Books of Chronicles, the Books of Paralipomenon, הוא (Hebrew)书历代志上

General Information一般资料

The two Books of Chronicles are the 13th and 14th books of the Old Testament in the Authorized Version of the Bible.两书的记载是在圣经旧约授权版本13和14的书籍。The name Chronicles is a free rendering of the Hebrew title "events of past times."这个名字记载是免费的希伯来语标题渲染“过去时代的事件。”The author, known as the chronicler, is sometimes identified with Ezra.笔者作为编年史,是一种有时等同于以斯拉。Those scholars who believe that Chronicles and Ezra And Nehemiah were written by a single author date the work in the period 400 - 250 BC; others date Chronicles as early as 515 - 500 BC.这些学者认为,谁编年史和以斯拉和尼希米记是写在一个单一的作者日期在工作期间400 - 公元前250年,其他如515日期早编年史 - 公元前500年。Chronicles recounts biblical history from Adam to Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC), paralleling and often directly excerpting from Genesis through Kings, but with additional sources, frequent omissions, and different emphases.编年史叙述圣经历史从亚当到居鲁士大帝(公元前529 D.),并联往往通过直接从国王创世记摘编,但与其他来源,经常遗漏,并各有侧重。Extracts from Samuel and Kings, historical and legendary materials, sermons, oracles, and prayers are included in a genealogical framework.从塞缪尔和国王,历史和传说中的材料,布道,甲骨文,和祈祷提取物是包含在家谱框架。

The work focuses on David and Solomon as founders of the Temple and its priestly and musical orders.这项工作的重点作为寺及其祭司和音乐上的订单创始人大卫和所罗门。The departure of the northern kingdom of Israel from the Davidic dynasty is deplored, and the history of the southern kingdom of Judah is told with the intent of reuniting all Palestinian Jews in the purified temple worship at Jerusalem in postexilic times (after 537 BC).对以色列北部的王国从大卫王朝的离开表示遗憾,而南部的犹太王国历史告诉与团聚意图postexilic倍,在纯化寺礼拜的所有巴勒斯坦犹太人在耶路撒冷(后537年)。 Chronicles gives a more flattering view of Judah's kings than do the books of Samuel and Kings, and it emphasizes the element of miraculous divine intervention in biblical history.历代给出了犹大的君王比塞缪尔和国王的书籍更讨人喜欢看法,并强调了奇迹般的在圣经历史神助元素。

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Bibliography 参考书目
JC Whitcomb, Solomon to the Exile: Studies in Kings and Chronicles (1971). JC惠特科姆,所罗门群岛的流亡:在国王和编年史(1971)的研究。

Books of Chronicles, the Books of Paralipomenon对历代书籍,图书的Paralipomenon

Brief Outline简述

  1. Genealogies, to enable the Jews to establish their lines of family descent (1Chr. 1-9)族谱,使犹太人建立自己的家庭出身线(1Chr. 1-9)
  2. The kingdom of David, as a pattern for the ideal theocratic state (1Chr. 10-29)大卫的王国作为一个政教合一的理想状态模式(1Chr. 10-29)
  3. The glory of Solomon (2Chr. 1-9)所罗门的荣耀(2Chr. 1-9)
  4. The history of the southern kingdom (2Chr. 10-36)南部的王国(2Chr. 10-36)历史

Books of Chronicles图书的编年史

Advanced Information先进的信息

The two books were originally one.最初的两本书之一。They bore the title in the Massoretic Hebrew Dibre hayyamim, ie, "Acts of the Days."他们承担了在希伯来文Dibre hayyamim的massoretic,即标题,“行为,在天”This title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version "Chronicon," and hence "Chronicles."这个称号是由Jerome呈现在他的拉丁文版“Chronicon”,因此“编年史”。In the Septuagint version the book is divided into two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, ie, "things omitted," or "supplements", because containing many things omitted in the Books of Kings.在七十版本的书分为两种,熊标题Paraleipomena,即“东西遗漏”或“补充”,因为包含许多东西在国王的图书省略。 The contents of these books are comprehended under four heads.这些书的内容理解下四个头。(1.) The first nine chapters of Book I. contain little more than a list of genealogies in the line of Israel down to the time of David.(1)首九个月的书一章包含只不过是在以色列线下到大卫的时间族谱查看更多。(2.) The remainder of the first book contains a history of the reign of David.(2)的第一本书的其余部分包含了大卫王朝的历史。 (3.) The first nine chapters of Book II.(3)首九个月的第二册章节。contain the history of the reign of Solomon.包含的所罗门统治的历史。(4.) The remaining chapters of the second book contain the history of the separate kingdom of Judah to the time of the return from Babylonian Exile. (4)的第二本书余下的章节包含了独立的犹太王国历史的从巴比伦流亡返回的时间。

The time of the composition of the Chronicles was, there is every ground to conclude, subsequent to the Babylonian Exile, probably between 450 and 435 BC The contents of this twofold book, both as to matter and form, correspond closely with this idea.该成分的记载时间,有各种理由结束,随后到巴比伦流亡大概公元前450至435的这种双重书的内容,都以物质和形式,与此相对应的想法密切。 The close of the book records the proclamation of Cyrus permitting the Jews to return to their own land, and this forms the opening passage of the Book of Ezra, which must be viewed as a continuation of the Chronicles.该书记录了赛勒斯密切宣布允许犹太人回到自己的土地,这形成了以斯拉书,必须作为历代延续观看开放通行。The peculiar form of the language, being Aramaean in its general character, harmonizes also with that of the books which were written after the Exile.该语言的特殊形式,即在其总的性质Aramaean,统一了也有哪些后,流亡国外的书了。The author was certainly contemporary with Zerubbabel, details of whose family history are given (1 Chr. 3:19).笔者肯定与所罗巴伯当代,谁的家族病史的详细情况(1染色体。3:19)。

The time of the composition being determined, the question of the authorship may be more easily decided.在被确定的组成时,对作者的问题可能会更容易决定。According to Jewish tradition, which was universally received down to the middle of the seventeenth century, Ezra was regarded as the author of the Chronicles.根据犹太人的传统,这是普遍接受下来到了十七世纪中叶,以斯拉被视为作者的记载。There are many points of resemblance and of contact between the Chronicles and the Book of Ezra which seem to confirm this opinion.有许多相似和之间的编年史和以斯拉的书,似乎证实了这种看法许多接触点。The conclusion of the one and the beginning of the other are almost identical in expression.在一个与其他初结论几乎是在表达相同的。In their spirit and characteristics they are the same, showing thus also an identity of authorship.在他们的精神和特点,他们都是一样的,从而也显示了作者的身份。In their general scope and design these books are not so much historical as didactic.在他们的大致范围和设计这些书并没有那么多的说教历史。The principal aim of the writer appears to be to present moral and religious truth.该作家的主要目的似乎是目前的道德和宗教的真理。

He does not give prominence to political occurences, as is done in Samuel and Kings, but to ecclesiastical institutions.他不突出政治事件,因为是在萨穆埃尔和国王做,而是要教会机构。"The genealogies, so uninteresting to most modern readers, were really an important part of the public records of the Hebrew state. They were the basis on which not only the land was distributed and held, but the public services of the temple were arranged and conducted, the Levites and their descendants alone, as is well known, being entitled and first fruits set apart for that purpose."他说:“族谱,所以无趣,以最现代的读者,真的是一个国家的希伯来语公共记录的重要组成部分,他们不仅在其上的土地分配和举办的基础上,但在寺庙的公共服务,安排和进行,单利和他们的后代一样,是众所周知的,为此目的,首先是有权及水果分隔。“ The "Chronicles" are an epitome of the sacred history from the days of Adam down to the return from Babylonian Exile, a period of about 3,500 years.在“编年史”是一个神圣的历史,从亚当到从巴比伦放逐,一个约3500年回归的日子缩影。

