Ecumenical Church Councils基督教教会理事会

Including the Roman Catholic Listing包括罗马天主教上市

General Information一般资料

An ecumenical council gathers bishops and other representatives of the Christian church from all over the world to formulate positions intended to bind or influence the members everywhere. The term ecumenical (from the Greek oikoumene) refers to "the whole inhabited world," but in the history of Christianity it has come to refer to efforts to bring together Christians. After the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, it became impossible for Western Christians to convoke fully ecumenical councils, since those that have been held under papal auspices, the Council of Trent (1545-63) and the First and Second Vatican Councils (1869-70, 1962-65), have excluded Protestants and Eastern Orthodox Christians.一个基督教会主教和收集的来自世界各地的基督教教会的代表制定旨在约束或影响的成员到处立场。 一词合一(从希腊oikoumene)是指“整个居住的世界”,但在基督教的历史,它已经提到基督徒的努力汇集后的16世纪宗教改革,它成为西方基督徒合一议会召集完全不可能的,因为那些已经在罗马教皇的主持下,安理会的遄达举行(1545年至1563年)和第一及第二梵蒂冈议会(1869至1870年,1962-1965),已排除新教和东正教基督徒。


The idea of a council for the purpose of furthering the goals of the church and, even more, for dealing with divisive matters of doctrine, began before AD 50.一个为促进教会的目标,更与分裂主义问题时,目的局的意念,开始之前公元50。According to the Acts of the Apostles [Acts 15], the disciples of Jesus Christ called a council at Jerusalem to discuss stresses between two parties.根据使徒行传[徒15],耶稣基督的门徒称为在耶路撒冷议会讨论双方之间的压力。One party, led by St. Peter and St. James (the "Lord's brother"), an early leader in Jerusalem, stressed continuity between ancient Judaism and its law and the community that had gathered around Christ.一方,由圣彼得和圣雅各福群(以下简称“主的兄弟”),在耶路撒冷的早期领导人带领下,强调了其法律和古老的犹太教和基督的周围聚集了社会的连续性。 The other, led by St. Paul, stressed the mission of Christians to the whole inhabited world, with its preponderance of Gentiles (or non-Jews).另外,由圣保罗主导,强调基督徒的使命对整个居住的世界,它的外邦人(非犹太人)优势。At the council the latter group tended to prevail.在理事会的后者往往占上风。

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The council at Jerusalem is not counted among the 21 general councils of the church.在耶路撒冷议会不计入其中21名教会一般议会。 For 3 centuries, no general council was possible because Christianity was an outlaw religion, and it was difficult for anyone with authority to call scattered Christians together.对于3个世纪,没有一般会是可能的,因为基督教是一个非法的宗教,它是与权力分散的基督徒一起呼吁任何人都很难。 After Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the 4th century, both civil authority and bishops who had greater power could work together in calling councils.经过基督教成为了在4世纪罗马帝国的官方宗教,民事权力和主教谁具有更大的权力,能携手合作,呼吁议会。Before long, the bishop of Rome (Pope) was seen as preeminent; in Roman Catholic belief he must always convoke a council, and after the bishops have voted, he must officially spread the decrees they pass.不久,罗马(教皇)主教被认为是杰出的,在罗马天主教的信仰,他必须时刻召开的理事会,并经过主教们投了票,他必须正式传播法令他们通过。

Non-Roman Catholic Christians for the most part respect the earlier councils, but it is not plausible to call any gathering since the Second Council of Nicaea (787), truly representative.非天主教的基督徒大部分早期尊重议会,但它是不可能的,因为调用第二届理事会的尼西亚(787),真正具有代表性的任何聚会。 Since that date, Eastern and Western churches, and since the 16th century Protestant and Catholic churches, have not met together.从那时起,东方和西方教会,自16世纪新教和天主教教堂,还没有碰到一起。Throughout the Middle Ages, even Western or Roman Catholics themselves debated the convoking and authority of councils.在整个中世纪,甚至西方或罗马天主教徒自己辩论的议会convoking和权威性。Although all the bishops and theologians agreed that the pope should have special prerogatives, for several centuries reformers claimed that when protesters had grievances, they could appeal from the pope to a council.虽然所有的主教和神学家一致认为,教皇应该有特殊的特权,为改革者几个世纪声称,当示威者不满,他们可以提出上诉教皇的理事会。 Out of these reformist parties came a theory of Conciliarism, the idea that a council is ultimately above the pope.在这些改革各方传来的Conciliarism理论,思想,一个议会最终高于教皇。The Great Schism in 1378 brought this debate to a head, since there were then two and later three popes.在1378大分裂带来的这次辩论一个头,因为有那么两年后三个教皇。The Council of Constance (1414-18) settled the division, but conciliar power was again limited when the pope declared the Council of Basel (1431-37) heretical.安理会的康斯坦茨(1414年至1418年)解决了划分,但conciliar的力量是有限的时候,教皇再次宣告了巴塞尔委员会(1431年至1437年)异端。

Three councils have been held since the Reformation.三议会举行了自改革。The first, at Trent, met over a period of 18 years to deal with the Protestant revolt; it was decisively anti-Protestant in its decrees.第一,在遄达,遇到过了18年来处理新教起义,它是在其法令果断反新教。 The First Vatican Council, convened at Rome in 1869-70, not only continued the attempts to define Roman Catholicism against the rest of ecumenical Christendom, but decreed that--in matters of faith and morals when he speaks officially and with clear intention to do so--the pope is infallible.第一届梵蒂冈理事会,在1869年至1870年在罗马召开,不仅继续试图界定反对罗马天主教基督教基督教休息,但下旨 - 在信仰和道德发言时正式事项,并有明确意向做所以 - 教皇是不变的真理。The Second Vatican Council (1962-65), which also met in Rome, showed a different outlook.第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962-1965),这也是在罗马开会,表现出不同的面貌。First, it invited observers from Orthodox and Protestant churches; second, the bishops did vote for a principle of collegiality, which gave higher status to their participation.首先,邀请观察员东正教和新教教堂,二,主教们也投了合议原则,这给了更高的地位,他们的参与。Collegiality, however, did not effectively limit the supremacy of the pope.合议,但是,并不能有效地限制了教皇至高无上的地位。


The earlier councils have tremendous moral authority even if they are not seen as binding, and most Christians regard the Creeds and statements they produced as authoritative or highly influential for subsequent statements of faith.早期的政局有巨大的道德权威,即使他们不被视为具有约束力,大多数基督徒认为他们的信条和报表制作的权威或信仰的后续语句极具影响力。 At the same time, these councils expressed something of the power situation and much of the world view of their day, and their dictums cannot be followed easily without some interpretation and translation.与此同时,这些议会表达了权力情况和他们的天世界观的东西很多,他们的格言不能遵循一些口译和笔译不容易。 Thus, the First Council of Nicaea (325), the first ecumenical council, devoted itself to the problem of the Trinity, but it did so in the language of Greek philosophy, a language that differs considerably in impact from the simple and concrete Hebrew expression of much of the Scriptures.因此,尼西亚(325),第一个大公会议,第一届理事会致力于三位一体的问题,但它的确在希腊哲学的语言,语言的不同之处的影响很大,从简单的和具体的希伯来语表达这样对圣经了。 Similarly, the Council of Chalcedon (451), which defined how the divine and the human elements related in Jesus ("unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably"), used some terms that are unfamiliar to contemporary ears.同样,Chalcedon委员会(451),它定义了如何在神和耶稣(“unconfusedly,unchangeably,不可分割,相辅相成”)有关的人为因素,使用的一些术语不熟悉当代的耳朵。

The councils that raise the greatest problems for modern ecumenical Christianity are those that were exclusively Roman: the Council of Trent and the First Vatican Council.该议会是提高现代普世基督教的最大的问题是那些被专门罗马:安理会的遄达和第一梵蒂冈委员会。For almost 30 years before 1545, Protestants were belligerent against Roman authority and teaching, and the Council of Trent replied in kind.对于几乎前301545年,新教徒反对罗马的权威和教学争强好胜,安理会的遄达实物回答。Protestants in particular had difficulty with the way Trent saw the authority of the church partly in Scripture and partly in tradition and with the way its bishops rejected their teaching that humans are justified only by Grace through faith.特别是新教徒曾与方式特伦特看到了部分教会在圣经和部分传统的方式和其主教拒绝了他们的教学,人类只有通过合理的权力信仰格雷斯困难。 The definition of papal Infallibility at the First Vatican Council was even more unacceptable to them.而教皇infallibility在第一梵蒂冈委员会的定义,更不能接受他们。For this reason, they welcomed the efforts of the Second Vatican Council to bring Roman Catholics and others into greater accord.出于这个原因,他们欢迎梵蒂冈二次会议所作的努力,使更多符合罗马天主教等。

Non-Roman Catholics in the modern world, through the World Council of Churches at its plenary conventions, have on occasion felt something of the ecumenical character of conciliar thought again; although representative of most non-Roman Christians, however, these assemblies lack authoritative and binding power and gain credibility only through their power to persuade, and not to coerce, assent.非罗马天主教徒在现代世界,通过在其全体会议公约世界教会理事会,有机会感受到了conciliar的思想再次合一性质的东西,虽然大多数非罗马基督徒的代表,但是,这些组件缺乏权威性和结合功率和增益的信誉,只有通过自己的力量来说服,而不是强迫,同意。

Martin E. Marty马丁E.马蒂

Bibliography 参考书目
Hughes, Philip, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 235-1870 (1961); Jaeger, Lorenz, The Ecumenical Council, the Church, and Christendom (1961); Jedin, Hubert, Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church (1970); Lowrey, Mark D., Ecumenism: Striving for Unity amid Diversity (1985); Rusch, William G., Ecumenism: A Movement toward Church Unity (1985); Watkin, EI, The Church in Council (1960).休斯,菲利普,教会在危机:一个普通议会,235-1870(1961)历史;积,洛伦茨,在大公会议,教会,和基督教(1961年); Jedin,休伯特,天主教基督教议会(1970年); Lowrey,马克D.,普世主义:团结奋斗中多样性(1985年);鲁施,威廉G.,普世主义:一种对教会的合一(1985)运动;沃特金斯,EI,会同(1960)教会。

Church Councils教会理事会

Advanced Information先进的信息

A council is a conference called by the leaders of the church to give guidance to the church.阿议会是由教会领袖呼吁给予指导,教会会议。The first council took place in Jerusalem (ca. AD 50) for the purpose of opposing Judaizing efforts and is recorded in Acts 15.第一届理事会在耶路撒冷(约公元50)的地方为反对犹太化的努力目标,并在15行为记录。 The results of this first Council of Jerusalem were normative for the entire early Christian church.这种耶路撒冷第一届理事会的结果为整个早期基督教教堂的规范性。However, the Jerusalem Council must be distinguished from succeeding councils in that it had apostolic leadership.然而,耶路撒冷委员会必须区别于在议会成功,它已经使徒的领导。

A council may be either ecumenical and thus representative of the entire church, or it may be local, having regional or local representation.一个议会可以是合一,从而对整个教会的代表,也可能是本地的,有区域或地方的代表性。For example, twelve regional councils met to discuss the Arian heresy between the ecumenical councils of Nicaea in 325 and Constantinople in 381.例如,有十二个地区议会举行会议,讨论之间的尼西亚大公议会在325和381君士坦丁堡阿里安异端。

Whereas previously the term "ecumenical" meant a representation based on the widest geographical coverage, during our present millennium the meaning shifted to denote the pope's inherent authority to declare a council ecumenical.而以前的所谓“普世”的意思在尽可能广泛的地域覆盖面为基础的代表在我们目前的千年,意义转移到表示教宗的固有权力,宣布议会合一。 Thus the pope, understood as exercising Christ's rule on earth, has authority to declare or to reject a council as ecumenical.因此,教皇,作为行使基督在地上的规则的理解,有权拒绝申报或作为大公会议。Although this papal prerogative was operative earlier, it finds explicit affirmation in the Vatican II decree "Light of the Nations," which states: "A council is never ecumenical unless it is confirmed or at least accepted as such by the successor of Peter."虽然这是罗马教皇的特权手术前,它发现在梵蒂冈II法令“光之国”,其中规定明确肯定:“一个议会从未合一,除非它是确认或因此至少接受了彼得的继任者。” The situation became problematic with general councils that had been called by emperors, as was Nicaea in 325.情况变得与已被皇帝称为一般议会问题,因为在325尼西亚。These were declared ecumenical by the popes ex post facto.这些被宣布由教皇事后合一。

It was precisely to this absolute authority of the pope to convene councils that Martin Luther directed one of his significant 1520 pamphlets, Address to the Christian Nobility.正是这种绝对权威的教皇召集议会,马丁路德重要指示,他1520小册子,地址之一的基督教贵族。Luther viewed such papal prerogatives as one of the "three walls" that had to be broken down.路德认为“三墙”,必须予以分解这样一个教皇特权。

Historically, councils have been called by emperors, popes, and bishops.历史上,议会已经称为皇帝,教皇和主教。The first seven councils were convoked in the East by emperors and were thus typical of Eastern caesaropapism (state over church).前七政局召集在东方的皇帝并因此东caesaropapism(超过教堂的状态)的典型。In the Western church the pope typically convened councils, except for a time during the Great Schism (1378-1417) when the plurality of bishops both convened councils and deposed popes (conciliarism).在西方教会的教皇通常召开理事会,除了一个大分裂期间(1378至1417年)时的主教多数都召开理事会和废黜教皇(conciliarism)。 Indeed, the Council of Constance in 1415 proclaimed the superiority of general councils over the pope.事实上,1415年理事会康斯宣布议会一般在教皇的优越性。But their supremacy was short-lived.但他们的优势是短暂的。By 1500 the pontiff had overcome the conciliar movement and was again convening councils.到1500教宗克服了conciliar的运动,并再次召集议会。

While both Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox churches regard the first councils as ecumenical, Protestant churches also regard as valid many of the declarations of these councils.尽管这两个罗马天主教徒和东正教教堂方面的第一个议会的基督教,新教的教堂也为有效的对这些委员会的声明许多方面。 This is because these councils largely concerned themselves with controversies over the diety, person, and natures of Christ.这是因为这些委员会主要关注在神,人,和基督本身性质的争议。After the split between the Roman Catholic (Western) and Orthodox (Eastern) churches each branch began its own authoritative councils.之后,罗马天主教之间的(西方)和东正教(东部)教会分裂每个分支开始自己的权威理事会。

The most significant of the early councils were Nicaea (325) and Chalcedon (451).其中最重要的是早期议会尼西亚(325)和迦克墩(451)。The former settled the issue of the nature of Christ as God, whereas the latter dealt with the issues of the twofold natures of Christ and their unity.前者解决了,作为神的基督性质的问题,而后者与基督和团结的双重性质的问题处理。In the case of Nicaea a presbyter of Alexandria, Arius, maintained that Christ was not the eternal Son of God.在案件的尼西亚的亚历山大,阿里乌斯,长老认为基督不是神永恒的儿子。Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, vigorously opposed that idea, declaring Christ to be of the same substance (homoousios) with God.亚他那修,亚历山大的主教,极力反对这种说法,宣称基督是同一物质与神(homoousios)。Athanasius and orthodoxy prevailed.亚他那修和正统占了上风。In general, this was the first binding theological declaration for the entire postapostolic church.一般来说,这是第一次约束力的整个postapostolic教会神学的宣言。

The Council of Chalcedon was called in 451 by the emperor Marcion for the purpose of settling disputes and clarifying the issue of the unity of the two natures of Christ.而被称为Chalcedon委员会由451为解决争端和澄清了对基督的两个性质的统一问题的目的皇帝马吉安。The resultant Chalcedonian Creed, or Definition, afforded the entire Christian Church a standard of Christological orthodoxy in declaring that Christ's two natures exist "without confusion, without change, without division, without separation."由此产生的Chalcedonian信条,或定义,所提供的整个基督教教会的正统的基督在宣布基督的两个性质存在标准“没有混乱,而不会改变,无师无分离。”

Subsequent councils found it necessary to consolidate the gains of Chalcedon and to oppose further Christological errors.随后的议会认为有必要巩固迦克墩的成果,并反对进一步基督的错误。 These councils terminated with the Third Council of Constantinople in 680-81.这些议会终止了第三届理事会君士坦丁堡在680-81。

In the West the Second Synod of Orange (529) was very significant in both combating semi-Pelagianism and setting forth the gracious character of salvation apart from works.在西方的橙色第二主教(529)非常重大的打击都半伯拉纠主义和设置提出了拯救亲切的性格,除了作品。Although it was not officially ecumenical, its declarations prevailed de jure but not de facto in the Roman Catholic Church down to the Reformation era.虽然不是正式合一,其声明在法律上占了上风,但事实上并非在罗马天主教会下降到改革的时代。

After the separation of the Eastern and Western churches in 1054 it became characteristic of the pope to convene councils in the Roman Catholic Church.后在1054年的东部和西部教会分离它成为了教皇的特点召开的罗马天主教教会理事会。Beginning in 1123 a series of so-called Lateran Councils was held at Rome in the Church of St. John Lateran.在1123开始了所谓的拉特兰议会在罗马举行了一系列的圣约翰拉特兰教堂。The most important of these was the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) convened by the great Pope Innocent III.其中最重要的是第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)由教皇英诺森三世大召开。This council declared transubstantiation to be the accepted interpretation of Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper.本会宣布陷于变体成为基督在主的晚餐存在接受的解释。

The next most significant council was the Council of Trent, 1545-63.下一个最显着的会是安理会的遄达,1545年至1563年。This council should be viewed as both a counter to the Protestant Reformation and an establishing of key tenets of Roman Catholicism.本会应被视为既违背了新教改革,以及对罗马天主教的主要原则建立。Both Scripture and tradition were declared authoritative for the church.无论圣经和传统被宣布为教会的权威。Salvation by grace alone through faith was jettisoned in favor of sacramental and works righteousness.仅通过信仰的恩典拯救被抛弃的圣事的青睐和工程正气。Modern Roman Catholicism, in general, continues to be Tridentine Catholicism.现代罗马天主教,在一般情况下,仍然是律但丁天主教。

The two Vatican Councils each represent both the old and the new.两个梵蒂冈议会各代表和旧的新的。 Vatican I (1869-70) made official what had long been practiced, papal infallibility.梵蒂冈I(1869至70年)提出正式什么早已实行,教皇犯错误。Vatican II (1962-65) was attended by both traditional and radical Roman Catholics.梵蒂冈II(1962-1965)出席了传统的和激进的罗马天主教徒。Its pronouncements regarding the universal character of the church approach sheer universalism.它的声明关于教会的做法纯粹的普遍性普遍性。Its more open stance toward the Bible is hailed by most Protestants as very salutary.它的更加开放的姿态走向圣经被誉为大多数新教徒作为非常有益的。Thus the term used at Vatican II, aggiornamento (modernization), has to some extent been realized in post-Vatican II Roman Catholicism.因此,在梵蒂冈第二,aggiornamento(现代化)所使用的术语,已经在一定程度上被梵二后的罗马天主教实现。

JH Hall JH馆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GJ Cuming and D. Baker, eds., Councils and Assemblies; P. Hughes, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils 325-1870; The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church: Their Canons and Dogmatic Degrees, NPNF. GJ康明和D.贝克,EDS,理事会和大会;,在危机教会P.休斯:一个普通的325-1870议会史;七基督教议会的不可分割的教会:他们的大炮和教条式的学位,NPNF。

