Grayson.转录由珍妮特格雷森。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Book of Baruch巴鲁克书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

Contents.内容。

Origin.原产地。

Date and Authorship.日期和作者署​​名。

Date of First Part.日期的第一部分。

Date of Second Part.日期的第二部分。

Canonicity.正规。

Contents.内容。

One of the Apocryphal or so-called deuterocanonic books of the Old Testament.其中的旧约的猜测或所谓deuterocanonic书籍。It consists of two parts.它由两部分组成。The first (i. 1-iii. 8) is in the form of a prose letter with a historical introduction.第(一1 - III 8)是一个历史的介绍,在一个散文信函的形式。Baruch, the secretary of Jeremiah, having written a book, reads it before King Jehoiachin and the exiles in Babylon.巴鲁克,在耶利米的秘书,有写的书,读前国王约雅斤和它在巴比伦流亡者。The people weep, fast, and pray.人们哭泣,快速和祈祷。Then they make a collection of money, which they send to Jerusalem to be used for the Temple service, with an injunction to pray for the life of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and that of Belshazzar, his son, so that the people may dwell in peace under the shadow of these princes (i. 1-14).然后,他们做代收货款,他们被发送到耶路撒冷的圣殿服务所使用的强制令,以祈求尼布甲尼撒,巴比伦王的生活,和伯沙撒认为,他的儿子,这样的人可能住在根据这些诸侯阴影(一1-14)和平。 A letter follows, which is presumably the one written by Baruch, although not expressly mentioned as such.如下的一封信,这大概是由巴鲁克写的一个,虽然没有明确提到的这些。This letter (i. 15-iii. 8) is a confession of national sin, a recognition of the justness of the nation's punishment, and a prayer for mercy.这封信(岛15 - III 8)是一个国家罪,一个民族的处罚公正的认可,并为慈悲祈祷忏悔。

The second part of the book (iii. 9-v. 9), which differs greatly in form and tone from the first, consists of two poems, the first of which (iii. 9-iv. 4) is an exhortation to Israel to learn wisdom, which is described as the source of all happiness, and as "the book of the commandments of God."该书的第二部分(III. 9 - V 9),这大大的不同形式,从第一声,由是对以色列告诫两诗,其中第一(III. 9 - IV 4)学习的智慧,这是形容一切幸福的源泉,并为“上帝的诫命书”。The second poem (iv. 5-v. 9) is a picture of the suffering of Israel, and an exhortation to Jerusalem to take heart and await hopefully the salvation of God, Jerusalem being here represented as a desolate widow mourning over the distress of her children.第二个诗(iv. 5 - V 9)是以色列的苦难的图片,以及一个以耶路撒冷告诫振作,等待希望的神的救恩,耶路撒冷是这里一片荒凉以上的遗孀表示哀悼遇难她的孩子。

Origin.原产地。

That the first part of the book was originally written in Hebrew is probable, both from the Hebraic character of the diction and from the fact that certain errors in the Greek are explicable as misunderstandings of Hebrew words; thus "manna" (i. 10) is a misreading of "cereal offering" (); "dead" (iii. 4) is error for "men" (); "to pay the penalty" (iii. 8), for "dismay" (perhaps , or -read ); and the enigmatical river "Sud" (i. 4) is possibly an erroneous writing of "Kebar" ( for )这书的第一部分是原先在希伯来文写的是可能的,无论从文辞希伯来字符和事实,在希腊的某些错误是作为希伯来话的误解加以解释,因此“甘露”(一10)是“谷物产品”()的误读,“死”(III. 4)为“男人”()的错误,“支付罚款”为“惊愕”(III. 8),(也许,或阅读),以及阴阳怪气河“南基”(一,4)可能是一个“Kebar”(为错误的写作)

