Epistle to the Colossians, אל הקולוסים (Hebrew)书信歌罗西书

General Information一般资料

The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the New Testament of the Bible.到歌罗西书信是圣经的新约书。Scholars are divided on whether it was written by Saint Paul during one of his imprisonments after AD 60 or by a later follower of Paul who further developed some of his ideas. The author confronts a type of Gnosticism that taught that angelic powers rule the cosmos and that various ascetic and ritual practices are required of Christians. Against these teachings, the epistle shows that since Christ is ruler of the whole cosmos and has saved believers, neither fear nor extreme practices are appropriate. Colossians has many passages in common with the Epistle to the Ephesians, especially the passages that describe the church as a body, with Christ as its head.学者们对是否写在他的监禁之一圣保罗公元后60或由保罗后来跟随谁的进一步发展他的一些想法分歧,作者面临的诺斯替主义的类型告诉我们,天使般的权力和统治的宇宙苦行和仪式,各种做法所需的基督徒。针对这些教导,书信显示,自基督是整个宇宙的统治者和拯救的信徒, 既不恐惧也不是极端的做法是适当的。歌罗西有共同的许多段落,以书信以弗所,特别是段落描述为一个机构,教会与基督,作为它的头。

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Bibliography 参考书目
A Patzia, Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians (1984).阿Patzia,歌罗西书,腓利门书,以弗所书(1984)。


Epistle to the Colossians书信向歌罗西书

Brief Outline简述

  1. Salutation and thanksgiving (1:1-8)称呼和感恩(1:1-8)
  2. Doctrinal section (1:9-2:5)教义节(1:9-2:5)
  3. Practical exhortations (2:6-4:6)(2:6-4:6)实用嘱托
  4. Concluding salutations (4:7-18)结论打招呼(4:7-18)


Epistle to the Colossians书信向歌罗西书

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Epistle to the Colossians was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there (Acts 28:16, 30), probably in the spring of AD 57, or, as some think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the Ephesians.到歌罗西书信的作者是保罗在罗马期间他第一次入狱那里(徒28:16,30),大概在公元57春天,或者像有些人认为,62岁,不久后他曾写信给他的书信以弗所。 Like some of his other epistles (eg, those to Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the internal state of the church there (Col. 1:4-8).像他的其他书信部分(例如,那些科林斯),这似乎已在某种程度上得到了资料,转达了对教会有内部状态(西1:4-8)给他写的后果。 Its object was to counteract false teaching.其目的是为了抵制假教学。A large part of it is directed against certain speculatists who attempted to combine the doctrines of Oriental mysticism and asceticism with Christianity, thereby promising the disciples the enjoyment of a higher spiritual life and a deeper insight into the world of spirits.它的一个很大一部分是针对谁试图结合基督教东方神秘主义和禁欲主义的学说,从而有前途的弟子提出了更高的精神生活的享受和精神的世界进入了更深入的了解一定speculatists。 Paul argues against such teaching, showing that in Christ Jesus they had all things.保罗认为对这样的教学,显示出他们在基督耶稣里所有的东西。He sets forth the majesty of his redemption.他阐述了他的赎回威严。

The mention of the "new moon" and "sabbath days" (2:16) shows also that there were here Judaizing teachers who sought to draw away the disciples from the simplicity of the gospel.而“新月”和“安息日”(2:16)提也显示有在这里谁设法吸引远离福音简单的弟子犹太化的教师。Like most of Paul's epistles, this consists of two parts, a doctrinal and a practical.像保罗的书信最,这包括两部分,一个理论和实践。(1.) The doctrinal part comprises the first two chapters.(1)的理论部分包括前两章。His main theme is developed in chapter 2.他的主要主题是发展第2章。He warns them against being drawn away from Him in whom dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead, and who was the head of all spiritual powers.他警告对正在草拟中的人离他住所有的神性丰满,谁是所有精神力量的头上。Christ was the head of the body of which they were members; and if they were truly united to him, what needed they more?基督身体的成员,其中他们的头;如果他们是真正的团结他,他们更需要什么?(2.) The practical part of the epistle (3-4) enforces various duties naturally flowing from the doctrines expounded.(2)的书信(3-4)实践部分强制自然流淌的阐述教义各项职责。They are exhorted to mind things that are above (3:1-4), to mortify every evil principle of their nature, and to put on the new man (3:5-14).他们告诫想到的东西都是以上(3:1-4),以腐坏的每一个邪恶的本质原则,并把新的人(3:5-14)。

Many special duties of the Christian life are also insisted upon as the fitting evidence of the Christian character.基督徒生活的许多特殊的义务,也坚持要求作为基督徒的品格装修的证据。Tychicus was the bearer of the letter, as he was also of that to the Ephesians and to Philemon, and he would tell them of the state of the apostle (4:7-9). Tychicus是不记名的信,因为他是,也给以弗所书和腓利门书,他会告诉的使徒(4:7-9)状态的。After friendly greetings (10-14), he bids them interchange this letter with that he had sent to the neighbouring church of Laodicea.经过友好的问候(10-14),他的​​出价与他们交换此,他曾派人到邻近的老底嘉教会的信。 He then closes this brief but striking epistle with his usual autograph salutation.然后,他用他一贯的签名关闭这个称呼简短而醒目的书信。There is a remarkable resemblance between this epistle and that to the Ephesians (qv).这之间有书信和的以弗所(QV)显着的相似之处。The genuineness of this epistle has not been called in question.这种书信的真实性还没有被称为问题。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistle to the Colossians书信向歌罗西书

Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the four Captivity Epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome -- the other three being Ephesians, Philemon and Philippians.其中四个圈养的圣保罗在他写的第一监禁在罗马书信 - 其他三位以弗所,腓利门书和腓。That they were written in prison is stated in the Epistles themselves.他们是在监狱里写的是自己的书信中表示。The writer mentions his "chain" and his "bonds" (Ephesians 6:20, Colossians 4:3; 4:18; Philippians 1:7, 13, 17); he names his fellow prisoners (Colossians 4:10; Philemon 23) he calls himself a prisoner (Ephesians 3:1; 4:1; Philemon 9): "Paul an old man, and now a prisoner".作者提到他的“链”和他的“债券”(以弗所书6:20,歌罗西书4:3; 4点18;腓1:7,13,17),他的名字他(歌罗西书4点10同室犯人;腓利门书23 )他自称囚犯(弗3:1; 4:1;腓利门9):“保罗一个老人,现在囚犯”。It was supposed by some that these letters were written during the two years' captivity at Cæsarea; but it is now generally acknowledged (by all who admit their authenticity) that they were written during the years immediately following in Rome, during the time that "Paul was suffered to dwell by himself, with a soldier that kept him . . . And he remained two whole years in his own hired lodging; and he received all that came in to him" (Acts 28:16-30).它本来是由一些在这些信件两年囚禁在凯撒利亚写,但现在是公认的(所有谁承认其真实性),他们在几年立即写入下列期间在罗马的时间,“保罗是由他本人遭受纠缠,带过兵的他,他仍保持两个自己聘请住宿整个年;。和他收到的所有排在他的“(徒28:16-30)。 As St. Paul had appealed to the emperor, he was handed over, to await his trial, to the prefect of the Prætorian Guard, who was at that time probably the famous Burrhus, the friend of Seneca.正如圣保禄曾呼吁皇帝,他被移交,等待审判,到嫡系卫队,谁当时大概是著名Burrhus,在塞内卡朋友知府。He allowed the Apostle to live near the imperial palace in what was known as custodia militaris, his right wrist being connected day and night, by means of a chain, to the left arm of a soldier, who was relieved at regular intervals (Conybeare, Howson, Lewin).他允许使徒住在附近的什么作为custodia蛹虫草,他的右手腕被连接通过一个链是指白天和黑夜,著名的皇宫,给士兵左臂,谁是定期缓解(科尼比尔,豪森,列文)。 It was in such circumstances that these Epistles were written, some time between AD 61 and 63.正是在这种情况下,这些书信被写,有的在公元61和63的时间。It cannot be objected that there is no mention in them of the earthquake spoken of by Tacitus and Eusebius as having destroyed Laodicea; for there is no evidence that its effects reached Coloss Colossæ,aelig;, and Eusebius fixes the date later than these letters.它不能反对,没有在他们的发言由塔西和尤西比乌斯作为具有摧毁老底嘉地震提及;对于没有证据证明其效果达到Coloss Colossæ,aelig;和尤西比乌斯修复比这些信件的日期晚。

Colossians, Ephesians, and Philemon were written and dispatched at one and the same time, while Philippians was composed at a somewhat different period of the captivity.歌罗西书,以弗所书,和腓利门被写,并派出在同一个时间,而腓是在人工饲养的有所不同时期组成。The first three are an very closely connected.前三个是非常密切的联系。Tychicus is the messenger in Eph., vi, 21 and Coloss., iv, 7, 8, 9.Tychicus是弗使者。,六,21日和Coloss。,四,七,八,九。 In the latter he is accompanied by Onesimus, in whose favour the Epistle to Philemon was written.在后者,他是阿尼西母的陪同下,在其支持的书信向腓利门书是写的。In both Colossians and Philemon greetings are sent from Aristarchus, Mark, Epaphras, Luke, and Demas and there is the closest literary affinity between Ephesians and Colossians (see AUTHENTICITY OF THE EPISTLE below).在这两种歌罗西书和腓利门问候派出阿里斯塔克斯,马克,Epaphras,路加,和底马且有最亲密的以弗所和歌罗西书文学之间的亲和力(见下面的书信的真实性)。

READERS ADDRESSED读卡器ADDRESSED

Three cities are mentioned in Colossians, Coloss Colossæ aelig; (i, 2), Laodicea, and Hierapolis (iv, 13.) These were situated about 120 miles east from Ephesus in Phrygia, in Western Asia Minor, Colossæ and Laodicea being on the banks of the Lycus, a tributary of the Mæander.三个城市都提到了歌罗西书,Coloss Colossæ aelig;(I,2),老底嘉和希拉波利斯(四,13),这些人距离以弗所约120英里以东的弗里吉亚在小亚细亚西部,Colossæ和老底嘉的幸福,在Lycus银行,本Mæander支流。 All three were within two or three hours' walk from one another.这三个人都在两三个小时“从彼此的步行路程。Sir William Ramsay has shown that these towns lay altogether outside the routes followed by St. Paul in his missionary journeys; and it is inferred from Coloss., i, 4, 6, 7, 8 and ii, 1, that they were never visited by the Apostle himself.威廉拉姆齐已经表明,这些城市奠定外圣保罗在他的传教行程路线完全遵循,以及它是从Coloss推断,我,4,6,7,8和二,1,他们从来没有访问过。由使徒自己。 The great majority of the Colossian Christians appear to have been Gentile converts of Greek and Phrygian extraction (i, 26, 27; ii, 13), though it is probable that there was a small proportion of Jews living amongst them, as it is known that there were many scattered over the surrounding districts (Josephus, Ant., XII, iii, 4, and Lightfoot).该Colossian基督徒绝大多数似乎已经泰尔希腊和弗里吉亚提取(我,26,27;二,13)转换,但很可能有一个犹太人生活在他们之中的一小部分,因为它是已知有许多在周边地区(约瑟夫,蚂蚁。,十二,三,四,莱特富特)散。

