Epistles to the Corinthians哥林多前书 书信

General Information一般资料

The two Epistles to the Corinthians in the New Testament were written by Saint Paul from Ephesus, probably in AD 57, to the church he founded at Corinth, a cosmopolitan commercial city in central Greece.这两个书信在新约圣经哥林多前书是写在圣保罗从以弗所,大概在公元57,教会他在科林斯,在希腊中部一个国际商业城市成立。 They were part of a lively exchange (there are references to other correspondence in 1 Corinthians 5:9; 7:1; 2 Corinthians 2:4) in which Paul clarified his teachings, rebuked the Corinthians for erroneous practices, and instructed them in Christian living.他们生动的交流(也有其他信件的引用在哥林多前书五点○九; 7点01分;哥林多后书2:4)的一部分,其中保罗澄清他的教导,斥责错误做法的科林蒂安,并指示他们在基督教生活。In chapters 1 - 4 of Corinthians, Paul connects true wisdom to the cross of Jesus Christ in opposition to any other teaching the Corinthians may find attractive.在章节1 - 4哥林多前书,保罗连接真正的智慧来的耶稣基督,反对任何其他教学哥林多前书可能会发现有吸引力的交叉。

In chapters 5 - 6 he criticizes their handling of law suits and of a case of sexual immorality.在章节5 - 6他批评他们的诉讼和一个淫乱办案。Then in chapters 7 - 15 he answers questions sent to him concerning marriage, Resurrection of the body, eating meat offered to idols, charity, conduct at worship, and the role of spiritual gifts. The Corinthian community was unstructured compared to other Christian churches of the time, and its rapid growth forced Paul to apply Christian beliefs to a variety of problems.然后在章节7 - 15 他回答寄给他的关于婚姻,身体复活,吃祭偶像,慈善机构,开展在崇拜和精神礼物作用肉问题是非结构化的科林斯社会相比,其他基督教教会当时,它的快速增长迫使保罗申请基督教信仰各种各样的问题。

The text of 2 Corinthians shows that relations between Paul and the Corinthians had deteriorated into open conflict.哥林多后书的文字说明,保罗和哥林多人之间的关系已成为公开的冲突恶化。 Most of chapters 1 - 7 reflect past conflict over the Corinthians' behavior, the rejection of Paul's apostolic authority by some, and subsequent reconciliation.大多数的章节1 - 7反映在科林蒂安的行为,保罗的使徒权威一些排斥反应,以及随后的和解过去的冲突。Chapters 10 - 13 are an even more emotional defense of Paul's life and ministry against adversaries claiming to have authority above Paul's.章10 - 13是保罗的生命,反对自称拥有超过保罗的权威对手部甚至更多的情感防御。Many scholars think that these chapters are another epistle, because they are so different from the preceding chapters.许多学者认为,这些章节是另一个书信,因为他们是如此不同,从前面的章节。Likewise, chapters 8 and 9 are probably two distinct appeals for contributions to be given to the Jerusalem church.同样,第8,9章的贡献可能是两个截然不同的呼吁给予了耶路撒冷教会。Paul's zeal, strength, closeness to Christ, and feelings for his communities are revealed in 2 Corinthians.保罗的热情,力量,亲近基督,并为他的社区的感情流露在哥林多后书。

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Bibliography 参考书目
H Betz, Second Corinthians 8 and 9 (1985); GD Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (1987); J Hering, The Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians (1958). H贝茨,哥林多后书8和9(1985年);,第一书信向哥林多前书(1987)GD费〔J赫林,而圣保罗第二书信向哥林多前书(1958年)。


Epistles to the Corinthians书信的科林蒂安

Brief Outline简述

First Epistle to the Corinthians第一书信向科林蒂安

  1. Factions in the Church (1-4)在教会派系(1-4)
  2. Incestuous marriage (5)乱伦婚姻(5)
  3. Disputes of Christians brought before heathen courts (6)基督徒的争端送交法庭异教徒(6)
  4. Phases of the subject of marriage (7)阶段对婚姻的主题(7)
  5. Meat offered to idols (8-10)肉提供给偶像(8-10)
  6. Head coverings for women; proper observance of the Lord's Supper (11)头巾的妇女;主的晚餐适当遵守(11)
  7. Spiritual Gifts (12-14)精神礼品(12-14)
  8. Resurrection of the body (15)复活的身体(15)
  9. Collection for the poor of Jerusalem; closing remarks (16)收集为耶路撒冷差;闭幕词(16)

Second Epistle to the Corinthians第二书信向科林蒂安

  1. Some thoughts on the crisis through which the Church had just passed (1-7)对危机的一些教会通过它刚刚通过的想法(1-7)
  2. Collection for the poor (8-9)为穷人集(8-9)
  3. Defense of Paul's Ministry against the attacks of his enemies and a vindication of his apostleship.国防部长保罗的对他的敌人和他的使徒的攻击平反部。(10-13)(10-13)


First Epistle to the Corinthians第一书信向科林蒂安

Advanced Information先进的信息

The First Epistle to the Corinthians was written from Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10; 20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably AD 57).第一书信向科林蒂安写从以弗所(林前16:8)关于时间的逾越节在使徒的逗留有第三年(徒19:10; 20:31),当他已经形成了目的访问马其顿,然后返回到科林斯(可能是公元57)。The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan.而这已经达到了他的消息,然而,从科林斯他的计划受挫。He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from Apollos (Acts 19:1), and then from a letter they had written him on the subject, and also from some of the "household of Chloe," and from Stephanas and his two friends who had visited him (1 Cor. 1:11; 16:17).他听说过的侵权行为,并出现了它们之间的争论,首先从亚波罗(徒19:1),然后从他们写了关于这个问题的他信,并从一些“克洛伊家庭”和从Stephanas和他的两个朋友谁访问了他(林前1:11;。16:17)。

Paul thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that has sprung up among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly practices that prevailed.保罗于是写了这封信,为结党的精神检查和纠正其中已涌现了错误的意见,并纠正了许多弊端,无序的做法盛行的目的。 Titus and a brother whose name is not given were probably the bearers of the letter (2 Cor. 2:13; 8:6, 16-18).提图斯和弟弟的名字没有给出很可能信(林后2:13; 8:6,16-18)的承担者。The epistle may be divided into four parts: (1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor. 1-4).书信可分为四个部分:(1)使徒与可悲的部门和党的strifes,民政事务总署,其中(1林前1-4)出现的主题交易。 (2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become notorious among them. (2)他接着对待不道德的肯定,已成为其中臭名昭著的案件。

They had apparently set at nought the very first principles of morality (5; 6).他们显然定化为乌有道德的第一原则(5,6)。(3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had made to him. (3)在第三部分讨论了他的学说和基督教的道德,在回答他们已经向他提出某通信的各种问题。He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord's supper (7-14).他特别纠正了一些关于主的晚餐(7-14)庆祝公然践踏。(4.) The concluding part (15; 16) contains an elaborate defense of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been called in question by some among them, followed by some general instructions, intimations, and greetings.(4)的结束部分(15; 16)载有对死者复活的教义阐述防守,这已经在质疑了其中一些,一些一般性说明,告知的,和随后的问候。This epistle "shows the powerful selfcontrol of the apostle in spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances, his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature.这书信“显示了他的身体虚弱,他心疼的情况下,他不断烦恼,尽管他的情感性质的使徒强大束身。

It was written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, 'out of much affliction and pressure of heart and with streaming eyes' (2 Cor. 2:4); yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win back his erring children.这是写的,他告诉我们,在痛苦的痛苦,“出多少痛苦和心 压力和流眼”(林后2:4);但他抑制了自己的感情表达,并写有尊严和神圣的平静,他认为最计算,赢回他犯错误的孩子。 It gives a vivid picture of the early church. It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or purity of doctrine." The apostle in this epistle unfolds and applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they may appear.它提供了早期教会生动的画面 这完全消散的梦想,在使徒教会的生命或纯净圣洁的教义异常情况了。“使徒书信在此展开,适用于装大原则引导他们在任何形式可能会出现相同和类似的罪恶打交道的各年龄段的教堂。

This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never been called in question by critics of any school, so many and so conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin.这是其中的真实性从未质疑的任何学校的批评书信之一,这么多,所以结论是其波利娜起源的证据。The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi.对这个书信州认购授权版本错误地认为它是在腓立比写的。This error arose from a mistranslation of 1 Cor.这个错误源于1肺心病误译。16:5, "For I do pass through Macedonia," which was interpreted as meaning, "I am passing through Macedonia."16时05分,“对于我通过马其顿,通”,这是作为意义的解释,“我穿过马其顿。”In 16:8 he declares his intention of remaining some time longer in Ephesus.在16时08分,他宣布他留在以弗所一些时间较长的意图。 After tha, his purpose is to "pass through Macedonia."THA后,他的目的是“通过马其顿”。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Second Epistle to the Corinthians第二书信向科林蒂安

Advanced Information先进的信息

Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia.不久后写他的第一次写信给哥林多前书,保罗离开以弗所,在强烈的兴奋引起了对他,对他的伟大成功的证据,并着手马其顿。 Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe.追求平常的路线,他达到了特罗亚,对欧洲的港口出发。 Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but was disappointed (1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 1:8; 2:12, 13).在这里,他将会见提多,他已派出由以弗所到科林斯与上由第一书信教会产生的影响有音信;但很失望(林前16:9;。林后1:8; 2:12,13)。He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (2 Cor. 7:6, 7), who brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy.然后,他离开特罗亚,前往马其顿和腓,守侯在那里,他很快就被提多(林7时06分,7),谁给他带来了好消息,从科林斯,以及提摩太也加入了。

Under the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written.在他的脑海中惊醒了有利的报告,提多带回来的感情,从科林斯的影响,本次书信写。It was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year AD 58, and was sent to Corinth by Titus.这可能是写在腓立比,或者像有些人认为,塞萨洛尼卡,早在公元58年,被送往由提图斯到科林斯。 This letter he addresses not only to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia, ie, in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece.这封信,他不仅涉及到在哥林多教会,而且在所有亚该亚,即在雅典,Cenchrea和希腊其他城市的圣人。The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged:- (1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor. 1-7).这种书信的内容可以这样安排: - (1)保罗谈到了他的精神的劳动和生活的过程,并表示对科林蒂安(林1-7)表示热烈的感情。 (2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (8; 9).(2)给出了明确的指示,他就集合,是对他们的贫困兄弟在朱迪亚(8,9)制成。(3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (10-13), and justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents. (3),他捍卫了自己的使徒索赔(10-13),并证明从收费及虚假老师和他的追随者影射自己。

This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the apostle more than any other.这书信,它一直说得好,显示了使徒比任何其他individuallity。"Human weakness, spiritual strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of Christ and for the of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal." “人性的弱点,精神力量,对感情最深的柔情,受伤的感觉,严厉,讽刺,训斥,慷慨激昂的自我辩护,谦逊,公正自重,为弱者和苦难福利的热情,以及对基督的教会和基督的教会和其成员的精神文明,进度都显示在了他的上诉过程转变。“ Lias, Second Corinthians.黑侏罗统,第二科林蒂安。Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information.对哥林多教会的书信产生这种效应,我们没有确切消息。We know that Paul visited Corinth after he had written it (Acts 20: 2, 3), and that on that occasion he tarried there for three months.我们知道,保罗访问科林斯后,他写了它(徒20:2,3),并守侯在那个场合,他有三个月。In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the Romans.他在信罗马,在这个时候写的,他发出打招呼从教会的主要成员一些罗马人。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistles to the Corinthians书信的科林蒂安