The writer gathers up "the threads of the old national life broken by the Captivity."作者收集了“旧国家的圈养打破生活的主题。”The sources whence the chronicler compiled his work were public records, registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the Jews.来源何处的编年史编译他的工作是公共记录,登记,并属于犹太人的家谱表。These are referred to in the course of the book (1 Chr. 27:24; 29:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 12:15; 13:22; 20:34; 24:27; 26:22; 32:32; 33:18, 19; 27:7; 35:25).这些被称为在书(1 CHR 27:24课程; 29:29; 2 CHR 9:29; 12:15,13:22,20:34,24:27,26:22; 32 :32,33:18,19; 27:7; 35:25)。

There are in Chronicles, and the books of Samuel and Kings, forty parallels, often verbal, proving that the writer both knew and used these records (1 Chr. 17:18; comp. 2 Sam. 7:18-20; 1 Chr. 19; comp. 2 Sam. 10, etc.).在有记载,而塞缪尔和国王的书籍,四十相似之处,往往口头,证明作家都知道,用这些记录(1 CHR 17:18;。排版2山姆7:18-20; 1 CHR 19;比赛2三10等)。As compared with Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits many particulars there recorded (2 Sam. 6:20-23; 9; 11; 14-19, etc.), and includes many things peculiar to itself (1 Chr. 12; 22; 23-26; 27; 28; 29, etc.).正如塞缪尔和国王相比,省略了许多细节历代书有记录(2山姆6:20-23; 9; 11; 14-19等),并包括许多特有的东西本身(1 CHR 12。 ; 22,23-26,27,28,29,等)。Twenty whole chapters, and twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with matter not found elsewhere.二十整个章节和章节24件,占用与其他地方没有发现问题。It also records many things in fuller detail, as (eg) the list of David's heroes (1 Chr. 12:1-37), the removal of the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion (1 Chr. 13; 15:2-24; 16:4-43; comp. 2 Sam. 6), Uzziah's leprosy and its cause (2 Chr. 26:16-21; comp. 2 Kings 15:5), etc.它也更全面详细的记录很多事情,因为(例如),大卫的英雄(1 CHR 12:1-37),拆除的方舟从Kirjath -基列耶琳到锡安山(1人权委员会名单13; 15:2 -24; 16:4-43;。排版2萨姆6),乌西雅的麻风病及其原因(2 CHR 26:16-21;。排版王下15:5)等。

It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book is that it substitutes modern and more common expressions for those that had then become unusual or obsolete.人们还注意到,另一个书的特点是,它替代了那些当时已成为不寻常的或过时的现代,更常见的表达式。This is seen particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such as were in use in the writer's day, for the old names; thus Gezer (1 Chr. 20:4) is used instead of Gob (2 Sam. 21:18), etc. The Books of Chronicles are ranked among the khethubim or hagiographa.普遍认为这是特别是在现代的名字的地方,如在作家的日常使用是对旧名称,替代,因此基色(1 CHR 20:4),是用来代替嘴(2山姆21:18。 )等书的记载是跻身khethubim或hagiographa。They are alluded to, though not directly quoted, in the New Testament (Heb. 5:4; Matt. 12:42; 23:35; Luke 1:5; 11:31, 51).他们提到,虽然不是直接引用,在新约圣经(希伯来书5:4;太12:42; 23:35,路加福音1:5; 11:31,51)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


General Information一般资料

Chronicles are the words of the days, (1 Kings 14:19; 1 Chr. 27:24), the daily or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events recorded in the order of time.历代都是天的话,(1国王14:19; 1 CHR 27:24),对王国的日常事务或每年记录;在时间顺序记录的事件。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Chronicles of King David历代的大卫王

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1 Chr. 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters.(1 CHR 27:24)为统计状态记录;市民的来源之一,从其中派生的各种公共事务的资料记载的书籍编译器。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

The Books of Paralipomenon (Chronicles)图书的Paralipomenon(编年史)

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Paraleipomenon; Libri Paralipomenon).(Paraleipomenon; Libri Paralipomenon)。

Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity.两书的圣经包含了神圣的历史的总结,从亚当到圈养的结束。The title Paralipomenon, books "of things passed over", which, from the Septuagint, passed into the old Latin Bible and thence into the Vulgate, is commonly taken to imply that they supplement the narrative of the Books of Kings (otherwise known as I-II Samuel and I-II Kings); but this explanation is hardly supported by the contents of the books, and does not account for the present participle.标题Paralipomenon,书籍“的事情传了过来”,其中,从七十,到老拉丁语圣经过去了,从那里进入武加大,通常采取暗示,他们补充说明的书国王(否则我知道- II塞缪尔和I - II国王),但对此的解释是难以支持的书籍的内容,并且不为现在分词帐户。The view of St. Jerome, who considers Paralipomenon as equivalent to "epitome of the Old Testament", is probably the true one.该圣杰罗姆,谁视为等同于“旧约的缩影”Paralipomenon,认为可能是真实的。The title would accordingly denote that many things are passed over in these books.标题将据此表示,很多事情都是通过在这些书过来。 The Hebrew title is Dibhere Hayyamim, "the acts of the days" or "annals".希伯来文的标题是Dibhere Hayyamim,或“通志”“的日子的行为”。In the Protestant, printed Hebrew, and many Catholic bibles, they are entitled "Books of Chronicles".在新教,印刷希伯来语,许多天主教的圣经,他们有权“的编年史书”。


The two books are really one work, and are treated as one in the Hebrew manuscripts and in the Massoretic summary appended to the second book.两书是真的一个工作,并在希伯来文手稿之一,并在总结的massoretic附加到第二本书对待。The division was first made in the Septuagint for the sake of convenience, and thence was adopted into the Latin Bibles.该部门首次在七十为方便起见,并从那里进了拉丁文圣经采纳。The Hebrew text was first divided in Bomberg's edition of the rabbinical Bible (Venice, 1516-7).希伯来文是第一次分为邦贝里的犹太教圣经版本(威尼斯,1516-7)。Moreover, there is a probability that Paralipomenon originally formed part of a larger work which included the two Books of Esdras (Esdras Nehemias).此外,还有一个概率Paralipomenon最初形成一个较大的工作,其中包括两本书的埃斯德拉斯(埃斯德拉斯内赫米亚斯)的一部分。 For not only is there similarity of diction and style, of spirit and method, but I Esdras begins where II Paralipomenon ends, the decree of Cyrus being repeated and completed.不仅有用词和风格的精神和方法,相似性,但我埃斯德拉斯开始在二Paralipomenon结束后,居鲁士法令被重复和完成。 It should be remarked, however, that these facts can be explained by simple community of authorship.应该说,然而,这些事实可以由著作权简单社会解释。In the Septuagint and Vulgate, as well as in the Protestant bibles, the Books of Paralipomenon are placed immediately after the Books of Kings.在七十和武加大,以及在新教圣经,图书的Paralipomenon后立即放置的书国王。In the printed edition of the Hebrew Bible they stand at the end of the third division, or Kethubhim.在希伯来文圣经的印刷版,他们站在第三师,或Kethubhim结束。