WHY WRITTEN为什么书面

Colossians was written as a warning against certain false teachers, about whom St. Paul had probably heard from Epaphras, his "fellow-prisoner" and the founder of the Church of the Colossians.歌罗西书是写为对某些假教师,其中圣保罗大约有可能从Epaphras,他的“同胞囚犯”和歌罗西教会的创办人听到警告。 The most diverse opinions have been held regarding these seducers.最不同的意见已举行了关于这些迷惑。They were called philosophers by Tertullian, Epicureans by St. Clement of Alexandria, Jews by Eichhorn, heathen followers of Pythagoras by Grotius.他们被称为良,伊壁鸠鲁的圣亚历山大犹太人克莱门特由艾希霍恩,异教徒的毕达哥拉斯信徒的格劳秀斯的哲学家。They have also been called Chaldean magicians, Judaizing Christians, Essenes, Ebionites, Cabbalists, Gnostics, or varying combinations of all these (see Jacquier, Histoire, I, 316; Cornely, Introduction, III, 514).他们也被称为迦勒魔术师,犹太化的基督徒,爱色尼,以便尼派,Cabbalists,诺斯替教派,或改变所有这些组合(见Jacquier,Histoire,我,316; Cornely,导言,III,514)。The main outlines of their errors are, however, stated with sufficient clearness in the Epistle, which contains a two fold refutation of them: first, by a direct statement of the true doctrine on Christ, by which the very foundations of their erroneous teaching are shown to be baseless; and secondly, by a direct polemic in which is laid bare the hollowness of what they put forth under the specious name of "philosophy".他们的错误,主要轮廓,则表示在书信,其中包含两折驳斥他们足够清晰:首先,由一个真正的教义基督直接声明,其中他们的错误是教学的根本基础证明是毫无根据的;第二,通过直接论战中,是暴露了他们提出在“哲学”的名称提出似是而非的空洞。 Here, philosophy in general is not condemned, but only the philosophy of those false teachers (Hort, Jud. Chr., 118).在这里,一般的哲学不是谴责,但只有那些假教师哲学(园艺,犹。染色体。,118)。This was not "according to Christ", but according to the "tradition of men", and was in keeping only with the very alphabet of worldly speculation (kata ta stoicheia tou kosmou -- see Galatians 4:3).这是不是“根据基督”,但根据“人的传统”,并在只保留与世俗炒得很字母表(卡塔TA stoicheia头kosmou - 见加拉太书4:3)。Josephus and Philo apply the word "philosophy" to Jewish teaching, and there can be no doubt that it was applied so in Coloss., ii; some of its details are given in 16-23: (1) The false teachers wished to introduce the observance of Sabbaths, new moons, and other such days.约瑟夫和斐罗应用字犹太教学“理念”,而不可能有,这是适用于Coloss因此怀疑,二;它的一些细节在16-23给出:(1)假教师希望引进在安息日,月朔,和其他这样的日子庆祝。 (2) They forbade the eating and drinking and even the very tasting and touching of certain things. (2)他们不准大吃大喝,甚至非常品尝和某些东西感动。(3) Under the false pretence of humility they inculcated the worship (threskeia) of angels, whom they regarded as equal or superior to Christ. (3)根据谦逊虚假的幌子,他们灌输崇拜的天使(threskeia),他们所为等于或优于基督认为。The best modern commentators, Catholic and non-Catholic agree with St. Jerome that all these errors were of Jewish origin.最好的现代评论家,天主教和非天主教徒同意圣杰罗姆,所有这些错误的犹太血统。The Essenes held the most exaggerated ideas on Sabbath observance and external purism, and they appear to have employed the names of the angels for magical purposes (Bel. Jud. II, vii, 2-13, Lightfoot, Col. and Dissertations).爱色尼举行安息日的遵守和外部纯正主义最夸张的想法,他们似乎已经雇用(Bel.犹二,七,2-13,莱特富特上校和学位论文)神奇用途的天使的名字。 Many scholars are of opinion that the "elements of this world" (stoicheia tou kosmou) mean elemental spirits; as, at that time, many Jews held that all material things had special angels.许多学者都认为,“这个世界的元素”(stoicheia头kosmou)指元素的精神,因为,当时,许多犹太人认为,所有物质的东西有特殊的天使。 In the Book of Henoch and the Book of Jubilees we read of angels of the stars, seasons months, days of the year, heat, cold, frost, hail, winds, clouds etc. Abbott (Eph. and Coloss., p. 248) says that "the term properly used of the elements ruled by these spirits might readily be applied to the spirits themselves, especially as there was no other convenient term".在过敏性图书和书Jubilees我们的明星天使读,季节个月,一年天,耐热,耐寒,霜冻,冰雹,风,云等雅培(弗和Coloss,第248 )说,“正确的裁定由这些精神元素所使用的术语可能会很容易地应用到自己的精神,特别是因为没有其他方便的术语”。At any rate angels play an important part in most of early apocryphal books of the Jews, eg in the two books just mentioned, the Book of the Secrets of Henoch, the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, etc.无论如何天使发挥了对犹太人的早期未经证实的书籍最重要的部分,在刚刚提到的两书,例如,对过敏的秘密本,约十二始祖,等等。

It may be noted in passing, that the words of the Epistle against the superstitious worship of angels cannot be taken as condemning the Catholic invocation of angels.这可能是顺便指出,即反对迷信崇拜的天使书信的话不能作为谴责天使天主教调用措施。Dr. TK Abbott, a candid non-Catholic scholar, has a very pertinent passage which bears on this point (Eph. and Coloss. p. 268): "Zonaras . . . says there was an ancient heresy of some who said that we should not call on Christ for help or access to God, but on the angels. . . . This latter view, however, would place Christ high above the angels, and therefore cannot have been that of Colossians, who required to be taught the superiority of Christ."雅培博士传统知识,坦诚的非天主教学者,有一个非常中肯的推移而在这一点上(弗和Coloss第268页。)熊: “Zonaras说,有一些是一个古老的异端谁说过,我们不应在基督呼救或访问上帝,但在天使。。这后一种观点,但是,这地方基督高于天使高,因此不能被认为歌罗西,谁需要学习的优越性基督的。“ The objection sometimes brought from a passage of Theodoret on the Council of Laodicea, is clearly and completely refuted by Estius (Comm. in Coloss., II, 18).有时从Theodoret通道带来的老底嘉理事会的反对,显然是完全由Estius(Comm.在Coloss。,II,18)驳斥。 Another difficulty may be mentioned in connection with this portion of the Epistle.另一个困难中可能会提及与此有关的书信部分。 The statement that the vain philosophy was in accordance with "the tradition of men" is not any disparagement of Apostolic traditions, of which St. Paul himself speaks as follows: "Therefore brethren, stand fast; and hold the traditions which you have learned, whether by word or by our Epistle" (2 Thessalonians 2:14).声明说,白白哲学与“男人的传统”是没有任何根据的使徒传统,其中圣保罗贬低自己说话如下:“所以弟兄们,快受不了,并保持您所学的传统,无论是词或由我们的书信“(帖后2:14)。 "Now I praise you, brethren that in all things you are mindful of me: and keep my ordinances as I have delivered them to you" (1 Corinthians 11:2. -- See also 2 Thessalonians 3:6; 1 Corinthians 7:17; 11:23; 14:33; 2 Corinthians 1:18; Galatians 1:8; Colossians 2:6, 7; 2 Timothy 1:13, 14; 2:2; 3:14; 2 John 1:12; 3 John 13). “现在我赞美你,弟兄们,在所有的事情你是我注意到:和保持我的条例,因为我已经交付给你”(林前十一时02分 - 见帖后3点06;哥林多前书7: 17; 11点23,14:33;哥林多后书1:18;加拉太书1:8;歌罗西书2时06分,7;提摩太后书1:13,14; 2:2; 3:14;约翰二书1:12;约翰三13)。Finally, the very last verse, dealing with the errors (ii, 23) is considered one of the most difficult passages in the whole of the Scriptures.最后,最后一节,与错误处理(二,23)被认为是在整个圣经中最困难的段落之一。 "Which things have indeed a shew of wisdom in superstition and humility, and not sparing the body; not in any honour to the filling of the flesh." “有哪些东西确实是在迷信和谦卑的智慧萧文和身体也不放过,不以任何荣誉的肉填。”The last words of this verse have given rise to a multitude of the most conflicting interpretations.本节的最后一句话便产生了许多相互矛盾的解释最。They have been taken as a condemnation of bodily mortification, and as an exhortation to it.他们被视作身体屈辱的谴责,并作为它告诫。Modern commentators devote much space to an enumeration of the many opinions and to an exhaustive study of these words without any satisfactory result.现代评论家花很大的空间给了很多意见,并列举了这些话没有任何令人满意的结果详尽的研究。There can be little doubt that the opinion of Hort, Haupt, and Peake (Exp. Greek Test., 535) is the right one, viz.几乎可以肯定的是,园艺,豪普特和皮克(实验希腊试验。,535)的意见是正确的,即。that the correct reading of this verse became irrevocably lost, in transcription, in very early times. ,这一节正确的阅读成为不可逆转丢失,转录在很早的时候。