Ecumenical Councils基督教议会

General Information一般资料

Twenty-one official Ecumenical Councils have been held.二十一名官员基督教议会已经举行。They are listed and briefly described as follows, with the inclusion of some additional Synods and Councils that have historical importance:他们列出,并简要介绍如下,一些额外的主教会议和议会已列入历史的重要性:

Council at Jerusalem (not counted in the 21 Councils) 48 AD理事会在耶路撒冷 (不计在21局)48 AD
According to the Acts of the Apostles, the disciples of Jesus Christ called a council at Jerusalem to discuss stresses between two parties.根据使徒行传,耶稣基督的门徒称为在耶路撒冷议会讨论双方之间的压力。One party, led by St. Peter and St. James (the "Lord's brother"), an early leader in Jerusalem, stressed continuity between ancient Judaism and its law and the community that had gathered around Christ.一方,由圣彼得和圣雅各福群(以下简称“主的兄弟”),在耶路撒冷的早期领导人带领下,强调了其法律和古老的犹太教和基督的周围聚集了社会的连续性。 The other, led by St. Paul, stressed the mission of Christians to the whole inhabited world, with its preponderance of Gentiles (or non-Jews).另外,由圣保罗主导,强调基督徒的使命对整个居住的世界,它的外邦人(非犹太人)优势。At the council the latter group tended to prevail.在理事会的后者往往占上风。

First Council at Nicaea (#1) 325 AD首先会在尼西亚 (#1)公元325年
The First Council of Nicaea (began on either May 20 or June 19, 325 and met until about Aug. 25, 325), the first ecumenical council, devoted itself to the problem of the Trinity, in an attempt to settle the controversy raised by Arianism over the nature of the Trinity.第一届理事会的尼西亚(5月20日开始在任或6月19日,325直到大约8月25日,325 MET),试图解决争议提出的第一个大公会议,致力于三位一体的问题,阿里乌斯教过三位一体的性质。It was the decision of the council, formalized in the Nicene Creed , that God the Father and God the Son were consubstantial and coeternal and that the Arian belief in a Christ created by and thus inferior to the Father was heretical. Arius himself was excommunicated and banished.这是该理事会的决定,正式在尼西亚信条 ,即圣父和圣子是同质和coeternal,而在基督信仰阿里安创建,从而不如父亲是邪教。阿里乌斯本人逐出教会和放逐。The council was also important for its disciplinary decisions concerning the status and jurisdiction of the clergy in the early church and for establishing the date on which Easter is celebrated.理事会还重要的关于在早期教会和建立在其上的日期是庆祝复活节的地位和其管辖的神职人员纪律处分决定。
First Council at Constantinople (#2) May to July, 381 AD 在第一届理事会君士坦丁堡 (#2)五月至七月,381 AD
Constantinople I was called primarily to confront Arianism, the heresy that had been subdued only temporarily by the First Council of Nicaea.君士坦丁堡叫我主要是为了对抗阿里乌斯教,曾经被制服了第一届理事会的尼西亚只是暂时的异端邪说。It reaffirmed the doctrines of the Nicene Creed and to depose Maximus, the Arian patriarch of Constantinople.它重申了尼西亚信经的教义和罢免鲆,阿里安的君士坦丁堡宗主教。They also condemned Apollinarianism, a position that denied the full humanity of Christ. The council defined the position of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity; it described the Holy Spirit as proceeding from God the Father, coequal and consubstantial with him. It also confirmed the position of the patriarch of Constantinople as second in dignity only to the bishop of Rome.他们还谴责Apollinarianism,这一立场完全否认基督的人性理事会确定了在圣灵三位一体的位置;它形容为从神出发的父亲,并与他同等同质圣灵这也证实了位置的尊严,只有在君士坦丁堡的罗马主教的第二元老。
Council of Ephesus (#3) June 22 to July 17, 431 AD安理会的以弗所 (#3)6月22日至7月17号,431 AD
The Council of Ephesus was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary in the celestial hierarchy and on the nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. It was convened in order to respond to the teachings of Nestorius that Mary be considered only the "mother of Christ" and not the "mother of God" (see Nestorianism).安理会的以弗所显着其教条对圣母玛利亚在天体层次结构和对耶稣基督的化身,自然地位的法令, 它是为了召集回应涅斯的教诲,玛丽被认为只“母亲的基督”,而不是“神的母亲”(见景教)。After lengthy debates the council reached an accord in which the appellation "mother of God," formally decreed by the council, was accepted by all. The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine aspects of Jesus, now declared to be of two separate natures though perfectly united in Christ.经过长时间的辩论,安理会达成的称谓,其中“神的母亲,”安理会正式颁布协议,被所有人接受。 该局还细化了对耶稣的神性方面的人力和教条,现在宣布为两虽然完全不同的性质团结在基督。
Robber Synod (not counted) 449 AD强盗主教 (不计)449 AD
In 449 another council, known in history as the latrocinium, or Robber Synod, met in Ephesus.另外在449局,在历史上被称为latrocinium,或强盗主教会见了以弗所。It approved the doctrines of Eutyches, which were subsequently condemned at the Council of Chalcedon.它批准了Eutyches理论,随后在Chalcedon委员会谴责。
Council of Chalcedon (#4) Oct. 8 to Nov. 1, 451 AD安理会的迦克墩 (#4)10月8号至11月1日,451 AD
The Council of Chalcedon (451), which defined how the divine and the human elements related in Jesus ("unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably"), used some terms that are unfamiliar to contemporary ears.在Chalcedon委员会(451),它定义了如何在神和耶稣(“unconfusedly,unchangeably,不可分割,相辅相成”)有关的人为因素,使用的一些术语不熟悉当代的耳朵。 It also condemned the Robber Synod.它还谴责强盗主教。
Council of Orange (not counted) 529 AD理事会橙 (不计)529 AD
Augustine had insisted that humans require the help of God's Grace to do good and that this grace is a free gift, given by God without regard to human merit.奥古斯丁曾坚持认为,人类需要神的恩典做好事,而这恩典是免费的礼物,神所赋予人类的价值,不考虑帮助。Thus God alone determines who will receive the grace that alone assures salvation.因此,只有上帝决定了谁将会获得宽限期,仅此保证得救。In this sense God predestines some to salvation.在这个意义上说上帝predestines一些得救。Augustine's teaching was generally upheld by the church, but the further idea that some are predestined to condemnation was explicitly rejected at the Council of Orange .奥古斯丁的教学普遍坚持的教堂, 但进一步的想法,有些是注定要被明确地谴责在奥兰治委员会拒绝
Second Council at Constantinople (#5) May 5 to June 2, 553 AD 在第二届理事会君士坦丁堡 (#5)5月5至6月2 553 AD
Constantinople II was convoked to condemn the Nestorian writings called the "Three Chapters."君士坦丁堡二是召集谴责称为景教著作“三个篇章。”Under the virtual tutelage of the emperor, the council proscribed Nestorianism and reconfirmed the doctrine that Christ's two natures, one human and one divine, are perfectly united in one person. Pope Vigilius at first defended the Three Chapters, but later accepted the council's ruling.根据皇帝,该局被禁止景教和重申的,基督的两个性质,一个人,一个神圣的,是完全在一个人团结学说虚拟监护教皇在第一Vigilius捍卫了三章,但后来接受了议会的裁决。
Third Council of Toledo (not counted) 589 AD第三届理事会托莱多 (不计)589 AD
This Council developed the additional phrase to the Nicene Creed that resulted in the Filioque Controversy and eventually in the Great Schism that divided Christianity into Roman Catholic and Orthodox. 本会发展到尼西亚信条附加短语,导致Filioque争论和大分裂是分为罗马天主教和东正教最终。
Third Council at Constantinople (#6) Nov. 7, 680 to Sept. 16,681 AD 第三届理事会 (#6)11月7日,公元680至九月16681 在君士坦丁堡
Constantinople III condemned Monothelitism and affirmed that Christ has two wills, one human and one divine, but that these are without division or confusion. In addition, it condemned an earlier pope, Honorius I, for supporting that heresy.君士坦丁堡三谴责Monothelitism和肯定,基督有两个遗嘱,一个人,一个神圣的,但这些都没有分裂或混乱,此外,它谴责支持该异端较早的教皇,挪我。 This Council is also called Trullanum.本会也被称为Trullanum。
'Robber' Council of Constantinople (Orthodox) 754 “强盗”理事会君士坦丁堡(东正教)754
Second Council of Nicaea (#7) 787 AD第二届理事会的尼西亚 (#7)787 AD
This Council ruled on the use of saints' images and icons in religious devotion, declaring that whereas the veneration of images was legitimate and the intercession of saints efficacious, the veneration of icons must be carefully distinguished from the worship due God alone.本会裁定的圣人“图像和宗教虔诚图标使用,而宣称的图像崇拜是合法和有效的圣徒代祷, 崇拜的图标必须小心从拜因只有上帝区别开来。

Note: The above seven great councils are regarded as ecumenical by both the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches. 注:上述七大议会作为基督教视为双方的罗马天主教和东正教教堂。The Orthodox Church even identifies itself as the 'Church of the Seven Councils'. 东正教教会甚至标识为“的七议会堂”本身。
Photius (not counted by either Catholic or Orthodox) 867 AD Photius(不受任何天主教或东正教计)867 AD
In 867, Photius summoned a council that deposed Pope Nicholas.在867,Photius召集议会,废黜教皇尼古拉。The conflict, purely administrative at the beginning, had acquired doctrinal undertones when Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria, acting as Pope Nicholas' emissaries, began to introduce an interpolated text of the Nicene Creed.冲突,纯粹是在开始的行政,已收购的意味较浓时,法兰克传教士在保加利亚,作为教皇尼古拉“使者行动,开始引进了尼西亚信经插值的文字。 In the original text the Holy Spirit was said to have proceeded "from the Father," whereas in Carolingian Europe (but not yet in Rome) the text had been revised to say "from the Father and the Son" (filioque).在原来的文本圣灵据说进行“从父”,而在加洛林欧洲(但尚未在罗马) 的文本进行了修订,以说“从父亲和儿子”(filioque)。This began the division that eventually split the Catholic and Orthodox Churches apart two hundred years later in the Great Schism. 这开始分裂,最终分裂的大分裂,天主教和东正教教堂相隔二百多年后。
Fourth Council at Constantinople (#8) Oct. 5, 869 to Feb. 28, 870 AD 第四届理事会在君士坦丁堡 (#8)10月5日,869至2月28日,870 AD
Constantinople IV made no new dogmatic decisions; instead, it greatly contributed to the growing split between the Eastern and Western churches.君士坦丁堡四并没有新的教条式的决策,相反,它极大地促进了东部和西部之间的教会增长的分裂。The principal action was to depose Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, for usurping his ecclesiastical position.主要行动是废除对盗用他的教会的立场Photius,君士坦丁堡的族长。This Council was only first called Ecumenical about two hundred years afterwards.本会是唯一的第一个所谓的普世大约两百年后。Later, Photius was restored to his see, and he held another council in 879-80. That later council, not that of 869, is considered ecumenical by the Orthodox church.后来,Photius恢复到他看,他曾在879-80另一个会。 后来议会不就是869,被认为是由东正教教会的合一。
Photius (not counted by Catholic, but #8 by Orthodox) Nov. 879 to Mar. 13, 880 ADPhotius(不计的天主教徒,但由东正教#8)11月至3月13日879,880 AD
In 879-80 a great council, presided over by Photius, confirmed the original form of the Nicene creed, and normal relations between Rome and Constantinople were restored.在879-80大议会,主持Photius, 证实了尼西亚信条原来的形式,与罗马和君士坦丁堡被恢复了正常关系。The Orthodox Church called this the Council of Union.东正教教会把这种现象称之为联盟理事会。
Council of Clermont 1095理事会克莱蒙 1095
Pope Urban II preached for and launched the First Crusade.教皇乌尔班二世鼓吹并发动第一次十字军东征。
First Lateran Council (#9) Mar. 18 to Apr. 6, 1123第一拉特兰理事会 (#9)3月18号至四月六日,1123
The First Lateran Council was called to ratify the Concordat of Worms (1122), which formally ended the lengthy Investiture controversy.第一拉特兰呼吁安理会批准的蠕虫契约(1122),从而正式结束了漫长的天职争议。
Second Lateran Council (#10) April, 1139二拉特兰理事会 (#10)四月,1139
The Second Lateran Council was convoked to reaffirm the unity of the church after the schism (1130-38) of the antipope Anacletus II (d. 1138).第二次拉特兰理事会召集重申后的对立教皇Anacletus II(草1138)分裂(1130年至1138年)教会的团结。It also condemned the teachings of Arnold of Brescia.它还谴责布雷西亚阿诺德的教诲。
Third Lateran Council (#11) Mar. 5 to 19, 1179第三拉特兰理事会 (#11)三月五日至19号,1179
The Third Lateran Council ended the schism (1159-77) of the antipope Callistus III and his predecessors.第三次拉特兰会议结束了对立教皇卡利斯图斯三和他的前任分裂(1159年至1177年)。 It also limited papal electors to members of the College of Cardinals.它也仅限于教皇的枢机主教团成员的选民。
Fourth Lateran Council (#12) Nov. 11 to 30, 1215第四次拉特兰理事会 (#12)十一月11日至30号,1215
This council sanctioned a definition of the Eucharist in which the word transubstantiation was used officially for the first time. The council also attempted to organize a new crusade to the Holy Land and to encourage crusading efforts against the Albigenses and Waldenses. Many precepts still binding on Roman Catholics (such as the Easter duty, or obligation, of annual confession and Holy Communion) were adopted at this council.这议会批准了在其中陷于变体字是用于第一次正式圣体的定义。该局还试图组织一个新的十字军东征的圣地,并鼓励讨伐反对Albigenses和瓦勒度派的努力, 许多戒律仍然具有约束力罗马天主教徒(如复活节职责,义务或每年供述和圣餐)在本会获得通过。
First Council of Lyons (#13) June 28 to July 17, 1245第一届理事会的里昂 (#13)六月28 to 1245年7月17日
Confirmed the deposition of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.证实了神圣罗马帝国皇帝腓特烈二世的沉积。
Second Council of Lyons (#14) May 7 to July 17, 1274第二届理事会的里昂 (#14)五月7 to 1274年7月17日
A new crusade was organized, and regulations regarding the papal election were approved.一个新的十字军东征是有组织,法规关于教皇选举获得批准。An effort at reconciling the Catholic and Orthodox Churches failed.一个调和的天主教和东正教教会的努力失败了。
Council of Vienne (#15) Oct. 16, 1311 to May 6, 1312理事会的维埃纳省 (#15)1311年10月16日至1312年5月6日
Abolished the Order of Templars, and passed some Church reforms.取消了圣殿订单,并通过一些教会改革。
Council in the Orthodox Church 1341东正教会在 1341
Doctrinal definition of Grace.理论上的定义雍容。
Council in the Orthodox Church 1351东正教会在 1351
Doctrinal definition of Grace.理论上的定义雍容。
Council of Constance (#16) Nov 5, 1414 to Apr. 22, 1418安理会的康斯 (#16)1414年11月5日至1418年4月22日
Throughout the Middle Ages, even Western or Roman Catholics themselves debated the convoking and authority of councils.在整个中世纪,甚至西方或罗马天主教徒自己辩论的议会convoking和权威性。Although all the bishops and theologians agreed that the pope should have special prerogatives, for several centuries reformers claimed that when protesters had grievances, they could appeal from the pope to a council. Out of these reformist parties came a theory of Conciliarism, the idea that a council is ultimately above the pope. The Great Schism in 1378 brought this debate to a head, since there were then two and later three popes.虽然所有的主教和神学家一致认为,教皇应该有特殊的特权,为改革者几个世纪声称,当示威者不满,他们可以提出上诉教皇的理事会,这些改革派政党外面传来了Conciliarism理论,思想,一个议会最终高于教皇的 1378年大分裂带来的这次辩论一个头,因为有那么两年后三个教皇。The Council of Constance (1414-18) settled the division.安理会的康斯坦茨(1414年至1418年)定居的划分。
Council of Basel (#17a) July, 1431 to May 4, 1437巴塞尔委员会 (#17A)七月,1431年至1437年5月4日
Established that the Council had higher authority than the Pope, but conciliar power was again limited when the pope declared the Council of Basel heretical.成立该委员会已高于教皇的权威,但conciliar的力量是有限的时候,教皇再次宣告了巴塞尔委员会异端。
Council of Ferrara-Florence (#17b) Sept 17, 1437 to January 1939 (Ferrara); January 1439 to Apr. 25, 1442 (Florence); Apr. 25, 1442 to 1445 (Rome) 理事会的费拉拉,佛罗伦萨 (#17B)1437年9月17日至1939年1月(费拉拉); 1439年1月至1442年4月25日(佛罗伦萨); 1442年4月25日to 1445(罗马)
The Council of Ferrara-Florence was convened for the primary purpose of ending the schism between that church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.而费拉拉,佛罗伦萨召开会议为结束之间的教堂和东正教分裂的主要目的。
Fifth Lateran Council (#18) May 3, 1512 to Mar. 16, 1517第五拉特兰理事会 (#18)1512年5月3日至1517年3月16日
The Fifth Lateran Council was convoked for the purpose of reform, but the main causes of the Reformation were left untouched.第五拉特兰理事会召集的改​​革的目的,但对改革的主要原因是保持不变。Its most significant decree was a condemnation of Conciliarism.其最重要的法令是一个Conciliarism谴责。

Three Western Ecumenical Councils have been held since the Reformation.三个西方基督教议会已举行了自改革。

Council of Trent (#19) Dec. 13, 1545 to 1563安理会的遄达 (#19)12 13,1545年至1563年
The Council of Trent met over a period of 18 years to deal with the Protestant revolt; it was decisively anti-Protestant in its decrees. Trent saw the authority of the church partly in Scripture and partly in tradition and its bishops rejected the teaching of Protestants that humans are justified only by Grace through faith. Dogmatic decisions were passed regarding original sin and justification, the seven Sacraments, and the Mass, and the cult of the saints.安理会的遄达会见了在18年内处理新教徒反抗,它是在其法令果断反新教特伦特看到了部分在圣经教会权威和部分在传统和主教拒绝了新教徒教学人类是有道理的,只有通过信仰雍容。教条主义的决定获得通过关于原罪和理由,七圣事,和大众,和崇拜的圣人。

First Vatical Council (#20) Dec. 8, 1869 to Oct. 20, 1870 首先Vatical理事会 (#20)1869年12月8日至1870年10月20日
The First Vatican Council, convened at Rome in 1869-70, not only continued the attempts to define Roman Catholicism against the rest of ecumenical Christendom, but decreed that--in matters of faith and morals when he speaks officially and with clear intention to do so-- the pope is infallible .第一届梵蒂冈理事会,在1869年至1870年在罗马召开,不仅继续试图界定反对罗马天主教基督教基督教休息,但下旨 - 在信仰和道德发言时正式事项,并有明确意向做所以- 教皇是不变的真理
Second Vatican Council (#21) Oct. 11, 1962 to Dec. 8, 1965梵蒂冈第二次会议 (#21)1962年10月11日至1965年12月8日
The Second Vatican Council (1962-65), which also met in Rome, showed a different outlook.第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962-1965),这也是在罗马开会,表现出不同的面貌。First, it invited observers from Orthodox and Protestant churches; second, the bishops did vote for a principle of collegiality, which gave higher status to their participation.首先,邀请观察员东正教和新教教堂,二,主教们也投了合议原则,这给了更高的地位,他们的参与。 Collegiality, however, did not effectively limit the supremacy of the pope.合议,但是,并不能有效地限制了教皇至高无上的地位。