Catholic Information天主教信息

INTRODUCTORY介绍性

St. Paul Founds the Church at Corinth圣保罗在哥林多教会的创立

St. Paul's first visit to Europe is graphically described by St. Luke (Acts 16-18).圣保罗的第一次访问欧洲是图形化描述的圣路加(徒16-18)。When he reached Troas, at the northwest corner of Asia Minor, on his second great missionary journey in company with Timothy and Silvanus, or Silas (who was a "prophet" and had the confidence of The Twelve), he met St. Luke, probably for the first time.当他到达特罗亚,在小亚细亚的西北角上与他的第二个伟大的提摩太和西拉,或西拉斯(谁是“先知”,并有信心的十二)公司的传教之旅,他会见了圣卢克,大概是第一次。 At Troas he had a vision of "a man of Macedonia standing and beseeching him, and saying: Pass over in to Macedonia and help us."在特罗亚他的视野“的马其顿人的地位和恳求他,说:通过对在马其顿和帮助我们。”In response to this appeal he proceeded to Philippi in Macedonia, where he made many converts, but was cruelly beaten with rods according to the Roman custom.为响应这一呼吁,他接着腓立在马其顿,在那里他做了很多转换,但被残酷殴打与棒据罗马习俗。After comforting the brethren he travelled southward to Thessalonica, where some of the Jews "believed, and of those that served God, and of the Gentiles a great multitude, and of noble women not a few. But the Jews, moved with envy, and taking unto them some wicked men of the vulgar sort set the city in an uproar. . . And they stirred up the people and the rulers of the city hearing these things. But the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night to Ber£a. Who, when they were come thither, went into the synagogue of the Jews, and many of them believed, and of honourable women that were Gentiles and of men not a few."之后他前往安慰弟兄南下塞萨洛尼卡,那里的犹太人一些“认为,和那些服务的神,一个伟大的外邦人众多,而不是少数贵族妇女,但犹太人,羡慕感动了,对他们采取一些庸俗的那种恶人设置在城市的一片哗然。他们激起了全市人民和统治者听到这些事情,但弟兄们马上送走,晚上保罗和西拉的BER英镑a谁,当他们来到那里去,走进犹太人的犹太教堂,其中许多人认为,和那名妇女和外邦人尊贵的男人没几个。“ But unbelieving Jews from Thessalonica came to Ber£a "stirring up and troubling the multitude".但是,从塞萨洛尼卡不信的犹太人来到了误码率英镑的“挑起和困扰众多”。"And immediately the brethren sent away Paul to go to the sea; but Silas and Timothy remained there. And they that conducted Paul brought him as far as Athens" -- then reduced to the position of an old university town.“,马上送走保罗的弟兄们去大海,但西拉和提摩太仍那里,他们认为保罗给他进行了尽可能雅典” - 再缩小到一个老的大学城的地位。At Athens he preached his famous philosophical discourse in the Areopagus.在雅典,他宣扬他的著名的Areopagus哲学话语。Only a few were converted, amongst these being St. Dionysius the Areopagite.只有少数被转换,在这些被圣修斯的Areopagite。Some of his frivolous hearers mocked him.他轻浮的听众有些嘲笑他。Others said that that was enough for the present; they would listen to more another time.其他人说,这是对目前的不足,他们将听取更多的其他时间。

He appears to have been very disappointed with Athens He did not visit it again, and it is never mentioned in his letters.他似乎已经非常失望,他没有雅典再次访问,这是从来没有在他的信中提到。 The disappointed and solitary Apostle left Athens and travelled westwards, a distance of forty-five miles, to Corinth, then the capital of Greece.在失望,孤独的使​​徒离开雅典,前往向西,一个45英里距离,科林斯,那么希腊的首都。The fearful scourging at Philippi coming not very long after he had been stoned and left for dead at Lystra, together with his ill-treatment by the Jews, as described in 2 Corinthians, must have greatly weakened him.在腓立害怕鞭打的未来不是很长后,他已经离开投掷石块,并死在路司得,连同他的虐待犹太人,在哥林多后书所述,必须极大地削弱了他。 As we are not to suppose that he, any more than his Master, was miraculously saved from pain and its effects, it was with physical pain, nervousness, and misgiving that the lonely Apostle entered this great pagan city, that had a bad name for profligacy throughout the Roman world.由于我们不能假设他,任何超过他的主人,却奇迹般地疼痛和保存的影响,它与身体的疼痛,紧张和忧虑的孤独使者进入这个伟大的异教徒的城市,这有一个坏的名称挥霍整个罗马世界。 To act the Corinthian was synonymous with leading a loose life.要行为的科林斯是一个松散的生活与领先的代名词。Corinth, which had been destroyed by the Romans, was re-established as a colony by Julius Cesar 46 BC, and made the capital of the Roman Province of Achaia by Augustus.科林斯,这已经被罗马人摧毁,重新建立一个殖民地由朱利塞萨尔46年,并提出了由奥古斯都罗马的亚该亚省的省会。 It was built on the southern extremity of the isthmus connecting the mainland with the Morea, and was on the great line of traffic between East and West.它是建立在连接内地与Morea地峡南端,并在交通东,西部大线。 Its two magnificent harbours, one at each side of the isthmus, were crowded with shipping and were the scenes of constant bustle and activity.它的两个宏伟的港口,在每个地峡的两侧,挤满了船,被不断的喧嚣和活动的场景。 Corinth was filled with Greeks, Romans, Syrians, Egyptians, and Jews, many of the last having lately come from Rome on account of their expulsion by Claudius; and its streets were thronged by tens of thousands of slaves.科林斯是与希腊人充满,罗马人,叙利亚人,埃及人,犹太人,最后其中很多人最近从罗马来的他们被驱逐克劳狄斯帐户,而且它的街道挤满了成千上万的奴隶。 Crowds, too, came from all parts every four years to be present at the Isthmian games.人群,也来自各个部位每四年将在地峡游戏中。On the summit of the hill to the south of the city was the infamous temple of Venus, with its thousand female devotees dedicated to a life of shame.对到城市的南部坡顶是臭名昭著的维纳斯神庙与奉献了一场耻辱的生活中的千女信徒。

It was to this centre of traffic, excitement, wealth, and vice that St. Paul came, probably about the end of AD 51; and here he spent upwards of eighteen months of his Apostolic career.这是这个交通,兴奋,财富和副中心,圣保罗来到大概是公元51年底,和他在这里度过了他的使徒事业十八个月以上。He took up his residence with two Christian Jews, Aquila and his wife Priscilla (refugees from Rome), because they were of the same trade as himself.他拿起两个基督教的犹太人,阿奎拉和他的妻子普里西拉(从罗马难民)他的住所,因为他们作为自己被同行业。Like all Jews he had learnt a trade in his youth, and in their house he supported himself by working at this trade, viz., that of tentmaker, as he had determined not to receive any support from the money-loving Corinthians.像所有的犹太人,他学到了在他的青年时期的贸易,并在他们的房子,他支持在这个行业,即自己的工作。,对tentmaker,由于他坚决不接受金钱爱好哥林多前书的任何支持。 He began by preaching in the synagogue every Sabbath; "and he persuaded the Jews and the Greeks".他开始在每个安息日犹太教堂讲道,“他说服了犹太人和希腊人”。Of this period he says that he was with them "in weakness, and fear, and much trembling".在此期间,他说,他与他们同在“的弱点,恐惧,很多颤抖”。The ill-usage he had received was still fresh in his memory, as, writing a month or two later to the Thessalonians, he recalls how he had been "shamefully treated at Philippi".而虐待的使用,他收到了他的记忆中仍然记忆犹新,因为,写一两个月后给帖撒罗尼迦,他记得他已经“可耻地在腓对待”。 But when he was joined by Silas and Timothy, who brought him pecuniary aid from Macedonia, he became more bold and confident, and "was earnest in testifying to the Jews that Jesus is the Christ. But they gainsaying and blaspheming, he shook his garments and said to them: "Your blood be upon your own heads; I am clean: from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles." He then began to preach in the house of Titus Justus, adjoining the synagogue. Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, and his family, and several of the Corinthians were converted and baptized. Amongst these were Caius, Stephanas, and his household, and the house of Fortunatus and Achaicus, "the firstfruits of Achaia" (1 Corinthians 1:14, 1:16, 16:15). The growing opposition of the Jews, however, and the wicked state of the city had a depressing influence upon him; but "the Lord said to Paul in the night, by a vision: Do not fear, but speak; and hold not thy peace, because I am with thee; and no man shall set upon thee to hurt thee; for I have much people in this city.但是,当他被西拉和提摩太,谁给他带来金钱援助马其顿加入了,他变得更加大胆和自信,“在作证的犹太人耶稣是基督认真,但他们不可否认和亵渎,他摇摇服装对他们说:“你的血是根据你自己头上,我很清洁:从今以后我会继续祂外邦人。”然后,他开始鼓吹的提图斯贾斯特斯房子,毗邻犹太教堂草,统治者。犹太教堂,和他的家人,以及科林蒂安几个转化和洗礼​​在这些人凯斯,Stephanas,和他的家庭,以及Fortunatus和Achaicus房子“的亚该亚初熟的果子”(林前1:14,1: 16,16:15)犹太人的抗议声越来越大,然而,城市的邪恶国家后,他有一个令人沮丧的影响,但“耶和华说,保罗在夜间,由一个远景:不要害怕,但说话;按住不是你的和平,因为我与你同在,也没有人会在你设定伤害你,因为我有很多人在这个城市。 And he stayed there a year and six months, teaching among them the word of God" (Acts 18:9-11). Many were converted; some of them noble, wealthy, and learned, but the great majority neither learned, nor powerful, nor noble (1 Corinthians 1:26). During this long period the Faith was planted not only in Corinth but in other portions of Achaia, especially in Cenchreæ, the eastern port. At length the unbelieving Jews, seeing the ever-increasing crowd of Christians frequenting the house of Titus Justus, next door to their synagogue, became furious, and rose up with one accord and dragged St. Paul before the newly-appointed Proconsul of Achaia, Gallio, the brother of Seneca (AD 54). Gallio, perceiving that it was a question of religion, refused to listen to them. The crowd, seeing this and supposing that it was a dispute between Greeks and Jews, fell upon the ring-leader of the latter (Sosthenes, who succeeded Crispus as ruler of the synagogue) and gave him a sound beating in the very sight of the judgment seat; but Gallio pretended not to notice. His treatment must have cowed the Jews, and St. Paul "stayed yet many days". Cornely is of opinion that at this time he made his journey as far as Illyricum, and that his first visit to them "in sorrow" was when he returned. Others with greater probability place it later. St Paul, at last taking leave of the brethren, travelled as far as Ephesus with Priscilla and Aquila. Leaving them there he went on to Jerusalem and came back by Antioch, Galatia, and Phrygia, where he confirmed all the disciples. After having thus traversed the "upper coasts" he returned to Ephesus, which he made his head-quarters for nearly three years. It was towards the end of that period that the First Epistle was written.他在那里呆了一年零六个月,其中教学上帝的话“(徒18:9-11)许多被转换;他们高贵,富裕一些,学到的,但绝大多数都不了解,也没有强大,也不高贵(林前1:26)。在这漫长的时期,信仰种植不仅在科林斯但在亚该亚的其他部分,特别是在Cenchreæ,东部港口,在长度不信的犹太人,眼看着不断增加的人群基督徒出入的提图斯贾斯特斯,隔壁的犹太教堂的房子,大怒,和玫瑰有一个一致起来,拖前亚该亚,迦流,在塞内卡兄弟(公元54)新任命的地方总督圣保罗。加利奥,感知,这是一个宗教问题,拒绝听他们的人群,看到这一点,假设这是一个希腊人和犹太人之间的争议,经环领导人后者(Sosthenes,谁继任统治者草下跌在犹太教堂),给了他一个在审判席非常视线声音跳动; 但加利奥假装没有注意到他的治疗必须有吓倒的犹太人,和圣保罗“还停留多少天”Cornely是认为在这个时候,他做了他的旅程尽可能伊利里库姆,他的第一次访问他们“在悲哀”,当他返回,其他地方有更大的可能性以后,圣保罗,最后采取的弟兄们离开,前往远与百基拉和亚居拉以弗所。离开他们去到那里,他来到了耶路撒冷和安提阿,加拉太和弗吕家,在那里他确认所有的弟子回来后有这样走过的“上层海岸”他回到以弗所,他提出他对近三年头四分之三,这是实现该,第一期结束时写书信。