CONTENTS目录

First Part (1-2)第一部分(1-2)

The Epistle consists of two parts the first two chapters being dogmatico-polemical and the last two practical or moral.书信分为两部分的前两章被dogmatico -论战,最后两个实际或道德。 In the first part the writer shows the absurdity of the errors by a direct statement of the supereminent dignity of Christ, by Whose blood we have the redemption of sins.在第一部分,作者给出了一个错误的基督supereminent尊严的是谁的血,我们的罪孽赎回,直接陈述的荒谬。He is the perfect image of the invisible God, begotten before all creatures.他是看不见的神的完美形象,在所有的生物独生子。By Him and for Him were created all things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, spiritual as well as material, and by Him are all things upheld.由他和为他创造了所有在天堂和地球上的东西,有形及无形的,精神和物质,和他所有的东西都是坚持。He is the Head of the Church and He has reconciled all things through the blood of His cross, and the Colossians "also he hath reconciled . . . through death".他是教会的头和他不甘心通过他的血液交叉所有的东西,和歌罗西书“还祂所不甘心。通过死亡。”St. Paul, as the Apostle of the Gentiles and a prisoner for their sakes, exhorts them to hold fast to Christ in Whom the plenitude of the Godhead dwells, and not to allow themselves under the plausible name of philosophy, to be re-enslaved by Jewish traditions based on the Law of Moses, which was but the shadow of which Christ was the reality and which was abrogated by His coming.圣保罗,作为外邦人的使徒,并为他们的缘故囚犯,激励他们坚守在谁的神性充实dwells基督,而不是让似是而非的理念下,自己的名字,被重新奴役通过在摩西的律法,这只不过是其中的阴影基督是现实,这是由他的到来废止的犹太传统。 They are not to listen to vain and rudimentary speculations of the false teachers, nor are they to suffer themselves to be deluded by a specious plea of humility to put angels or demons on a level with Christ, the creator of all, the master of angels, and conqueror of demons.他们不听老师的虚假徒劳和基本猜测,也不是他们遭受自己是一​​个似是而非的谦卑认罪放在一个与基督的水平,所有的创造者,是天使还是魔鬼蛊惑主天使和征服者的恶魔。

Second Part (3-4)第二部分(3-4)

In this portion of the Epistle St. Paul draws some practical lessons from the foregoing teaching.在本次书信圣保罗部分吸引了来自上述教学的一些实际经验。He appeals to them that as they are risen with Christ they should mind the things that are above; put off the old man and put on the new.他呼吁他们,因为他们是与基督复活,他们应该记住的东西,是以上;摘去老头,换上新的。 In Christ there is to be neither Gentile nor Jew, barbarian nor Scythian, bond nor free.在基督里是既不外邦人也不犹太人,野蛮,也不西徐亚,债券也不自由。The duties of wives and husbands, children and servants are next given.妻子和丈夫,孩子和仆人的职责是下一个给定的。He recommends constant prayer and thanksgiving, and tells them to walk with wisdom towards them that are without, letting their speech be always in grace seasoned with salt, that they may know how to answer every man.他建议不断祈祷和感谢,并告诉他们走与对他们的智慧是没有,让他们的言论总是在恩典中加盐调味,使他们知道如何回答每一个男人。 After the final greeting the Apostle ends with: "The salutation of Paul with my own hand. Be mindful of my bands. Grace be with you. Amen".经过最后的问候使徒结尾:“对我自己的手保罗称呼是我带铭记格雷斯与你们同在阿门 ”。

AUTHENTICITY OF THE EPISTLE真实性的书信

External Evidence外部证据

The external evidence for the Epistle is so strong that even Davidson has gone to the extent of saying that "it was unanimously attested in ancient times".为书信外部证据是如此强烈,甚至戴维森已经站到了说“大家一致古代证明”的程度。Considering its brevity, controversial character, and the local and ephemeral nature of the errors dealt with, it is surprising how frequently it was used by early writers.考虑到其简洁,有争议的人物,以及处理错误的本地和短暂性,它令人惊讶的是它经常被用于早期作家。There are traces of it in some of the Apostolic Fathers and it was known to the writer of the Epistle of Barnabas, to St. Polycarp, and Theophilus of Antioch.有它的踪迹在使徒父亲一些,它是已知的对巴拿巴书信作家,圣波利卡普和安提阿西奥菲勒斯。It was quoted by Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, etc. From the Muratorian Fragment and early versions it is evident that it was contained in the very first collections of St. Paul's Epistles.这是引述贾斯汀烈士,爱任纽,良,亚历山大等克莱门特从穆拉多利片段和早期版本很明显,这是在圣保罗的书信中的第一个集合。 It was used as Scripture early in the second century, by Marcion, the Valentinians, and by other heretics mentioned in the "Philosophoumena"; and they would not have accepted it had it originated among their opponents after they broke away from the Church.它被用来作为圣经早在公元二世纪,由马吉安的Valentinians,并在“Philosophoumena”中提到的其他异教徒和他们也不会接受它有它自己的对手之间的起源后,他们打破了由教会了。