Date and Authorship.日期和作者署​​名。

The book properly begins (after the superscription, i. 1, 2) with i.书中适当开始(上标后,一1,2)与一15.15。The confession and prayer seem to consist of two parts; namely, i.忏悔和祈祷似乎由两部分组成,即岛15-ii.15 - II。5 and ii.5和二。6-35; and these are possibly (as Marshall holds) two separate productions, the first being the confession of the Palestinian remnant, the second that of the exiles. 6-35,而这些都可能(如马歇尔持有)两个独立的制作,第一个是巴勒斯坦残余供述,第二次流亡者的。Still, "them" (ii. 4, 5), which appears to refer to the exiles, may be a scribal slip; and it seems more probable that the letter is a juxtaposition of two forms of confession.尽管如此,“他们”(白介素4,5),这似乎指的是流亡者,可能是抄写滑;,似乎更可能是信是两个并列的自白形式。 Very few scholars now hold that the book was composed by Jeremiah's secretary, as its relation to the books of Jeremiah and Daniel precludes such an origin.现在很少有学者认为,由耶利米书组成的秘书,因为它关系到耶利米和但以理书排除这样的起源。The remarkable verbal agreement between the confession (i. 15-iii. 8) and Dan.了显着的口头协议之间的表白(一15三8)和丹。 ix is most naturally explained by the supposition that Baruch borrows from Daniel; the hypothesis that Daniel borrows from Baruch or that both draw from earlier material being less satisfactory. IX是最自然解释是假定巴鲁克从丹尼尔借用;的假说,丹尼尔从巴鲁克或材料,无论从早期的画是不令人满意的借用。Here, however, a difficulty is encountered.在这里,但是,遇到的困难。In ii.在II。26 the Temple is said to be in ruins-a statement which accords with two periods only, those of the Chaldean and the Roman conquests.26寺,据说是在废墟,声明它与两个时期而已,迦勒底和罗马征服这些协定。As the former period is out of the question, certain scholars, such as Kneucker, for example, assign this part of the book to a time later than the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.由于前一段期间是出了问题,一些学者,如Kneucker,例如,分配这部分书的时间晚于耶路撒冷提图斯破坏。It is difficult, however, to reconcile with such a date the view of the dead given in ii.这是困难的,但是,这样一个日期调和在二定死的看法。17, where it is said that those whose spirits have been taken from their bodies will not ascribe honor and righteousness to the Lord.17,它是说,那些已经从他们的机构所采取的精神不会归于荣誉和正义的上帝。 This statement is in accordance with the Old-Hebrew conception of the life in Sheol, which can scarcely have been current after the year 70 of the common era.这项声明是在同在阴间生活的老希伯来语的概念,它可以几乎已后的共同的时代根据目前的70年。Hence, in the text as it stands, there are discordant data; but if (as Kneucker holds) ii.因此,在文本,因为它代表,也有不和谐的数据,但如果(Kneucker持有)II。26a is to be rejected as an interpolation, there is no reason why the confession and prayer should not be assigned to the Maccabean time. 26A是作为插值拒绝,也没有忏悔和祈祷为什么不应该分配给马加比时间的原因。

Date of First Part.日期的第一部分。

The historical introduction is confused, and does not readily attach itself to the body of the confession; indeed, it appears to have been an afterthought.历史的介绍是混乱的,不容易自身附加到身体的告白,事实上,它似乎是一个可有可无的东西。The singular historical statements (such as that King Zedekiah made silver vessels), as well as the injunction to pray for Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar, all indicate a late period, and strongly suggest dependence on the Book of Daniel.奇异的历史报表(如国王西底家做银船),以及禁令祈求尼布甲尼撒和伯沙撒,都表明后期,并强烈建议在但以理书的依赖。 It is impossible, however, to say how early the view arose that Belshazzar was a son of Nebuchadnezzar.这是不可能的,但是,要说如何早期出现的观点认为伯沙撒是尼布甲尼撒的儿子。Some recent writers see in the names of the two Babylonian princes an allusion to Vespasian and Titus, which is a plausible assumption if ii.最近的一些作家看到两个巴比伦王子对维斯帕先和提图斯,这是一种似是而非的假设,如果第二典故的名字。26a be retained.26A予以保留。 The date given in i.在一给定的日期2, the "fifth year," is obscure; it may mean the fifth year after the fall of Jerusalem (BC 581), or, more probably, may be taken from Ezekiel, whose epoch is the fifth year of Jehoiachin's captivity (BC 592). 2,“第五个年头,”是模糊的,它可能意味着后的耶路撒冷(公元前581)秋天的第五年,或者更可能,可采取从以西结书,其时代是约雅斤的囚禁五年(公元前592 )。But there is no reason for supposing (as, for example, from Jer. xxix. and li.) that Baruch was ever in Babylon.但是,没有理由假设(如,例如从哲,二十九,李)的巴鲁克在巴比伦不断。Though there are difficulties in any hypothesis, it seems probable, upon the whole, that the first part of Baruch is composed of two confessions, which aneditor in the Maccabean time combined, prefixing the statement about Baruch.虽然有困难,在任何假设,它似乎有可能,在整体而言,该巴鲁克第一部分是两个口供,这在马加比时间aneditor结合前缀有关巴鲁克声明组成。