Authenticity of the Epistles真实性的书信

Little need be said on this point.没有必要说这一点。The historical and internal evidence that they were written by St. Paul is so overwhelmingly strong that their authenticity has been frankly admitted by every distinguished writer of the most advanced critical schools.历史和内部证据表明,他们是由圣保罗书面绝大多数是如此强烈,其真实性已经坦白了一切最先进的关键杰出作家的学校录取。 They were contained in the first collections of St. Paul's Epistles, and were quoted as Scripture by early Christian writers.他们被包含在圣保罗的书信第一集合,并作为早期基督教圣经引述作家。They were referred to as authorities by the early heretics and translated into many languages in the middle of the second century.他们被称为当局由早期的异端和译成多种文字在第二世纪中叶。The unique personality of St. Paul is impressed upon their every page.圣保罗独特的个性留下深刻印象后,他们的每一页。Baur, the rationalistic founder of the Tübingen School, and his followers, held the two to the Corinthians, Galatians, and Romans to be unassailable.鲍尔,蒂宾根大学学院的理性主义的创始人,他的追随者,举办了两到科林蒂安,加拉太书,和罗马人是无懈可击的。 One or two hypercritical writers, of little weight, brought some futile objections against them; but these were scarcely meant to be taken seriously; they were refuted and brushed aside by such an ultra writer as Kuenen.一个或两个挑眼作家,小,重量轻,对他们带来一些徒劳的反对,但这些人几乎意味着要认真对待,他们被驳斥和拉丝等作为Kuenen超作家一边。 Schmiedel, one of the most advanced modern critics, says (Hand-Kommentar, Leipzig, 1893, p. 51) that unless better arguments can be adduced against them the two Epistles must be acknowledged to be genuine writings of St. Paul. Schmiedel,最先进的现代的批评者说,(手Kommentar,莱比锡,1893年,第51页),除非更好的参数可以对他们举出两个书信必须承认成为圣保罗真正的著作。 The Second Epistle was known from the very earliest times.第二书信被称为从最早时间。There is a trace of it in that portion of "The Ascension of Isaiah" which dates back to the first century (Knowling, "The Testimony of St. Paul to Christ", p. 58; Charles, "The Ascension of Isaiah", pp. 34, 150).它有一个在那说:“阿森松以赛亚书”,这可以追溯到第一世纪(Knowling,他说:“圣保罗见证基督”,第58部分的痕迹;查尔斯,他说:“以赛亚升天”,第34,150)。 It was known to St. Polycarp, to the writerof the Epistle to Diognetus, to Athenagoras, Theophilus, the heretics Basilides and Marcion.它被称为圣波利卡普,到writerof到Diognetus书信,以哥拉,西奥菲勒斯,异端巴西里德和马吉安。 In the second half of the second century it was so widely used that it is unnecessary to give quotations.在第二个世纪下半叶它是如此广泛的应用,这是不必要的给予报价。

THE FIRST EPISTLE的第一书信

Why Written为什么写

During the years that St. Paul was at Ephesus he must have frequently heard from Corinth, as it was distant only 250 miles, and people were constantly passing to and fro.几年来,圣保罗在以弗所是他必须经常听到从科林斯,因为它是遥远的只有250英里,人不断传递来来回回。A ship sailing at the rate of four miles an hour would cover the distance in three days, though on one unpropitious occasion it took Cicero over a fortnight (Ep. vi, 8, 9).在四英里的速度航行时将覆盖在三天的距离,但在一个unpropitious一次接管两星期(插曲六,八,九)西塞罗。By degrees the news reached Ephesus that some of the Corinthians were drifting back into their former vices.由度的消息传到以弗所,该科林蒂安有些飘向他们的前恶习回来。Alford and others infer from the words of II Cor., xii, 20, 21; xiii, 1, "Behold this is the third time that I come to you", that he made a flying visit to check these abuses.奥尔福德和其他推断的二肺心病的话,十二,20,21;十三,1,“看哪,这是我第三次到你们这里来”,他的访问取得了飞行检查这些弊端。 Others suppose that this coming meant by letter.其他假设,这意味着未来的信。Be this as it may, it is generally held that he wrote them a brief note (now lost) telling them "not to associate with fornicators", asking them to make collection for the poor brethren at Jerusalem, and giving them an account of his intention of visiting them before going on to Macedonia, and of returning to them again from that place.是这样的,因为它可能,但一般认为,他写了他们的简要说明(现在丢失),告诉他们“不联想到淫乱”,要求他们为在耶路撒冷穷人弟兄集合,并给他们一个自己的帐户来访的意图才去到马其顿,和返回他们再次从他们那个地方。 News which he heard later from the household of Chloe and others made him change his plan, and for this he was accused by his enemies of want of steadiness of purpose (2 Corinthians 1:17).新闻,他听取了Chloe和他人的家庭后,使他改变他的计划,并为此他希望通过稳健的目的(林后1:17)他的敌人指责。 The accounts which he received caused him great anxiety.他收到的账目引起了他极大的不安。Abuses, bickerings, and party strife had grown up amongst them.滥用,bickerings和党的内乱已经长大了他们中间。The party cries were: "I am of Paul; I am of Apollo [Apollos]; I am of Cephas; I am of Christ."党的呼声是:“我对保罗感到,我的阿波罗[阿波罗],我对矶法时,我的基督我。”These parties, in all likelihood, originated as follows: During St. Paul's circular tour from Ephesus to Jerusalem, Antioch, Galatia, Phrygia, and back to Ephesus, "a certain Jew, named Apollo, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus, one mighty in the scriptures, and being fervent in spirit, spoke, and taught diligently the things that are of Jesus, knowing only the baptism of John."这些政党,在所有的可能性,起源如下:在圣保罗的圆形游从以弗所到耶路撒冷,安提阿,加拉太,弗吕家,再回到以弗所,“某某犹太人,为阿波罗,在亚历山大,一个雄辩的人出生,来到到以弗所,一个浩浩荡荡的经文,并正在热切的精神,讲,教努力的事情,耶稣是,只知道约翰的洗礼。“ Priscilla and Aquila fully instructed him in the Christian Faith.百基拉和亚居拉充分指示他在基督教信仰。In accordance with his desire he received letters of recommendation to the disciples at Corinth.按照他的愿望在他接受了科林斯的推荐信的弟子。"Who, when he was come, helped them very much who had believed. For with much vigor he convinced the Jews openly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus is the Christ" (Acts 18:27-28). “是谁,当他来了,帮助他们非常相信谁了。对于许多活力,他相信犹太人公开,由经文shewing耶稣是基督”(徒18:27-28)。He remained at Corinth about two years, but, being unwilling to be made the centre of strife, he joined St. Paul at Ephesus.他仍然在科林斯约两年,但自己不愿意作的冲突中心,他加入了以弗所圣保罗。From the inspired words of St. Luke, no mean judge, we may take it that in learning and eloquence Apollo was on a par with the greatest of his contemporaries, and that in intellectual powers he was not inferior to Jews like Josephus and Philo.从圣卢克,没有意思判断启发的话,我们可以把它在学习和口才阿波罗是在与他同时代的最伟大的标准杆,而且在智力的权力,他并不逊色于像约瑟夫和斐洛犹太人。 He is likely to have known the latter, who was a prominent member of the Jewish community in his native city of Alexandria, and had died only fourteen years before; and his deep interest in Holy Scripture would certainly have led him to study the works of Philo.他很可能已经知道了后者,谁在他的本土城市亚历山大一个犹太社区的重要成员,并已死亡只有十四年前,他在圣经浓厚的兴趣,肯定会促使他研究工程斐洛。 The eloquence of Apollo, and his powerful applications of the Old Testament to the Messias, captivated the intellectual Greeks, especially the more educated.阿波罗的口才,和旧约向messias他的强大的应用程序,着迷的智力希腊人,特别是更多的教育。That, they thought, was true wisdom.也就是说,他们认为,是真正的智慧。They began to make invidious comparisons between him and St. Paul who on account of his experience at Athens, had purposely confined himself to what we should call solid catechetical instruction.他们开始让他与圣保罗谁在他的帐户在雅典的经验,曾故意限制自己叫什么,我们应该比较坚实的教理讲授教学令人反感。 The Greeks dearly loved to belong to some particular school of philosophy; so the admirers of Apollo laid claim to a deeper perception of wisdom and boasted that they belonged to the Christian school of the great Alexandrian preacher.希腊人深爱属于某些特定学校的哲学,所以阿波罗的崇拜者奠定声称更深的智慧感知和夸口说,他们属于伟大的亚历山大牧师基督教学校。 The majority, on the other hand, prided themselves on their intimate connection with their Apostle.大多数人,另一方面,他们的自豪与使徒的密切联系自己。It was not zeal for the honour of their teachers that really prompted either of these parties, but a spirit of pride which made them seek to put themselves above their fellows, and prevented them from humbly thanking God for the grace of being Christians.这不是热情为他们的教师荣誉,真正促使这些政党之一,而是一种精神,这使他们感到自豪,以寻求他们的同伴自己之上,并阻止了虚心感谢神的恩典是基督徒他们。 About this time there came from the East some who had possibly heard St. Peter preach.关于这一次有来自东方的一些谁听说过有可能圣彼得讲道。These regarded the others as their spiritual inferiors; they themselves belonged to Cephas, the Prince of the Apostles.这些被视为他们的精神下级的人,他们本身属于矶法,王子的使徒。Commentators are of opinion that this party spirit did not go so deep as to constitute formal schism or heresy.评论家认为,这是党性没有去那么深,构成正式分裂或异端。They all met together for prayer and the celebration of the Sacred Mysteries; but there were hot disputes and many breaches of fraternal charity.他们都碰到一起祈祷和庆祝活动的神圣之谜,但有热点纠纷和兄弟般的慈善许多违规行为。The Fathers mention only three parties; but the text obviously implies that there was another party the members of which said, "I am of Christ".父亲只提了三方面,但文字显然意味着有另一小组的成员,其中说:“我很基督”。This view is now held by several Catholics, and by many non-Catholics.现在持有这种观点是由几个天主教徒,和许多非天主教徒。 What was the nature of this party it is difficult to determine.什么是这个党的性质,很难确定。It has been suggested that a few of those who were specially endowed with spiritual gifts, or charismata, boasted that they were above the others, as they were in direct communication with Christ.有人建议,对那些谁是专门的精神​​礼物,或charismata赋予少数,夸口说,他们上面的人,因为他们在与基督的直接沟通了。 Another explanation is that they had seen Christ in the flesh, or that they claimed to follow His example in their reverence for the Law of Moses.另一种解释是,他们看到基督在肉体,或者说他们声称他们的崇敬按照摩西的律法为他的例子。At any rate, the statement, "I am of Christ", seemed to make Christ a mere party name, and to imply that the others were not Christians in the genuine and perfect sense of the word.无论如何,语句,“我的基督AM”,似乎让基督只有一方的名字,并暗示其他人没有这个词的真正意义上的基督徒和完善。