Ecumenical Councils基督教议会

Advanced Information先进的信息

Ecumenical Councils were Councils that originated from the link between the Christian church and Roman state during the fourth century.基督教议会是议会,从基督教教会之间的状态和罗马在第四世纪的桥梁起源。Originally summoned by emperors to promote unity, the early councils were intended to represent the whole church.最初由皇帝召见,促进团结,早期的议会是因为它们代表了整个教堂。Throught the centuries the Roman Catholic canon law came to stipulate that an ecumenical council must be convened by the pope and be duly representative of the dioceses of the Roman Church (although decision making was subordinated to papal confirmation).思想的世纪,罗马天主教教会法来规定,一个大公会议必须由教皇召集并得到适当的罗马教会的教区代表(尽管决策是服从罗马教皇的确认)。 Because of this switch in policy and representation, Christians have disagreed on which councils were "ecumenical."由于这种政策和代表性开关,基督徒不同意议会上是“合一”。While the Roman Catholic Church accepts twenty-one, the Coptic, Syrian, and Armenian churches accept only the first three in the Roman Catholic list.虽然罗马天主教会接受21,科普特人,叙利亚和亚美尼亚教会只接受在罗马天主教列表前三。Most Protestant groups and the Eastern Orthodox Church accept the first seven.大多数新教团体和东正教教堂接受了前七。To the Roman Catholic Church the ecumenical or universal council binds the whole church, while a particular council binds only one part of the church.到了罗马天主教教会的合一或通用理事会结合全教会,而尤其是安理会约束只有一个教会的一部分。

The first eight councils that were called by emperors and had a representation of both Eastern and Western bishops were the councils of Nicaea I (325); Constantinople I (381); Ephesus (431); Chalcedon (451); Constantinople II (553); Constantinople III (680-81); Nicaea II (787); and Constantinople IV (869-70).第一八个被称为是由皇帝和有东方和西方都主教表示议会是我的尼西亚(325)理事会;君士坦丁堡I(381);以弗所(431);迦克墩(451);君士坦丁堡II(553) ;第三君士坦丁堡(680-81);尼西亚II(787)和君士坦丁堡四(869-70)。

With the First Lateran Council (1123) the papacy initiated and assumed control, continuing this policy with Lateran II (1139); Lateran III (1179); Lateran IV (1215); Lyon I (1245); Lyon II (1274); and Vienne (1311-12).与第一拉特兰会议(1123)罗马教廷发起并承担控制,这与持续拉特兰II(1139)的政策;拉特兰III(1179);拉特兰四(1215年);里昂I(1245),里昂II(1274),以及维埃纳省(1311年至1312年)。 During the conciliar movement, when the papacy had reached a low ebb, the Council of Constance (1414-18) and the Council of Basel (called 1431, transferred to Ferrara in 1438 and Florence in 1439) were convened.在conciliar的运动,当教皇已经达到了低潮,安理会的康斯坦茨(1414年至1418年)和巴塞尔委员会(称为1431年,在1438转和1439佛罗伦萨费拉拉)召开了。 During the sixteenth century the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-17) and the Council of Trent (1545-63) were called to meet challenges to the Roman Church.在16世纪第五拉特兰会议(1512年至1517年)和安理会的遄达(1545年至1563年)被称为迎接挑战的罗马教会。 In the modern period the papacy has convened two councils nearly a century apart, Vatican I (1869-70) and Vatican II (1962-65).在现代时期,罗马教廷曾召开两局近一个世纪之余,我梵蒂冈(1869至1870年)和梵蒂冈II(1962-1965)。

DA Rausch DA Rausch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

General Councils总理事会

Catholic Information天主教信息

This subject will be treated under the following heads:这个问题将被视为根据以下元首:



Historical Sketch历史概述

The Pope and General Councils教皇和总理事会

Composition of General Councils总议会的组成

Right of participation参与权

Requisite number of members必要数量的成员

Papal headship the formal element of Councils罗马教皇的校长在议会正式元素

Factors in the Pope's Co-operation with the Council在教皇的合作因素与理事会




Business Methods商业方法

The facts事实

The theory该理论

Infallibility of General Councils;犯错误的总议会;

Correlation of Papal and Conciliary Infallibility相关的教皇和Conciliary犯错误

Infallibility Restricted to Unanimous Findings犯错误受限制,以获得一致结果


Is a Council above the Pope?以上是教皇呢?

Has a General Council Power to Depose a Pope?拥有总理事会权力罢免教皇?


Councils are legally convened assemblies of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts for the purpose of discussing and regulating matters of church doctrine and discipline.议会是合法的教会人士及召开为讨论和规范教会教义和纪律事宜,目的神学专家集会。The terms council and synod are synonymous, although in the oldest Christian literature the ordinary meetings for worship are also called synods, and diocesan synods are not properly councils because they are only convened for deliberation.该条款会和主教是同义词,但在最古老的基督教文学的崇拜常会也被称为主教,教区主教和不正常,因为他们只负责召集议会审议。 Councils unlawfully assembled are termed conciliabula, conventicula, and even latrocinia, ie "robber synods".非法拼装议会被称为conciliabula,conventicula,甚至latrocinia,即“强盗主教会议”。 The constituent elements of an ecclesiastical council are the following:一个教会理事会的构成要件如下:

A legally convened meeting一个法律上召开会议

of members of the hierarchy,对层次结构的成员,

for the purpose of carrying out their judicial and doctrinal functions,为贯彻其司法和理论功能的目的,

by means of deliberation in common审议通过的共同手段

resulting in regulations and decrees invested with the authority of the whole assembly.造成法规,并与整个大会的权威投资法令。

All these elements result from an analysis of the fact that councils are a concentration of the ruling powers of the Church for decisive action.所有这些从一个事实,即议会是对采取果断行动教会的统治权力集中分析元素的结果。The first condition is that such concentration conform to the constitution of the Church: it must be started by the head of the forces that are to move and to act, eg by the metropolitan if the action is limited to one province.第一个条件是,这种浓度符合教会的宪法:它必须是由势力是移动和行动,例如,如果在大城市的行动仅限于一省头开始。 The actors themselves are necessarily the leaders of the Church in their double capacity of judges and teachers, for the proper object of conciliar activity is the settling of questions of faith and discipline.演员本身一定是正确的conciliar的活动对象,在他们的法官和教师的双重身份教会的领袖,是信仰和纪律问题的解决。 When they assemble for other purposes, either at regular times or in extraordinary circumstances, in order to deliberate on current questions of administration or on concerted action in emergencies, their meetings are not called councils but simply meetings, or assemblies, of bishops.当他们组装用于其他目的,无论是在常规时间或在特殊情况下,以审议行政或在紧急情况下采取协调一致的行动当前的问题,他们的会议,而只是不叫议会会议或集会的主教。 Deliberation, with free discussion and ventilation of private views, is another essential note in the notion of councils.自由讨论和审议与私人意见通风,是议会中的另一个重要概念的说明。They are the mind of the Church in action, the sensus ecclesiae taking form and shape in the mould of dogmatic definition and authoritative decrees.他们是在行动教会心目中,sensus,该书采取的形式和教条式的定义模具的形状和权威的法令。The contrast of conflicting opinions, their actual clash necessarily precedes the final triumph of faith.相互冲突的意见相反,他们的实际冲突必然先于信仰的最后胜利。Lastly, in a council's decisions we see the highest expression of authority of which its members are capable within the sphere of their jurisdiction, with the added strength and weight resulting from the combined action of the whole body.最后,在议会的决定,我们看到了权威的,其成员都在其管辖范围能力的最高体现,具有补充体力和整个身体重量的共同作用造成的。


Councils are, then, from their nature, a common effort of the Church, or part of the Church, for self-preservation and self-defence.议会,然后从它们的性质,是教会的共同努力,或教会的一部分,自我保护和自我防卫。They appear at her very origin, in the time of the Apostles at Jerusalem, and throughout her whole history whenever faith or morals or discipline are seriously threatened.他们出现在她的根源,在耶路撒冷的使徒的时间,并贯穿她的整个历史上每当信仰或道德或违纪受到严重威胁。Although their object is always the same, the circumstances under which they meet impart to them a great variety, which renders a classification necessary.虽然他们的目标始终是一致的,在何种情况下符合传授给他们一个很大的不同,它呈现分类必要的。Taking territorial extension for a basis, seven kinds of synods are distinguished.以领土延伸为基础,七主教种区分。

Ecumenical Councils are those to which the bishops, and others entitled to vote, are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) under the presidency of the pope or his legates, and the decrees of which, having received papal confirmation, bind all Christians.基督教议会则是那些由主教,并有权投票人,都是从整个世界(oikoumene)召集下,教皇或他的使节总统,其中的法令,在收到罗马教皇的确认,绑定所有的基督徒。 A council, Ecumenical in its convocation, may fail to secure the approbation of the whole Church or of the pope, and thus not rank in authority with Ecumenical councils.阿议会在其召开基督教,可能无法确保整个教会或教皇认可,因而不排名与基督教议会的权力。Such was the case with the Robber Synod of 449 (Latrocinium Ephesinum), the Synod of Pisa in 1409, and in part with the Councils of Constance and Basle.这就是与强盗世界主教会议的449例(Latrocinium Ephesinum),于1409年的比萨主教,并与康斯和巴塞尔局的一部分。

The second rank is held by the general synods of the East or of the West, composed of but one-half of the episcopate.第二级是持有的东方或西方的一般主教组成的,但对主教的一半。The Synod Of Constantinople (381) was originally only an Eastern general synod, at which were present the four patriarchs of the East (viz. of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem), with many metropolitans and bishops.君士坦丁堡的主教会议(381)最初只是一个普通东部主教,其中目前在许多大城市和主教的东四元老(即二百君士坦丁堡,亚历山大,安提阿和耶路撒冷)。 It ranks as Ecumenical because its decrees were ultimately received in the West also.它被列为合一,因为它的法令,最终在西方也收到。

Patriarchal, national, and primatial councils represent a whole patriarchate, a whole nation, or the several provinces subject to a primate.宗法,国家和primatial议会代表整个东正教,整个国家,还是受到了灵长类动物的几个省份。Of such councils we have frequent examples in Latin Africa, where the metropolitan and ordinary bishops used to meet under the Primate of Carthage, in Spain, under the Primate of Toledo, and in earlier times in Syria, under the Metropolitan -- later Patriarch -- of Antioch.在这样的议会,我们有经常的例子在非洲,拉丁美洲大城市和普通用于满足下的迦太基灵长类,在西班牙,在托莱多的灵长类动物,并在叙利亚首都早期的时期下,主教, - 后来祖师 - - 安提。

Provincial councils bring together the suffragan bishops of the metropolitan of an ecclesiastical province and other dignitaries entitled to participate.省议会召集的一个省,教会有权参与其他政要大都市主教的副主教。Diocesan synods consist of the clergy of the diocese and are presided over by the bishop or the vicar-general.教区主教组成的教区神职人员,并主持或由主教副主教一般过来。

A peculiar kind of council used to be held at Constantinople, it consisted of bishops from any part of the world who happened to be at the time in that imperial city.一个会用一种奇特在君士坦丁堡举行,由来自世界任何发生在谁在这皇城部分时间主教。Hence the name synodoi enoemousai "visitors' synods".因此,名称synodoi enoemousai“游客”主教“。Lastly there have been mixed synods, in which both civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries met to settle secular as well as ecclesiastical matters.最后有好有坏主教会议,其中既有民间和教会要人会面,解决世俗以及教会事务。They were frequent at the beginning of the Middle Ages in France, Germany, Spain, and Italy.他们经常在法国,德国,西班牙和意大利中世纪的开始。In England even abbesses were occasionally present at such mixed councils.在英国,甚至abbesses是偶尔在目前这种混合议会。Sometimes, not always, the clergy and laity voted in separate chambers.有时候,并非总是如此,僧侣和俗人投在不同的房间。

Although it is in the nature of councils to represent either the whole or part of the Church organism yet we find many councils simply consisting of a number of bishops brought together from different countries for some special purpose, regardless of any territorial or hierarchical connection.虽然它在议会的本质是代表无论是全部或部分机体还教会我们发现仅仅一个聚集了来自不同国家的一些特殊用途,无论任何领土或分层连接数主教议会组成的多。 They were most frequent in the fourth century, when the metropolitan and patriarchal circumscriptions were still imperfect, and questions of faith and discipline manifold.他们是最常见的在第四世纪,当大城市和宗法circumscriptions仍然不完善,信仰和纪律多方面的问题。 Not a few of them, summoned by emperors or bishops in opposition to the lawful authorities (such as that of Antioch in 341), were positively irregular, and acted for evil rather than good.没有几个,其中,由皇帝或反对(如在341安提阿的)合法当局主教召见,呈正不规则,而不是以怨报德行事。Councils of this kind may be compared to the meetings of bishops of our own times; decrees passed in them had no binding power on any but the subjects of the bishops present, they were important manifestations of the sensus ecclesiae (mind of the Church) rather than judicial or legislative bodies.这种议会可能会比我们自己时代的主教会议;法令在他们身上没有任何的主教,但目前的学科结合力,他们是sensus,该书的重要表现(教会的心),而不是司法或立法机构。 But precisely as expressing the mind of the Church they often acquired a far-reaching influence due, either to their internal soundness, or to the authority of their framers, or to both.但也正是因为表达了教会的头脑,他们往往获得了深远的影响,无论是他们的内部质量,或对他们的制定者的权威,或同时到期。

It should be noted that the terms concilia plenaria, universalia, OR generalia are, or used to be, applied indiscriminately to all synods not confined to a single province; in the Middle Ages, even provincial synods, as compared to diocesan, received these names.应该指出的条款concilia plenaria,universalia,或generalia是或曾经是,不加区别地应用并不局限于一个省都主教,在中世纪,甚至省级主教,教区相比,收到这些名称。 Down to the late Middle Ages all papal synods to which a certain number of bishops from different countries had been summoned were regularly styled plenary, general, or universal synods.下到中世纪末期到的所有来自不同国家的若干主教被召唤了罗马教皇的主教会议全体会议定期风格,一般情况下,或普遍的主教。 In earlier times, before the separation of East and West, councils to which several distant patriarchates or exarchates sent representatives, were described absolutely as "plenary councils of the universal church".在较早的时候,前东,西分离,议会的一些遥远的牧首辖区或exarchates派出代表,被描述绝对是“全体普遍堂议会”。 These terms are applied by St. Augustine to the Council of Arles (314), at which only Western bishops were present.这些条款适用于由圣奥古斯丁到阿尔勒(314)理事会在其中只有西方主教出席了会议。In the same way the council of Constantinople (382), in a letter to Pope Damasus, calls the council held in the same town the year before (381) "an Ecumenical synod" ie a synod representing the oikoumene, the whole inhabited world as known to the Greeks and Romans, because all the Eastern patriarchates, though no Western, took part in it.以同样的方式在君士坦丁堡(382)理事会在给教皇达玛斯信,呼吁前(381)“的基督教主教会议”,即一个代表oikoumene,整个有人居住的世界主教会议在同一个城市举行的年度理事会众所周知,希腊人和罗马人,因为所有的东牧首辖区虽然没有西方,参加了它的一部分。 The synod of 381 could not, at that time, be termed Ecumenical in the strict sense now in use, because it still lacked the formal confirmation of the Apostolic See.主教会议的381不能,当时,被称为基督教在严格意义上目前使用的,因为它仍然缺乏的使徒见正式确认。As a matter of fact, the Greeks themselves did not put this council on a par with those of Nicaea and Ephesus until its confirmation at the Synod of Chalcedon, and the Latins acknowledged its authority only in the sixth century.由于事实上,希腊人没有把自己等同于本会与尼西亚和以弗所的,直到它在迦克墩议会确认,拉丁人承认只在第六世纪的权威。


The present article deals chiefly with the theological and canonical questions concerning councils which are Ecumenical in the strict sense above defined.本文章主要涉及与神学和规范有关议会是在上述规定的严格意义上的合一问题。Special articles give the history of each important synod under the head of the city or see where it was held.特殊物品给下的城头上的每个重要历史或主教看到它隆重举行。In order, however, to supply the reader with a basis of fact for the discussion of principles which is to follow, a list is subjoined of the twenty Ecumenical councils with a brief statement of the purpose of each.为了然而,供应事实为原则,是按照讨论的基础读者,一个列表subjoined二十一个对每个目的的简要说明基督教议会。

First Ecumenical Council: Nicaea I (325)第一次大公会议:尼西亚I(325)

The Council of Nicaea lasted two months and twelve days.理事会的尼西亚历时两个月和十二天。Three hundred and eighteen bishops were present.三百一十八主教出席了会议。Hosius, Bishop of Cordova, assisted as legate of Pope Sylvester.Hosius主教科尔多瓦,作为教皇西尔维斯特特使协助。The Emperor Constantine was also present.皇帝康斯坦丁也出席了会议。To this council we owe The Creed (Symbolum) of Nicaea, defining against Arius the true Divinity of the Son of God (homoousios), and the fixing of the date for keeping Easter (against the Quartodecimans).本会,我们欠的尼西亚信条(Symbolum),对阿里乌斯界定的神(homoousios)的儿子真神,以及为保持复活节(对Quartodecimans)日期固定。

Second Ecumenical Council: Constantinople I (381)第二届大公会议:我君士坦丁堡(381)

The First General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Damasus and the Emperor Theodosius I, was attended by 150 bishops.第一届理事会君士坦丁堡在教皇和皇帝狄奥多西达玛斯我,出席会议的150主教。 It was directed against the followers of Macedonius, who impugned the Divinity of the Holy Ghost.它是针对的Macedonius,谁非难的圣灵神的追随者。To the above-mentioned Nicene Creed it added the clauses referring to the Holy Ghost (qui simul adoratur) and all that follows to the end.对于上述提到的尼西亚它增加了条款指的是圣灵(魁SIMUL adoratur)和所有后面到底。

Third Ecumenical Council: Ephesus (431)第三大公会议:以弗所(431)

The Council of Ephesus, of more than 200 bishops, presided over by St. Cyril of Alexandria representing Pope Celestine I, defined the true personal unity of Christ, declared Mary the Mother of God (theotokos) against Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, and renewed the condemnation of Pelagius.安理会的以弗所超过200主教,主持圣亚历山大代表教皇圣境我利禄,明确了真正的基督个人的统一,宣布玛丽神对涅斯,主教君士坦丁堡(东正)的母亲,并再次伯拉纠的谴责。

Fourth Ecumenical Council: Chalcedon (451)第四大公会议:迦克墩(451)

The Council of Chalcedon -- 150 bishops under Pope Leo the Great and the Emperor Marcian -- defined the two natures (Divine and human) in Christ against Eutyches, who was excommunicated.在Chalcedon委员会 - 150下教皇利奥大和皇帝马尔奇安主教 - 定义在基督对Eutyches,谁是逐出教会的两个性质(神和人)。

Fifth Ecumenical Council: Constantinople II (553)第五次大公会议:君士坦丁堡II(553)

The Second General Council of Constantinople, of 165 bishops under Pope Vigilius and Emperor Justinian I, condemned the errors of Origen and certain writings (The Three Chapters) of Theodoret, of Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia and of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa; it further confirmed the first four general councils, especially that of Chalcedon whose authority was contested by some heretics.第二届理事会君士坦丁堡在165教皇和皇帝查士丁尼一世Vigilius主教,谴责俄错误和某些著作Theodoret,西奥多主教摩普绥提亚和IBAS,对埃德萨主教(三章),它进一步证实了前四个总议会,特别是迦克墩,其权威是由一些异端有争议的。