Date of Second Part.日期的第二部分。

The obvious imitation of Job and Ecclus.有关职位和Ecclus明显的模仿。(Sirach) in the second part of the book (see Job xxviii.; Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiv.) makes it impossible to assign this piece to a time earlier than the second century BC; and the conditions seem to accord with the early Maccabean period. (西拉奇)在该书的第二部分(请参阅作业二十八;。Ecclus(西拉奇)XXIV)使其无法分配此片的时间早于公元前二世纪,以及符合条件似乎早马加比时期。 Kneucker, Marshall, and several other recent critics, however, place its composition after the capture of Jerusalem by Titus, holding that the "strange nation" of iv. Kneucker,马歇尔等几个最近的批评,不过,地点后,耶路撒冷提图斯捕捉它的组成,认为“陌生国家”的四。3 ("give not thine honor . . . to a strange nation") refers to the Christians, and relates to a time when the antagonism between Judaism and Christianity had become pronounced. 3(“给不thine荣誉。一个陌生的国家”)指的是基督徒,当涉及到犹太教和基督教之间的对立已成为明显的时间。While this is possible, the expression may also be understood to allude to the antagonism between Judaism and Hellenism in the second century BC The verse iii.虽然这是可能的,表达也可能被理解为暗示在第二世纪犹太教和希腊之间的对立公元前三节。37 ("afterward did he [or it] show himself [or itself] upon earth and converse with men"), which was much quoted by early Christian writers, interrupts the connection and is undoubtedly a Christian interpolation. 37(“后来没有他[它]显示自己[或本身]在地球和与男人交谈”),这是非常引述早期基督教作家,中断连接,无疑是一个基督教插值。

The second poem (iv. 5-v. 9) belongs to the same general period as the first.第二个诗(iv. 5 - V 9)属于相同的首次股东大会期间。It is divided into a number of strophes, each beginning with the words "Be of good cheer."这是成strophes分为若干,每个字开头“是很好的欢呼。”The people, scattered and afflicted, are exhorted to trust in God; and Jerusalem, mourning over her children, is urged to take courage.人民,分散和折磨,都叮嘱要信赖神和耶路撒冷,在她的孩子哀悼,敦促采取的勇气。The picture accords either with the late Maccabean period or with the time soon after the Roman capture of Jerusalem.图片协定无论是与已故的马加比时期,或与后不久,耶路撒冷罗马拍摄的时间。The resemblance between iv.第四之间的相似性。36-v.36 - V。9 and Psalms of Solomon, xi. 9和诗篇所罗门,十一。is striking.是惊人的。Whichever may have been the borrower, the two probably belong to the same period; and the Psalms of Solomon were composed not far from 48 BC无论可能已被借款人,两人可能属于同一时期,以及所罗门诗篇组成的不远处是公元前48年