The first part of I Paralipomenon (i-ix), which is a sort of introduction to the rest of the work, contains a series of genealogical and statistical lists, interspersed with short historical notes.对我Paralipomenon(I - IX),这是一个介绍了剩下的工作进行排序,第一部分包含了家谱和统计列表系列,短的历史笔记穿插。It comprises: (1) the genealogy of the patriarchs from Adam to Jacob (i); (2) the genealogy of the twelve tribes (ii-viii); (3) a list of the families of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi dwelling in Jerusalem after the Exile, with the genealogy of the family of Saul repeated (ix).它包括:(1)从亚当到雅各布(一)先祖族谱;(2)族谱的十二个部落(II - VIII),(3)的犹大,本杰明的家属名单,和Levi住宅在耶路撒冷后,流亡国外,多次与该扫罗族谱(九)。The second part of I Paralipomenon contains the history of the reign of David preceded by the account of the death of Saul (x-xxix).我Paralipomenon的第二部分包含了由大卫的扫罗(X - XXIX)死亡的帐户之前统治的历史。II Paralipomenon comprises the reign of Solomon (i-ix), and the reigns of the kings of Juda (x-xxxvi, 21).二Paralipomenon包括所罗门(I - IX)的统治,以及国王的犹大的统治(X -三十六,21)。Part of the edict of Cyrus allowing the Jews to return and to rebuild the temple is added as a conclusion (xxxvi, 22-23).在居鲁士允许犹太人返回和重建寺庙法令的一部分是增加一条,作为一个结论(三十六,22-23)。The historical part of Paralipomenon thus covers the same period as the last three Books of Kings.在历史的一部分的Paralipomenon从而涵盖了作为最后的三个国王图书同期。Hence naturally much of the matter is the same in both; often, indeed, the two narratives not only agree in the facts they relate, but describe them almost in the same words.因此自然的事情很多是相同的两个;时候,的确,这两个叙述不仅同意在它们与事实,但描述他们几乎同样的话。The Books of Paralipomenon also agree with the Books of Kings in plan and general arrangement.图书的Paralipomenon还同意在规划和总体安排国王的图书。But side by side with these agreements there are many differences.但是,这些协议有许多不同之相映成趣。The Books of Paralipomenon narrate some events more briefly.图书的Paralipomenon叙述一些事件更简单。or present them in a different manner, and omit others altogether (eg, the adultery of David, the violation of Thamar, the murder of Amnon, and the rebellion of Absalom), while they dwell more on facts regarding the temple, its worship and its ministers, furnishing much information on these subjects which is not found in the other books.或现在他们以不同的方式,和其他人完全忽略(例如,大卫的Thamar违反了暗嫩谋杀和通奸的押沙龙叛乱),而他们就住在寺庙的事实,它的崇拜和多其部长,家具这些是不是在其他科目的书籍中找到的信息。 Moreover, they ignore the northern kingdom except where the history of Juda requires mention of it.此外,除非他们忽略历史的犹大需要提及的是北部的王国。


On comparing Paralipomenon with the Books of Kings we are forced to the conclusion that the writer's purpose was not to supplement the omissions of these latter books.在比对国王的书籍Paralipomenon我们不得不得出结论,认为作家的目的不是为了补充这些后者书籍遗漏。The objects of his interest are the temple and its worship, and he intends primarily to write the religious history of Juda with the temple as its centre, and, as intimately connected with it, the history of the house of David.他感兴趣的对象是寺庙和崇拜,他打算主要写的寺庙为中心的犹大宗教历史,并用它作为密切联系,对大卫家的历史。This clearly appears when we consider what he mentions and what he omits.这清楚地显示,当我们考虑他提到和他忽略了。Of Saul he narrates only his death as an introduction to the reign of David.他叙述扫罗作为对引进的大卫在位仅他的死亡。In the history of David's reign he gives a full account of the translation of the ark to Mount Sion, of the preparations for the building of the temple, and of the levitical families and their offices; the wars and the other events of the reign he either tells briefly, or passes over altogether.在大卫的统治历史,他给出了的方舟登上锡永译充分考虑,对寺庙的建设的准备工作,和利未家庭及其办公室;战争和在位的其他事件或者告诉短暂,或越过完全。 Solomon's reign is almost reduced to the account of the building and the dedication of the temple.所罗门统治几乎减少到建筑物的帐户和寺庙的奉献精神。After the disruption of the kingdom the apostate tribes are hardly mentioned, while the reigns of the pious kings, Asa, Josaphat, Joas, Ezechias, and Josias, who brought about a revival of religion and showed great zeal for the temple and its worship, are specially dwelt on.后王国中断的叛教者部落较少涉及,而虔诚的国王,ASA,约萨法特,Joas,埃泽希亚什和Josias,谁带来了宗教的复兴,表明其为寺庙和崇拜的伟大热情的统治,专门论及。 Again, the additions to the narrative of the Books of Kings in most cases refer to the temple, its worship and its ministers.同样,在大多数情况下,添置了图书的国王叙事指寺庙,它的崇拜和其部长。Nor is the decree of Cyrus allowing the rebuilding of the temple without significance.也不是赛勒斯法令允许在没有意义的寺庙重建。The same purpose may be noted in the genealogical section, where the tribes of Juda and Levi are given special prominence and have their genealogies continued beyond the Exile.同样的目的,可能会注意到在家谱部分,在这里的犹大和Levi原住民给予特别突出,并已超出了他们的家谱流放继续。The author, however, writes his history with a practical object in view.笔者,但是,写有鉴于他的历史实际的对象。He wishes to urge the people to a faithful and exact adherence to the worship of God in the restored temple, and to impress upon them that thus only will the community deserve God's blessings and protection.他希望敦促人民的忠实和确切遵守神的崇拜,在恢复寺庙,并给他们留下深刻印象的也只是将社区值得上帝的祝福和保护。 Hence he places before them the example of the past, especially of the pious kings who were distinguished for their zeal in building the temple or in promoting the splendour of its worship.因此,他地面前,过去的例子,特别是谁是他们的建设热情杰出的寺庙或促进其辉煌虔诚崇拜国王。Hence, too, he takes every occasion to show that the kings, and with them the people, prospered or were delivered from great calamities because of their attachment to God's worship, or experienced misfortune because of their unfaithfulness.因此,太,他利用一切机会表明,国王,并与他们的人,繁荣或从巨大的灾难,​​因为他们提供实习神的崇拜,因为他们的不忠或有经验的不幸。 The frequent mention of the Levites and of their offices was probably intended to induce them to value their calling and to carry out faithfully their duties.该利及办事处经常提到可能是为了促使他们珍惜他们的要求,并忠实地履行自己的职责。