Sixth Ecumenical Council: Constantinople III (680-681)第六次大公会议:君士坦丁堡III(680-681)

The Third General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Agatho and the Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, was attended by the Patriarchs of Constantinople and of Antioch, 174 bishops, and the emperor.第三次总理事会君士坦丁堡在教皇和皇帝康斯坦丁Agatho Pogonatus,出席由君士坦丁堡和安提阿始祖,174主教,和皇帝。It put an end to Monothelitism by defining two wills in Christ, the Divine and the human, as two distinct principles of operation.它杜绝Monothelitism定义在基督,神和人的两份遗嘱,作为两个不同的操作原则。It anathematized Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Macarius, and all their followers.它诅咒谢尔盖,皮勒斯,保罗,米加利阿斯,和他们所有的追随者。

Seventh Ecumenical Council: Nicaea II (787)第七次大公会议:尼西亚II(787)

The Second Council of Nicaea was convoked by Emperor Constantine VI and his mother Irene, under Pope Adrian I, and was presided over by the legates of Pope Adrian; it regulated the veneration of holy images.第二届理事会的尼西亚召集了由皇帝君士坦丁六世和他的母亲艾琳,在教皇阿德里安我,并主持由教皇阿德里安的使节在,它规范了圣像崇拜。 Between 300 and 367 bishops assisted.300至367主教协助。

Eighth Ecumenical Council: Constantinople IV (869)第八大公会议:君士坦丁堡IV(869)

The Fourth General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Adrian II and Emperor Basil numbering 102 bishops, 3 papal legates, and 4 patriarchs, consigned to the flames the Acts of an irregular council (conciliabulum) brought together by Photius against Pope Nicholas and Ignatius the legitimate Patriarch of Constantinople; it condemned Photius who had unlawfully seized the patriarchal dignity.第四次总理事会君士坦丁堡,在教皇阿德里安二世皇帝罗勒和编号102的主教,教皇使节3和4元老,燃起熊熊大火不规则理事会(conciliabulum)的行为所带来的Photius一起对教皇尼古拉和依纳爵的合法君士坦丁堡牧首,它谴责Photius谁曾非法占领了父权制的尊严。 The Photian Schism, however, triumphed in the Greek Church, and no other general council took place in the East.该Photian分裂,然而,胜利的希腊教会,并没有其他总理事会参加了在​​东方的地方。

Ninth Ecumenical Council: Lateran I (1123)第九大公会议:拉特兰我(1123)

The First Lateran Council, the first held at Rome, met under Pope Callistus II.第一拉特兰会议,第一次在罗马举行,在会见教皇卡利斯图斯II。About 900 bishops and abbots assisted.关于900主教和方丈协助。It abolished the right claimed by lay princes, of investiture with ring and crosier to ecclesiastical benefices and dealt with church discipline and the recovery of the Holy Land from the infidels.它废除了与环牧杖,以教会benefices的天职向右奠定王子声称,并与教会纪律和从异教徒圣地回收处理。

Tenth Ecumenical Council: Lateran II (1139)第十届大公会议:拉特兰II(1139)

The Second Lateran Council was held at Rome under Pope Innocent II, with an attendance of about 1000 prelates and the Emperor Conrad.第二次拉特兰会议在罗马举行下诺森二世,与约1000主教和皇帝康拉德出席。Its object was to put an end to the errors of Arnold of Brescia.它的目的是制止对布雷西亚阿诺德的错误。

Eleventh Ecumenical Council: Lateran III (1179)十一大公会议:拉特兰III(1179)

The Third Lateran Council took place under Pope Alexander III, Frederick I being emperor.第三次拉特兰理事会注意到在教皇亚历山大三世的地方,被皇帝腓特烈一世。There were 302 bishops present.共有302主教出席。It condemned the Albigenses and Waldenses and issued numerous decrees for the reformation of morals.它谴责Albigenses和瓦勒度派,并发出大量的道德改革法令。

Twelfth Ecumenical Council: Lateran IV (1215)第十二次大公会议:拉特兰IV(1215)

The Fourth Lateran Council was held under Innocent III.第四次拉特兰会议举行下诺森三世。There were present the Patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem, 71 archbishops, 412 bishops, and 800 abbots the Primate of the Maronites, and St. Dominic.还有人出席了君士坦丁堡和耶路撒冷的始祖,71大主教,主教412和800住持灵长类的马龙派教徒,和圣星。It issued an enlarged creed (symbol) against the Albigenses (Firmiter credimus), condemned the Trinitarian errors of Abbot Joachim, and published 70 important reformatory decrees.它发出了反对Albigenses扩大信条(符号)(Firmiter credimus),谴责住持约阿希姆三位一体的错误,并公布了70重要感化法令。This is the most important council of the Middle Ages, and it marks the culminating point of ecclesiastical life and papal power.这是中世纪最重要的议会,它标志着教会生活和罗马教皇的权力最高点。

Thirteenth Ecumenical Council: Lyons I (1245)第十三次大公会议:里昂I(1245)

The First General Council of Lyons was presided over by Innocent IV; the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Aquileia (Venice), 140 bishops, Baldwin II, Emperor of the East, and St. Louis, King of France, assisted.第一届理事会里昂主持了无辜IV;的君士坦丁堡,安提阿始祖,并Aquileia(威尼斯),140主教,鲍德温二,东帝,和圣路易斯,法国国王协助。 It excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II and directed a new crusade, under the command of St. Louis, against the Saracens and Mongols.它驱逐和被废黜皇帝腓特烈二世和导演的新十字军东征,在圣路易斯的命令,对这部电影和蒙古人。

Fourteenth Ecumenical Council: Lyons II (1274)第十四届大公会议:里昂II(1274)

The Second General Council of Lyons was held by Pope Gregory X, the Patriarchs of Antioch and Constantinople, 15 cardinals, 500 bishops, and more than 1000 other dignitaries.第二届理事会里昂举行由罗马教皇格雷戈里X,安提阿和君士坦丁堡的始祖,15枢机主教,500主教,以及超过1000其他要人。 It effected a temporary reunion of the Greek Church with Rome.它影响了希腊与罗马教会的临时团聚。The word filioque was added to the symbol of Constantinople and means were sought for recovering Palestine from the Turks.这个词filioque添加到君士坦丁堡的象征和手段对恢复从土耳其巴勒斯坦追捧。It also laid down the rules for papal elections.它还规定了罗马教皇的选举规则。

Fifteenth Ecumenical Council: Vienne (1311-1313)第十五届大公会议:维埃纳省(1311年至1313年)

The Council of Vienne was held in that town in France by order of Clement V, the first of the Avignon popes.维埃纳省议会的举行,在法国小镇由克莱门特V,阿维尼翁教皇的第一顺序。The Patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria, 300 bishops (114 according to some authorities), and 3 kings -- Philip IV of France, Edward II of England, and James II of Aragon -- were present.安提阿和亚历山大的始祖,300主教(114根据一些主管部门),国王和3 - 菲利普IV法国,英国的爱德华二世,詹姆斯阿拉贡II - 人出席。The synod dealt with the crimes and errors imputed to the Knights Templars, the Fraticelli, the Beghards, and the Beguines, with projects of a new crusade, the reformation of the clergy, and the teaching of Oriental languages in the universities.主教会议处理的犯罪,归咎于圣殿骑士团的Fraticelli的Beghards和Beguines与一个新的十字军东征,在改革的神职人员,以及在大学东方语言教学项目,错误。

Sixteenth Ecumenical Council: Constance (1414-1418)大公会议第十六次:康斯坦茨(1414年至1418年)

The Council of Constance was held during the great Schism of the West, with the object of ending the divisions in the Church.安理会的康斯坦茨举行期间,在西部大分裂,在结束在教会的分裂对象。It became legitimate only when Gregory XI had formally convoked it.只有当它成为合法的格雷戈里席已经正式召集它。Owing to this circumstance it succeeded in putting an end to the schism by the election of Pope Martin V, which the Council of Pisa (1403) had failed to accomplish on account of its illegality.由于这种情况下它成功地把由教皇马丁五世的选举,这对比萨会(1403)未能完成其非法账户上结束了分裂。 The rightful pope confirmed the former decrees of the synod against Wyclif and Hus.正当教宗证实,对威克里夫和胡斯主教前法令。 This council is thus ecumenical only in its last sessions (XLII-XLV inclusive) and with respect to the decrees of earlier sessions approved by Martin V.因此,本会合一仅在去年的会议(XLII - XLV含)就由马丁法令五,前几届会议批准

Seventeenth Ecumenical Council: Basle/Ferrara/Florence (1431-1439)第十七届大公会议:巴塞尔/费拉拉/佛罗伦萨(1431年至1439年)

The Council of Basle met first in that town, Eugene IV being pope, and Sigismund Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.而巴塞尔委员会在该城举行的第一,被教皇尤金四,和西吉斯蒙德的神圣罗马帝国皇帝。Its object was the religious pacification of Bohemia.它的对象是波西米亚宗教安抚。Quarrels with the pope having arisen, the council was transferred first to Ferrara (1438), then to Florence (1439), where a short-lived union with the Greek Church was effected, the Greeks accepting the council's definition of controverted points.与教皇发生争吵后,安理会首先转移到费拉拉(1438),然后到佛罗伦萨(1439),其中与希腊教会短命联盟影响,希腊人接受安理会的controverted点的定义。 The Council of Basle is only ecumenical till the end of the twenty-fifth session, and of its decrees Eugene IV approved only such as dealt with the extirpation of heresy, the peace of Christendom, and the reform of the Church, and which at the same time did not derogate from the rights of the Holy See.而巴塞尔委员会是唯一的基督教,直到第二十五届会议结束,其法令尤金四只批准,如与摘除的异端,基督教的和平,教会的改革处理,并在同时并没有从罗马教廷的权利减损。 (See also the Council of Florence.)(另见佛罗伦萨会。)

Eighteenth Ecumenical Council: Lateran V (1512-1517)第十八大公会议:拉特兰V(1512年至1517年)

The Fifth Lateran Council sat from 1512 to 1517 under Popes Julius II and Leo X, the emperor being Maximilian I. Fifteen cardinals and about eighty archbishops and bishops took part in it.第五拉特兰会议从1512年到下周六教皇朱利叶斯二世和Leo X,被皇帝马克西米一十五名枢机主教1517年和大约八十大主教和主教参加了它的一部分。Its decrees are chiefly disciplinary.它的法令是主要学科。A new crusade against the Turks was also planned, but came to naught, owing to the religious upheaval in Germany caused by Luther.一个新的十字军东征对土耳其人还计划,但化为泡影,因为在德国的路德宗教动荡造成的。

Nineteenth Ecumenical Council: Trent (1545-1563)第十九次大公会议:遄达(1545年至1563年)

The Council of Trent lasted eighteen years (1545-1563) under five popes: Paul III, Julius III, Marcellus II, Paul IV and Pius IV, and under the Emperors Charles V and Ferdinand.安理会的遄达历时十八年(1545年至1563年),五岁以下的教皇:保罗三,朱利叶斯三世,马塞勒斯二,保四和比约四,下皇帝查尔斯五世和费迪南德。 There were present 5 cardinal legates of the Holy See, 3 patriarchs, 33 archbishops, 235 bishops, 7 abbots, 7 generals of monastic orders, and 160 doctors of divinity.目前有5大是大非的罗马教廷使节,3元老,33大主教,235主教,7方丈,7寺院订单将军,160神威医生。 It was convoked to examine and condemn the errors promulgated by Luther and other Reformers, and to reform the discipline of the Church.这是召集审查和谴责路德和其他改革者颁布了错误,并改革教会的纪律。Of all councils it lasted longest, issued the largest number of dogmatic and reformatory decrees, and produced the most beneficial results.它在所有议会历时最长,发出的和教条式的劳教所法令数量最多,并产生最有利的结果。

Twentieth Ecumenical Council: Vatican I (1869-1870)第二十次大公会议:梵蒂冈I(1869至1870年)

The Vatican Council was summoned by Pius IX.梵蒂冈理事会召集由比约九。It met 8 December, 1869, and lasted till 18 July, 1870, when it was adjourned; it is still (1908) unfinished.它符合1869年12月8日,历时18月,直至1870年,当它被延期,它仍然是(1908)完成。There were present 6 archbishop-princes, 49 cardinals, 11 patriarchs, 680 archbishops and bishops, 28 abbots, 29 generals of orders, in all 803.目前有6大主教诸侯,49枢机主教,11元老,680大主教和主教,28方丈,29的订单将军在所有803。Besides important canons relating to the Faith and the constitution of the Church, the council decreed the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra, ie when as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church.除了有关的信仰和教会的教规的重要宪法,议会颁布了教皇犯错误说话时前cathedra,即当作为牧羊人和所有的基督徒老师,他定义了一个有关信仰或道德学说是由举行整个教会。


The relations between the pope and general councils must be exactly defined to arrive at a just conception of the functions of councils in the Church, of their rights and duties, and of their authority.之间的教皇和议会的关系一般,必须准确界定,得出了在教会议会的权利和义务,以及其机构的职能只是构想。The traditional phrase, "the council represents the Church", associated with the modern notion of representative assemblies, is apt to lead to a serious misconception of the bishops' function in general synods.传统的词组,“理事会代表教会”,在议会现代概念相联系,容易导致主教“一般主教会议功能严重误解。 The nation's deputies receive their power from their electors and are bound to protect and promote their electors' interests; in the modern democratic State they are directly created by, and out of, the people's own power.这个国家的代表接受选民的权力,必然要保护和促进其选民的利益,在现代民主国家,他们是直接创造的,而出来的,人民自己的力量。 The bishops in council, on the contrary, hold no power, no commission, or delegation, from the people.在议会的主教,相反,持有没有力量,没有提成,或代表团,来自于人民。All their powers, orders, jurisdiction, and membership in the council, come to them from above -- directly from the pope, ultimately from God.他们所有的权力,命令,管辖权,并在理事会成员,他们从上面来 - 直接从教皇,最终从神。What the episcopate in council does represent is the Divinely instituted magisterium, the teaching and governing power of the Church; the interests it defends are those of the depositum fidei, of the revealed rules of faith and morals, ie the interests of God.什么主教会议并代表是受神提起训导,教学和管理教会的权力,它捍卫的利益都是depositum fidei那些信仰和道德的揭示的规律,即上帝的利益。

The council is, then, the assessor of the supreme teacher and judge sitting on the Chair of Peter by Divine appointment; its operation is essentially co-operation -- the common action of the members with their head -- and therefore necessarily rises or falls in value, according to the measure of its connection with the pope.该委员会是,那么,最高法院法官的老师和由神任命彼得坐在椅子上评估,它的操作基本上是合作 - 与他们的领导成员的共同行动 - 因此一定上升或下降在价值,根据其与教皇的连接措施。A council in opposition to the pope is not representative of the whole Church, for it neither represents the pope who opposes it, nor the absent bishops, who cannot act beyond the limits of their dioceses except through the pope.一,反对教皇会不是全教会的代表,它既不表示教皇谁反对,也没有缺席主教,谁也无法超越自己的极限行为教区除非通过教皇。 A council not only acting independently of the Vicar of Christ, but sitting in judgment over him, is unthinkable in the constitution of the Church; in fact, such assemblies have only taken place in times of great constitutional disturbances, when either there was no pope or the rightful pope was indistinguishable from antipopes.一个议会不仅独立行事的基督牧师,但在他的判断比坐着,在教会的宪法不可想象的,事实上,这样的集会只采取了伟大的宪法障碍倍,放置时要么没有教皇或合法教皇是从antipopes没有什么区别。 In such abnormal times the safety of the Church becomes the supreme law, and the first duty of the abandoned flock is to find a new shepherd, under whose direction the existing evils may be remedied.在这样的非常时期教会的安全成为最高法律,以及被遗弃的一群首要任务是找到方向下的罪恶可以弥补现有一个新的牧羊人。

In normal times, when according to the Divine constitution of the Church, the pope rules in the fullness of his power, the function of councils is to support and strengthen his rule on occasions of extraordinary difficulties arising from heresies schisms, relaxed discipline, or external foes.在正常情况下,当根据教会的神圣宪法,教皇规则的权力丰满,对议会的功能是支持和加强对来自异端分裂,放松纪律,或外部产生特殊困难的场合他的规则敌人。 General councils have no part in the ordinary normal government of the Church.总议会没有在普通教会正常的政府的一部分。 This principle is confirmed by the fact that during nineteen centuries of Church life only twenty Ecumenical councils took place.这一原则也证实了这一事实,在十九个教会生活只有二十世纪基督教议会发生了。It is further illustrated by the complete failure of the decree issued in the thirty-ninth session of the Council of Constance (then without a rightful head) to the effect that general councils should meet frequently and at regular intervals, the very first synod summoned at Pavia for the year 1423 could not be held for want of responses to the summons.这是进一步的在安理会的康斯坦茨第三十九届会议(当时没有正当头)发出的效果,一般议会应经常举行会议和定期的法令彻底失败说明,第一个主教在召唤在1423年帕维亚举行不能想向传票的反应。 It is thus evident that general councils are not qualified to issue independently of the pope, dogmatic or disciplinary canons binding on the whole Church.由此可见,一般的议会没有资格发出独立于教皇,教条或纪律大炮对整个教会的约束力。As a matter of fact, the older councils, especially those of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451), were not convened to decide on questions of faith still open, but to give additional weight to, and secure the execution of, papal decisions previously issued and regarded as fully authoritative.由于事实上,旧的议会,特别是以弗所(431)和迦克墩(451)的,并没有决定召开的信仰仍然悬而未决的问题,而是让更多的重量,并确保执行,罗马教皇的决定先前发出的和充分的权威认为。 The other consequence of the same principle is that the bishops in council assembled are not commissioned, as are our modern parliaments, to control and limit the power of the sovereign, or head of the State, although circumstances may arise in which it would be, their right and duty firmly to expostulate with the pope on certain of his acts or measures.同一原则的另一个后果是,在理事会的主教组装有没有委托,因为是我们的现代议会,控制和限制主权,或国家元首,虽然情况可能出现在其中会,他们的权利和义务坚定地劝告与教皇对他的某些行为或措施。 The severe strictures of the Sixth General Council on Pope Honorius I may be cited as a case in point.第六总理事会教皇挪我的严重狭窄可引为例证。