Canonicity.正规。

The Book of Baruch was never accepted as canonical by the Palestinian Jews (Baba Batra 14b).而巴鲁克书从来没有接受规范的巴勒斯坦犹太人(巴巴巴特拉14B)。According to the "Apostolical Constitutions," it was read in public worship on the tenth day of the month Gorpiaios (probably Ab).据“使徒宪法”,它是在公共崇拜读对(可能是抗体)月Gorpiaios第十天。 This statement, however, can hardly be considered authoritative; and even if it be correct, it can refer only to the usage of some group of Hellenistic Jews.这种说法,但是,不能视为权威;,即使它是正确的,它只能引用一些组的希腊犹太人使用。If, as is probable, the first part of the book was written in Hebrew, its exclusion from the Palestinian canon must have been owing to its supposed lack of prophetic authority.如果象是可能的,书的第一部分是希伯来文写的,它从巴勒斯坦佳能排除必须已经由于其所谓的预言缺乏权威性。It was, however, accepted by the Alexandrian Jews as a work of edification; and through the medium of the Septuagint it passed into the hands of the Christians, among whom it speedily became popular, being often quoted by Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, and many others as a work of Jeremiah and as sacred Scripture.这是,然而,接受了亚历山大的犹太人作为一个熏陶的工作;并通过它进入中译本的基督徒手中传递,其中它迅速走红,被常哥拉,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚报价,并作为一种神圣的工作,耶利米圣经等等。 In a number of early Christian canonical lists the work was included in Jeremiah, and together with the other Apocryphal books was pronounced canonical (deuterocanonical) by the Council of Trent (1545-63).在早期基督教的规范数量列出了工作被列入耶利米,连同其他未经证实的书籍是明显的规范由安理会的遄达(1545年至1563年)(次经)。 Its canonicity, however, is not accepted by the Protestant churches.它的正规,但是,是不是接受了基督教。Besides its value as a mirror of the time, the book, though devoid of new ideas, contains many liturgical and poetical passages of great beauty and power.此外它作为镜子的时候,书,虽然缺乏新意,价值包含了极具美感和力量,礼仪和诗意的段落。

The Epistle of Jeremiah is usually printed as an appendix to the Book of Baruch and marked as ch.在耶利米书信通常是印作为对巴鲁克书附录和CH标记。vi.六。of that book.那本书。It is, however, an independent work (see Jeremiah, Epistle of).但它是一个独立的工作(见耶利米,书信的)。

Crawford Howell Toy克劳福德豪威尔玩具

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

Bibliography:参考书目:

The Greek text is given in Swete's Septuagint.希腊文中给出Swete的译本。For an account of the Greek MSS., see Swete and Gifford; for the other ancient versions (Latin, Syriac, Coptic, etc.) see Kneucker and Schürer.对于一个希腊MSS帐户,见Swete和吉福德;为其他(拉丁文,叙利亚文,科普特人,等等)古老的版本看到Kneucker和Schürer。 There are modern Hebrew translations by Fränkel, 1830; Plessner, 1833; Kneucker, 1879.有现代希伯来语译本由弗兰克尔,1830;普勒斯纳,1833; Kneucker,1879。The best general discussion of the book is that of Kneucker, Das Buch Baruch, 1879; the largest list of citations by early Christian writers is in Reusch, Erklärung des Buches Baruch, 1853.最好的书是Kneucker一般性讨论,达斯布赫巴鲁克,1879年的;的引文最大的早期基督教作家列表Reusch,Erklärung DES Buches巴鲁克,1853年是。Other authorities are: Fritzsche, in Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apokryphen, 1851; Hitzig, in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift, 1860; Hilgenfeld, ib.其他部门有:弗里切,在Exegetisches手册下载祖书房Apokryphen,1851;希齐格,在Hilgenfeld的(杂志),1860; Hilgenfeld,兴业。1879-1880; Ewald, Gesch.1879-1880;埃瓦尔德,Gesch。des Volkes Israel, 1864; idem, Propheten, 1868; Bissell, Apocrypha, in the Lange series, 1880; Gifford, in Speaker's Commentary, 1888; Reuss, Gesch.DES Volkes以色列,1864年,同上,Propheten,1868年;比斯尔,伪经,在朗格系列,1880年,吉福德,喇叭的评论,1888年,罗伊斯,Gesch。 der Heiligen Schriften des Alten Testamentes, 1890; Schürer, Hist.DER Heiligen Schriften DES Alten Testamentes,1890; Schürer,组织胺。Jewish People, 1891; Ryle, in Smith's Dict.犹太人民,1891年,赖尔,在史密斯的字典。of the Bible, 1893; Marshall, in Hasting's Dict.圣经,1893年,马歇尔,在黑廷斯的快译通。of the Bible, 1898; Bevan, in Cheyne's Encycl.圣经,1898年,贝文,在进益的Encycl。Bibl.Bibl。1899; Introductions of Eichhorn, Welte, and others.1899年的艾希霍恩,Welte,和其他人的介绍。For other works attributed to Baruch see Charles, Apocal.对于其他工程归因于巴鲁克见查尔斯,Apocal。of Baruch, 1896, and article Apocrypha, in Encycl.巴鲁克,1896年,伪经和文章,在Encycl。Bibl.T.Bibl.T.



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