St. Paul, hearing of this state of things, sent Timothy together with Erastus (probably the "treasurer of the city" of Corinth - Romans 16:23) round by Macedonia, to put things in order.圣保罗,这个国家的事情听证会,发送伊拉斯塔斯(可能是“城市掌柜”的科林斯 - 罗马16:23)提摩太在一起马其顿轮,把事情办得井井有条。Soon after they left, Stephanas and other delegates came with a letter from the Corinthians.他们离开后不久,Stephanas和其他代表想出了一个从科林蒂安信。This letter contained some self-glorification and requested the Apostle to give a solution to several serious difficulties which they proposed to him; but it made no mention of their shortcomings.这封信包含了一些自我颂扬,并要求使徒给予解决几个他们向他提出了严重的困难,但它没有提及自己的缺点。 By this time he had become fully aware of the grave state of affairs amongst them.而此时,他已成为充分意识到事态严重的国家在他们之中。Besides party strife, some made light of sins of impurity.除了党纷争,一些由杂质罪光。One man had gone to the extent of marrying his stepmother, his father being still alive, a crime unheard of amongst the pagans.一名男子曾到他的继母结婚的程度,他的父亲是仍然活着,对犯罪之间的异教徒闻所未闻。So far were they from showing horror that they treated him in a friendly manner and allowed him to be present at their meetings.到目前为止,被他们从显示恐怖,他们友好地对待他,让他在其出席会议。As matters were too pressing to wait for the arrival of Timothy, St. Paul at once wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians and sent it by Titus about Easter AD 57.由于问题太迫切等待提摩太的到来,在圣保罗的一次写哥林多前书第一书信和发送提图斯约复活节公元57它。

Importance of the First Epistle第一书信的重要性

This is generally regarded as the greatest of the writings of St. Paul by reason of the magnificence and beauty of its style and the variety and importance of its contents.这被普遍认为是对圣保罗的著作最大的原因是它的辉煌和美丽和风格的多样性和内容的重要性。So splendid is its style that it has given rise to the conjecture that St. Paul took lessons in oratory at Ephesus; but this is highly improbable.因此,灿烂的是它的风格,它已经引起了猜想圣保罗参加了在以弗所演讲课,但这是极不可能。St. Paul's was not the type of eloquence to be moulded by mechanical rules; his was the kind of genius that produces literature on which rules of rhetoric are based.圣保罗是不是口才的类型是由机械成型的规则,他的天才是一种文学上产生的修辞规则的基础。If the Corinthians were impressed by the eloquence of Apollo, they could not help feeling, when they heard and read this Epistle, that here was an author capable of bearing comparison not only with Apollo, but with the best that they could boast in Greek literature, of which they were so justly proud.如果科林蒂安是由阿波罗口才留下深刻的印象,他们不由感慨,当他们听到和读到这书信,在这里是作者的轴承不仅与阿波罗比较能干,但最好的,他们可以拥有在希腊文学,其中,他们是如此理直气壮地感到骄傲。 Scholars of all schools are loud in its praise.所有学校的学者都在大声的赞美。The striking similes, figures of speech, and telling sentences of the Epistle have passed into the literatures of the world.引人注目的比喻,修辞,并告诉了书信的句子都传递到世界的文献。Plummer, in Smith's "Dict. of the Bible", says that chapters xiii and xv are among the most sublime passages, not only in the Bible, but in all literature.直立,在史密斯的“快译通。的圣经”说,第十三和第十五章是最崇高的通道不仅在圣经,但在所有的文献。But this Epistle is great not only for its style but also for the variety and importance of its doctrinal teaching.但是,这是伟大的书信不仅为它的风格也为它的品种和理论教学的重要性。In no other Epistle does St. Paul treat of so many different subjects; and the doctrines which are touched upon (in many eases only incidentally) are important as showing what he and Silvanus, a disciple and trusted delegate of the older Apostles, taught the early Christians.在没有其他书信是否圣保禄对待如此众多的不同学科,以及这些触及(在许多简化只是附带)学说为显示他和西拉,弟子和值得信赖的老使徒代表,教的重要早期的基督徒。 In some of his letters he had to defend his Apostolate and the freedom of Christians from the Law of Moses against heretical teachers; but be never had to defend himself against his bitterest enemies, the judaizers, for his teaching on Christ and the principal points of doctrine contained in these two Epistles, the obvious reason being that his teaching must have been in perfect harmony with that of The Twelve.在他的一些信件,他必须捍卫他的使徒和从摩西对邪教教师法基督徒的自由,但从来没有被他的激烈的抵御敌人,judaizers自己的基督和他的教学的主要点,学说包含在这两个书信,很明显的原因是他的教学必须与十二完美的和谐被。 He distinctly states in ch.他清楚地州在CH。xv, 11, "For whether I, or they [The Twelve Apostles], so we preach, and so you have believed."十五,11,“对于我是否,或他们[十二使徒],所以我们讲道,等你相信了。”

Divisions of the First Epistle司第一书信

Instead of giving a formal summary of the contents of the Epistle, it may be more useful to give the teaching of the Apostle, in his own words, classified under various heads, following, in general, the order of the Creed.而不是给人一种的正式书信的内容摘要,它可能会更有益给教学的使徒,在他自己的话说,根据不同的头分类,以下,一般的信条秩序。 With regard to arrangement, it may be stated, in passing, that the Epistle is divided into two parts.关于安排,也可能是说,在传递,即书信是分为两个部分。In the first six chapters he rebukes them for their faults and corrects abuses: (1) He shows the absurdity of their divisions and bickerings; (2) deals with the scandalous case of incest; (3) their lawsuits before pagans; and (4) the want of sufficient horror of impurity in some of them.在他的前六个章节rebukes for their错误并纠正abuses其中:(1)他显示了其分裂和bickerings荒谬;(2)条处理的乱伦丑闻案;(3)其前异教徒诉讼;(4 )本想足够恐怖的杂质在其中的一些。In the second part (the remaining ten chapters) he solves the difficulties which they proposed to him and lays down various regulations for their conduct.在第二部分(其余十章),他解决了困难,他们向他提出并规定了其行为的各项规定。He deals with questions relating to (1) marriage, (2) virginity, (3) the use of things offered to idols, (4) proper decorum in church and the celebration of the Eucharist, (5) spiritual gifts, or Charismata, (6) the Resurrection, (7) the collections for the poor of Jerusalem.他处理有关(1)婚姻问题,(2)处女(3)提供给偶像的东西使用,(4)在教会和圣体礼仪庆典正确,(5)精神礼物,或Charismata, (6)复活,(7)为耶路撒冷穷人的集合。

Its Teaching它的教学

God the Father (passim)父神(各处)

"Yet there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we unto him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things and we by him" (viii, 6). “然而,只有一个神,父,人是一切事物,我们对他和一主耶稣基督,是谁的东西,都是由他我们”(八6)。Compare II Cor., xiii, 13: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all."比较二,肺心病,十三,13:“宽限期我们的主耶稣基督,上帝的慈善机构,以及圣灵的沟通与你同在所有”(Bengel, quoted by Bernard, calls this an egregium testimonium to the Blessed Trinity.) (Bengel,由Bernard引用,调用这是一个egregium testimonium三位一体的祝福。)

Jesus Christ基督耶稣

(1) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ" (i, 3). (1)“你和恩从神我们的父和平,并从主耶稣基督”(I,3)。"You are called unto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord" (i, 9). “你叫所不欲,他的儿子,我们的主耶稣基督团契”(一,9)。"Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God" (i, 24).“基督的神的力量和神的智慧”(I,24)。"We speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, a wisdom which is hidden, which God ordained before the world, unto our glory, which none of the princes of this world knew; for if they had known it, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory" (ii, 7, 8). “我们讲在一个神秘的上帝的智慧,一个是隐藏的智慧,就是神命定在世人面前所不欲,我们的荣耀,这对这个世界的王子都不知道;因为如果他们早知道了,他们绝不会钉在十字架上上帝的荣耀“(二,7,8)。 "But you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and the Spirit of our God" (vi, 11 -- see also i, 2, 4, 7, 9 13; iii, 5, 11; vi, 11; xii, 4-6).“但你是水洗,但你是圣洁的,但你在我们的主耶稣基督和我们神的名有道理的”(六,11 - 亦见我,二,四,七,九13;三,5,11;六,11;十二4-6)。(2) "The word of the cross to them that are saved is the power of God" (i, 18).(2)“字的交叉保存他们是神的力量”(I,18)。 "We preach Christ crucified, unto them that are called Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God" (i, 23, 24).“我们宣扬基督钉在十字架上,对他们是被称为基督的神的力量和神的智慧”(I,23,24)。"But of him are you in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and justice, and sanctification and redemption" (i, 30).“但他是你在基督耶稣里,谁是上帝赐给我们的智慧了,正义,圣洁,救赎”(I,30)。 "For I judged myself not to know any thing among you, but Jesus Christ, and him crucified" (ii, 3). “对于我判断自己不知道在你们中间的任何事情,但耶稣基督,并他钉十字架”(二,三)。"For Christ our pasch is sacrificed" (v, 7).“对于基督我们pasch是牺牲”(五,七)。"For you are bought with a great price" (vi, 20 - cf. i, 13, 17; vii, 23; viii, 11, 12.) (3) The following passage probably contains fragments of an early creed: "The gospel which I preached to you, which also you have received. . . . For I delivered unto you first of all, which I also received: how that Christ died for our sins, according to the scriptures: and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the scriptures: and that he was seen by Cephas; and after that by the eleven. Then was he seen by more than five hundred brethren at once: of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen by James, then by all the apostles. And last of all, he was seen also by me, as by one born out of due time" (xv, 1-8).(。六,20 - CF I,13,17;七,23岁;第八,11,12)“因为你是一个伟大的价格购买”(3)下面这段话可能包含早期信条片段:“在福音,我传福音给你,你也已经收到我发表你们首先,我也收到:。。怎么说基督为我们的罪死,照圣经:和他埋葬,他再次上升,第三天,根据经文:那他看到矶法,并经十,当年是他看到了超过500兄弟一次:其中许多人仍直到目前,和。有些人睡着后,他曾看到詹姆斯,然后由所有的使徒,而且所有的最后,他也看到我所诞生出一个适当的时候“(十五,1-8)。 "Have not I seen Christ Jesus our Lord?"“我还没有见过基督耶稣我们的主?”(ix, 1).(九,1)。"And if Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain" (xv, 14). “若基督没有复活了,然后就是我们所传的虚荣,和你的信念,也是枉然”(十五,14)。"But now Christ is risen from the dead, the first fruits of them that sleep" (xv, 20 - cf. vi, 14). “但现在基督是从死里复活,他们的第一批成果,睡眠”(十五,20 - 比照六,14)。(4) "Waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" (i, 7).(4)“等待着我们的主耶稣基督降临的时候”(一,7)。"That the spirit may be saved in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ" (v, 5).“的精神可能被保存在我们的主耶稣基督的日子”(五,5)。 "He that judgeth me is the Lord. Therefore judge not before the time; until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts; and then shall every man have praise from God" (iv, 4, 5). “他说,judgeth我是主,因此法官不前的时间;直到主来了,谁都将带来光的黑暗隐藏的东西,并会体现了心中的律师,然后将每个人都称赞从神“(四,4,5)。