(a) Right of participation(一)参与权

The right to be present and to act at general councils belongs in the first place and logically to the bishops actually exercising the episcopal office.有权出席并于股东大会议会所属的行为在第一时间和逻辑上的主教实际上行使主教办公室。In the earlier councils there appear also the chorepiscopi (country-bishops), who, according to the better opinion, were neither true bishops nor an order interposed between bishops and priests, but priests invested with a jurisdiction smaller than the episcopal but larger than the sacerdotal.在前面的政局也有出现的chorepiscopi(国家主教),谁,根据更好的意见,既不是真正的主教主教和司铎之间也没有插话的命令,但有管辖权小于主教,但比大投资祭司sacerdotal。 They were ordained by the bishop and charged with the administration of a certain district in his diocese.他们祝圣主教,并与一个在他的教区某些地方行政费用。They had the power of conferring minor orders, and even the subdiaconate.赋予他们的权力小的订单,甚至subdiaconate。 Titular bishops, ie bishops not ruling a diocese, had equal rights with other bishops at the Vatican Council (1869-70), where 117 of them were present.名义的主教,而不是统治一个教区主教即,曾在梵蒂冈会议(1869年至1870年),其中117人出席,他们与其他主教平等的权利。 Their claim lies in the fact that their order, the episcopal consecration, entitles them, jure divino, to take part in the administration of the Church, and that a general council seems to afford a proper sphere for the exercise of a right which the want of a proper diocese keeps in abeyance.他们的要求就在于,他们的订单,主教奉献,赋予他们法律上迪维努,参加教会管理的一部分,一个总理事会似乎负担其中的一种权利的行使要适当领域保持一个适当的教区暂时搁置。 Dignitaries who hold episcopal or quasi-episcopal jurisdiction without being bishops -- such as cardinal-priests, cardinal-deacons, abbots nullius, mitred abbots of whole orders or congregations of monasteries, generals of clerks regular, mendicant and monastic orders -- were allowed to vote at the Vatican Council.要人谁持有未经主教主教或准主教管辖 - 如红衣主教,神父,枢机主教,执事,方丈无主地,整个订单或斜接众寺院方丈,文员大将常,乞讨和寺院订单 - 被允许投票在梵蒂冈理事会。Their title is based on positive canon law: at the early councils such votes were not admitted, but from the seventh century down to the end of the Middle Ages the contrary practice gradually prevailed, and has since become an acquired right.他们的标题是根据正教会法:在早期的议会不承认这样的票,但是从七世纪到中世纪的结束,相反实践中逐渐占了上风,并已成为一项既得权利。 Priests and deacons frequently cast decisive votes in the name of absent bishops whom they represented; at the Council of Trent, however, such procurators were admitted only with great limitations, and at the Vatican Council they were even excluded from the council hall.牧师和执事频频投中的缺席主教的名字他们所代表的决定性票;在安理会的遄达,但是,这种检察官是只承认与很大的局限性,并在梵蒂冈会,他们甚至从议会大厅之外。 Besides voting members, every council admits, as consultors a number of doctors in theology and canon law.除了投票权的成员,每局也承认,作为consultors的医生在神学和教会法的数量。In the Council of Constance the consultors were allowed to vote.在安理会的康斯坦茨的consultors被允许投票。Other clerics have always been admitted as notaries.其他神职人员一直被接纳为公证人。Lay people may be, and have been, present at councils for various reasons, but never as voters.莱人的可能,并已,现在由于各种原因在议会,但从来没有为选民。They gave advice, made complaints, assented to decisions, and occasionally also signed the decrees.他们给的建议,投诉,表示同意的决定,偶尔还签署了法令。Since the Roman emperors had accepted Christianity, they assisted either personally or through deputies (commissarii).由于罗马皇帝接受了基督教,他们协助亲自或通过代表(commissarii)。Constantine the Great was present in person at the First General Council, Theodosius II sent his representatives to the third, and Emperor Marcian sent his to the fourth, at the sixth session of which himself and the Empress Pulcheria assisted personally.君士坦丁大帝是在第一次总理事会亲自出席,狄奥多西二世派他的代表,第三,和皇帝马尔奇安派他到第四第六届会议,其中本人和皇后Pulcheria协助个人。 Constantine Pogonatus was present at the sixth, the Empress Irene and her son Constantine Porphyrogenitus only sent their representative to the seventh, whereas Emperor Basil, the Macedonian, assisted at the eighth, sometimes in person, sometimes through his deputies.康斯坦丁Pogonatus是在第六届目前,皇后艾琳和她的儿子康斯坦丁Porphyrogenitus只派代表他们的第七,而皇帝罗勒,马其顿在第八届协助下,有时在人,有时通过他的代表。 Only the Second and the Fifth General Synods were held in the absence of the emperors or imperial commissaries, but both Theodosius the Great and Justinian were at Constantinople while the councils were sitting, and kept up constant intercourse with them.只有第二和第五总主教会议一共举行了帝国的皇帝或小卖部的情况下,但两者狄奥多西大帝和查士丁尼在君士坦丁堡人,而议会是坐着,并保持与他们不断性交。 In the West the attendance of kings, even at provincial synods, was of frequent occurrence.在西方的国王出席,甚至在省主教会议,是经常发生。The motive and object of the royal presence were to protect the synods, to heighten their authority, to lay before them the needs of particular Christian states and countries.的动机和王室的存在是为了保护对象的主教会议,以提高他们的权威,尤其是在他们打下的基督教国家和国家的需要。

This laudable and legitimate co-operation led by degrees to interference with the pope's rights in conciliar matters.这值得赞扬的和合法的合作,带领度干扰与conciliar的事项教皇的权利。The Eastern Emperor Michael claimed the right to summon councils without obtaining the pope's consent, and to take part in them personally or by proxy.东部皇帝迈克尔声称有权传唤未取得教皇的同意议会,并采取在他们亲自或委派代表的一部分。But Pope Nicholas I resisted the pretensions of Emperor Michael, pointing out to him, in a letter (865), that his imperial predecessors had only been present at general synods dealing with matters of faith, and from that fact drew the conclusion that all other synods should be held without the emperor's or his commissaries' presence.但是,教皇尼古拉一世皇帝迈克尔抵制自负,他指出,在一封信中(865),他的帝国前人只在信仰方面与处理一般主教出席,而从这个事实得出结论,所有其他主教应追究没有皇帝的还是他的小卖部“的存在。 A few years later the Eighth General Synod (Can. xvii, Hefele, IV, 421) declared it false that no synod could be held without the emperor's presence the emperors had only been present at general councils -- and that it was not right for secular princes to witness the condemnation of ecclesiastics (at provincial synods).几年后的第八次总议会(Can.十七,黑弗勒,IV,421)宣布它虚假的,没有主教可以在没有皇帝的皇帝只存在于一般议会目前已举行 - 这是不对的世俗诸侯见证神职人员谴责(省主教会议)。As early as the fourth century the bishops greatly complained of the action of Constantine the Great in imposing his commissary on the Synod of Tyre (335).早在四世纪的主教大大抱怨了君士坦丁大帝行动施加的轮胎(335)主教他的小卖部。In the West, however, secular princes were present even at national synods, eg Sisenand, King of the Spanish Visigoths, was at the Fourth Council of Toledo (636) and King Chintilian at the fifth (638); Charlemagne assisted at the Council of Frankfort (794) and two Anglo Saxon kings at the Synod of Whitby (Collatio Pharenes) in 664.在西方,但是,世俗的诸侯,甚至在目前全国主教会议,如Sisenand,西哥特人的西班牙国王,是在托莱多(636)和景Chintilian在第五届(638)第四届理事会,查理曼在会协助法兰克福(794)和两个盎格鲁撒克逊在惠特比(Collat​​io Pharenes)在664主教国王。But step by step Rome established the principle that no royal commissary may be present at any council except a general one, in which "faith, reformation, and peace" are in question.但罗马一步一步确立的原则,任何王室小卖部可以在任何除了一般之一,其中“的信念,改革,和平”的问题是会出席会议。

(b) Requisite number of members(二)必要数量的成员

The number of bishops present required to constitute an Ecumenical council cannot be strictly defined, nor need it be so deigned, for ecumenicity chiefly depends on co-operation with the head of the Church, and only secondarily on the number of co-operators.目前的主教人数须构成大公会议不能严格界定,也不需要如此屈尊,主要为ecumenicity上的合作,取决于与教会的头,只有在合作运营商数量为辅。 It is physically impossible to bring together all the bishops of the world, nor is there any standard by which to determine even an approximate number, or proportion, of prelates necessary to secure ecumenicity.它实际上不可能把所有的世界主教,也没有任何标准,据此确定一个近似数,或比例的主教,要安全ecumenicity。 All should be invited, no one should be debarred, a somewhat considerable number of representatives of the several provinces and countries should be actually present; this may be laid down as a practicable theory.应邀请所有,任何人都不应被禁止,是对几个省和国家的代表相当数量的多少应实际存在,这可能是一个可行的理论奠定了下来。 But the ancient Church did not conform to this theory.但古代教会不符合这个理论。As a rule only the patriarchs and metropolitans received a direct summons to appear with a certain number of their suffragans.作为一个规则,只有族长和大城市直接接到传票出现了一定数量的suffragans。At Ephesus and Chalcedon the time between the convocation and the meeting of the council was too short to allow of the Western bishops being invited.在以弗所和迦克墩之间的召开,理事会会议的时间太短,让被邀请的西方主教。As a rule, but very few Western bishops were personally present at any of the first eight general synods.作为一项规则,但很少有西方主教亲自在首八个月总主教会议的任何存在。Occasionally, eg at the sixth, their absence was remedied by sending deputies with precise instructions arrived at in a previous council held in the West.有时,如在第六位,他们的缺席被纠正通过发送明确指示代表在以前举行的理事会在西方抵达。What gives those Eastern synods their Ecumenical character is the co-operation of the pope as head of the universal, and, especially, of the Western, Church.是什么让他们的基督教主教会议的东方性格的合作,教宗作为普遍的头,和西方,教会,特别是。This circumstance, so remarkably prominent in the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon, affords the best proof that, in the sense of the Church, the essential constituent element of ecumenicity is less the proportion of bishops present to bishops absent than the organic connection of the council with the head of the Church.这种情况下,这样明显的以弗所和迦克墩安理会突出,让该最好的证明,在教会的意义上说,ecumenicity重要组成部分,是少了在场主教主教的比例超过了议会的有机连接缺席与教会的头。

(c) Papal headship the formal element of councils(三)罗马教皇校长的议会正式元素

It is the action of the pope that makes the councils ecumenical.它是罗马教皇的行动,使议会合一。 That action is the exercise of his office of supreme teacher and ruler of the Church.这一行动是他的老师和最高统治者的教会办公室行使。Its necessity results from the fact that no authority is commensurate with the whole Church except that of the pope; he alone can bind all the faithful.只有他可以绑定所有的信徒,从事实上没有权威与除教宗的整个教会其必要性相称的结果。Its sufficiency is equally manifest: when the pope has spoken ex cathedra to make his own the decisions of any council, regardless of the number of its members nothing further can be wanted to make them binding on the whole Church.它充分体现同样:当教皇发言前cathedra,使自己的任何安理会的决定,无论其成员数目没有进一步可想使他们对整个教会约束力。 The earliest enunciation of the principle is found in the letter of the Council of Sardica (313) to Pope Julius I, and was often quoted, since the beginning of the fifth century, as the (Nicaean) canon concerning the necessity of papal co-operation in all the more important conciliary Acts.该原则最早被发现在阐述了对Sardica会(313)给我教皇朱利叶斯,被经常引用,自第五世纪初,作为(Nicaean)佳能关于教皇的必要性合作行动中,更重要的conciliary行为。 The Church historian Socrates (Hist. Eccl., II, xvii) makes Pope Julius say, in reference to the Council of Antioch (341), that the law of the Church (kanon) forbids "the churches to pass laws contrary to the judgement of the Bishop of Rome" and Sozomen (III, x) likewise declares "it to be a holy law not to attribute any value to things done without the judgment of the Bishop of Rome".教会历史学家苏格拉底(Hist.传道书。,二,十七)使教皇朱利叶斯说,在参考了安提阿(341)会,即教会法(加隆)禁止“教会通过法律相悖的判决在罗马主教“和Sozomen(III,X)也宣布”这是一个神圣的法律属性没有任何价值,未经罗马“主教的判断做的事情。 The letter of Julius here quoted by both Socrates and Sozomen directly refers to an existing ecclesiastical custom and, in particular, to a single important case (the deposition of a patriarch), but the underlying principle is as stated.朱利叶斯在这里的信都苏格拉底和Sozomen直接引用是指一个现有的宗教习俗,尤其是一个重要的情况下(一个族长沉积),但基本原则是举手。 Papal co-operation may be of several degrees: to be effective in stamping a council as universal it must amount to taking over responsibility for its decisions by giving them formal confirmation.罗马教皇的合作,可能是几度:要在冲压作为通用议会必须数额超过其决定的责任,给他们以正式确认有效。 The Synod of Constantinople (381) in which the Nicene Creed received its present form -- the one used at Mass -- had in itself no claim to be Ecumenical.在大规模使用的 - - 在君士坦丁堡(381),其中尼西亚信经收到其目前的形式在世界主教会议本身并没有宣称自己是基督教。Before Pope Damasus and the Western bishops had seen its full Acts they condemned certain of its proceedings at an Italian synod, but on receiving the Acts, Damasus, so we are told by Photius, confirmed them.在教皇达玛斯和西方主​​教看到其全部行为,他们谴责其诉讼一定在意大利主教会议,但在接到行为,达玛斯,所以我们是由Photius告诉记者,他们证实。 Photius, however, is only right with regard to the Creed, or Symbol of Faith: the canons of this council were still rejected by Leo the Great and even by Gregory the Great (about 600). Photius,然而,这只是有关的信条,或象征信仰的权利:本会的大炮仍然受到狮子座大,甚至拒绝了由高利大(约600)。A proof that the Creed of Constantinople enjoyed papal sanction may be drawn from the way in which the Roman legates at the Fourth General Synod (Chalcedon, 451) allowed, without any protest, appeals to this Creed, while at the same time they energetically protested against the canons of the council.一个证明君士坦丁堡信条享有教皇制裁可能来自在其中举行的第四次总议会(迦克墩,451)罗马使节允许的方式,没有任何抗议,这个信条上诉,而在同一时间,他们大力抗议对理事会的大炮。 It was on account of the papal approbation of the Creed that, in the sixth century, Popes Vigilius, Pelagius II, and Gregory the Great declared this council Ecumenical, although Gregory still refused to sanction its canons.这是对的信条,在六世纪,教皇Vigilius,伯拉纠二,格雷戈里大宣布本会合一教皇认可的帐户,但格雷戈里仍然拒绝批准其大炮。 The First Synod of Constantinople presents, then, an instance of a minimum of papal co-operation impressing on a particular council the mark of universality.首先介绍的君士坦丁堡主教,然后,一个一个教皇合作,至少在一个令人印象深刻的实例特别是安理会的普遍性标志。 The normal co-operation, however, requires on the part of the head of the Church more than a post-factum acknowledgment.正常的合作,但是,需要对教会多后factum确认头部的一部分。

The pope's office and the council's function in the organization of the Church require that the pope should call the council together, preside over and direct its labours, and finally promulgate its decrees to the universal Church as expressing the mind of the whole teaching body guided by the Holy Ghost.教皇的办公室和安理会在教会的组织功能要求,教皇应该调用议会一起,主持和直接的劳作,终于颁布为表达整个教学指导机构的记其法令,普世教会圣灵。 Instances of such normal, natural, perfect co-operation occur in the five Lateran councils, which were presided over by the pope in person; the personal presence of the highest authority in the Church, his direction of the deliberations, and approbation of the decrees, stamp the conciliary proceedings throughout as the function of the Magisterium Ecclesiae in its most authoritative form.这种正常的,自然,完美合作的实例发生在五拉特兰议会,这是由教皇主持过的人,对在教会的最高权威的个人的存在,他的讨论方向和认可的法令,整个邮票作为其最权威的形式训导,该书功能conciliary诉讼。 Councils in which the pope is represented by legates are, indeed, also representative of the whole teaching body of the Church, but the representation is not absolute or adequate, is no real concentration of its whole authority.其中由教皇使节代表议会,事实上,也是教会的整个教学机构的代表,但表示不是绝对的或足够的,没有它的整个权力真正集中。 They act in the name, but not with the whole power, of the teaching Church, and their decrees become universally binding only through an act, either antecedent or consequent, of the pope.他们的行为在名称,但不能与整个电力,教学教会,并成为他们的法令,只有通过具有普遍约束力的行为,无论是先前或随后的教皇。 The difference between councils presided over personally and by proxy is marked in the form in which their decrees are promulgated: when the pope has been present the decrees are published in his own name with the additional formula: sacro approbante Concilio; when papal legates have presided the decrees are attributed to the synod (S. Synodus declarat, definit, decernit)议会之间的差异亲自主持和代理的形式中,他们的法令出台标志着:当教皇的法令,目前已在他与自己的名义发表的其他公式:骶approbante Concilio,当罗马教皇的使节有主持该法令都归结到主教(S. Synodus declarat,明确的,decernit)


We have seen that no council is Ecumenical unless the pope has made it his own by co-operation, which admits of a minimum and a maximum consequently of various degrees of perfection.我们已经看到,没有议会,除非是基督教教皇已通过合作,其中最低的完善,因此不同程度最高承认它自己。Catholic writers could have saved themselves much trouble if they had always based their apologetics on the simple and evident principle of a sufficient minimum of papal co- operation, instead of endeavouring to prove, at all costs, that a maximum is both required in principle and demonstrable in history.天主教作家可以保存自己的麻烦,如果他们一直立足于一个罗马教皇的合作,充分最低简单和明显的原则,他们的辩护,而不是努力证明,不惜一切代价,一个最大的原则是既需要和历史证明的。 The three factors constituting the solidarity of pope and council are the convocation, direction, and confirmation of the council by the pope- but it is not essential that each and all of these factors should always be present in full perfection.这三个因素构成的教皇和议会的团结是召集,方向和理事会确认由教皇,但它不是必需的,每个和所有这些因素应始终得到充分的完善中。