Internal Evidence内部证据

The Epistle claims to have been written by St. Paul, and the internal evidence shows close connection with Philippians (von Soden) and Philemon, which are admitted to be genuine letters of St. Paul.在书信声称已经由圣保罗书面,内部证据表明与腓(冯索登)和腓利门书,这是承认是真正的圣保罗信件密切的联系。Renan concedes that it presents several traits which are opposed to the hypothesis of its being a forgery, and of this number is its connection with the Epistle to Philemon.勒南承认,它提出的是反对其被伪造的假设几个特征,以及这个数字是它与书信向腓利门连接。It has to be noted, too, that the moral portion of the Epistle, consisting of the last two chapters has the closest affinity with similar portions of other Epistles, while the whole admirably fits in with the known details of St. Paul's life, and throws considerable light upon them.它必须指出的一点,就是道德的书信部分,最后两章组成,拥有与其他类似的部分书信最接近的亲和力,而整个令人钦佩适合在与圣保罗的生活已知的细节,抛出后,其中相当轻。

OBJECTIONS反对意见

As the historical evidence is much stronger than that for the majority of classical writings, it may be asked why its genuineness was ever called in question.由于历史的证据是远远高于大多数的古典著作强,也可能是问为什么它的真实性是有史以来质疑。It was never doubted until 1838, when Meyerhoff, followed by others, began to raise objections against it.这是从来没有怀疑过,直到1838年,当麦耶霍夫,被别人后面,开始提出反对反对。It will be convenient to deal with these objections under the following four heads: (1) Style; (2) Christology; (3) Errors dealt with; and (4) Similarity to Ephesians.它可以方便的处理根据以下四个头这些反对意见:(1)式,(2)基督(3)错误处理;(4)相似以弗所书。

(1) Style (1)风格

(a) In general, on comparing the Epistle with Corinthians, Romans, and Galatians, it will be seen that the style, especially in the earlier part, is heavy and complicated. (一)在一般情况下,就比较科林蒂安,罗马人,和加拉太书信,我们将看到的风格,特别是在早期的一部分,是沉重和复杂。It contains no sudden questions, no crushing dilemmas, no vehement outbursts of sweeping Pauline eloquence.它不包含任何突发问题,没有破碎的困境,清扫宝莲口才没有激烈的爆发。Some of the sentences are long and involved, and though the whole is set forth in a lofty and noble strain, the presentment is uniform and not quite in the manner, say, of Galatians.的句子有些长,参与,虽然全是设置在一个崇高的压力提出的出示是不是很均匀,在加拉太书的方式,例如,。Hence it is objected that it could not have been written by St. Paul.因此,它是反对的,它不能被圣保罗写的。But all this can be very naturally explained when it is borne in mind that the Epistle was written after several years of monotonous confinement, when Christianity had taken firm root, when the old type of Judaizer had become extinct and St. Paul's position securely established.但是,这一切都可以很自然地解释时,在铭记,书信单调分娩后数年写的,当基督教采取了坚定的根,当Judaizer旧型已成为灭绝和圣保罗的地位牢固确立。 His advancing years also should be taken into account.他的推进年也应该考虑在内。It is unfair, moreover, to compare this Epistle, or but parts of it, with only certain portions of one or two of the earlier ones.这是不公平的,而且,比较这书信,但它的某些部分或与一个或两个只比前者的某些部分。There are long and involved sentences scattered throughout Romans, I and II Corinthians, and Galatians, and the generally admitted Epistle to the Philippians.有句长,涉及整个罗马人,我和林后分散,加拉太书,书信和普遍承认的腓。It has also to be observed that many of the old Pauline expressions and methods of reasoning are most naturally and inextricably interwoven with the very tissue and substance of the Epistle.它也被观察到的旧宝莲表达和推理的方法很多都是最自然,有着千丝万缕的非常组织及书信内容交织在一起。Ample proofs for all these statements and others throughout this article, are given in works mentioned in the bibliography.所有这些语句和本文中其他充足的证据,给出在参考书目中提到的作品。Dr. Sanday has voiced the opinion of fair-minded critics when he says that nobody can view the Epistle as a whole, without being impressed by its unbreakable unify and genuine Pauline character.桑迪博士也表达了公正的批评意见时,他说,没有人可以视为一个整体的书信,不受其牢不可破的统一和真正的宝莲性格印象深刻。

(b) Many of St. Paul's favourite expressions are wanting.(二)圣保罗的最爱许多想要表达。From eight to a dozen words not unfrequently used by him in earlier writings are absent from this short Epistle and about a dozen connecting particles, which he employs elsewhere, are also missing.从八到十几个不unfrequently他在早期著作中使用的话是从这个简短书信缺席等近十种连接颗粒,他采用了其他地方,也都不翼而飞。 One or two instances will show how such objections may readily be solved, with the aid of a concordance.一个或两个实例将展示如何这种反对可能很容易地解决了一个和谐的援助。The words dikaios, soteria and soteria are not found in the Epistle.字样dikaios,soteria和soteria都没有出现在书信。 Therefore, etc. -- But dikaios is wanting both in I Cor.因此,等等 - 但是dikaios是希望在林前两者。and I Thess.; nomos is not contained either in I Cor.我帖前; NOMOS是不包含在我肺心病之一。or Gal.; nomos is not found at all in I Thess.或半乳糖; NOMOS是没有发现在我帖的。or II Cor.或二肺心病。In the same way (with regard to connecting particles) ara, which is not in this Epistle, is not found either in Philipp.以同样的方式(关于连接粒子)ARA,这是不是在这书信,是不是发现无论是在菲利普。or the first hundred verses of I Cor., a space much longer than the whole of the Epistle; ara oun, which is frequent in Romans, is not met with in I and II Cor.或第一百节的我肺心病,空间远高于整体的书信; ARA渔隐,这是罗马人频繁,是不是见了一和二肺心病。and only once in Gal.只有一次在GAL。(See the details of the argument in Abbott and Jacquier.)(见雅培和Jacquier参数的细节。)