The Holy Ghost圣灵

"Now there are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit; and there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, but the same God" (xii, 4-6). “现在有多样性的青睐,但同样的精神,有各部委差异,但相同的主,并有多样性的行动,但同样的神”(十二4-6)。"But to us God hath revealed them, by his Spirit. The Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God . . . the things that are of God no man knoweth, but the Spirit of God" (ii, 10, 11 -- cf. ii, 12-14, 16). “但我们神所透露他们,他的精神,精神searcheth一切事物,是啊,上帝的深层次的东西。神的事情,没有人knoweth,但上帝的灵”(二,10, 11 - CF II,12-14,16)。"Know you not, that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?" “你不知道,你是神的殿,神的永远的在你的灵?”(iii, 16).(三,16)。"But you are washed, but you are sanctified . . . in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God" (vi, 11).“但你是水洗,但你是圣洁。在我们的主耶稣基督的名,而我们的上帝的灵”(六,11)。"Or know you not, that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost, who is in you, whom you have from God; and you are not your own? . . . Glorify and bear God in your body" (vi, 19, 20). “还是你不知道,你的成员是圣灵的殿,谁在你的是,其中有你的神;?。你是不是你自己的荣耀,并在你的身体承受神”(六,19 ,20)。"But all these things one and the same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one according as he will" (xii, 11). “但是,所有这些东西是同一个精神worketh,划分到每一个按照他的意志”(十二,11)。"For in one Spirit were we all baptized unto one body" (xii, 13).“对于一位圣灵受洗,祂是我们大家都一个身体”(十二,13)。"Yet by the Spirit he speaketh mysteries" (xiv, 2).“然而他的精神speaketh奥秘”(十四,2)。

The Holy Catholic Church神圣的天主教教会

"The head of every man is Christ" (11:3).他说:“每一个男人的头是基督”(11:3)。

Unity统一

"Is Christ divided?"“基督是分呢?”(i, 13).(I,13)。"Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you; but that you be perfect in the same mind, and in the same judgment" (i, 10). “现在我求求你,弟兄们,通过我们的主耶稣基督的名,你都讲同样的事情,那你们中间有没有分裂,但是,你在同一个头脑健全,并在相同的判断” (I,10)。He devotes four chapters to the reprehension of their divisions, which did not really amount to anything constituting formal schism or heresy.他用四个章节,以他们的分歧,这并没有真正成气候的构成正式分裂或异端非难。They met in common for prayer and the participation of the Blessed Eucharist.他们会见了在共同的祈祷和祝福的圣体的参与。"Know you not that you [the Christian body] are the temple of God . . . but if any man violate the temple of God [by pulling it to pieces], him shall God destroy. For the temple of God is holy, which you are" (iii, 16, 17).“知道你不是说你[基督教机构]是神的庙宇 但如果​​任何人违反[其拉片]神的庙宇,他将神灭。对于神的殿是圣的,这你是“(三,16,17)。"For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of the body, whereas they are many, yet are one body, so also is Christ. For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free" (xii, 12, 13). “对于因为身体是一个,和祂所许多成员,所有成员的身体,而他们​​很多,但有一个机构,所以也就是基督。对于一个精神是大家都成了一个身体洗礼,无论是犹太人或外邦人,无论是债券或免费的“(十二,12,13)。 [Here follows the allegory of the body and its members, xii, 14-25.] "Now you are the body of Christ, and members of member" (xii, 27). [这里遵循的身体寓言及其成员,十二,14-25。]“现在你是基督的身体,和成员成员”(十二,27)。"And God hath set some in the church; first apostles, secondly prophets . . . Are all apostles?" “上帝祂所设置一些在教会里,第一使徒,第二是所有使徒先知 ?”(xii, 28-31).(十二,28-31)。 "For God is not the God of dissension, but of peace: as also I teach in all the Churches of the saints" (xiv, 33).“因为神不是神纠纷,但和平:成也教我所有的圣徒教会”(十四33)。"I have sent you Timothy, who is my dearest son and faithful in the Lord, who will put you in mind of my ways, which are in Christ Jesus: as I teach everywhere in every church" (iv, 17). “我已经给你发提摩太,谁是我最亲爱的儿子和忠实的主,谁把我的方式,这在基督耶稣里提个醒:我任教的每一个教会无处不在”(四,17)。"But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor the church of God" (xi, 16). “但如果任何人似乎是有争议的,我们并没有这样的习惯,也不是上帝教会”(十一,16)。"The gospel which I preached to you . . . and wherein you stand; by which also you are [being] saved, if you hold fast after the manner I preached unto you, unless you have believed in vain" (xv, 1-2).他说:“我传给你,你站在其中的福音;其中还你是[被]保存,如果你持有后,我对你们宣扬的方式快,除非你在徒然相信 ”(十五,1 - 2)。"For whether I, or they [The Twelve Apostles], so we preach, and so you have believed" (xv, 11).“对于我是否,或他们[十二使徒],所以我们讲道,等你相信”(十五,11)。"The churches of Asia salute you" (xvi, 19).他说:“教会的亚洲向你致敬”(十六,19)。

Old Testament Types旧约类型

"Now all these things happened to them in figure: and they are written for our correction" (10:11).“现在,所有这些事情发生在他们身上的身影:他们是我们的书面更正”(10:11)。

Authority管理局

"What will you? shall I come to you with a rod; or in charity, and in the spirit of meekness?"“什么你会应我来给你一个棒,或在慈善事业,并在温柔的精神呢?”(iv, 21).(四,21)。"Now concerning the collections. . . . as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, so do ye also" (xvi, 1).“现在有关的藏品。。因为我已经为加拉太教会,所以你们也”(十六,1)。

Power of excommunication功率逐出教会

"I indeed, absent in body, but present in spirit, have already judged, as though I were present, him that hath so done. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, to deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved" (v, 3-5). “我的确没有在身,但在精神上目前,已经判断,就好像我人出席,他说,祂所这样做,在我们的主耶稣基督的名,你被聚集在一起,我的精神,与电力我们的主耶稣基督,能够为肉体的毁灭这样一个撒旦,认为精神可以得救“(五3-5)。

Jews and pagans exempt from Church's jurisdiction犹太人和异教徒从教会的管辖豁免

"For what have I to do to judge them that are without . . . For them that are without, God will judge" (5:12-13).“对于我有什么做判断出来,没有 是对它们都没有,神必要审判”(5:12-13)。

Sanctity尊严

"For the temple of God is holy, which you are" (iii, 17).“是神圣的,你是神的殿”(三,17)。 "Know you not that your bodies are the members of Christ" (vi, 15).“知道你不是说你的身体是基督的成员”(六,15)。"Your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost . . . Glorify and bear God in your body" (vi, 19, 20 -- cf. vi, 11, etc.).“你的成员是圣灵的寺庙荣耀,并承担上帝在你的身体 ”(六,19,20 - 比照六,11,等)。

Grace

"God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able, but will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it" (x, 13).“上帝是信实的,谁也不会受到你被诱惑的,你上面有能力,反而会使问题与诱惑,你可能能够承受它也”(X,13)。"Grace be to you . . ." “恩是你。”(i, 3). (I,3)。"But by the grace of God, I am what I am; and his grace in me hath not been void, but I have laboured more abundantly than all they: yet not I, but the grace of God with me" (xv, 10).“但是,上帝的恩典,我就是我,而他在我的恩典未曾被作废,但我更丰盛辛劳比所有他们:但不是我,而是上帝的恩典与我”(十五,10 )。

Virtuous life necessary for salvation贤惠生命必要的救赎

"Know you not that the unjust shall not possess the kingdom of God? Do not err: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor the effeminate . . . nor thieves, nor covetouss, nor drunkards, . . . shall possess the kingdom of God" (vi, 9, 10). ?“知道你不就是不公正的,不得拥有神的国不犯错:既不淫乱的,拜偶像的,也不奸淫,也不是柔弱的,也不小偷,也不covetouss,也不醉鬼,应具备的王国。。。。。。神“(六,9,10)。 This, like a dominant note, rings clear through all the Epistles of St. Paul as in the teaching of his Divine Master.这就像一个主导注意到,戒指明确通过所有圣保禄书信中,他的神圣法师教学。"But I chastise my body, and bring it into subjection: lest perhaps when I have preached to others, I myself should become a castaway" (ix, 27). “但我责备我的身体,并把它纳入隶属:否则也许当我传福音给别人,自己应该成为一个被抛弃的”(九,27)。"Wherefore he that thinketh himself to stand, let him take heed lest he fall" (x, 12). “所以他认为自己思量的立场,让他留意,免得跌倒”(十,12)。"Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast and unmoveable; always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labour is not in vain in the Lord" (xv, 58). “因此,我亲爱的弟兄们,你们要坚定不移,unmoveable,始终在丰富的主工作,知道你的劳动是没有白费的主”(十五,58)。"Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, do manfully, and be strengthened" (xvi, 13). “看你们,站在信仰快,做manfully,并加强”(十六,13)。"Do all to the glory of God" (x, 31).“是不是所有的神的荣耀”(X,31)。"Be without offence to the Jews, and to the Gentiles, and to the church of God" (x, 32). “在不违法的犹太人,并以外邦人,并以神的教会”(十,32)"Be ye followers of me as I am of Christ" (xi, 1).“你们对我的基督信徒,我很”(十一,1)。

Resurrection of the body and life everlasting复活的身体和生命永恒

"For God hath raised up the Lord, and he will raise us up also by his power" (vi, 14). “对于神已经提出了主,他将提高我们由他的权力也”(六,14)。"And as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive."“而在亚当里众人都死了,所以也都应当在基督复活。”"For star differeth from star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it shall rise in incorruption. It is sown in dishonour, it shall rise in glory." “对于明星明星differeth从荣耀,所以也就是死者复活,这是​​腐败播种的,应当上升不腐败,这是在羞辱播种的,应当上升的荣耀。”"Behold, I tell you a mystery. We shall all indeed rise again."“看哪,我告诉你一个谜,我们将所有的确实再次崛起。”"In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall rise again incorruptible."“在一个时刻,在转瞬之间,在最后的小号:小号应当为声,死者应再次上升清廉。”(See all of ch. xv.) "We see now through a glass in a dark manner; but then face to face. Now I know in part; but then I shall know even as I am known" (xiii, 12). ( 查看所有CH十五)“我们现在看到的,通过在黑暗的地玻璃;但随后面对面现在我知道部分;但后来我知道即使我知道”(十三12)。