(a) Convocation(一)评议会

The juridical convocation of a council implies something more than an invitation addressed to all the bishops of the world to meet in council, viz.: the act by which in law the bishops are bound to take part in the council, and the council itself is constituted a legitimate tribunal for dealing with Church affairs.在一个议会的召开意味着法律的东西比给所有的世界主教,以满足在立法会,即邀请更多:以何种法律,主教是必然要在安理会的一部分,议会本身的行为构成与教会事务的合法法庭。 Logically, and in the nature of the thing, the right of convocation belongs to the pope alone.从逻辑上讲,在对事物的性质,召集权属于教皇孤单。Yet the convocation, in the loose sense of invitation to meet, of the first eight general synods, was regularly issued by the Christian emperors, whose dominion was coextensive with the Church, or at least with the Eastern part of it, which was then alone convened.但评议会,在邀请来满足宽松感的前八总主教会议,是定期发出的基督教皇帝,他的统治是coextensive与教会,或至少与它的东部,这是当时独自召开。 The imperial letters of convocation to the Councils of Ephesus (Hardouin I, 1343) and of Chalcedon (Hardouin II, 42) show that the emperors acted as protectors of the Church, believing it their duty to further by every means in their power the welfare of their charge.评议会的帝国发信给以弗所议会(Hardouin I,1343)和迦克墩(Hardouin II,42)表明,皇帝担任教会的保护,认为是他们的责任,通过各种手段进一步在其权力范围的福利他们负责。Nor is it possible in every case to prove that they acted at the formal instigation of the pope; it even seems that the emperors more than once followed none but their own initiative for convening the council and fixing its place of meeting.也不可能在任何情况下,以证明他们在教皇正式指使行事,它甚至似乎是皇帝不止一次跟着没有,但他们的召开理事会和固定的会议地点主动。 It is, however.它是,但是。 evident that the Christian emperors cannot have acted thus without the consent, actual or presumed of the pope.显然,基督教皇帝不能这样行事未经同意,实际或推定的教宗。Otherwise their conduct had been neither lawful nor wise.否则,其行为已既不合法,也不明智。As a matter of fact, none of the eight Eastern Ecumenical synods, with the exception, perhaps, of the fifth, was summoned by the emperor in opposition to the pope.由于事实上,没有一个基督教主教会议的八个东欧与例外,也许是第五,被传唤的反对教皇皇帝。As regards the fifth, the conduct of the emperor caused the legality of the council to be questioned -- a proof that the mind of the Church required the pope's consent for the lawfulness of councils.至于第五,皇帝的行为引起了到会的合法性受到质疑 - 一个证明,该教会心灵所需要的教皇对合法的议会的同意。 As regards most of these eight synods, particularly that of Ephesus, the previous consent of the pope, actual or presumed, is manifest.至于这八个主教多数,尤其是以弗所,以前的教皇同意,实际或推定,是明显。Regarding the convocation of the Council of Chalcedon, the Emperor Marcian did not quite fall in with the wishes of Pope Leo I as to the time and place of its meeting, but he did not claim an absolute right to have his will, nor did the pope acknowledge such a right.关于对Chalcedon委员会召集,皇帝马尔奇安没有完全爱上教皇利奥的意愿,以我的时间和会议地点,但他并没有声称绝对有权要求他的意志,也没有教皇承认这种权利。 On the contrary, as Leo I explains in his letters (Epp. lxxxix, xc, ed. Ballerini), he only submitted to the imperial arrangements because he was unwilling to interfere with Marcian's well-meant endeavours.相反,如狮子座我在他的信(Epp. lxxxix,XC,编辑。巴莱里尼)解释说,他只向皇室安排,因为他不愿干扰马尔奇安的善意努力。It is still more evident that convocation by the emperors did not imply on their part the claim to constitute the council juridically, that is, to give it power to sit as an authorized tribunal for Church affairs.这是更明显,由皇帝召集部分不意味着他们声称构成法律上的议会,也就是给它权力,出任一个教会事务授权法庭。Such a claim has never been put forward.这种说法从来没有被提出来的。The expressions jubere and keleuein, occasionally used in the wording of the convocation, do not necessarily convey the notion of strict orders not to be resisted; they also have the meaning of exhorting, inducing, bidding.表达jubere和keleuein,偶尔在召开字眼,不一定传达不被抵制严格命令的概念,他们也具备劝告,诱导,招标的意义。 The juridical constitution of the council could only emanate, and in fact always did emanate, from the Apostolic See.理事会的法律宪法只能发出,而实际上始终没有发出,从使徒见。As the necessity of the bishops' meeting in council was dictated rather by the distressful condition of the Church than by positive orders, the pope contented himself with authorizing the council and this he effected by sending his legates to preside over and direct the work of the assembled prelates.作为主教“在理事会会议上决定的必要性是由教会的痛苦的条件,而不是通过积极的订单,满足于教皇授权议会这一点,他本人和他所派遣使节来主持和指导工作的影响组装主教。 The Emperor Marcian in his first letter to Leo I declares that the success of the intended synod depends on his -- the pope's -- authorization, and Leo, not Marcian, is later called the auctor synodi without any restrictive qualification, especially at the time of the "Three Chapters" dispute, where the extension of the synod's authority was called in question.皇帝马尔奇安在他第一次写信给狮子座我宣布,预期的主教会议的成功与否取决于他 - 教宗的 - 授权和狮子座,不马尔奇安,就是后来被称为没有任何限制性资格auctor synodi特别是在时间, “三个章节”之争,那里的主教的权力扩展是在质疑。The law therefore, at that period was the same as it is now as far as essentials are concerned: the pope is the sole convener of the council as an authoritative juridical assembly.法律因此,在那个时期一样,现在就要领方面:教皇是作为一个权威的司法大会理事会唯一的召集人。The difference lies in the circumstance that the pope left to the emperor the execution of the convocation and the necessary measures for rendering the meeting possible and surrounding it with the éclat due to its dignity in Church and State.不同之处在于的情况下,教宗留给皇帝的执行和渲染召开会议可能和周围的怡亨由于其在教会和国家的尊严是必要的措施。The material, or business, part of the councils being thus entirely in the hands of the emperors, it was to be expected that the pope was sometimes induced -- if not forced -- by circumstances to make his authorization suit the imperial wishes and arrangements.该材料,或业务,暂时在皇帝手中从而完全议会的一部分,这是可以预料的,教皇有时诱导 - 如果不是被迫 - 由他授权的情况下作出适应帝国的意愿和安排。

After studying the principles it is well to see how they worked out in fact.在研究的原则是很好,看看他们的工作其实出来。Hence the following historical summary of the convocation of the first eight general councils:因此,下面的历史总结了前八一般理事会的召开:

(1) Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, vi) informs us that the writs of convocation to the First General Synod were issued by Emperor Constantine, but as not one of those writs has come down to us, it remains doubtful whether or not they mentioned any previous consultation with the pope.(1)尤西比乌斯(VITA Constantini,三,六)告诉我们,召开的令状给第一总议会是由君士坦丁皇帝颁布,但不是那些令状人下降到我们,但它仍然令人怀疑他们是否提到任何与教皇前咨询。 It is, however, an undeniable fact that the Sixth General Synod (680) plainly affirmed that the Council of Nicaea had been convened by the emperor and Pope Sylvester (Mansi, Coll. Conc., XI, 661).它是,但是,一个不可否认的事实是,第六届总议会(680)清楚地申明,尼西亚会议是由皇帝和教皇西尔维斯特(曼西,科尔。浓。席,661)召开。 The same statement appears in the life of Sylvester found in the "Liber Pontificalis", but this evidence need not be pressed, the evidence from the council being, from the circumstances in which it was given, of sufficient strength to carry the point.同样的语句出现在西尔维斯特在“LIBER Pontificalis”发现生活,但这个证据不需要按下,从它被赋予足够的力量来进行这一点,情况下,从被议会证据。For the Sixth General Council took place in Constantinople, at a time when the bishops of the imperial city already attempted to rival the bishops of Old Rome, and the vast majority of its members were Greeks; their statement is therefore entirely free from the suspicion of Western ambition or prejudice and must be accepted as a true presentment of fact.对于总理事会第​​六次发生在君士坦丁堡的地方,而当时的皇城主教已经尝试老对手罗马的主教,以及其成员绝大多数是希腊人,他们的声明,因此完全免费的怀疑西方野心或损害的,必须接受一个事实真实出示。 Rufinus, in his continuation of Eusebius' history (I, 1) says that the emperor summoned the synod ex sacerdotum sententia (on the advice of the clergy)- it is but fair to suppose that if he consulted several prelates he did not omit to consult with the head of all.Rufinus,在他的尤西比乌斯“历史的延续(I,1)表示,皇帝召见主教前sacerdotum sententia(对神职人员的建议) - 它不过是公平的,如果他想咨询几个主教,他没有忽略到咨询的所有头。

(2) The Second General Synod (381) was not, at first, intended to be Ecumenical; it only became so because it was accepted in the West, as has been shown above. (2)第二次总议会(381)没有,起初,拟合一,它才开始被接受,因为它在西方,作为已被证明以上。It was not summoned by Pope Damasus as is often contended, for the assertion that the assembled bishops professed to have met in consequence of a letter of the pope to Theodosius the Great is based on a confusion.它不是由教皇达玛斯传唤作为往往是争夺的断言,即组装主教自称有一个教皇信狄奥多西大后果会晤是在一个混乱的。 The document here brought in as evidence refers to the synod of the following year which was indeed summoned at the instigation of the pope and the Synod of Aquileia, but was not an Ecumenical synod.该文件在这里带来了作为证据指的是下一年的确实是在教皇和主教的Aquileia唆使召见主教,但不是一个基督教主教会议。

(3) The Third General Council (Ephesus, 431) was convoked by Emperor Theodosius II and his Western colleague Valentinian III- this is evident from the Acts of the council.(3)第三次总理事会(以弗所,431)被召集由皇帝狄奥多西二世和他的西方同事瓦伦蒂安III - 这是从安理会的行为明显。It is equally evident that Pope Celestine I gave his consent, for he wrote (15 May, 431) to Theodosius that he could not appear in person at the synod, but that he would send his representatives.同样明显的是教皇圣境我给他的同意,因为他写了(5月15日,431),以狄奥多西,他不能出现在主教的人,但他将派遣他的代表。 And in his epistle of 8 May to the synod itself, he insists on the duty of the bishops present to hold fast to the orthodox faith, expects them to accede to the sentence he has already pronounced on Nestorius, and adds that he has sent his legates to execute that sentence at Ephesus.而5月8日在他的书信本身的主教,他坚持在目前的主教职务抱紧正统​​的信仰,希望他们加入到他已经在涅斯宣判的刑期,并补充说,他已经派他的使节执行在以弗所的那句话。 The members of the council acknowledge the papal directions and orders, not only the papal consent, in the wording of their solemn condemnation of Nestorius: "Urged by the Canons and conforming to the Letter of our most holy Father and fellow servant Celestine the Roman bishop, we have framed this sorrowful sentence against Nestorius."安理会成员承认罗马教皇的指示和命令,不仅是罗马教皇的同意,在他们的涅斯严正谴责的措辞:“敦促由大炮和符合我们最神圣的父亲和同伴仆人天青石罗马主教的信,我们有这个框架对涅斯悲伤句话。“ They express the same sentiment where they say that "the epistle of the Apostolic See (to Cyril, communicated to the council) already contains a judgment and a rule psepho kai typou on the case of Nestorius" and that they -- the bishops in council -- have executed that ruling.他们表达了同样的情绪,他们说,“使徒的书信见(以西里尔,传达给理事会)已经包含了一个判断和对涅斯情况下,规则psepho偕typou”,他们 - 主教会议 - 已经执行该裁决。All this manifests the bishops' conviction that the pope was the moving and quickening spirit of the synod.这一切都体现了主教“的信念,即教皇是移动和加快主教会议的精神。

(4) How the Fourth General Synod (Chalcedon, 451) was brought together is set forth in several writings of Pope Leo I and Emperors Theodosius II and Marcian. (4)如何第四届总议会(迦克墩,451)是汇集了载于教皇利奥我和皇帝狄奥多西二世和马尔奇安一些著作。Immediately after the Robber Synod, Leo asked Theodosius to prepare a council composed of bishops from all parts of the world, to meet, preferably, in Italy.紧随强盗主教会议,狮子座问狄奥多西准备来自世界各地的主教组成的委员会,以满足,最好是在意大利。He repeated the same request, first made 13 October, 449, on the following feast of Christmas, and prevailed on the Western Emperor Valentinian III together with his empress and his mother, to support it at the Byzantine Court.他重复了同样的要求,首先就以下的圣诞节盛宴10月13日,449,并盛行于西方皇帝瓦伦蒂安III连同他的皇后和他的母亲,以支持它在拜占庭法院。 Once more (in July, 450) Leo renewed his request, adding, however that the council might be dispensed with if all the bishops were to make a profession of the orthodox faith without being united in council.一旦更多的(7月,450)狮子座再次要求,添加,但是,安理会可能与如果所有的主教们,使不被议会团结的正统信仰界配发。 About this time Theodosius II died and was succeeded by his sister, St. Pulcheria, and her husband Marcian.大约在这个时候狄奥多西二世去世,由他的姐姐,圣Pulcheria,和她的丈夫马尔奇安成功。Both at once informed the pope of their willingness to summon the council, Marcian specially asking him to state in writing whether he could assist at the synod in person or through his legates, so that the necessary writs of convocation might be issued to the Eastern bishops.无论是在一次通报了他们的意愿召集安理会教宗,马尔奇安特别要求他以书面他能否在协助主教亲自或通过他的使节,使召集必要的令状可能会发出东部主教。 By that time, however, the situation had greatly improved in the Eastern Church- nearly all the bishops who had taken part in the Robber Synod had now repented of their aberration and signed, in union with their orthodox colleagues, the "Epistola dogmatica" of Leo to Flavian, by this act rendering the need of a council less urgent.到那时,然而,情况已经大大改善了东部教会几乎所有谁参加了强盗主教主教会议的一部分现在已经改邪归正的畸变,签署了与他们的正统的同事联盟,以“Epistola dogmatica”狮子座到弗拉维安,使该法的一个议会少的迫切需要。Besides, the Huns were just then invading the West, preventing many Latin bishops, whose presence at the council was most desirable, from leaving their flocks to undertake the long journey to Chalcedon.此外,匈奴只是当时西方入侵,防止许多拉丁美洲主教,其存在的立法会是最可取的,离开他们的羊群进行的长途跋涉,迦克墩。 Other motives induced the pope to postpone the synod, eg the fear that it might be made the occasion by the bishops of Constantinople to improve their hierarchical position, a fear well justified by subsequent events.致教皇推迟主教其他动机,例如,它可能作出的君士坦丁堡主教之际,以改善他们的分层位置,深受后续事件justified恐惧的恐惧。 But Marcian had already summoned the synod, and Leo therefore gave his instructions as to the business to be transacted.但马尔奇安已经召见了主教,并因此给他的指示利奥作为对企业进行交易。He was then entitled to say, in a letter to the bishops who had been at the council that the synod had been brought together "ex praecepto christianorum principum et ex consensu apostolicae sedis" (by order of the Christian princes and with the consent of the Apostolic See).他说当时有权在给谁曾在该局被主教的信,认为主教已汇集了由基督教王子秩序和与同意“前praecepto christianorum principum等前consensu apostolicae sedis”(使徒见)。The emperor himself wrote to Leo that the synod had been held by his authority (te auctore), and the bishops of Moesia, in a letter to the Byzantine Emperor Leo, said: "At Chalcedon many bishops assembled by order of Leo, the Roman pontiff, who is the true head of the bishops".皇帝亲自写信给狮子座的主教是由他的权威(TE auctore)和Moesia主教举行,在给拜占庭皇帝利奥信中说:“在迦克墩许多主教的狮子座,罗马顺序组装教皇,谁是真正的主教头“。

(5) The Fifth General Synod was planned by Justinian I with the consent of Pope Vigilius, but on account of the emperor's dogmatic pretensions, quarrels arose and the pope refused to be present, although repeatedly invited. (5)第五总议会已计划由查士丁尼一世与教皇Vigilius同意,但对皇帝的教条式的伪装帐,出现争吵和教皇拒绝出席,虽然多次邀请。His Constitutum of 14 May 553, to the effect that he could not consent to anathematize Theodore of Mopsuestia and Theodoret, led to open opposition between pope and council.他Constitutum 553 5月14日,大意是他不能同意诅咒和Theodoret西奥多的摩普绥提亚,导致教皇和议会之间的公开对立。In the end all was righted by Vigilius approving the synodal decrees.在结束所有被纠正的主教会议,批准法令V​​igilius。

(6, 7, 8) These three synods were each and all called by the emperors of the time with the consent and assistance of the Apostolic See. (6,7,8)这三个主教会议是每个都是由当时的皇帝所谓的同意和使徒见的援助。

(b) DIRECTION(二)方向

The direction or presidency of councils belongs to the pope by the same right as their convocation and constitution.方向或议会主席属于教皇由他们的召开和宪法同样的权利。Were a council directed in its deliberations and acts by anyone independent of the pope and acting entirely on his own responsibility, such a council could not be the pope's own in any sense: the defect could only be made good by a consequent formal act of the pope accepting responsibility for its decisions.被指挥的审议和任何人的教皇独立的行为,并作用于他自己的责任,完全是一个议会,这种议会不能教皇自己在任何意义上:缺陷只能由因此而产生的正式行为良好教皇接受责任作出决定。 In point of fact, papal legates presided over all the Eastern councils, which from their beginning were legally constituted.在事实来看,罗马教皇的使节主持议会的所有东欧,这从他们开始在法律上构成的。The reader will obtain a clearer insight into this point of conciliar proceedings from a concrete example, taken from Hefele's introduction to his "History of the Councils":读者将获得进入这个conciliar的程序从一个具体的例子取自黑弗勒的介绍他的“议会史”,指向更明确的启示:

Pope Adrian II sent his legates to the Eighth Ecumenical Synod (787) with an express declaration to the Emperor Basil that they were to act as presidents of the council.教皇阿德里安二世派他的使节到第八基督教主教会议(787),具有明确声明,皇帝罗勒,他们担任安理会主席。The legates, Bishop Donatus of Ostia, Bishop Stephen of Nepesina, and the deacon Marinus of Rome, read the papal rescript to the synod.该legates,那图斯的奥斯蒂亚主教,主教Nepesina斯蒂芬,和罗马执事Marinus,读了教皇诏书的主教。 Not the slightest objection was raised.没有丝毫提出反对。Their names took precedence in all protocols; they determined the duration of the several sessions, gave leave to make speeches and to read documents and to admit other persons, they put the leading questions, etc. In short, their presidency in the first five sessions cannot be disputed.他们的名字参加了所有协议的优先级,他们确定了几个会期,给了假,使演讲和阅读文件,并承认其他人,他们把总之引导性的问题,等等,他们的总统在第五次会议不争。 But at the sixth session Emperor Basil was present with his two sons, Constantine and Leo, and, as the Acts relate, received the presidency.但在第六届会议皇帝罗勒与他的两个儿子,君士坦丁和Leo现在,作为行为有关,获得了总统宝座。These same Acts, however, at once clearly distinguish the emperor and his sons from the synod when, after naming them they continue: conveniente sanctâ ac universali synodo (the holy and universal synod now meeting), thus disassociating the lay ruler from the council proper.这些相同的行为,然而,在一次宗教会议明确区分时,命名后,他们继续他们的皇帝和他的儿子:conveniente sanctâ交流universali synodo(圣主教和现在普遍会议),从而disassociating从该局妥善奠定统治者。The names of the papal legates continue to appear first among the members of the synod, and it is they who in those latter sessions determine the matters for discussion, subscribe the Acts before anyone else, expressly as presidents of the synod, whereas the emperor, to show clearly that he did not consider himself the president, would only subscribe after all the bishops.罗马教皇legates的名称不断出现之间的主教成员的第一次,这是他们谁在这些后者会议讨论决定的事项,认购之前,其他任何人的行为,作为主教总统明确,而皇帝,要清楚地表明,他并不认为自己是总统,只会认购后,所有的主教。 The papal legates begged him to put his and his son's names at the head of the list, but he stoutly refused and only consented at last, to write his name after those of the papal legates and of the Eastern patriarchs, but before those of the bishops.罗马教皇的使节央求他把在列表头他和他儿子的名字,但他坚决不肯,只是在最后同意,写出后,罗马教皇的使节和东部始祖的他的名字,但在此之前的那些主教。 Consequently Pope Adrian II, in a letter to the emperor, praises him for not having assisted at the council as a judge (judex), but merely as a witness and protector (conscius et obsecundator).因此教皇阿德里安二,在给皇帝的信,称赞没有在为法官(judex)理事会协助他,但只是作为一个见证者和保护者(conscius等obsecundator)。