(c) It is objected that the Epistle contains many strange words, nowhere else used by St. Paul.(三)它是反对的书信包含许多奇怪的话,无处由圣保罗使用。That, however, is precisely what we should expect in an Epistle of St. Paul.然而,这正是我们应该期待在圣保罗书信。Every Epistle written by him contains many words employed by him nowhere else.他写的书信中每一个由他无处雇用许多话。Alford gives a list of thirty-two apax legomena in this Epistle, and of these eighteen occur in the second chapter, where the errors are dealt with.奥尔福德给出了这书信的32 APAX legomena名单,和这十八发生在第二章,那里的错误处理。The same thing occurs in the earlier Epistles, where the Apostle is speaking of new subjects or peculiar errors, and there apax legomena most abound.同样的事情发生在早期的书信,其中使徒是新的科目或奇特的错误来说,最有APAX legomena比比皆是。This Epistle does not show more than the ordinary proportion of new words and in this respect compares favourably with the genuine II Cor.这书信没有显示出比普通比例的新词多,在这方面绝不逊色于真正的二肺心病。Furthermore, the compound words found in the Epistle have their analogues in similar passages of the authentic Epistle to the Romans.此外,该化合物在书信中找到的词在地道的书信向罗马相似的段落及其类似物。It would be most absurd to bind down to a narrow and set vocabulary a writer of such intellectual vigour and literary versatility as St. Paul.这将是最荒谬的绑定到一个狭窄的词汇,并设置了这样的思想活力和圣保罗文学作家的多功能性。The vocabulary of all writers changes with time, place, and subject-matter.随着时间的所有作家的变化,地点,标的物的词汇。Salmon, Mahaffy, and others have pointed out that similar changes of vocabulary occur in the writings of Xenophon, who was a traveller like St. Paul.三文鱼,Mahaffy,和其他人指出,类似的词汇的变化发生在色诺芬,谁是像圣保罗旅行者的著作。Compare the earlier and later letters of Lord Acton (edited by Abbot Gasquet) or of Cardinal Newman.比较阿克顿勋爵(由住持加斯奎特编辑)或红衣主教纽曼早期和后来的信件。

(2) Christology(2)基督

It has objected that the exalted idea of Christ presented in the Epistle could not have been written by St. Paul.它有异议,认为基督的崇高思想,在书信提出不可能是由圣保罗写的。In answer to this it will be sufficient to quote the following passage from the genuine Epistle to the Philippians: "Who [Christ Jesus] being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant" (2:6, 7, etc. See Romans 1:3-4; Greek text, 8:3; 1 Corinthians 7:6; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 4:6, etc.).在回答这个将充分引用下面这段话的真正书信向腓利:“谁[基督耶稣]在形神之中,以为这不是抢劫是与神同等:但掏空自己,走一个仆人“的形式(2点06,7,等见罗马书1:3-4;希腊文,8时03分;哥林多前书7点06分;哥林多后书8点09分;加拉太书4:6,等等)。 That the Christology of the Epistle does not differ in any essential point from that of St. Paul's other Epistles is seen from an impartial study of these latter.这是基督的书信中没有任何重要的一点,不同于圣保罗的其他书信是看出了后者的公正的研究。The subject has been scientifically worked out by Père Rose (Rev. bibl. 1903), M. Lépin (Jésus Messie, 341), Sanday (Criticism of the Fourth Gospel, lect. vii, Oxford, 1905), Knowling (The Testimony of St. Paul to Christ, London, 1905), Lacey (The Historic Christ, London 1905), etc. Nor can the words (i, 24): I .该问题已被科学所制定的Père玫瑰(修订版bibl 1903年),M.乐品(耶稣Messie,341),桑迪(第四福音,lect批评。七,牛津,1905),Knowling(证言圣保罗基督,伦敦,1905年),莱西(历史性的基督,伦敦1905年)等也可以的话(I,24):我。 .."fill up those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ in my flesh, for his body, which is the church", present any difficulty when it is remembered that he had just said that Christ had reconciled all through the blood of His cross, and that the correct meaning of antanaplero ta hysteremata ton thlipseon tou Christou en te sarki mou hyper tou somatos autou, ho estin he ekklesia is: "I am filling up those Christian sufferings that remain for me to endure for the sake of the Church of Christ", etc. Compare II Cor., i, 5, "For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us" (ta pathemata tou Christou). “填补了这些东西,是基督的苦难希望在我的肉,他的身体,这是教会”,现在任何困难时,想起他刚刚说,基督已经全部通过了他的血液交叉核对,并认为antanaplero TA hysteremata吨thlipseon头克里斯托恩特sarki正确含义亩超头somatos autou,何estin他ekklesia是:“我是填补那些基督教的苦难,对我仍然忍受为教会的缘故基督“等比较二肺心病。,我,5,”对于作为基督的苦难在我们比比皆是“(TA pathemata头克里斯托)。

(3) Errors dealt with处理(3)错误

The objection under this heading need not detain us long.本项下不必扣留我们反对长。Some years ago it was frequently asserted that the errors combated in this Epistle were Gnostic errors of the second century, and that the Epistle was therefore written many years after St. Paul's death.几年前,有人断言,在这个经常书信打击的错误是第二个世纪的诺斯底的错误,而书信因此,许多年之后圣保罗去世写的。But this opinion is now considered, even by the most advanced critics, as exploded and antiquated.但这种意见是现在考虑的,即使按最先进的批评,因为爆炸和陈旧。Nobody can read the writings of these Gnostics without becoming convinced that terms employed by them were used in a quite different sense from that attached to them in the Epistle.没有人能阅读,而成为深信,他们雇用条款在从附着在书信向他们表示完全不同的意义上使用这些诺斯替教派的著作。Baur himself appears to have had considerable misgivings on the point.鲍尔本人似乎有相当大的一点疑虑。The errors of Judaic Gnosticism, condemned in the Epistle, were quite embryonic when compared with the full-blown Greek Gnosticism of the second century (see Lightfoot, Coloss., etc.).在犹太诺斯替主义的书信谴责,这些错误是相当胚胎时,全面爆发的第二个世纪的希腊诺斯替主义(见娜莱,Coloss。等)进行比较。