Baptism洗礼

"Were you baptized in the name of Paul?"“是你在保罗的名字受洗?”(i, 13).(I,13)。"I baptized also the household of Stephanus" (I, 16).“我受洗也是Stephanus家庭”(I,16)。"For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body" (xii, 13).“对于一个精神是大家都受洗,成了一个身体”(十二,13)。"But you are washed [apelousasthe] but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God" (vi, 11). “但你洗[apelousasthe]但你是圣洁的,但你在我们的主耶稣基督的名有道理的,和我们的圣灵”(六,11)。

Eucharist圣餐

"The chalice of benediction, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread, which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord? . . . But the things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils . . . You cannot drink the chalice of the Lord and the chalice of devils" (x, 16-21).他说:“祝福的酒杯,我们祝福,是不是基督的血共融?和面包,这是我们休息,是不是主的身体单打独斗?。但事情的异教徒牺牲,他们牺牲鬼子。不能喝主的杯与魔鬼“(X,16-21)圣杯。 "For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread, and giving thanks, said: Take ye, and eat: this is my body . . . In like manner also the chalice; etc. . . . Therefore whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and of the blood of the Lord. . . . For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily eateth and drinketh judgment to himself, not discerning the body of the Lord" (xi, 23-29). “对于我的主,这也我发表你们,就是主耶稣,同一天晚上,他被出卖,拿起饼来,并给予感谢,表示接受:取叶,吃:这是我的身体。 在这样的方式也圣杯;。等,所以无论何人吃了这种面包,或喝主的杯混迹,应是身体和主的血内疚,他说。。 eateth和drinketh混迹eateth和drinketh判断自己,不挑剔的上帝“(十一,23-29)身上。On the words of consecration see the two able articles by Dr. AR Eagar in "The Expositor", March and April, 1908.论奉献的话看到两个AR Eagar博士在“解释者”,三月和四月,1908年能够文章。

Marriage结婚

Its use.它的使用。Marriage good, but celibacy better.婚姻好,但独身好。-- The marriage of divorced persons forbidden.- 对离婚者禁止结婚。-- Second marriage allowed to Christians; but single state preferable for those who have the gift from God.- 第二次婚姻让基督徒,但单个国家为那些谁拥有来自上帝的礼物最好。(vii, 1-8.) Pauline Dispensation: a Christian is not bound to remain single if his pagan partner is unwilling to live with him (vii, 12-15). (七,1-8)宝莲省却:一个基督徒是不受保持单身,如果他的异教的合作伙伴是不愿与他生活(七,12-15)。

Virginity童贞

It is not wrong to marry; but preferable to remain single -- St. Paul's example -- "He that giveth his virgin in marriage doth well; and he that giveth her not doth better. (vii, 25-40.)这是没有错结婚,但最好保持单一 - 圣保禄的榜样 - “他说,赐他的处女doth在婚姻以及和他的赐她不要doth更好(七,25-40)。

Principles of moral theology神学的道德原则

In ch.在CH。vii; and following chapters St. Paul solves several difficult cases of conscience, some of them of a very delicate nature, falling under what we should now call the tractatus de sexto (sc. præcepto decalogi).七,下面的章节和圣保罗解决了良心的几个疑难案件,其中有一些很微妙的性质,根据我们现在应该称之为逻辑哲学论德sexto(sc. præcepto decalogi)下降。He would, doubtless, have preferred to be free from the necessity of having to enter into such disagreeable subjects; but as the welfare of souls required it, he felt it incumbent upon him, as part of his Apostolic office, to deal with the matter.他希望,无疑,宁愿从不得不进入这些不愉快的科目的必要性自由,但作为灵魂的福利需要它,他觉得有责任向他作为他的使徒办公室的一部分,以处理此事。 It is in the same spirit that pastors of souls have acted ever since.它是有灵魂的牧师担任以来以同样的精神。If so many difficulties arose in a few years in one town, it was inevitable that numerous complicated cases should occur in the course of centuries amongst peoples belonging to every degree of barbarism and civilization; and to these questions the Church was rightly expected to give a helpful answer; hence the growth of moral theology.如果这么多的困难,在短短几年内出现在一个城市,这是不可避免的,许多复杂的案件应在过程中发生的几百年当中,属于每一个野蛮和文明程度的人民,并以这些问题的教会是正确的预期给予了有用的答案,因此在道德神学的增长。

THE SECOND EPISTLE第二书信

The Second Epistle was written a few months after the First, in which St. Paul had stated that he intended to go round by Macedonia.第二书信写了几个月后,首先,在其中圣保禄曾表示,他打算去轮由马其顿。He set out on this journey sooner than he had anticipated, on account of the disturbance at Ephesus caused by Demetrius and the votaries of Diana of the Ephesians.他列在这个征途上早于他所预期的扰动帐户上,在由德米特里和戴安娜的以弗所书以弗所的votaries引起。 He travelled northwards as far as Troas, and after waiting some time for Titus, whom he expected to meet on his way back from Corinth, whither he had carried the First Epistle, he set sail for Macedonia and went on to Philippi.他走遍向北据特罗亚,并在等待提多,他将会见谁在他的途中从科林斯,往那他进行第一次书信回来一段时间,他为马其顿帆又到腓。 Here he met Titus and Timothy.在这里,他会见了提图斯和提摩太。The news that Titus brought him from Corinth was for the most part of a cheering character.该消息称,提图斯带他从科林斯是为一个欢呼字符大部分。The great majority were loyal to their Apostle.绝大多数被忠于自己的使徒。They were sorry for their faults; they had obeyed his injunctions regarding the public sinner, and the man himself had deeply repented.他们对不起自己的错误,他们不得不服从他的禁令有关公共罪人,而该男子自己也深深忏悔。We hear no more of the parties of Paul, Apollo, and Cephas, though the letter appears to contain one reference to the fourth party.我们没有听到的保罗,阿波罗,并矶法的当事人多,但信中似乎包含一个引用到第四方。His friends, who had expected a visit from himself, were deeply grieved at his not coming as he had promised; a few who were his enemies, probably judaizers, sought to take advantage of this to undermine his authority by discovering in this a clear proof of fickleness of mind and instability of purpose; they said that his unwillingness to receive support betrayed want of affection; that he used threatening language when at a safe distance, but was in fact a coward who was mild and conciliating when present; that they were foolish to let themselves be led by one who made the rather enormous pretension to be an Apostle of Christ, when he was nothing of the kind, and was in reality, both naturally and supernaturally, inferior to men they could name.他的朋友,谁曾预计,从自己的访问,深感他不来,因为他已经答应悲痛,少数谁是他的敌人,可能judaizers,试图利用这一优势,在破坏这个一个明证发现他的权威的心态浮躁和不稳定的目的,他们说,他不愿意接受支持背叛了感情想;他使用威胁性语言时,在安全距离,但实际上是一个懦夫谁是轻度和调解时在场;他们是愚蠢到让自己带领一个谁提出的,而巨大的预紧成为基督的使徒,当他是什么样,并在现实中,无论是自然和超​​自然,不如男子,他们可能会名称。 This news filled the soul of St. Paul with the deepest emotion.这则消息充满了感慨最深的是圣保罗的灵魂。He purposely delayed in Macedonia, and sent them this Epistle to prepare them better for his coming and to counteract the evil influence of his opponents.他故意延迟在马其顿,并送他们这书信准备他们更好地为他的到来,并抵消了他的对手的邪恶影响。It was sent by Titus and two others, one of whom, it is almost certain, was St. Luke.它被送往由提图斯和另外两人,其中一人,这几乎是肯定的,是圣卢克。The circumstances under which the Epistle was written can be best gathered from the text itself.所依据的情况下可以写书信最好搜集到的文本本身。We can easily imagine the effect produced when it was read for the first time to the assembled Christians at Corinth, by Titus, or in the sonorous tones of the Evangelist St. Luke.我们可以很容易想象所产生的效果时,是为第一次在科林斯由提图斯基督徒的组装,或在传播者圣卢克的音调铿锵,读。The news that their great Apostle had sent them another letter rapidly spread through the city; the previous one had been such a masterly production that all were eager to listen to this.在他们的伟大的使徒派出他们的另一封信的消息迅速传遍了城市;前一个已经如此精湛的生产,所有渴望聆听了这一点。The great bulk of the expectant congregation were his enthusiastic admirers, but a few came to criticize, especially one man, a Jew, who had recently arrived with letters of recommendation, and was endeavouring to supplant St. Paul.众期待的是他的大批量的热情崇拜者,但有几个来批评,尤其是一个人,一个犹太人,谁最近与推荐信到了,正在努力取代圣保罗。 He said he was an Apostle (not of The Twelve, but of the kind mentioned in the Didache).他说,他是一个使徒(不是十二,但在十二使徒遗训中提到的那种)。He was a man of dignified presence, as he spoke slightingly of St. Paul's insignificant appearance.他是一个有尊严的存在的人,因为他谈到了圣保罗的外观slightingly微​​不足道。He was skilled in philosophy and polished in speech, and he insinuated that St. Paul was wanting in both.他在讲话中哲学和抛光技术,他暗示,圣保罗在这两个希望。He knew little or nothing of St. Paul except by hearsay, as he accused him of want of determination, of cowardice, and unworthy motives, things belied by every fact of St. Paul's history.他知道很少或没有,除了由圣保罗传闻,因为他想指责他的怯懦的决心,和不配动机,事情的每一个圣保罗的历史事实掩盖。 The latter might terrify others by letters, but he would not frighten him.后者可能恐吓他人的信件,但他不会吓唬他。This man comes to the assembly expecting to be attacked and prepared to attack in turn.这名男子来到大会期待被攻击,准备反过来攻击。As the letter is being read, ever and anon small dark clouds appear on the horizon; but when, in the second part, the Epistle has quieted down into a calm exhortation to almsgiving, this man is congratulating himself on his easy escape, and is already picking holes in what he has heard.由于正在读信,曾经和匿名小乌云出现在地平线上,但时,在第二部分,书信已经成为一个平静平静告诫施舍下来,这名男子是祝贺他容易逃避自己,是已经采摘了他听到孔。 Then, suddenly as upon the army of Sisara, the storm breaks upon him; lightnings strike, thunder upbraids.然后,突然像后,Sisara军队,风暴后,他休息;闪电罢工,雷声upbraids。He is beaten down by the deluge, and his influence is swept out of existence by the irresistible torrent.他是打下来的洪水,他的影响力席卷存在的不可抗拒的洪流了。At any rate, he is never heard of again.无论如何,他是从来没有听说过了。These two Epistles as effectively destroyed St. Paul's opponents at Corinth, as the Epistle to the Galatians annihilated the judaizers in Asia Minor.这两个书信一样有效摧毁了科林斯圣保罗的对手,作为向加拉太书信全军覆没在小亚细亚的judaizers。