The Books of Paralipomenon were undoubtedly written after the Restoration.图书的Paralipomenon无疑书面​​后恢复。For the genealogy of the house of David is carried beyond Zorobabel (1 Chronicles 3:19-24), and the very decree of Cyrus allowing the return is cited.对于大卫家的族谱进行超越Zorobabel(历代3:19-24),以及赛勒斯非常法令允许返回的是引用。Moreover, the value of the sums collected by David for the building of the temple is expressed in darics (1 Chronicles 29:7, Heb.), which were not current in Palestine till the time of the Persian domination.此外,由大卫收集的寺庙建筑的款项价值体现在darics(历代志上29:7,希伯来书),这些都没有,直到在巴勒斯坦当前的波斯统治的时间。 The peculiarities of style and diction also point to a time later than the Captivity.文辞的风格和特点也指向一个时间晚于圈养。 The older writers generally attributed the authorship to Esdras.老一辈作家一般归因于作者以埃斯德拉斯。Most modern non-Catholic scholars attribute the work to an unknown writer and place its date between 300 and 250 BC The main reasons for this late date are that the descendants of Zorobabel are given to the sixth (in the Septuagint and the Vulgate to the eleventh) generation, and that in II Esdras (xii, 10, 11, 22) the list of the high-priests extends to Jeddoa, who, according to Josephus, held the pontificate in the time of Alexander the Great.大多数现代非天主教学者属性的工作到一个未知的作家和地方的300至公元前250年这个日期晚日期的主要原因是认为Zorobabel的后代都给予第六(在七十和第十一届武加大)的生成,并延伸到Jeddoa,谁,根据约瑟夫举行中的亚历山大大帝时间教宗在二埃斯德拉斯(十二,10,11,22)的高神父名单。 These lists, however, show signs of having been brought up to date by a later hand and cannot, therefore, be considered as decisive.这些名单,但是,显示有被提出来了以后手的日期标志,不能,因此,被视为决定性的考虑。 On the other hand, a writer living in Greek times would not be likely to express the value of ancient money in darics.另一方面,希腊时期的作家的生活不会有可能表达darics古物有所值。Moreover, a work written for the purpose mentioned above would be more in place in the time immediately following the Restoration, while the position and character of Esdras would point him out as its author.此外,为上述目的编写的工作会更到位的时间后立即恢复,而位置和埃斯德拉斯字符将点作为其作者他。Hence most Catholic authors still adhere to Esdrine authorship, and place the time of composition at the end of the fifth or at the beginning of the fourth century BC因此,大多数天主教作家仍坚持Esdrine作者,并将其放置在第五年底或在公元前四世纪初的构成时间


The reliability of the Books of Paralipomenon as a historical work has been severely attacked by such critics as de Wette, Wellhausen etc. The author is accused of exaggeration, of misrepresenting facts, and even of appealing to imaginary documents.该图书的Paralipomenon作为一个历史工作的可靠性受到严重袭击的德Wette,豪森等作者被指控夸张,歪曲事实的,甚至呼吁虚文件,这些批评。 This harsh judgment has been considerably mitigated by more recent writers of the same school, who, while admitting errors, absolve the author of intentional misrepresentation.这种严酷的判决已大大缓解了最近作家同一所学校,谁,而承认错误,免除故意歪曲作者。The objections urged against the books cannot be examined here in detail; a few general remarks in vindication of their truthfulness must suffice.对书籍呼吁反对在这里不能详细检查,在其真实性平反一些一般性的言论必须足够了。 In the first place, the books have suffered at the hands of copyists; textual errors in names and in numbers, which latter originally were only indicated by letters, are especially numerous.首先,本本都出现在抄写员的手中,在名称和号码,其中后者最初只是由字母表示文字错误,尤其众多。Gross exaggerations, such as the slaying of 7000 charioteers (1 Chronicles 19:18) as against 700 in 2 Samuel 10:18 and the impossibly large armies mentioned in 2 Chronicles 13:3, are plainly to be attributed to this cause.总的夸张,如7000 charioteers作为对700(历代19:18)在撒下10:18和不可能大型历代13:3提到的军队杀害,显然是要归因于这一事业。In the next place, if the sections common to Paralipomenon and the Books of Kings are compared, substantial agreement is found to exist between them.在未来的地方,如果部分共同Paralipomenon和国王的图书进行了比较,发现实质性协议之间存在着他们。If the author, then, reproduces his sources with substantial accuracy in the cases where his statements can be controlled by comparing them with those of another writer who has used the same documents, there is no reason to suspect that he acted differently in the case of other sources.如果作者的话,再现与在那里他的声明可以通过比较与另一个谁使用相同的文件作家那些他们控制的情况下大幅精度他的消息来源,也没有理由怀疑他的行为的情况下不同其他来源。 His custom of referring his readers to the documents from which he has drawn his information should leave no doubt on the subject.他提到他的读者从他引起他的资料文件自应留在这个问题毫无疑问的。In the third place, the omission of the facts not to the credit of the pious kings (eg the adultery of David) is due to the object which the author has in view, and proves no more against his truthfulness than the omission of the history of the northern tribes.在第三位,对事实不遗漏的(例如,大卫通奸)虔诚的国王信贷是由于对象,笔者在观点,并证明对他的真实性不超过了历史遗漏北部部落。 He did not intend to write a full history of the kings of Juda, but a history for the purpose of edification.他不打算写一个完整的犹大国王的历史,而是一个历史的熏陶的目的。Hence, in speaking of the kings whom he proposes as models, he naturally omits details which are not edifying.因此,在国王被他视为模型建议说,他自然是不会忽略的细节启迪。Such a presentation, while one-sided, is no more untruthful than a panegyric in which the foibles of the subject are passed over.这样的演示,而片面的,无非是在哪个主题的弱点传递了颂词失实。The picture is correct as far as it goes, only it is not complete.图中是正确的,因为目前来看,只有它是不完整的。

Publication information Written by F. Bechtel.出版信息F.柏克德书面。Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Book of Chronicles历代书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息


-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:


-Critical View.- 批评的看法。

Authorship and Date.作者署名和日期。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The two books of Chronicles form a history of the Temple and its priesthood, and of the house of David and the tribe of Judah, as guardians of the Temple, with references to the other tribes, and with some connected material.两书的记载形成了圣殿和祭司的历史,和大卫家和犹大支派,作为监护人寺,与其他部落的引用,以及用一些连接材料。 The contents may be briefly summarized as follows:的内容可以简要概括如下:

(a) I Chron.(一)我专栏。i-ix.I - IX。contain chiefly genealogies, from Adam, through Noah's sons, and then particularly through the line of Shem to Esau and Israel and their descendants.主要包含从亚当族谱,通过诺亚的儿子,然后特别是通过闪线以扫和以色列和他们的后裔。The last twelve verses of ch.过去十二个月的诗句的CH。i.contain a list of Edomitish kings and chiefs.包含Edomitish国王和酋长名单。Brief narratives from various periods are interspersed among the genealogies (eg, ii. 23; iv. 9, 10, 39-43; v. 9, 10, 18-22, 25, 26).从各个时期的简要叙述中穿插其中的族谱(例如,二23;四,9,10,39-43;诉9,10,18-22,25,26)。 The last genealogy in this collection, ix.在这个集合的最后家谱,九。35-44, that of Saul's family, forms a kind of transition to the following section. 35-44岁,即扫罗的家庭,形成了一个过渡到下一节样。

(b) I Chron.(b)我专栏。x.-xxix.十,二十九。This section is concerned with David's reign, the introduction being the last battle and the death of Saul (x. 1-12, parallel to I Sam. xxxi. 1-13), and the conclusion, the accession of Solomon (xxiii. 1; xxviii. 5 et seq.; xxix. 22 et seq.).这部分是关于大卫的统治,引进作为最后一战和扫罗的死亡(十1-12,平行我萨姆。XXXI。1-13),并得出结论,所罗门的加入(xxiii. 1 ; XXVIII 5及以下;。XXIX 22页起)。

(c) II Chron.(三)二专栏。 devoted to Solomon's reign.致力于所罗门的统治。The first chapter speaks of his sacrifice at Gibeon (vs. 1-13) and Solomon's splendor (vs. 14-17).第一章讲在基遍(与1-13)和所罗门的辉煌(对14-17)对他的牺牲。The building of the Temple is described in ch.该庙建筑中介绍了通道。ii.-iv., and its dedication in v. 1-14.ii.-iv.,其在诉1-14奉献。The following chapters speak of Solomon's prayer, vision, sacrifices, glory, and in ix.下面的章节讲的所罗门的祷告,视力,牺牲,荣耀,并在第九。31 the death of Solomon is mentioned.31日的所罗门死后被提及。