(4) Similarity to Ephesians(4)相似弗

The principal objection to the Epistle is its great similarity to Ephesians.主要的反对书信是其巨大的相似性以弗所。Davidson stated that out of 155 verses in the latter Epistle 78 were identical with Colossians.戴维森表示,在后者的书信78人与歌罗西书相同的155诗句了。De Wette held that Ephesians was but a verbose amplification of Colossians.德Wette认为,以弗所书不过是歌罗西书详细的放大。 Baur thought Ephesians the superior letter, and Renan asked how can we suppose the Apostle spending his time in making a bald transcription of himself.鲍尔认为弗优越的信,并询问如何才能勒南假设使徒开支作出了自己的光头转录他的时间。But as Dr. Salmon pointed out, an Apostle might write a circular letter, that is, he might send to different places letters couched in identical words.但由于鲑鱼博士指出,使徒可以写一份通函,那就是他发送到不同的地方可能在相同的文字措辞的信件。Many theories have been elaborated to explain these undoubted resemblances.许多理论阐述,解释了这些无疑相似之处。Ewald maintained that the substance was St. Paul's, while the composition was left to Timothy.埃瓦尔德认为,物质是圣保罗的,而组成留给蒂莫西。Weiss and Hitzig had recourse to a theory of interpolations.Weiss和希齐格求助于一种插值理论。But the theory that has gained the greatest amount of notoriety is that of HJ Holtzmann.但已获得了恶名金额最大理论是HJ HOLTZMANN的。In his "Kritik der Epheser- und Kolosser-Briefe" (1872) he instituted a most elaborate and exhaustive comparison between the two Epistles.他在“Kritik DER Epheser - UND Kolosser - Briefe”(1872年),他建立了两者之间的书信最详尽的阐述和比较。He took a number of passages which seemed to prove the priority of Ephesians and an equal number which were just as conclusive that Colossians was the earlier.他采取了段落似乎证明了弗优先和平等的数目也同样确凿的歌罗西书是较早的数量。The natural conclusion would be that all these similarities were due to the same author writing and dispatching these Epistles at one and the same time.自然的结论是,所有这些相似性是由于同一作者写在一个调度这些书信和相同的时间。But Holtzmann's explanation was quite different.但HOLTZMANN的解释是完全不同的。He supposed that St. Paul wrote a short epistle to the Colossians.他推测,圣保禄写了简短书信向歌罗西书。From the study of this epistle a later writer composed the Epistle to the Ephesians.从这个研究以后书信作家组成的书信的以弗所。 Then taking St. Paul's short Epistle to the Colossians he made interpolations and additions to it from his own composition to the Ephesians and thus built up our present Epistle to the Ephesians, and that with such success that the thing was never suspected until the nineteenth century.然后采取圣保罗短书信向歌罗西书,他提出的插值和补充,它从自己组成的以弗所,从而建立了我们现在的书信的以弗所,而这种成功,是从来没有的事,直到十九世纪怀疑。 This intricate and complicated theory did not gain a single adherent, even amongst the most advanced critical school.这种错综复杂的理论没有得到一个贴壁,甚至在最先进的批判学派。Hilgenfeld rejected it in 1873; but its best refutation is von Soden's detailed criticism of 1885. Hilgenfeld于1873年拒绝了它,但它是最好的驳斥冯索登的1885年详细的批评。He held that only about eight verses could be regarded as interpolations.他认为,只有约八节可以作为插值认为。Sanday in Smith's "Dict. of the Bible" (I, 625) pointed out that von Soden's lines of demarcation were purely imaginary, and Pfleiderer showed the inconsistency involved in his rejection of these verses.桑迪在斯密的“快译通。圣经的”(I,625)指出,划界冯索登的路线是纯属子虚乌有,并弗莱德尔表现在他的这些诗句拒绝涉及的不一致。 The results of these criticisms and of further study convinced von Soden, in 1891, that the whole Epistle was genuine, with the exception of a single verse -- a verse now generally held to be genuine.这些批评和进一步研究的结果相信冯索登,于1891年,整个书信是真正的单节异常, - 现在一般认为是真正的诗句。 In 1894 Jülicher stated that the best solution was to admit the authenticity of both Epistles, though he speaks more hesitatingly in "Encyc. Bibl." 1894年Jülicher说,最好的解决办法是承认双方书信的真实性,但他讲得多犹豫在“百科全书。Bibl。”1889.1889年。J. Weiss made an abortive attempt to resuscitate Holtzmann's moribund theory in 1900. J.魏斯做出了失败的尝试在1900年复苏HOLTZMANN的垂死的理论。

Whilst Holtzmann's facts are incontestable, and only go to prove the community of authorship, his explanation (in which he seems to have lost faith) is rejected by scholars as artificial and unreal.虽然HOLTZMANN的事实是无可争辩的,只有去证明作者的社会,他的解释(其中他似乎已经失去了信心)被拒绝学者作为人工和不真实。 It affords no explanation of many things connected with these Epistles.它可以提供任何与这些书信连接很多东西的解释。It does not explain how the early Christians allowed a genuine letter of St. Paul to become completely lost without trace or mention, for the sake of two forgeries of much later date.它没有解释如何早期基督徒允许圣保罗真正成为完全丧失信不留痕迹或提及的两个更晚的日期是伪造的缘故。Each Epistle, taken by itself, shows such unity and connection of argument and language, that if the other were not in existence no one would have suspected the slightest degree of interpolation.每个书信,本身采取的,显示了这种团结和参数与语言的关系,即如果其他人的存在,没有人会怀疑插值丝毫。 The parts rejected as interpolations break the unity of argument and flow of ideas.的部分拒绝了插值打破了论证和思想流的统一。Why should a forger, capable of writing the bulk of both Epistles, take the trouble to interpolate verses and half of his own production from one Epistle into the other, and that in quite a different connection?为什么要伪造,写了大量书信都能干,采取内插诗句麻烦,他从一进自己的其他书信产量的一半,而且在相当不同的连接? Besides, as Principal Salmond observes, there is not a dull sameness of style in both Epistles.此外,由于主要萨蒙德指出,没有一个在这两个书信的风格平淡雷同。Ephesians is round, full, rhythmical; Colossians more pointed, logical and concise.以弗所书是圆的,饱满,节奏;歌罗西书更指出,逻辑和简洁。Ephesians has several references to the Old Testament; Colossians only one.弗要旧约多次提到;歌罗西只有一个。There are different new words in each, and there are whole passages in the one and nothing like them found in the other.在每个有不同的新词,并有在一个和他们一样,在没有其他发现整个通道。