The imperial commissaries present at the synod acted even less as presidents than the emperor himself.在目前的主教担任帝国小卖部更​​比皇帝本人作为总统。They signed the reports of the several sessions only after the representatives of the patriarchs though before the bishops; their names are absent from the signatures of the Acts.他们签署后,才元老代表的几个会议的报告虽然前主教,他们的名字是从行为的签名缺席。On the other hand it may be contended that the Eastern patriarchs Ignatius of Constantinople, and the representatives of the other Eastern patriarchs, in some degree participated in the presidency: their names are constantly associated with those of the Roman legates and clearly distinguished from those of the other metropolitans and bishops.另一方面它可能争辩说,东方元老伊格君士坦丁堡,和其他东欧元老的代表,在一定程度上的总统参加了会议:他们的名字经常与罗马使节的,并明确从这些杰出的其他大城市和主教。 They, as it were, form with the papal legates a board of directors, fix with him the order of proceedings, determine who shall be heard, subscribe, like the legates, before the emperor and are entered in the reports of the several sessions before the imperial commissaries.他们,因为它是,与董事局的教皇使节的形式,与他固定的诉讼秩序,决定谁应受到重视,订阅,像使节在皇帝面前,并在几个会议的报告进入前帝国的小卖部。 All this being granted, the fact still remains that the papal legates unmistakably hold the first place, for they are always named first and sign first, and -- a detail of great importance -- for the final subscription they use the formula: huic sanctae et universali synodo praesidens (presiding over this holy and universal synod), while Ignatius of Constantinople and the representatives of the other patriarchs claim no presidency but word their subscription thus: suscipiens et omnibus quae ab ea judicata et scripta sunt concordans et definiens subscripsi (receiving this holy and universal synod and agreeing with all it has judged and written, and defining I have signed).这一切都被授予,但事实仍然是罗马教皇的使节明白无误地举办首届地方,因为他们总是第一个命名为第一个和签署,以及 - 一个非常重要的细节 - 为最终认购他们使用的公式:huic sanctae等universali synodo praesidens(在这个神圣的和普遍的主教主持工作),而依纳爵君士坦丁堡和其他元老的代表声称没有总统,但其认购从而字:suscipiens等综合quae AB​​ EA既判力等scripta必须遵守concordans等Definiens的subscripsi(接收这神圣的和普遍的主教,并与所有它有判断和书面同意,并确定我已经签署)。 If, on the one hand, this form of subscription differs from that of the president, it differs no less, on the other, from that of the bishops.如果一方面,这种认购形式从总统的不同,将不同不能少,另一方面,从主教的。These, like the emperor, have without exception used the formula: suscipiens (synodum) subscripsi (receiving the synod I have signed), omitting the otherwise customary definiens, which was used to mark a decisive vote (votum decisivum).这些,像皇帝,都无一例外地使用了公式:suscipiens(synodum)subscripsi(接收我所签署的主教),省略否则Definiens的习惯,这是用来标记一个决定性的一票(votum decisivum)。

Hefele gives similar documentary accounts of the first eight general synods, showing that papal legates always presided over them when occupied in their proper business of deciding questions on faith and discipline.黑弗勒给出了前八总主教类似纪录片的帐户,这表明罗马教皇使节总是对他们主持的决定时,他们的信仰和纪律问题上适当的商业占领。 The exclusive right of the pope in this matter was generally acknowledged.而教皇在这个问题上的独家权利是普遍公认的。Thus, the Emperor Theodosius II says, in his edict addressed to the Council of Ephesus, that he had sent Count Candidian to represent him, but that this imperial commissary was to take no part in dogmatic disputes since "it was unlawful for one who is not enrolled in the lists of the most holy bishops to mingle in ecclesiastical inquiries".因此,皇帝狄奥多西二世说,在他的诏书涉及到安理会的以弗所,他曾派数Candidian代表他,但这个帝国是采取小卖部,因为“这是非法的一个谁没有教条式的争议部分没有参加中最神圣的主教名单打成一片的“教会查询。 The Council of Chalcedon acknowledged that Pope Leo, by his legates, presided over it as "the head over the members".在Chalcedon委员会承认,教皇利奥,他的使节,在它主持的“过的成员头”。At Nicaea, Hosius, Vitus and Vincentius, as papal legates, signed before all other members of the council.在尼西亚,Hosius,圣维特和Vincentius,作为教皇使节,在理事会的所有其他成员签署。The right of presiding and directing implies that the pope, if he chooses to make a full use of his powers, can determine the subject matter to be dealt with by the council, prescribe rules for conducting the debates, and generally order the whole business as seems best to him.主持和指导的权利意味着,教皇,如果他选择做一个充分利用他的权力,可以决定将此事交由安理会处理,规定进行的辩论规则,一般以全业务为看来他的最佳。 Hence no conciliar decree is legitimate if carried under protest -- or even without the positive consent -- of the pope or his legates.因此,没有conciliar的法令是合法的,如果下进行抗议 - 他的教皇或使节 - 甚至没有正面同意。 The consent of the legates alone, acting without a special order from the pope, is not sufficient to make conciliar decrees at once perfect and operative; what is necessary is the pope's own consent.该使节单独同意,擅自从教皇特别命令行事,是不足以使conciliar的一次完善和执行法令;什么是必要的,是教宗自己的同意。 For this reason no decree can become legitimate and null in law on account of pressure brought to bear on the assembly by the presiding pope, or by papal legates acting on his orders.出于这个原因没有法令可以成为合法的,在法律上的空上所承受由教皇主持,或由他的命令行事的教皇使节装配压力帐户。 Such pressure and restriction of liberty, proceeding from the internal, natural principle of order through the use of lawful power, does not amount to external, unnatural coercion, and, therefore, does not invalidate the Acts due to its exercise.这种压力和限制的自由,从内部,自然秩序的原则出发,通过合法权力的使用,并不等于外部的,不自然的胁迫,而且,因此,并不能否定的行为,由于其运动。

Examples of councils working at high pressure, if the expression may be used, without spoiling their output, are of frequent occurrence.在高压力的工作,如果表达式可用于不破坏它们的输出,议会的例子,是经常发生。Most of the early councils were convened to execute decisions already finally fixed by the pope, no choice being left the assembled Fathers to arrive at another decision.早期的议会多数已召开了执行最后由教皇固定的决定,没有选择留在组装的父亲到达另一个决定。They were forced to conform their judgment to that of Rome, with or without discussion.他们被迫以符合自己的判断,罗马与或不讨论。Should papal pressure go beyond the limits of the council's dignity and of the importance of the matters under discussion the effect would be, not the invalidation of the council's decrees, but the paralysing of its moral influence and practical usefulness.如果罗马教皇的压力超出了安理会的尊严和正在讨论的事项,效果会是这样,而不是无效的议会的法令,但其道德影响力和实用性瘫痪的重要性限制。 On the other hand, the fact that a synod is, or has been, acting under the leadership of its Divinely appointed head, is the best guarantee of its freedom from unnatural disturbances, such as intrigues from below or coercion from above.另一方面,一个事实是主教,或已经下行事,其头部受神任命的领导,是其最好的自由,从自然干扰,如从下面或从上面胁迫尔虞我诈,保证。 In the same way violent interference with the papal leadership is the grossest attack on the council's natural freedom.以同样的方式与罗马教皇的领导暴力干扰是对安理会的自然自由粗暴的攻击。Thus the Robber Synod of Ephesus (449), though intended to be general and at first duly authorized by the presence of papal legates, was declared invalid and null by those same legates at Chalcedon 451), because the prejudiced Emperor Theodosius II had removed the representatives of the pope, and entrusted the direction of the council to Dioscurus of Alexandria.因此,以弗所(449)强盗主教会议,但拟在第一次正式和一般由罗马教皇的使节出席了认可,被宣布无效,并通过在迦克墩451相同使节空),因为偏见皇帝狄奥多西二世删除了教宗的代表,并委托该理事会的亚历山大Dioscurus方向。

(c) Confirmation(三)确认

Confirmation of the conciliar decrees is the third factor in the pope's necessary co-operation with the council.conciliar的法令确认的是,在教皇的必要与议会合作,第三个因素。The council does not represent the teaching Church till the visible head of the Church has given his approval, for, unapproved, it is but a headless, soulless, impersonal body, unable to give its decisions the binding force of laws for the whole Church, or the finality of judicial sentences With the papal approval, on the contrary, the council's pronouncements represent the fullest effort of the teaching and ruling Church, a judicium plenissimum beyond which no power can go.该委员会并不代表教学教会,直到教会可见头给他的批准,未经批准,也只不过是一个无头的,没有灵魂的,客观的身体,无法给其决定为整个教会的法律约束力,或与罗马教皇批准的司法判决的终局性,相反,安理会的声明代表了最充分的教学水平和执政教会的努力,一个judicium plenissimum超越它没有权力可以走了。Confirmation being the final touch of perfection, the seal of authority, and the very life of conciliar decrees, it is necessary that it should be a personal act of the highest authority, for the highest authority cannot be delegated.被确认的完善,权威的印章,以及conciliar的法令的生命最后的接触,这是必要的,它应该是一种个人行为的最高权力机构,为最高权力机关,不能下放。 So much for the principle, or the question of right.这么多的原则,或右的问题。When we look for its practical working throughout the history of councils, we find great diversity in the way it has been applied under the influence of varying circumstances.当我们为它的整个政局的历史实际工作看,我们发现它已根据不同情况影响应用方式的多样性。

Councils over which the pope presides in person require no further formal confirmation on his part, for their decisions formally include his own as the body includes the soul.议会通过的教皇亲自主持不需要对他的进一步的正式确认,他们决定正式包括他自己的身体,包括灵魂。The Vatican Council of 1869-70 offers an example in point.而1869年至1870年梵蒂冈会议提供了一个恰当的例子。

Councils over which the pope presides through his legates are not identified with himself in the same degree as the former.议会在其中通过他的使节教皇主持并不等同于自己在与前者相同的程度。 They constitute separate, dependent, representative tribunals, whose findings only become final through ratification by the authority for which they act.他们构成单独的,依赖性强,代表法庭,其结果只能成为通过对他们的权力行为的最终批准。Such is the theory.这就是理论。 In practice, however, the papal confirmation is, or may be, presumed in the following cases:然而在实践中,教皇确认,或可能在下列情况下假定:

When the council is convened for the express purpose of carrying out a papal decision previously arrived at, as was the case with most of the early synods; or when the legates give their consent in virtue of a special public instruction emanating from the pope; in these circumstances the papal ratification pre-exists, is implied in the conciliar decision, and need not be formally renewed after the council.当安理会召开了开展了罗马教皇的决定之前抵达的明确目的,这一点与早期的主教多数情况下,或当使节给予了特殊的公众从教皇发出的指令凭借其同意,在这种情况下,罗马教皇的批准预存在,是隐含在conciliar的决定,而无须经过正式的安理会延长。 It may, however, be superadded ad abundantiam, as, eg the confirmation of the Council of Chalcedon by Leo I.它可能,不过,superadded广告abundantiam,因为,例如,通过狮子座一对Chalcedon委员会确认

The necessary consent of the Apostolic See may also be presumed when, as generally at the Council of Trent, the legates have personal instructions from the pope on each particular question coming up for decision, and act conformably, ie if they allow no decision to be taken unless the pope's consent has previously been obtained.而使徒见必要的同意也可以推定时,作为一般在安理会的遄达,该legates从教皇的个人说明,每一个特定的未来作出决定了的问题,并采取行动conformably,也就是说,如果他们允许任何决定必须采取除非教皇的同意以前已获得。

Supposing a council actually composed of the greater part of the episcopate, concurring freely in a unanimous decision and thus bearing unexceptional witness to the mind and sense of the whole Church: The pope, whose office it is to voice infallibly the mind of the Church, would be obliged by the very nature of his office, to adopt the council's decision, and consequently his confirmation, ratification, or approbation could be presumed, and a formal expression of it dispensed with.假设实际上是大部份的主教组成的委员会,一致决定,赞同在自由,从而影响非例外证人的思想和整个教会的感觉:教皇,他的办公室是语音绝对无误教会的心中,将不得不由他的办公室的性质,采取理事会的决定,因此他的确认,批准或认可可以推定,并表达了它的正式免除。 But even then his approbation, presumed or expressed, is juridically the constituent factor of the decision's perfection.但即使这样他的赞许,推定或表示,是法律上所决定的完美构成因素。

The express ratification in due form is at all times, when not absolutely necessary, at least desirable and useful in many respects:在适当的形式表达的批准是在任何时候,当完全没有必要,至少需要的,在许多方面非常有用:

It gives the conciliar proceedings their natural and lawful complement, the keystone which closes and crowns the arch for strength and beauty; it brings to the front the majesty and significance of the supreme head of the Church.它给人的conciliar的诉讼自然和合法的补充,梯形的关闭,克朗对力与美的拱,它带来的正面的威严和教会最高元首的意义。

Presumed consent can but rarely apply with the same efficacy to each and all of the decisions of an important council.推定同意可以申请,但很少使用相同的疗效,每一个重要的议会的所有决定。A solemn papal ratification puts them all on the same level and removes all possible doubt.一个庄严的罗马教皇的批准使得他们在同一水平上,并移除所有可能的所有疑问。

Lastly the papal ratification formally promulgates the sentence of the council as an article of faith to be known and accepted by all the faithful; it brings to light and public view the intrinsic ecumenicity of the council- it is the natural, official, indisputable criterion, or test, of the perfect legality of the conciliar transactions or conclusions.最后罗马教皇批准正式颁布为信仰是已知和所有的信徒接受第安理会的句子,它揭示了和公众的视野理事会,它是自然的,官方的,不争的标准,内在ecumenicity或测试,该conciliar的交易或结论完善的合法性。 If we bear in mind the numerous disturbing elements at work in and around an Ecumenical council, the conflicting religious, political, scientific, and personal interests contending for supremacy, or at least eager to secure some advantage, we can easily realize the necessity of a papal ratification to crush the endless chicanery which otherwise would endanger the success and efficacy of the highest tribunal of the Church.如果我们牢记许多令人不安的因素在工作中和周围的大公会议,宗教冲突,政治,科学,个人利益至上的争夺,或者至少渴望获得一些优势,我们可以很容易地实现必要教皇批准粉碎无尽的欺骗否则将危及的成功和教会的最高法庭的疗效。 Even they who refuse to see in the papal confirmation an authentic testimony and sentence, declaring infallibly the ecumenicity of the council and its decrees to be a dogmatic fact, must admit that it is a sanative act and supplies possible defects and shortcomings; the Ecumenical authority of the pope is sufficient to impart validity and infallibility to the decrees he makes his own by officially ratifying them.即使他们拒绝看到谁在罗马教皇的确认真正的证词和判决,宣布绝对无误理事会ecumenicity和法令是一种教条式的事实,必须承认,这是一个sanative行为和供应可能存在的缺陷和不足,在基督教的权威教皇是足够的有效性和犯错误传授给他做他自己的法令,正式批准的。 This was done by Pope Vigilius for the Fifth General Synod.这是通过教皇Vigilius第五次宗教大会。Sufficient proof for the sanatory efficacy of the papal ratification lies in the absolute sovereignty of the pope and in the infallibility of his ex-cathedra pronouncements.为教皇批准sanatory疗效足以证明在于教皇的绝对主权,在他的前cathedra声明犯错误。 Should it be argued, however, that the sentence of an Ecumenical council is the only absolute, final, and infallible sentence even then, and then more than ever, the papal ratification would be necessary.是否应该说,但是,一个大公会议句是唯一绝对的,最终的,即使再犯错的句子,然后比以往多,罗马教皇的批准将是必要的。 For in the transactions of an Ecumenical council the pope plays the principal part, and if any deficiency in his action, especially in the exercise of his own special prerogatives, were apparent, the labours of the council would be in vain.对于一个基督教会的教皇次交易的主体部分,如果他的行动中的任何缺陷,特别是在行使自己的特殊的特权,是明显的,安理会的劳动力将是徒劳的。 The faithful hesitate to accept as infallible guides of their faith documents not authenticated by the seal of the fisherman, or the Apostolic See, which now wields the authority of St. Peter and of Christ.教友们毫不犹豫地接受他们的信仰错误的向导文件不是由渔民印章,或使徒见,现在执掌的圣彼得和基督的权威认证。 Leo II beautifully expresses these ideas in his ratification of the Sixth General Council: "Because this great and universal synod has most fully proclaimed the definition of the right faith, which the Apostolic See of St. Peter the Apostle, whose office we, though unequal to it, are holding, also reverently receives: therefore we also, and through our office this Apostolic See, consent to, and confirm, by the authority of Blessed Peter, those things which have been defined, as being finally set by he Lord Himself on the solid rock which is Christ."利奥二世精美表达了他的第六次总理事会批准这些想法:“因为这个伟大的和普遍的主教已经宣告了最充分的权利信仰的定义,其中使徒见圣彼得使徒,我们的办公室,但不平等它,是控股,也虔诚地接受:因此我们也通过我们的办公室里使徒见,同意,并确认由有福彼得,那些已经确定,正在最后由他作为主自己设定的东西的权力,在坚硬的岩石是基督。“

No event in the history of the Church better illustrates the necessity and the importance of papal co-operation and, in particular, confirmation, than the controversies which in the sixth century raged about the Three Chapters.没有在教会的历史事件更说明了罗马教皇的必要性和合作的重要性,特别是确认和,比争论这在六世纪左右的三章炸开了锅。 The Three Chapters were the condemnation (1) of Theodore of Mopsuestia, his person, and his writings; (2) of Theodoret's writings against Cyril and the Council of Ephesus; (3) of a letter from Ibas to Maris the Persian, also against Cyril and the council.三章是对摩普绥提亚西奥多谴责(1),他的人,他的著作;(2)对西里尔和以弗所会议Theodoret的著作;(3)从IBAS信马里斯波斯,也反对西里尔和理事会。 Theodore anticipated the heresy of Nestorius; Ibas and Theodoret were indeed restored at Chalcedon, but only after they had given orthodox explanations and shown that they were free from Nestorianism.西奥多预计到涅斯异端; IBAS和Theodoret确实在迦克墩恢复,但只有在他们给了正统的解释和证明,他们是从景教自由。The two points in debate were: (1) Did the Council of Chalcedon acknowledge the orthodoxy of the said Three Chapters?在辩论的两点是:(1)难道Chalcedon委员会承认上述三个章节正统?(2) How, ie by what test, is the point to be settled?(2)如何,即通过什么样的测试,是要解决的问题?Now the two contending parties agreed in the principle of the test: the approbation of the council stands or falls with the approbation of the pope's legates and of Pope Leo I himself.现在这两个争夺双方同意在测试原理:理事会认可代表或与教皇的使节认同和教皇利奥我自己跌倒。Defenders of the Chapters, eg Ferrandus the Deacon and Facundus of Hermiane, put forward as their chief argument (prima et immobilis ratio) the fact that Leo had approved.捍卫者的章节,如Ferrandus执事和Hermiane Facundus,提出为主要参数(表面等immobilis比)利奥已批准的事实。Their opponents never questioned the principle but denied the alleged fact, basing their denial on Leo's epistle to Maximus of Antioch in which they read: "Si quid sane ab his fratribus quos ad S. Synodum vice mea, praeter id quod ad causam fidei pertinebat gestum fuerit, nullius erit firmitatis" (If indeed anything not pertaining to the cause of faith should have been settled by the brethren I sent to the Holy Synod to hold my place, it shall be of no force).他们的对手从来没有质疑的原则,但否认被指控的事实,立足于狮子座的书信他们拒绝的安提阿鲆中,他们为:“四镑理智的AB他fratribus quos广告S. Synodum副测量,praeter ID狴广告causam fidei pertinebat gestum fuerit,无主地erit firmitatis“(如果确实没有任何有关信仰的事业应该是我的弟兄们送到圣主教举行我的地方定居的,应当不生效)。The point of doctrine (causa fidei) referred to is the heresy of Eutyches; the Three Chapters refer to that of Nestorius, or rather to certain persons and writings connected with it.该学说(causa fidei)点所指的是对Eutyches异端;三章指涅斯的,或者说某些人的著作和与它相连。