(d) II Chron.(四)二专栏。x.-xxxvi.十,三十六。contains the history of the kingdom of Judah down to the fall of Jerusalem, with the division of the kingdoms as preface, and the restoration-edict of Cyrus as appendix (viz., x. 1-19, accession of Rehoboam and division of the kingdom; xi. xii., Rehoboam; xiii. 1-22, Abijah; xiv.-xvi., Asa; xvii.-xx., Jehoshaphat; xxi., Jehoram;xxii. 1-9, Ahaziah; xxii. 10-12, xxiii., Athaliah; xxiv., Joash; xxv., Amaziah; xxvi., Uzziah; xxvii., Jotham; xxviii., Ahaz; xxix-xxxii., Hezekiah; xxxiii. 1-20, Manasseh; xxxiii. 21-25, Amon; xxxiv., xxxv., Josiah; xxxvi. 1-3, Jehoahaz; xxxvi. 4-8, Jehoiakim; xxxvi. 9, 10, Jehoiachin; xxxvi. 11-13, Zedekiah; xxxvi. 17-21, fall of Jerusalem; xxxvi. 22, 23, restoration-edict of Cyrus.包含具有作为序言的王国分裂历史的犹大下降到耶路撒冷王国下降,并恢复,法令居鲁士作为附录(即,十1-19,罗波安和师加入王国;十一十二,罗波安;十三1-22,亚比雅; xiv. -十六,亚撒; xvii.-xx.,约沙法; XXI,约兰;二十二1-9,亚哈谢,二十二10 - 。。。。。 12,二十三,亚他利雅; XXIV,约阿施;二十五,亚玛谢; XXVI,乌西雅;二十七,约坦;二十八,亚哈斯;。二十九,三十二,希西家;三十三1-20,玛拿西;三十三21。 -25,阿门;三十四,三十五,约西亚;。三十六1-3,约哈斯;三十六4-8,约雅敬; XXXVI 9,10,约雅斤;三十六11-13,西底家;三十六17-21。秋季的耶路撒冷; XXXVI 22,23,恢复,法令居鲁士。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Rabbinical literature does not recognize the division of Chronicles into two books.犹太教文学不承认两书的记载分工。In BB 15a it is named as one ), and the Masorah counts the verse I Chron.在BB 15A它被命名为一个),以及Masorah计数的诗句我专栏。xxvii.二十七。25 as the middle of the book. 25书的中间。Tradition regards this one book as consisting of two unequal parts; viz., (1) lists largely of a genealogical nature with brief historical details; and (2) an extensive history of the kings in Jerusalem.传统视为两部分组成的这个不平等的一本书,即,(1)列出了家谱的性质主要是短暂的历史细节;及(2)在耶路撒冷的国王广泛的历史。 The authorship of the first part, which is designated "Yaḥas" ( = "genealogy") of the "Dibre ha-Yamim" is ascribed to Ezra (BB 15a).第一个部分,它被指定为“Yaḥas”(=“族谱”)的“Dibre公顷Yamim”的作者是归因于以斯拉(BB 15A)。In Pes.在PES。62b this part is connected with a Midrash and quoted as ("Book of the Descents"); while Rashi names the Midrash (), "Mishnah of Dibre ha-Yamim," etc., which, according to him, contained expositions of certain passages of the Torah. 62B这部分是与一米德拉士和(“的下坡书”)所报的同时Rashi名称米德拉士(),“米示拿的Dibre公顷Yamim”等,其中,据他介绍,包含了一定的论述经文的诵读经文。 This part was not to be explained to the men of Lud nor to those of Nehardea, for reasons not stated; perhaps it was feared that these interpretations might meet with irreverence.这部分并没有被解释的路德的男人也不是Nehardea的,不说原因,也许有人担心,这些解释可能会遇到不尊重。

On the whole, Chronicles was regarded with suspicion; its historical accuracy was doubted by the Talmudic authorities, it being held to be a book for homiletic interpretation, (Lev. R. i. 3; Ruth R. ii., beginning; compare Meg. 13a).从总体上看,历代被视为怀疑,它的历史准确性怀疑的塔木德当局,它被认为是一种说教的解释书,(利未记河岛3;露丝R.二,开始;比较梅格。13A)。 The names were treated with great freedom; and many which clearly belonged to different persons were declared to indicate one and the same man or woman (Soṭah 12a; Ex. R. i. 17, et passim).该名患者给予极大的自由,以及许多这显然属于不同的人被宣布为表示同一个男人还是女人(Soṭah12A;前河岛17,等各处)。 Numerous as these fanciful interpretations of verses in Chronicles are in Talmudic-Midrashic literature, the loss of many similar expositions was deplored (Pes. 62b).在历代众多的经文解释这些奇特的塔木德,Midrashic文学是,许多类似的论述损失表示遗憾(Pes. 62B)。 EGHEGH


-Critical View.- 批评的看法。

-I.- I。Position in Old Testament Literature: Chronicles, which in the Hebrew canon consists of a single book, is called in the Hebrew Bible ("Annals"); in the LXX.-Codex B, παραλειπομέω ("of things left out"); Codex A adds (τῶ) βασιλέω ιοδà ("concerning the kings of Judah"); ie, a supplement to the Book of Kings; in the Vulgate, Liber Primus (and Secundus) "Paralipomenon."在旧约文学的位置:编年史,这在希伯来语佳能单书组成,被称为在希伯来文圣经(“通志”),在LXX. -法典B,παραλειπομέω(“物冷落” );法典A添加(τῶ)βασιλέωιοΔA(“关于犹大国王”),也就是说,向国王书的补充,在武加大,LIBER博智(和Secundus)“Paralipomenon”。 The modern title "Chronicles" was suggested by Jerome's speaking of the book in his "Prologus Galeatus" as "Chronicon totius divinæ historiæ."现代的标题“编年史”就是由杰罗姆的书上说在他的“Prologus Galeatus”为“Chronicon totius divinæ十年史料。”The book belongs to the Hagiographa, or "Ketubim," the third and latest-formed section of the Hebrew canon.该书属于Hagiographa,或“Ketubim”的希伯来文佳能最新的第三和形成的部分。The view that its canonicity was matter of discussion among the Jews seems to rest on insufficient evidence (Buhl, "Kanon und Text des AT" Eng. ed., p. 31).认为它是正规的犹太人之间的讨论的问题,似乎证据不足的其余部分(布尔,英,主编“加隆UND AT文本DES”,第31页)。 In Hebrew lists, manuscripts, and printed Bibles, Chronicles is placed either first (Western or Palestinian practise, as in the St. Petersburg Codex), or last (Eastern or Babylonian, as in the Babylonian Talmud); see Ginsburg, "Introduction," pp. 1-8.在希伯来文清单,手稿和印刷圣经,无论是历代放在第一个(西方或巴勒斯坦人的做法,如在圣彼得堡法典),或最后(东区或巴比伦,在巴比伦塔木德),见金斯伯格,“简介“页1-8。 In Greek and Latin lists, and in manuscripts and editions of the LXX.在希腊和拉丁名单,并在手稿及LXX版本。and Vulgate, Chronicles usually follows Kings; the exceptions are more numerous in the Latin lists (Swete, "The Old Testament in Greek According to the Septuagint," Introduction, pp. 201-230).和武加大,历代国王通常如下;的例外是更多了,在拉丁美洲名单(Swete,“在希腊文旧约据译本,”导言,第201-230)。 Chronicles, originally a single work, is first found divided into two books in Codices A and B of the LXX., which were followed by subsequent versions, and ultimately by printed editions of the Hebrew text.编年史,原本是单一的工作,是首次发现两书分为抄本A和LXX。,这是由后续版本之后B,并最终由希伯来文印刷版。 It is part of a larger work, Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah, composed (see Section II.) in the Greek period between the death of Alexander (BC 323) and the revolt of the Maccabees (BC 167).这是一个更大的工作,方志,以斯拉,尼希米组成,两者之间的亚历山大(公元前323)死亡和马加比起义(公元前167)希腊时期(见第二节)的一部分。 It expresses the piety of the Temple community, and their interest in its services and history.它表达了寺社区虔诚,他们的服务和历史的兴趣。They felt that the services had reached an ideal perfection, and were led to think of the "good kings" as having shaped their religious policy according to this ideal.他们认为,服务已达到一个理想的完美,并导致了“好国王”以为其形为具有宗教政策根据这一理想。Probably the author of Chronicles did not intend to supersede Samuel and Kings.大概是历代作者并不打算取代萨穆埃尔和国王。 There are slight traces of Chronicles in Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), (eg, xlvii. 8 et seq.; compare I Chron. xxv.); perhaps also in Philo (see Ryle, "Philo and Holy Scriptures," pp. 286 et seq.), and in the NT (for example, compare II Chron. xxiv. 21 with Matt. xxiii. 35).有轻微的痕迹,历代Ecclesiasticus(西拉奇),(例如,XLVII 8及以下;。比较我专栏二十五。);或许也斐罗(见赖尔,“斐洛和圣经”,第286页起 ),并在NT(例如,比较与马特。XXIII二专栏。XXIV 21 35)。The references to Samuel-Kings are more numerous.对塞缪尔国王引用更多了。The omission (see Swete, lcp 227) of Chronicles from some Christian lists of canonical books is probably accidental.遗漏的编年史从一些典型的书籍基督教名单(见Swete,LCP 227)可能是偶然的。