Style风格

This Epistle, though not written with the same degree of care and polish as the First, is more varied and spontaneous in style.这书信,虽然不能与关怀和波兰同为第一度写的,是更为多样,风格自然。 Erasmus says that it would take all the ingenuity of a skilled rhetorician to explain the multitude of its strophes and figures.伊拉斯谟说,它将采取一切熟练的雄辩家别出心裁地解释其strophes和众多的数字。It was written with great emotion and intensity of feeling, and some of its sudden outbursts reach the highest levels of eloquence.这是书面与伟大的情感和感觉的强度,它的突然爆发有的达到口才的最高水平。It gives a deeper insight than any other of his writings into the character and personal history of St. Paul.它提供了比任何他的著作到的性质和圣保罗的个人历史上的其他更深入的了解。With Cornely, we may call it his "Apologia pro Vitâ Suâ", a fact which makes it one of the most interesting of the writings of the New Testament.随着Cornely,我们可以称之为他的“辩解亲维塔SUA”,这一事实使得它成为最新约的著作有趣。Erasmus described it as follows: "Now it bubbles up as a limpid fountain; soon it rushes down as a roaring torrent carrying all before it; then it flows peacefully and gently along. Now it widens out as into a broad and tranquil lake. Yonder it gets lost to view, and suddenly reappears in quite a different direction, when it is seen meandering and winding along, now deflecting to the right, now to the left; then making a wider loop and occasionally doubling back upon itself.伊拉斯谟形容它:“现在的泡沫为一个清澈的喷泉,它很快冲下来如同吼叫的所有前进行种子,然后它流动和平,轻轻沿着现在扩大到了作为一个广泛而宁静的湖那边。它丢失查看,并突然重新出现完全不同的方向,当它被认为是沿着蜿蜒曲折,现在偏转到右边,现在左边,然后使更广泛的循环,并根据自身加倍偶尔回来。

Divisions of the Epistle分部的书信

It consists of three parts.它由三部分组成。In the first of these (chapters i to vii, incl.), after (1) introduction, (2) the Apostle shows that his change of plan is not due to lightness of purpose but for the good of the people, and his teaching not mutable; (3) he did not wish to come again in sorrow.在这些第一(第一至第七,含),后(1)介绍,(2)使徒表明,他改变计划,是不是由于亮度的目的,而是为人民好,他的教学不可变;(3)他不希望进来的悲哀了。 The repentant sinner, the cause of his sorrow, to be now reconciled.悔改的罪人,他悲哀的原因,是现在不甘心。(4) His great affection for them.(4)他满怀深情为他们。(5) He does not require, like others, letters of recommendation.(5)他不需要其他人一样,推荐信。They, as Christians, are his commendatory letters.他们作为基督徒,是他的褒义词字母。(6) He writes with authority, not on account of arrogance, but because of the greatness of the ministry with which he was entrusted, as compared with the ministry of Moses. (6)他写的权限,帐户上的傲慢,而是因为该部与他委托的伟大,与摩西部比较。Those who refuse to listen have the veil over their hearts, like the carnal Jews.这些谁不听他们的心中有过的面纱,就像肉体的犹太人。(7) He endeavours to please Christ Who showed His love by dying for all, and will reward His servants. (7)他努力取悦基督表明了他对所有死亡的爱,将奖励他的仆人。(8) Moving exhortation. (8)移动告诫。

The second part (chapters viii and ix) relates to the collections for the poor Christians at Jerusalem.第二部分(第八和第九章)涉及到集合的基督徒在耶路撒冷的穷人。(1) He praises the Macedonians for their ready generosity in giving out of their poverty. (1)他称赞他们准备慷慨给予他们摆脱贫困的马其顿人。He exhorts the Corinthians to follow their example in imitation of Christ Who, being rich, became poor for our sakes.他劝勉哥林多人跟随基督的模仿谁,被丰富,为我们的缘故成了穷人的例子。(2) He sends Titus and two others to make the collections and to remove all grounds of calumny that he was enriching himself.(2)他发送提图斯和另外两人,使馆藏,并删除所有的诽谤,理由是他丰富自己。(3) He has boasted of them in Macedonia that they began before others.(3)他吹嘘在马其顿,他们开始了他们在别人面前。(4) A man shall reap in proportion as he sows.(4)一个人应获得的比例,因为他母猪。God loves the cheerful giver and is able to repay.神爱欢快的送礼者,并能偿还。Giving not only relieves the poor brethren but causes thanksgiving to God and prayers for benefactors.给予不仅减轻了贫困的兄弟,但原因感恩上帝和恩人祈祷。

The third part (last four chapters) is directed against the pseudo-Apostles.第三部分(最后四章)是针对伪使徒。(1) He is bold towards some who think he acts from worldly motives.(1)他是对一些谁认为他从世俗的动机行为大胆。He has powerful arms from God for humbling such and punishing their disobedience.他有这样的羞辱和惩罚他们不服从上帝的强大武器。Some say he terrifies by letters which are weighty and strong; but has bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible". Let such a one understand that such as he is in his Epistle, so will he be when present. (2) He will not pretend, as they do, to be greater than he is, nor wilt he exalt himself by other men's labours. (3) He asks pardon for talking like a worldly-minded man. It is to counteract the influence of the pseudo-Apostles. He jealously guards the Corinthians lest they be deceived as Eve was by the serpent. (4) If the new-comers brought them anything better in the way of religion, he could understand their submission to their dictatorship. (5) He is not inferior to those superlative Apostles. If his speech is rude, his knowledge is not. He humbled himself amongst them, and did not exact support in order to gain them. The false Apostles profess a like disinterestedness; but they are deceitful workmen transforming themselves into Apostles of Jesus Christ. And no wonder: for Satan transformed himself into an angel of light, and they imitate their master. They make false insinuations against the Apostle. (6) He, too, will glory a little (speaking like a foolish worldly person, in order to confound them). They boast of natural advantages. He is not inferior to them in any; but he far surpasses them in his sufferings for the propagation of the Gospel, in his supernatural gifts, and in the miraculous proofs of his Apostleship at Corinth, "in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty deeds". The Corinthians have all that other Churches had except the burden of his support. He asks them to pardon him that injury. Neither he nor Titus nor any other of his friends over-reached them. He writes thus lest he should come again in sorrow. He threatens the unrepentant.有人说他是有分量的由字母和强大感到恐惧, 但有身体的存在是弱,他的讲话卑鄙“让这样的人明白,比如他在他的书信,所以他会否出席时(2)他不会假装,因为他们这样做,要大于他,也没有枯萎,他发扬了其他人的劳动自己(3)他要求像一个世俗志同道合的人说赦免,这是为了抗衡的伪影响使徒,他小心翼翼地看守科林蒂安以免被欺骗的夏娃被蛇(4)如果新来者给他们带来任何以宗教的方式更好,他能理解其提交给他们的专政(5)他是,不逊色于那些最高级使徒如果他的讲话是粗鲁,他的知识不是在他们之中,他谦卑自己,并没有确切的支持,以获得他们的假使徒信奉这样的无私, 但他们正在改变自己欺骗工人到耶稣基督的使徒也难怪:对于撒旦转化为自己光明的天使,他们模仿他们的主人,他们针对该使徒虚假影射(6)他也将荣耀一点(像一个愚蠢的发言世俗的人,为了混淆他们),他们拥有的天然优势,他没有任何逊色;但他远远超过在福音传播他们的痛苦在他的超自然的礼物,并在奇迹般的证据,他的使徒在哥林多“的招牌,奇事,和强大的事迹在所有的耐心”,科林蒂安都教会了,其他的除了他的支持负担,他要求他们原谅他,伤害,也不是他还是提图斯他的朋友也没有任何其他过分达到他们,他写这样免得他应该再在悲伤,他威胁死不悔改。

Unity of the Second Epistle团结第二书信

Whilst the Pauline authorship is universally acknowledged, the same cannot be said for its unity.虽然宝莲作者是举世公认的,同样不能说是为它的团结。Some critics hold that it consists of two Epistles, or portion of Epistles, by St. Paul; that the first nine chapters belong to one Epistle, and the last four to another.一些评论家认为,这两个书信,书信或部分由圣保罗,组成;,第一九章同属一个书信,和过去四年到另一个地方。As these two sections are held to have been written by St. Paul, there appears to be nothing in this view that can be said to be in opposition to the Catholic doctrine of inspiration.由于这两个部分都举行了由圣保罗写的,似乎有在此视图中没有什么可以说是反对天主教教义的灵感。But the hypothesis is very far from being proved.但假设是非常远未证明。Nay more, on account of the arguments that can be alleged against it, it can scarcely be regarded as probable.不仅如此多,就认为它可以对被指控的论点帐户,它几乎可以被认为是可能的。The principal objection against the unity of the Epistle is the difference of tone in the two sections.反对统一的书信主要反对的语气,在两部分的区别。This is well stated and answered by the Catholic scholar Hug ("Introduction", tr. by Wait, London, 1827 p. 392): "It is moreover objected how different is the tone of the first part, mild, amiable, affectionate, whereas the third part is severe, vehement, and irrespectively castigatory. But who on this account would divide Demosthenes' oration De Coronâ into two parts, because in the more general defence placidity and circumspection predominate while on the other hand, in abashing and chastising the accuser, in the parallel between him and Æschines, words of bitter irony gush out impetuously and fall like rain in a storm."这是很好的说明和回答天主教学者拥抱(“导言”,TR的等待,伦敦,1827第392页):“这是多么不同,而且反对的第一部分,温和,可亲,深情语调,而第三部分是严重的,激烈,和irrespectively修订的,但谁在这个帐户将分为两部分狄摩西尼“祭文德光环,因为在更广泛的防御placidity和谨慎占主导地位,而另一方面,在abashing和chastising的原告,在他与埃斯基涅斯平行,苦涩的讽刺话喷浮躁,像秋天的雨风暴“。 This argument is referred to with approval by Meyer, Cornely, and Jacquier.这种说法是指由迈耶,Cornely和Jacquier批准。Others save explained the difference of tone by supposing that when the first nine chapters were finished fresh news of a disagreeable kind arrived from Corinth, and that this led St. Paul to add the last four chapters.其他节省解释了口气的假设,当第一九章分别完成了从科林斯赶到了一种新的不愉快的消息,这导致圣保罗添加的最后四个章节的区别。 In the same way the parenthetical section (vi, 14, vii, 2), which seems to have been inserted as an afterthought, can be explained.在同样的方式括号部分(六,14,七,2),这似乎已在事后插入,可以解释的。It was added, according to Bernard, to prevent a misconception of the expression used in vi, 11, 13, "our heart is enlarged . . . be you also enlarged", which in the OT had the bad meaning of being too free with infidels.据补充,根据伯纳德,以防止在vi中,11,13用了误解,“我们的心被放大。被你还扩大”,这在OT有过于自由的不良含义异教徒。 St. Paul's manner of writing has also to be taken into account.圣保罗的写作方式也必须考虑。In this, as in his other Epistles he speaks as a preacher who now addresses one portion of his congregation, now another, as if they were the only persons present, and that without fear of being misunderstood.在此,在他的其他书信,他说,作为一个牧师谁现在地址他的一个众,现在另一部分,仿佛他们是唯一没有被人误解的恐惧目前,那。 Dr. Bernard thinks that the difference of tone can be sufficiently accounted for on the supposition that the letter was written at different sittings, and that the writer was in a different mood owing to ill-health or other circumstances.伯纳德博士认为,在色调差异可以得到充分的占在该信是写在不同的开庭假设,并认为作家在不同的心情,由于健康欠佳或其他情况了。 The other objections brought against the unity of the Epistle are ably refuted by the same author, whose argument may be briefly summarized as follows: the last section, it is said, begins very abruptly, and is loosely connected with the previous one by the particle de.反对书信统一所带来的其他反对意见巧妙地由同一作者,其参数可以简要地归纳如下反驳:最后一节,这是说,开始很突然,并与前一个松散连接的粒子德。 But there are several other instances in the Epistles of St. Paul where transition is made in precisely the same way.但也有在圣保罗的地方过渡是完全相同的方式制成的书信其他几个实例。On the last part, it is objected, people in open rebellion are denounced, whereas that is not the case in the first portion.在最后一部分,它是反对,在公开谴责叛乱的人,而不是在第一部分的情况。Still, there is clear reference in the first section to persons who accused him of being fickle, arrogant, brave at a distance, etc. One of the strongest arguments against the integrity is that there are several verses in the first nine chapters which seem to presuppose an equal number of passages in the second, and the contention is that the last section is a portion of an earlier Epistle.不过,有明确的参考,在首节的人谁指责他的善变,高傲,在距离勇敢,正直等对最强的论据之一是,有在第一九章几个诗句这似乎在第二个前提的通道数目相等,而争的是,最后一节是一个较早的书信部分。 But on closer examination of each passage this connection is seen to be only apparent.但仔细检查每一个通过这个连接都被看作是唯一明显的。On the other hand, there are at least as many passages in the last part which clearly and unmistakably look back to and presuppose verses in the first.另一方面,至少有在上个部分,明确无误地回顾和前提,在许多段落首小诗。It is remarkable, moreover, that the only extant fragments of the supposed two Epistles should fit so well.值得注意的是,此外,应该two书信的唯一现存的片段应该适合这么好。It has also been urged that the First Epistle is not "painful" enough to account for statements in the Second.也有人呼吁,第一书信不是“痛苦”足以在第二陈述的责任。But a close examination of i, 11, 14; ii, 6; iii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 18; iv, 8, 9, 10, 18, 19; v, etc., of the First Epistle, will show that this objection is quite unfounded.但是,一个我,11,14日收盘检查;二,六,三,1,2,3,4,18岁;四,8,9,10,18,19,V等,第一书信,将表明,这种反对是很没有根据的。 The linguistic unity between the two portions of the Epistle is very great; and many examples can be given to show that the two sections were always integral portions of one whole.之间的书信的两部分语言的统一是非常巨大的,并可以给出很多例子表明,在两节总是一个整体的组成部分。The evidence afforded by early manuscripts, translations, and quotations points strongly in the same direction.由早期的手稿,译本,以及所提供的证据表明报价强烈的同一方向。

ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH AT CORINTH AS EXHIBITED IN THE TWO EPISTLES的AT哥林多教会组织作为表现在两个书信

There is nothing in either Epistle which enables us to say what was the precise nature of the organization of the Church at Corinth.在任一有书信,使我们说什么是对在科林斯教会组织的确切性质无关。In I Cor., xii, 28, we read: "And God indeed hath set some in the church; first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly doctors; after that [the gift of] miracles; then the graces [charismata] of healings, helps, governments [or wise counsels], kinds of tongues, interpretations of speeches. Are all apostles? . . . Are all workers of miracles? Have all the grace of healing?"在林前,十二,28,我们读到:“上帝的确祂所设置一些在教会里,第一使徒,第二是先知,第三医生;之后,奇迹[的礼物];则青睐[charismata]的医治,帮助,各国政府[或明智的律师],种方言,演讲诠释。是否所有的使徒? 是所有工人的奇迹?是否所有的医治恩典?“From the whole context it is clear that this passage is nothing else than an enumeration of extraordinary gifts, and that it has no bearing whatsoever on church government.从整个上下文很显然,这段话无非是一个非凡的礼物枚举一样,而且它并没有对教会政府承担任何责任。The word apostle is probably used here in its broad sense, not as meaning the Apostles of Jesus Christ, but the apostles of the Church.这个词用在这里可能是使徒在其广泛的意义上,而不是意义耶稣基督的使徒,但教会的使徒。 If it is meant to include the former, then the reference is not to their ruling power, but to their supernatural gifts, upon which the whole argument turns.如果是想包括前者,则引用不是他们的执政权力,但他们超自然的礼物,在这整个参数打开。St. Paul thanked God that he spoke with all their tongues Barnabas is called an apostle (Acts 14:4, 13).圣保罗感谢上帝,他与所有的方言讲巴拿巴被称为使徒(徒十四时04,13)。In II Cor., viii, 23, St. Paul calls his messengers "the apostles of the churches".在二林后,八,23,圣保罗称他的使者“的教会的使徒”。(Compare Romans 16:7; Revelation 2:2.) The Didache, or "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles", which is probably a work of the first century, has the statement that if an apostle remains till the third day claiming support, he is to be regarded as a false prophet. (罗马书16:7比较;启示录2:2)的十二使徒遗训,或“十二使徒教学”,这大概是第一个世纪的工作,已经声明,如果一个传道者仍然声称,直到第三天的支持,他是作为一个假先知认为。 It also says that every true teacher and true prophet is worthy of his support; and it gives one of the rules for detecting a false prophet.它还说,每一个真正的老师和真正的先知是他值得支持,并给出了检测假先知的规则之一。 "Prophets and doctors" are referred to in Acts, xiii, 1.“先知和医生”是指在行为,十三,1。It is extremely probable that St. Paul had organized the Church at Corinth during his long stay there as carefully as he had previously done in Galatia ("and when they had ordained to them priests in every church" -- Acts 14:22) and in Ephesus "wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed you bishops" -- Acts, xx, 7, 28).这是非常可能在圣保罗举办了他的长期滞留在那里仔细科林斯教会作为他以前在加拉太完成(“当他们祝他们在每一个教会牧师” - 徒14:22)和在以弗所“其中圣灵祂所放在您主教” - 行为,XX,7,28)。We have these statements on the authority of the author of the Acts, now admitted, even by Harnack, to be St. Luke, the companion of the Apostle.我们对目前承认的行为,甚至哈纳克,得到圣路加,使徒的同伴作者授权这些语句。St. Paul had spent six or eight times as long at Corinth as he had at Philippi, yet we find him writing to the latter place: "Paul and Timothy . . . to all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons" (Philippians 1:1 -- cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:12).圣保罗在哥林多花了六,​​八次,只要他在腓立了,但我们发现他写信给后者的地方:“保罗和提摩太所有在基督耶稣的圣徒是谁在腓立比,与。主教和执事“(腓1:1 - 比照帖前5:12)。The principal office of the bishops and deacons was, according to the Didache, to consecrate the Blessed Eucharist.该主教和执事校长室一,根据十二使徒遗训,奉献的祝福圣餐。It is only by accident, as it were, on account of abuses, that St. Paul speaks, in the First Epistle, of the form of consecration used at Corinth, and which is substantially the same as that given in the Gospels.它只是偶然,因为它是,对滥用帐户,圣保罗讲,在第一书信,对奉献在科林斯使用的形式,这实质上与在给定相同的福音。 Had the abuses not arisen, it seems clear that he would not have referred to the Eucharist.没有出现的弊端,它似乎很清楚,他不会提到圣体。He says nothing of it in the Second Epistle.他说,它没有在第二书信。In that case there would not be wanting those who would have loudly asserted that the Corinthians "knew nothing of it", and, by implication, that the Apostle's mind had not yet developed to that extent.在这种情况下不会有希望那些谁也大声宣称,哥林多前书“知道它什么”,并暗示,这使徒的心思还没有发展到那种程度。 But as he speaks so clearly we may take it as certain, too, that the ministers of the Eucharist were the same as in other places.但正如他讲得很清楚,我们可以采取一定的它,那就是,圣体的部长是在其他地方一样。There is no evidence that it was ever consecrated without a bishop or priest.毫无疑问,这是以往没有主教或神父奉献的证据。 These, with the deacons, were the regular ministers in each place, under the immediate jurisdiction of the Apostles of Jesus Christ.这些,与执事,在每个地方都经常部长,下了耶稣基督的使徒直接管辖。From all this we may conclude that the Church in Achaia was as regularly organized as the earlier Churches of Galatia, Ephesus, and the neighbouring Province of Macedonia, or as in the Church of Crete (Tit., i, 5).从所有这一切,我们可以得出结论,在亚该亚教会的定期为加拉太,以弗所早期教会,和马其顿毗邻省,或在克里特教会(Tit.,我,5)组织的。 There were "bishops" (which word certainly meant priests and perhaps also our modern bishops) and deacons.有“主教”(这字当然是牧师,或许也是我们现代化的主教)和执事。Later on, Timothy, and Titus, and others were appointed over these "bishops", priests, and deacons, and were monarchical bishops in the modern sense of the word.后来,提摩太,和提图斯和其他被任命了这些“主教”,司铎和执事,并在现代意义上的君主制主教。Other such bishops succeeded the Apostles.其他如主教成功使徒。

Publication information Written by Cornelius Aherne.出版信息科尼利厄斯Aherne写。Transcribed by Vernon Bremberg.转录由弗农Bremberg。Dedicated to the Cloistered Dominican Nuns of the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas.专用于与世隔绝多米尼加的婴儿耶稣,拉夫金,得克萨斯州寺尼姑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

The usual Introductions such as CORNELY, JACQUIER, SALMON, BELSER, ZAHN; BERNARD, Second Corinthians in Expositor's Greek Testament (London, 1903); FINDLAY, First Epistle to the Corinthians in Exp.如CORNELY,JACQUIER,鲑鱼,贝尔瑟,ZAHN通常的介绍,陈智思,在解释者的希腊文圣经(伦敦,1903年)第二科林蒂安;芬德利,第一书信向科林蒂安在地契。 Gr.克。Test.测试。(London, 1900); RICKABY, Romans, Corinthians, Galatians (London, 1898); KENNEDY, Second and Third Corinthians (London, 1900); ALFORD, The Greek Test.(伦敦,1900年); RICKABY,罗马人,科林蒂安,加拉太(伦敦,1898年),肯尼迪,第二和第三科林蒂安(伦敦,1900年); ALFORD,希腊试验。 (London, 1855), II; ROBERTSON in HASTINGS, Dict.(伦敦,1855年),二; ROBERTSON在黑斯廷斯,快译通。of the Bible; Lives of St. Paul by FARRAR, CONYBEARE and HOWSON, LEWIN, FOUARD; MCEVILLY, An Exposition of the Epistles of St. Paul (3rd ed., Dublin, 1875) CORNELY, Commentarius (Paris, 1890).圣经的;圣保罗生活得到法拉,科尼比尔和豪森,卢因,FOUARD; MCEVILLY,一个圣保罗(第3版,都柏林,1875)。CORNELY,Commentarius(巴黎,1890)的书信博览会。See also the commentaries of ESTIUS, BISPING, MAIER, LOCH, REISCHL, DRACH, STEENKISTE.又见ESTIUS,比斯平,迈尔,湖,REISCHL,DRACH,STEENKISTE的评注。The critical commentary of SCHMIEDEL, Die Briefe an die Korinther in Hand Kommentar (Leipzig, 1893); LIGHTFOOT, Biblical Essays, Notes on Epistles of St. Paul (notes on seven chapters of First Cor. -- London, 1895); ROBERTSON, Corinthians in The International Critical Commentary (Cambridge, 1908).关键的SCHMIEDEL评论,模具Briefe在手Kommentar(莱比锡,1893年)死Korinther;娜莱,圣经的散文,在圣保罗(林前七项第一章笔记 - 伦敦,1895年)。书信注释;罗伯逊在国际评论文章科林蒂安(剑桥,1908年)。



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