The expressions supposed to have come from Colossians occur quite naturally in Ephesians, but by no means in the same context and connection, and vice versa.应该从歌罗西书来表达很自然地出现在以弗所书,但在同样的背景下和连接,反之亦然没有手段。As Holtzmann's hypothesis has completely broken down, his study of the Epistles shows such close relationship between them that there can be only one other possible explanation: that both are the genuine writings of one man, and that man was St. Paul.由于HOLTZMANN的假设已经完全破裂,他的书信的研究表明它们之间的这种密切的关系,只能有另外一个可能的解释:这两个是一个人真正的著作,这名男子被圣保罗。 Paley, who wrote his "Horæ Paulinæ" in 1790, set forth this side of the argument long before these objections were thought of; and the fact that he can still be quoted, without qualification, in this connection, is the best proof of the futility of all such objections.佩利,谁写于1790年他的“海悦Paulinæ”,提出这个论点之前,这些反对意见,认为是长边,以及他仍然可以被引用在这方面,毫无保留,其实就是最好的证明所有这些无用的反对。 He says (Horæ Paulinæ, London, 1790, 215):他说,(海悦Paulinæ,伦敦,1790,215):

Whoever writes two letters or discourses nearly upon the same subject and at no great distance of time but without any express recollection of what he had written before will find himself repeating some sentences in the very order of the words in which he had already used them; but he will more frequently find himself employing some principal terms, with the order inadvertently changed, or with the order disturbed by the intermixture of other words and phrases expressive of ideas rising up at the time, or in many instances repeating not single words, nor yet whole sentences, but parts and fragments of sentences.谁写几乎在相同的主题,在任何时间很大的距离,但没有任何书面的东西,他发现自己重复之前将在中,他已经用他们的话很令一些句子表达的回忆两个字母或话语;但他会更频繁地发现自己雇用一些主要条款,与不经意间改变了命令,或与其他单词和短语的想法上升的时候,或者在不重复单一的话很多情况下表现混合液扰乱了秩序,也没有但整个句子,但零件和句子的片段。 Of all these varieties the examination of our two epistles will furnish plain examples, and I should rely on this class of instances more than on the last, because although an impostor might transcribe into a forgery entire sentences and phrases, yet the dislocation of words, the partial recollection of phrases and sentences, the intermixture of new terms and new ideas with terms and ideas before used, which will appear in the examples that follow, and which are the natural products of writing produced under the circumstances in which these epistles are represented to have been composed -- would not, I think, have occurred to the invention of a forger, nor, if they had occurred would they have been so easily executed.在所有这些品种我们两个书信考试将提供普通的例子,我应该依靠这种情况比过去更多的类,因为虽然是冒名顶替者可能抄写到一个伪造整个句子和短语,但错位的话,的短语和句子的部分回忆,新术语和新的思路与以前使用的术语和观念混合液,这将出现在下面的例子中,哪些是写在这些书信中都有代表的情况下生产的天然产品已组成 - 不会,我认为,发生在一个伪造的发明,也没有,如果他们发生他们会一直这么容易执行。This studied variation was a refinement in forgery which I believe did not exist, or if we can suppose it to have been practised in the instances adduced below, why, it may be asked, was not the same art exercised upon those which we have collected in the preceding class?这种变化是在研究改进,我相信伪造根本不存在,或者如果我们可以假设它已经在以下的情况下援引实行,为什么,它可能会问,是不一样的艺术在那些我们所收集的行使在前面的类?

He then goes on to illustrate all these points by numerous examples taken from all parts of these Epistles.他接着说明从这些书信的所有部分采取了许多例子,所有这些点。

Publication information Written by Cornelius Aherne.出版信息科尼利厄斯Aherne写。Transcribed by Vernon Bremberg.转录由弗农Bremberg。Dedicated to the Cloistered Dominican Nuns of the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.专用于与世隔绝多米尼加的婴儿耶稣,拉夫金,得克萨斯州天主教百科全书,第四卷寺的尼姑。 Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

ST. ST。JEROME, Ep.杰罗姆,EP。cxxi, Ad Algas., q. cxxi,广告Algas。,问:x in Opera (Venice, 1766), I Pt. x在歌剧院(威尼斯,1766),我PT。I, 878; CORNELY, Introd.我,878; CORNELY,Introd。(Paris, 1897), III; SALMON, Intro.(巴黎,1897年),三;鲑鱼,介绍。to New Test.到新的考验。(London, 1897); JACQUIER, Histoire des Livres du Nouveau Test.(伦敦,1897年); JACQUIER,Histoire DES里弗杜风格测试。 (Paris, 1906), I; ESTIUS, Commentarius (Mainz, 1844); BISPING, Erklärung der Briefe an die Eph., Philip., Kol. (巴黎,1906年),I; ESTIUS,Commentarius(美因茨,1844);比斯平,Erklärung DER Briefe an死弗,菲利普,KOL。(Münster, 1855); MCEVILLY, Exposition (Dublin, 1860); ALFORD, New Test.(明斯特,1855); MCEVILLY,博览会(都柏林,1860年); ALFORD,新的考验。Critical and Exegetical Commentary (London, 1856); ELLICOTT, Critical and Grammatical Comm.关键和训诂评(伦敦,1856);埃利科特,关键和语法通讯。(London, 1857); LIGHTFOOT, Colossians and Philemon (London, 1879); IDEM, Dissertations on the Apostolic Age (London, 1875); SANDAY in SMITH, Dict. (伦敦,1857);娜莱,歌罗西书和腓利门书(伦敦,1879年),同上,在使徒时代(伦敦,1875年)学位论文,桑迪在史密斯,快译通。of the Bible (London, 1893); VON SODEN, Die Briefe an die Kolosser, etc. (Leipzig, 1893); SALMOND, Ephesians; PEAKE, Colossians in Exp.的圣经(伦敦,1893年);冯索登,模具Briefe an死Kolosser等(莱比锡,1893年);萨蒙德,以弗所书,皮克,在进出口歌罗西书。Greek Test.希腊测试。(London, 1903). (伦敦,1903年)。One of the best books on the subject is ABBOTT, Ephesians and Colossians.关于这个问题的最好的书之一是雅培,以弗所和歌罗西书。See also The International Critical Commentary, ed.另见国际评论文章,编辑。CLARK (Edinburgh, 1907); HORT, Judaic Christianity (London, 1898).克拉克(爱丁堡,1907年),园艺,犹太基督教(伦敦,1898年)。



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