Authorship and Date.作者署名和日期。

II. II。Composition:成分:

(a) Relation to Ezra-Nehemiah.(一)相关以斯拉 - 尼希米记。Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah were originally a single work.编年史,以斯拉和尼希米最初单一的工作。This is shown by the identity of style, theological standpoint, and ecclesiastical interests, as well as by the fact that Chronicles concludes with a portion of a paragraph (II Chron. xxxvi. 22, 23) which is repeated and completed in Ezra i.这是由风格的身份,神学的角度来看,和教会的利益,以及历代的事实,显示最后提出了一个段落的一部分(二专栏。XXXVI 22,23),这是重复和以斯拉岛落成1-4.1-4。Comparison shows that Chronicles ends in the middle of a sentence.对比表明,历代结束在一个句子中。The division of the original work arose from the diverse nature of its contents: Chronicles was merely a less interesting edition of Samuel-Kings; but Ezra-Nehemiah contained history not otherwise accessible.原有的分工源于其内容多样化的特点:历代只不过是塞缪尔国王不感兴趣版,但以斯拉 - 尼希米记载历史没有其他访问。Hence readers desired Ezra-Nehemiah alone; and Chronicles (from its position in many manuscripts, etc., after Nehemiah) only obtained its place in the canon by an afterthought.因此,读者需要以斯拉 - 尼希米单独和编年史(从它的位置在许多手稿等,经过尼希米记)只获得了佳能由事后的地位。

(b) Author.(二)作者。The author's name is unknown; the ascription by some Peshiṭta manuscripts to "Johanan the priest," perhaps the Johanan of Neh.作者的名字是未知的;的一些培熹托手稿归属到“约哈难的牧师,”也许是约哈难的尼。xii.十二。23 (Barnes, "Chronicles," p. xii., in "Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges"; idem, "An Apparatus Criticus to Chronicles in the Peshiṭta Version," p. 1), can have no weight. 23(巴恩斯,“编年史”,页十二,在“剑桥学校和学院圣经”;同上,“一个仪器Criticus在培熹托版本编年史”第1版),可以没有重量。 From the keen interest shown in the inferior officials of the Temple, especially the singers, the author seems to have been a Levite, possibly one of the Temple choir.从各寺下官员,特别是歌手中显示的浓厚兴趣,笔者似乎已经是一个利未人,可能对寺合唱团之一。

(c) Date. (三)日期。Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah must be later than the times of Ezra and Nehemiah (458-432).编年史,以斯拉,尼希米必须晚于以斯拉和尼希米记(458-432)时代。In style and language the book belongs to the latest period of Biblical Hebrew.在风格和语言的书属于圣经希伯来文的最新阶段。 The descendants of Zerubbabel (I Chron. iii. 24) are given, in the Masoretic text, to the sixth generation (about BC 350); in the LXX., Syriac, and Vulgate, to the eleventh generation after Zerubbabel (about BC 200).所罗巴伯( 我专栏三24)给后代,在马所拉文本,到第六代(约公元前350);在LXX,叙利亚和武加大,到第十代后所罗巴伯(约公元前200 )。 The list of high priests in Neh.在尼大祭司名单。xii.十二。10, 11, extends to Jaddua (c. 330).10,11,延伸到Jaddua(约330)。These lists might, indeed, have beenmade up to date after the book was completed; but other considerations point conclusively to the Greek period; eg, in Ezra vi.这些列表可能确实有beenmade最新的书完成后,但其他方面的考虑点确凿的希腊时期,例如,在以斯拉六。22, Darius is called "the king of Assyria."22,大流士被称为“亚述王”。On the other hand, the use of the book in Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) referred to above, the absence of any trace of the Maccabean struggle, and the use of the LXX.另一方面,书在Ecclesiasticus使用(西拉奇)上面提到的,任何一丝挣扎的马加比的情况下,以及LXX使用。 Chronicles by Eupolemus (c. BC 150; see Swete, lcp 24), point to a date not later than BC 200.由Eupolemus(约公元前150见Swete,LCP 24)记载,指向一个日期不晚于公元前200。Hence Chronicles is usually assigned to the period BC 300-250.因此,历代通常被分配到公元前300-250期。

see I Chronicles.见我编年史。

see II Chronicles.见二编年史。

(d) Sources.(四)来源。Chronicles contains (see Section I.) much material found, often word for word, in other books of the Bible, and has also frequent references to other authorities.编年史载(见第一节)发现很多材料,往往逐字逐句的其他书籍的圣经,并有向其他部门也经常提到。In regard to these sources, the contents may be classified thus: (A) passages taken from other OT books, with textual or editorial changes, the latter sometimes important; (B) passages based upon sections of other OT books, largely recast; (C) passages supposed on internal evidence to have been taken from or based on ancient sources, no longer extant and not much later than the close of the Exile, and in some cases perhaps earlier (see classification, p. 62); (D) passages supposed on internal evidence to be the work of latepost-exilic writers (compare ib.).对于这些人士透露,内容可分为这样的:(A)段落取自其他旧约的书籍,用文字或编辑修改,后者有时重要的;(二)根据段落的其他OT书籍章节,主要是重铸;( C)内部证据或已采取了从远古来源的基础上,不再现存的,而不是更晚比流亡密切,而且在某些情况下可能是早期(见分类,第62页)所谓通道;(D)内部证据应该是对latepost放逐作家(比较IB)工作通道。 In the preceding table space prevents the presentation of details.在前面的表空间可以防止的细节介绍。In C and D, Kittel's analysis in "SBOT" is mostly followed, but not in all details, nor in his separation of the D material into various strata.在C和D,基特尔在“SBOT”的分析主要是跟随,但不是在所有的细节,也没有在他的成各种阶层拆卸物料的分离。Small portions from extant books embedded in B, C, and D are not indicated.从B,C和D嵌入式现存书籍的一小部分不显示。 The non-Biblical sources may be classified thus:非圣经来源可分为这样的:

(1) An earlier historical work cited as: "The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel" (II Chron. xvi. 11, xxv. 26, xxviii. 26); "The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah" (ib. xxvii. 7, xxxv. 26); "The Acts of the Kings of Israel" (ib. xxxiii. 18); and perhaps also as "The Midrash of the Book of Kings" (ib. xxiv. 27). (1)早期历史的工作引为:“对犹大和以色列诸王书”(二专栏十六11,二十五26,二十八26。);他说:“以色列和犹大王书”( 。IB XXVII 7,三十五26); “的以色列国王行为”(同上三十三18);或许也为“米德拉士书的国王”(同上二十四27)。

(2) Sections of a similar history of David and Solomon (unless these references are to that portion of the former work which dealt with these kings), cited as: "The Words of Samuel the Seer" (I Chron. xxix. 29); "The Words of Nathan the Prophet" (ib.; II Chron. ix. 29); and "The Words of Gad the Seer" (I Chron. xxix. 29). (2)的大卫和所罗门类似的历史(除非这些提法是,前国王工作,这些处理部分)第,引为:“塞缪尔词的先知”(我专栏二十九29。) ;“字样的弥敦道先知”(同上,第二代下九29);和“字样的盖德的先知”(我专栏二十九29)。

(3) Sections of "The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah," and possibly of other similar works, cited as: "The Words of Shemaiah the Prophet and of Iddo the Seer" (II Chron. xii. 15); "The Words of Jehu the Son of Hanani" (ib. xx. 34); "The Words of the Seers" (LXX., RV, margin); "of his Seers" ("SBOT"); "of Hozai" (II Chron. xxxiii. 19-20, RV); "The Vision of Iddo the Seer" (ib. ix. 29); "The Vision of Isaiah the Prophet" (ib. xxxii. 32); "The Midrash of the Prophet Iddo (ib. xiii. 22); "The Acts of Uzziah, Written by Isaiah the Prophet" (ib. xxvi. 22); and "The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite" (ib. ix. 29). (3)“书的以色列和犹大国王”以及其他类似的作品可能,第引为:“示玛雅先知和先知易多的词”(二专栏十二15);“该哈拿尼的儿子耶户的词“(。同上XX 34);”的观看者言“(LXX.,RV,保证金),”他的观看者“(”SBOT“);”的Hozai“(二。专栏三十三19-20,RV);“的愿景是易多的先知”(同上九29);“的愿景以赛亚先知”(同上三十二32);“先知易多米德拉士(ib.十三22);“乌西雅的行为,由以赛亚先知书”(同上二十六22);和“预言的亚希雅的Shilonite”(同上九29)。

In the absence of numbered divisions like the present chapters and verses, portions of the work are indicated by the name of the prophet who figures in it-probably because the Prophets were supposed to have been the annalists (ib. xxvi. 22).在像目前的章节和诗句编号部门的情况下,工作部分是表示由先知谁在它,可能数字的名称,因为先知都应该有被annalists(同上二十六22)。 Thus, "the Vision of Isaiah" is said to be in "The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel"; and "the Words of Jehu the son of Hanani," inserted in "The Book of the Kings of Israel."因此,“以赛亚愿景”被说成是在“对犹大和以色列诸王书”和“耶户的话哈拿尼的儿子”,在插入他说:“以色列的王书”。

Thus the main source of Chronicles seems to have been a late post-exilic Midrashic history of the kings of Judah and Israel.因此,历代的主要来源似乎已经晚后放逐的犹大和以色列诸王Midrashic历史。Possibly, this had been divided into histories of David and Solomon, and of the later kings.也许,这已被分为大卫和所罗门国王和后来的历史。The author may also have used a collection of genealogies; and perhaps additions were made to the book after it was substantially complete.作者也可能使用了家谱的收集,或许增加了向书后,这是大致完成。In dealing with matter not found in other books it is difficult to distinguish between matter which the chronicler found in his source, matter which he added himself, and later additions, as all the authors concerned wrote in the same spirit and style; but it may perhaps be concluded that details about Levites, porters, and singers are the work of the chronicler (compare Section III. of this article).与在其他书籍中找到处理此事,很难区分哪些事在他的编年史源,无论他说他自己,后来补充,发现所有的作者在关注同样的精神和风格写,但它可能也许可以得出结论,约利,搬运工,和歌手细节的编年史工作(比较第三节,本条)。

III. III。Relationship to Samuel-Kings:关系到塞缪尔国王:

(a) Comparison of Contents.(一)比较的内容。Chronicles omits most of the material relating to Saul and the northern kingdom, including the accounts of Samuel, Elijah, and Elisha, and most of what is to the discredit of the "good kings"; eg, the story of Bathsheba.历代省略了有关扫罗和英国北部的材料,包括塞缪尔,以利亚和以利沙帐户,是什么给抹黑的“好国王”最大多数,例如,对拔示巴的故事。 Chronicles adds (see table, B and D) long accounts of the Temple, its priests and its services, and of the observance of the Pentateuchal laws; also records of sins which account for the misfortunes of "good kings"-eg, the apostasy of Joash (II Chron. xxiv.); of the misfortunes which punished the sins of "bad kings"-eg, the invasions in the reign of Ahaz (ib. xxviii.); and of the repentance which resulted in the long reign of Manasseh (ib. xxxiii.); besides numerous genealogies and statistics.历代增加(见表,B和D)多头开户的圣殿,其祭司和服务,以及遵守法律的Pentateuchal;也罪其中的“好国王” - 例如,叛教的不幸账户记录约阿施(二专栏XXIV。);有哪些处罚“坏国王” - 例如,在亚哈斯(同上二十八。)入侵的罪恶统治的不幸;及忏悔而从长期统治的结果玛拿西(同上三十三);除了众多的族谱和统计。Chronicles has numerous other alterations tending, like the additions and omissions, to show that the "good kings" observed the law of Moses, and were righteous and prosperous (compare ib. viii. 2 and I Kings ix. 10, 11; see also below).历代有许多其他的改变,如增加和遗漏趋向,展现了“好国王”观察了摩西的法律,是正义与繁荣(比较IB八2和I国王IX 10,11;。参见下文)。

(b) Literary Connection.(二)文学连接。It might seem natural to identify the main source of Chronicles with Samuel-Kings, or with "The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel" and "The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah," frequently referred to in Kings.它似乎自然地认同塞缪尔历代国王的主要来源,或与“书的犹大国王的编年史”,经常提到的国王给他说:“以色列国王的编年史书”。 But the principal source can not have been Kings, because "The Book of the Kings" is sometimes said to contain material not in Kings-eg, the wars of Jotham (II Chron. xxvii. 7); neither can it have been the "Chronicles" cited in Kings, because it is styled "Midrash" (AV, "story"; RV, "commentary"), which was a late form of Jewish literature (II Chron. xiii. 22, xxiv. 27).但主要来​​源不能被国王队,因为“国王书”,有时说是不包含在国王,例如,约坦战争(二专栏XXVII 7。)材料;也不可能一直是“编年史“引国王,因为它是病急乱投医”米德拉士“(AV,”故事“,风疹病毒,”评“),这是一个后期的犹太文学的形式(二专栏十三22,二十四27。) This main source, "The Book of the Kings," is therefore commonly supposed (see II. d) to have been a postexilic work similar in style and spirit to Chronicles.这主要来源,他说:“国王书”,因此一般应该(见二,四)一直是postexilic工作作风和精神编年史相似。 The relation of this source to Kings is difficult to determine.这种源与国王是难以确定。It is clear that Chronicles contains matter taken either directly or indirectly from Kings, because it includes verses inserted by the editor of Kings (compare II Chron. xiv. 1, 2 and I Kings xv. 8, 11).很显然,包含取自历代国王直接或间接关系,因为它包括由国王编辑器(比较二专栏。十四,1,2和I国王十五,8,11)插入的诗句。 Either Chronicles used Kings and "The Book of the Kings," both of which works used the older "Chronicles" (so Driver, "Introduction to the Literature of the OT" 6th ed., p. 532), or Chronicles used "The Book of the Kings," which had used both Kings and the older "Chronicles," or works based on them.无论是历代国王和使用“书中的国王”,这两个工程中使用的旧的“编年史”(所以驱动程序“,介绍了旧约文学”第6版,第532页),或用编年史“的书的国王“,它使用了两个国王和旧的”编年史“,或对他们的作品。

(c) Text. (c)文本。It is not always possible to distinguish minor editorial changes from textual errors; but, when the former have been eliminated, Chronicles presents an alternative text for the passages common to it and Samuel-Kings.这并不总是可能的,以区别于文字错误,小的编辑修改,但是,当前被淘汰,历代提出了一个共同的通道,并塞缪尔国王的替代文本。 As in the case of two manuscripts, sometimes the one text, sometimes the other, is correct.由于在两个手稿的情况下,有时一个文本,有时,另一方面是正确的。For example, I Chron.例如,我专栏。xviii.十八。3 has, wrongly, "Hadarezer," where II Sam.3有,错误,“Hadarezer”,其中二山姆。viii.八。3 has "Hadadezer"; but conversely I Chron.3有“哈大底谢”,但相反我专栏。xvii.十七。6 has, rightly, "judges," where II Sam.6已正确地,“法官”,其中二山姆。vii.七。7 has "tribes."7有“部落”。

IV. IV。Historical Value:历史价值:

(a) Omissions.(一)遗漏。Almost all these are explained by the chronicler's anxiety to edify his readers (compare Section III. a); and they in no way discredit the narratives omitted.几乎所有这些都解释了编年史的焦虑,陶冶他的读者(比较第三节A),而他们丝毫不怀疑的叙述省略。

(b) Contradictions.(二)矛盾。Where Chronicles contradicts Samuel-Kings preference must be given to the older work, except where the text of the latter is clearly corrupt.凡历代矛盾塞缪尔国王偏好必须考虑的旧作,除非后者的文字显然是腐败。 With the same exception, it may be assumed that sections of the primitive "Chronicles" are much more accurately preserved in Samuel-Kings than in Chronicles.在相同的例外,它可以假设的原始的“编年史”章节更准确塞缪尔国王比历代保存下来。

(c) Additions.(三)添置。The passages which describe theTemple ritual and priesthood and the observance of the Pentateuchal law before the Exile are a translation of ancient history into the terms of the chronicler's own experience.该通道的描述theTemple仪式和祭司和法律的Pentateuchal遵守前流亡是一种古老的历史的记录者将自己的经验,术语的翻译。 The prophetical admonitions and other speeches are the chronicler's exposition of the religious significance of past history according to a familiar convention of ancient literature.该预言告诫和其他发言是编年史的对过去的历史根据古代文献熟悉公约的宗教意义的论述。Such material is most valuable: it gives unique information as to the Temple and the religious ideas of the early Greek period.这种材料是最宝贵的:它使以寺和早期希腊时期的宗教思想的独特信息。Most of the material included under C in Section II.大部分的材料包括在第二节C。d, above has apparently been borrowed from an older source, and may constitute an addition to present knowledge of pre-exilic Israelitish history. D,以上显然已经从旧借款来源,并可能构成目前除了前放逐Israelitish历史知识。The religious and other interests of the chronicler and his main source do not seem to account for the origin of the genealogies, statistics, accounts of buildings, etc., in C. The character of another set of additions is not so clear; viz., Abijah's victory (II Chron. xiii.), Zerah's invasion (ib. xiv., xv.), and Manasseh's captivity (ib. xxxiii.).编年史家和他的主要来源的宗教和其他利益似乎不占的族谱,统计,建筑物帐目等产地,在C的另一补充字符集不是那么明确;即。 ,亚比雅的胜利(二专栏。十三),谢拉的入侵(同上第十四,十五),和玛拿西的圈养(同上三十三)。However little the chronicler may have cared about writing scientific history, the fact that he narrates an incident not mentioned elsewhere does not prove it to be imaginary.但小的编年史可能对科学史写作照顾,但事实上,他没有提到其他地方叙述事件并不能证明它是虚构的。Kings is fragmentary; and its editors had views as to edification different from those of the chronicler (see Judges), which might lead them to omit what their successor would restore.国王是零碎的,而且它的编辑们以启迪从编年史有不同的意见(见法官),这可能导致他们忽略他们的继任者将怎样恢复。 Driver and others hold that Chronicles is connected with early sources by another line than that through Kings (note also C, Section II. d).司机和其他人认为,历代相连的另一条线比早期的来源,通过国王(还注意到C,第二节D)。 Hence the silence of Kings is not conclusive against these additions.因此,国王沉默不针对这些新增定论。Nevertheless, such narratives, in the present state of knowledge, rest on the unsupported testimony of a very late and uncritical authority.然而,这样的叙事,在知识上的一个非常晚,不加批判的权力不支持的证词休息的现状。Much turns on internal evidence, which has been very variously interpreted.许多打开内部的证据,这已经非常不同的解释。Some recognize a historical basis for these narratives (WE Barnes, in "Cambridge Bible," pp. xxx. et seq.; AH Sayce, "The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments," p. 465); others regard them as wholly unhistorical (see "Chronicles, Books of," in "Encyc. Bibl.").有的承认这些叙述历史的基础上(WE巴恩斯在“剑桥圣经”第XXX页起;。AH塞斯,“高等批评和古迹的裁决,”第465页),其他方面它们全非历史(见“历代,图书,”在“百科全书。Bibl”)。 As to Chronicles in general, Professor Sayce writes (lcp 464): "The consistent exaggeration of numbers on the part of the chronicler shows us that from a historical point of view his unsupported statements must be received with caution. But they do not justify the accusations of deliberate fraud and 'fiction' which have been brought against him. What they prove is that he did not possess that sense of historical exactitude which we now demand from the historian."至于一般的编年史,教授塞斯写道(LCP 464)说:“对的编年史部分号码一致夸张告诉我们,从历史的角度看他不支持的语句必须谨慎,但他们没有得到证明。故意欺诈和​​“小说”,这已对他提出指控。他们证明的是,他不具备精密的历史,我们现在从历史学家的需求感。“

Emil G. Hirsch WH Bennett埃米尔赫斯基WH G.班尼特

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。


R. Kittel, The Books of Chronicles in Hebrew, in SBOT ed. R.基特尔,在希伯来文记载的书籍,在SBOT版。Haupt, 1895; WH Bennett, The Books of Chronicles, in The Expositor's Bible, 1894; F. Brown, Chronicles, I. and II., in Hastings, Dict.豪普特,1895年,WH贝内特的编年史书,在解释者的圣经,1894年; F.布朗,方志,一和二,在黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible, 1898; SR Driver, Chronicles, Books of, in Cheyne and Black, Encyc.圣经,1898年,SR驱动,方志,图书在进益及黑色,百科全书。Bibl.Bibl。1899.EGHWHB1899.EGHWHB

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