The bishops of the council, assembled at Constantinople in 533 for the purpose of putting an end to the Three Chapters controversy, addressed to Pope Vigilius two Confessions, the first with the Patriarch Mennas, the second with his successor Eutychius, in which, to establish their orthodoxy, they profess that they firmly hold to the four general synods as approved by the Apostolic See and by the popes.理事会主教,聚集在533在君士坦丁堡为制止三章争议的目的,给教皇Vigilius two自白,与祖师Mennas第一,与他的继任者Eutychius第二,其中,建立他们的正统,他们宣称,他们牢牢把握的四个主教会议一般由使徒见,由教皇批准。 Thus we read in the Confessio of Mennas: "But also the letters of Pope Leo of blessed memory and the Constitution of the Apostolic See issued in support of the Faith and of the authority (firmitas) of the aforesaid four synods, we promise to follow and observe in all points and we anathematize any man, who on any occasion or altercation should attempt to nullify our promises."因此,我们读了Mennas Confessio:“但也字母教皇利奥的幸福记忆和使徒见的信仰和对上述四主教管理局(firmitas)支持发行,我们承诺遵守宪法并观察各点,我们诅咒任何人,谁在任何场合或发生口角应该试图抵消我们的承诺。“ And in the Confessio of Eutychius: "Suscipimus autem et amplectimur epistolas praesulum Romance Sedis Apostolicae, tam aliorum quam Leonis sanctae memoriae de fide scriptas et de quattuor sanctis conciliis vel de uno eorum" (We receive and embrace the letters of the bishops of the Apostolic Roman See, those of others as well as of Leo of holy memory, concerning the Faith and the four holy synods or any of them).并在Eutychius Confessio:“Suscipimus autem等amplectimur epistolas praesulum演义Sedis Apostolicae,谭aliorum华富莱奥尼斯sanctae memoriae去真正scriptas ET DE quattuor sanctis conciliis VEL DE UNO eorum”(我们接受和拥抱的使徒主教的信罗马教廷,以及狮子座的神圣记忆,作为他人的,关于信仰和四圣主教会议或其中任何)。


The way in which councils transact business now demands our attention.以何种方式办理业务议会现在要求我们的注意。Here as in most things, there is an ideal which is never completely realized in practice.这里大多数的事情,还有一个是在实践中从来没有完全实现的理想。

(a) The facts(一)事实

It has been sufficiently shown in the foregoing section that the pope, either in person or by deputy, directed the transaction of conciliar business.它已充分显示了上述部分,教皇,亲自或通过代理,指挥了conciliar的商业交易。But when we look for a fixed order or set of rules regulating the proceedings we have to come down to the Vatican Council to find an official Ordo concilii ecumenici and a Methodus servanda in prima sessione, etc. In all earlier councils the management of affairs was left to the Fathers and adjusted by them to the particular objects and circumstances of the council.但是,当我们为一个固定的秩序或规范的程序规则,我们来看看下到梵蒂冈会发现在所有的事务管理是早期议会正式奥concilii ecumenici和Methodus servanda在表面sessione等。留给父亲和他们调整到特定的对象和理事会的情况。The so-called Ordo celebrandi Concilii Tridentini is a compilation posterior to the council, written by the conciliar secretary, A. Massarelli; it is a record of what has been done not a rule of what should be done.所谓奥celebrandi Concilii Tridentini是编译后的理事会,由conciliar的书记,A. Massarelli书面,它是一个做了什么不应该做的是什么规则的记录。 Some fixed rules were, however, already established at the reform councils of the fifteenth century as a substitute for the absent directing power of the pope.一些固定的规则,但是,已经建立在15世纪的议会改革作为一个缺席的指挥权力的教皇的替代品。The substance of these rulings is given in the "Caeremoniale Romanum" of Augustinus Patritius (d. 1496).这些裁决的实质是刊载于“Caeremoniale Romanum”的奥古斯丁Patritius(草1496)。 The institution of "congregations" dates from the Council of Constance (1415).而“众”机构日期从康斯坦茨理事会(1415年)。At earlier councils all the meetings of the Fathers were called indiscriminately sessiones or actiones, but since Constance the term session has been restricted to the solemn meetings at which the final votes are given while all meetings for the purpose of consultation or provisory voting are termed congregations.早在议会的所有会议的父亲被称为乱sessiones或actiones,但由于长期康斯坦茨的会话已被限制在这最后的票数而定的谘询或provisory进行表决的所有会议,被称为教会庄严的会议。

The distinction between general and particular congregations likewise dates from Constance, where, however, the particular congregations assumed a form different in spirit and composition from the practice of earlier and later councils.之间的区别一般和特殊的毕业典礼同样的日期从康斯,在那里,但是,尤其是教会的形式承担了精神,从早期的做法,后来议会的组成不同。 They were simply separate assemblies of the "nations" (first four, then five) present at the council; their deliberations went to form national votes which were presented in the general assembly, whose decisions conformed to a majority of such votes.他们只是对“国家”(前四个,然后五)在安理会目前单独的程序集,它们的审议到形式都在大会,其顺应了这样的多数票决定提出国家的选票。 The particular congregations of more recent councils were merely consultative assemblies (committees commissions) brought together by appointment or invitation in order to deliberate on special matters.比较近的议会特别的毕业典礼也仅仅是咨询集会(委员会委)所带来的委任或邀请在一起,以审议特别事项。At Trent there were congregations of prelates and congregations of theologians, both partly for dogma, partly for discipline.在特伦特有主教和神学家的教会会众,既部分为教条,部分纪律。The congregations of prelates were either "deputations", ie committees of specially chosen experts, or conciliary groups, usually three into which the council divided for the purpose of facilitating discussion.在主教的教会是不是“团体”,即专门挑选的专家委员会,或conciliary群体,通常三成,其中安理会为促进讨论的目的划分。

The official ordo of the Vatican Council confirmed the Tridentine practice, leaving, however, to the initiative of the prelates the formation of groups of a more private character.梵蒂冈的官方奥会证实,德律但丁的实践,离开,但是,到了主教的一个群体的形成更多的私人性质的倡议。The voting by "nations", peculiar to the reform councils, has also been abandoned in favour of the traditional voting by individuals (capita).按“国家”,特有的改革议会,投票也已经放弃了对个人(人均)传统的投票支持。 At the Vatican Council there were seven "commissions" consisting of theologians from all countries, appointed a year before the actual meeting of the assembly.在梵蒂冈会议有七个“佣金”来自所有国家的神学家组成,任命前的实际大会会议一年。Their duty was to prepare the various matters to be laid before the council.他们的职责是准备要就会议讨论的各项事宜。The object of these congregations is sufficiently described by their titles: (1) Congregatio cardinalitia directrix; (2) Commissio caeremoniarum, (3) politico-ecclesiastica; (4) pro ecclesiis et missionibus Orientis; (5) pro Regularibus; (6) theologica dogmatica; (7) pro disciplina ecclesiastica (ie a general directive cardinalitial congregation, and several commissions for ceremonies, politico-ecclesiastical affairs, the churches and missions of the Orient, the regular orders, dogmatic theology, ecclesiastical discipline).这些教会的目的是充分描述他们的标题:(1)Congregatio cardinalitia准线(2)Commissio caeremoniarum,(3)政治 - ecclesiastica;(4)亲ecclesiis等missionibus Orientis;(5)亲Regularibus;(6)神学dogmatica;(7)亲disciplina ecclesiastica(即一般指令cardinalitial众,和仪式,政治,宗教事务,教堂和东方的任务,定期订单,教条式的神学,教会的纪律几个委员会)。 On the basis of their labours were worked out the schemata (drafts of decrees) to be discussed by the council.在他们的劳动的基础上分别制定了图式(法令草案),由理事会讨论。Within the council itself there were seven "deputations": (1) Pro recipiendis et expendendis Patrum propositionibus (appointed by the pope to examine the propositions of the Fathers); (2) Judices excusationum (Judges of excuses); (3) Judices querelarum et controversiarum (to settle questions of precedence and such like); (4) deputatio pro rebus ad fidem pertinentibus (on matters pertaining to faith); (5) deputatio pro rebus disciplinae ecclesiasticae (on ecclesiastical discipline); (6) pro rebus ordinum regularium (on religious orders); (7) pro rebus ritus orientalis et apostolicis missionibus (Oriental rites and Apostolic missions).安理会内部本身有七个“团体”:(1)专业recipiendis等expendendis Patrum propositionibus(由教皇任命审查的父亲的命题),(2)Judices excusationum(法官借口);(3)Judices querelarum等controversiarum(解决优先之类的问题),(4)deputatio亲情势广告fidem pertinentibus(事项有关的信仰),(5)deputatio亲情势disciplinae ecclesiasticae(在教会的纪律),(6)亲情势ordinum regularium(宗教订单),(7)亲情势ritus侧柏等apostolicis missionibus(东方的仪式和使徒的任务)。

All these deputations, except the first, were chosen by the council.所有这些团体,除了第一个,被选为理事会。Objections and amendments to the proposed schemata had to be handed in in writing to the responsible deputation which considered the matter and modified the schema accordingly.反对及修订建议的图式都必须以书面形式递交给负责代表团的审议此事,并相应地修改了架构在。Anyone desiring further to improve the modified draft had to obtain from the legates permission to propose his amendments in a speech, after which he put them down in writing.任何人都渴望进一步提高修改草案已经获得批准的使节在一次讲话中提出的修正案,之后,他把写下来。If, however, ten prelates decided that the matter had been sufficiently debated, leave for speaking was refused.如果,但是,十主教决定,此事已得到充分的辩论,离开发言被拒绝。At this stage the amendments were collected and examined by the synodal congregation, then again laid before the general congregation to be voted on severally.在这个阶段的修订,收集并经众主教会议审议,然后再铺设之前​​,一般众个别进行表决。The votes for admission or rejection were expressed by the prelates standing or remaining seated.接纳或拒绝的选票表达了站立或坐着其余主教。Next the schema, reformed in accordance with these votes, was submitted to a general congregation for approval or disapproval in toto.接下来的架构,在这些选票按照改革,已提交了不予审批或全盘一般众。In case a majority of placets were given for it, it was accepted in a last solemn public session, after a final vote of placet or non placet ("it pleases", or "it does not please").如果一个placets大部分为它赋予,它是接受最后庄严的公开会议,经过placet或非placet(“它为所欲为”,或“不请”)最后表决。

(b) The theory(二)理论

The principle which directs the practical working of a council is the perfect, or best possible, realization of its object, viz.该原则指导实际工作的一个议会是它的对象,即完美,或最好的可能,实现。a final judgment on questions of faith and morals, invested with the authority and majesty of the whole teaching body of the Church.对信仰和道德问题的最终判决,具有权威性和教会的整个教学机构的威严投资。To this end some means are absolutely necessary, others are only desirable as adding perfection to the result.为此一些手段是绝对必要的,有些则只能作为补充完善的结果理想。We deal first with these latter means, which may be called the ideal elements of the council:我们首先谈谈后者的手段,这可能是所谓的议会的理想要素:

The presence of allthe bishops of the world is an ideal not to be realized, but the presence of a very great majority is desirable for many reasons.对所有的世界主教的存在是不能够实现的理想,而是一个非常绝大多数存在的原因有很多可取的。A quasi-complete council has the advantage of being a real representation of the whole Church, while a sparsely attended one is only so in law, ie the few members present legally represent the many absent, but only represent their juridical power, their ordinary power not being representable.阿准会已完成了作为一个真正的全教会代表的优势,而人烟稀少出席一个是只有这么在法律上,即目前在法律上代表少数成员的许多缺席,但只能代表他们的法律权力,他们的普通电源没有表示的。 Thus for every bishop absent there is absent an authentic witness of the Faith as it is in his diocese.因此,对于每一个主教缺席有没有一个真正的信仰见证,因为它是在他的教区。

A free and exhaustive discussion of all objections.所有反对的自由和详尽的讨论。

An appeal to the universal belief -- if existing -- witnessed to by all the bishops in council.如果现有的 - - 一个为普遍的信仰呼吁目击由议会中的所有主教。This, if realized, would render all further discussion superfluous.这样,如果能够实现,将会使所有进一步讨论是多余的。

Unanimity in the final vote, the result either of the universal faith as testified to by the Fathers, or of conviction gained in the debates.在最后投票一致同意,其结果要么普遍信心,证明了由父亲或定罪的辩论获得。It is evident that these four elements in the working of a council generally contribute to its ideal perfection, but it is not less evident that they are not essential to its substance, to its conciliary effectiveness.很明显,在一个议会工作这四个要素一般有助于其理想的完美,但它不是那么明显,他们是没有必要的物质,给其conciliary成效。 If they were necessary many acknowledged councils and decrees would lose their intrinsic authority, because one or other or all of these conditions were wanting.如果他们需要许多公认的议会和法令将失去其内在的权威,因为一个或其他或所有这些条件都想要。Again, there is no standard by which to determine whether or not the number of assisting bishops was sufficient and the debates have been exhaustive -- nor do the Acts of the councils always inform us of the unanimity of the final decisions or of the way in which it was obtained.Again,没有标准,据此确定是否不协助主教数量充足,辩论已被彻底 - 也没有这么做会的行为总是告知最终决定一致或在我们的方式它获得。Were each and all of these four elements essential to an authoritative council no such council could have been held, in many cases, when it was none the less urgently required by the necessities of the Church.每个人的这四个要素必不可少的一个权威的委员会根本没有这样的理事会可以举行,在许多情况下,当它是没有少的教会迫切需要的必需品。 Authors who insist on the ideal perfection of councils only succeed in undermining their authority, which is, perhaps, the object they aim at.作者谁对议会的理想完美坚持只许成功地破坏自己的权威,这或许是他们瞄准的对象。Their fundamental error is a false notion of the nature of councils.他们的根本错误是一个虚假的议会性质的概念。They conceive of the function of the council as a witnessing to, and teaching of, the generally accepted faith -- whereas it is essentially a juridical function, the action of judges as well as of witnesses of the Faith.他们设想,安理会作为一个见证到,和,普遍接受的信念教学 - 而它本质上是一种司法职能,法官的作用以及对信仰的证人。This leads us to consider the essential elements in conciliar action.这使我们考虑在conciliar的行动的基本要素。

From the notion that the council is a court of judges the following inferences may be drawn:从概念,安理会是法院的法官可得出以下推论:

The bishops, in giving their judgment, are directed only by their personal conviction of its rectitude; no previous consent of all the faithful or of the whole episcopate is required.主教们,给予他们的判断,只能由他们都是针对其正直的个人信念,没有对所有的信徒或全体主教事先同意是必需的。 In unity with their head they are one solid college of judges authoritatively constituted for united, decisive action -- a body entirely different from a body of simple witnesses.在与他们的头,他们是一个团结的坚实法官学院权威的团结,果断的行动构成 - 身体完全从一个简单的证人身体的不同。

This being admitted, the assembled college assumes a representation of their colleagues who were called but failed to take their seats, provided the number of those actually present is not altogether inadequate for the matter in hand.这被录取,高校承担的组装了他们的同事表示谁被称为但没有采取自己的座位,提供这些实际存在数量不完全的手不足的问题。 Hence their resolutions are rightly said to rest on universal consent: universali consensu constituta, as the formula runs.因此,他们的决议是正确地说休息就普遍同意:universali consensu constituta,作为公式运行。

Further, on the same supposition, the college of judges is subject to the rule obtaining in all assemblies constituted for framing a judicial sentence or a common resolution, due regard being paid to the special relations, in the present instance, between the head and the members of the college: the co-operative verdict embodies the opinion of the majority, including the head, and in law stands for the verdict of the whole assembly, it is communi sensu constitutum (established by common consent).此外,在相同的假设,法官学院是受规则在所有组件构成框架获得司法判决或共同决议案,适当照顾的特殊关系在目前情况下,在头部和本团成员:合作化判决体现了多数人的意见,包括头部,并在法律上为整个大会裁决代表,它是通信意义上的constitutum(由一致同意成立)。 A majority verdict, even headed by papal legates, if disconnected from the personal action of the pope, still falls short of a perfect, authoritative pronouncement of the whole Church, and cannot claim infallibility.一个多数裁决,甚至罗马教皇的使节为首,如果从教皇个人行为断开,仍然达不到完美,整个教会权威宣判短,不能要求犯错误。 Were the verdict unanimous, it would still be imperfect and fallible, if it did not receive the papal approbation.被判决的一致,它仍然是不完善,难免出错,如果没有得到罗马教皇的认可。The verdict of a majority, therefore, not endorsed by the pope, has no binding force on either the dissentient members present or the absent members, nor is the pope bound in any way to endorse it.对多数裁决,因此,而不是由教皇批准,并没有对无论是现在或持异议的成员缺席的成员的约束力,也不是任何方式批准的约束教皇。 Its only value is that it justifies the pope, in case he approves it, to say that he confirms the decision of a council, or gives his own decision sacro approbante concilio (with the consent of the council).它唯一的价值在于它证明了教皇,如果他批准了,说他肯定了一个理事会的决定,或给出了自己的决定骶approbante concilio(与议会同意)。This he could not say if he annulled a decision taken by a majority including his legates, or if he gave a casting vote between two equal parties.这一点,他不能说,如果他取消了他的使节,包括多数作出的决定,或者如果他给两个平等当事人之间决定性的一票。A unanimous conciliary decision, as distinct from a simple majority decision, may under certain circumstances, be, in a way, binding on the pope and compel his approbation -- by the compelling power, not of a superior authority, but of the Catholic truth shining forth in the witnessing of the whole Church.一致conciliary决定,从简单多数决定不同,可能在某些情况下,可以在某种程度上,对教皇具有约束力,并迫使他的认可 - 由令人信服的力量,而不是一个上级机关,但天主教的真相闪亮的规定,在整个教会的见证。To exert such power the council's decision must be clearly and unmistakably the reflex of the faith of all the absent bishops and of the faithful.要发挥这种权力的议会的决定必须明确无误地对所有的缺席主教信仰和忠实反射。

To gain an adequate conception of the council at work it should be viewed under its twofold aspect of judging and witnessing.为了获得一个在工作中充分理事会应被视为概念根据其判断和见证双重方面。In relation to the faithful the conciliar assembly is primarily a judge who pronounces a verdict conjointly with the pope, and, at the same time, acts more or less as witness in the case.相对于忠实的conciliar的大会主要是一种判断谁宣告判决conjointly与教皇,并在同一时间,作为证人的情况下,或多或少。 Its position is similar to that of St. Paul towards the first Christians: quod accepistis a me per multos testes.它的立场是相似的圣保罗是对第一个基督徒:狴accepistis每一个我MULTOS睾丸。In relation to the pope the council is but an assembly of authentic witnesses and competent counsellors whose influence on the papal sentence is that of the mass of evidence which they represent or of the preparatory judgment which they pronounce, it is the only way in which numbers of judges can influence one another.关于教皇理事会只不过是一个地道的证人和主管辅导员的影响,对罗马教皇的一句话是,大会的证据,他们代表或筹备判断他们发音质量,它是唯一的方式,数字法官可以相互影响。 Such influence lessens neither the dignity nor the efficiency of any of the judges -- on the other hand it is never required, in councils or elsewhere, to make their verdict unassailable.减轻这种影响既没有尊严,也不是法官的任何效率 - 另一方面它从来不是必需的,在议会或其他地方,使自己的判决无懈可击。The Vatican Council, not excluding the fourth session in which papal infallibility was defined, comes nearer than any former council to the ideal perfection just described.梵蒂冈理事会,但不排除第四次会议中,教皇犯错误的定义,来比前立法局的理想只是描述接近完美。It was composed of the greatest number of bishops, both absolutely and in proportion to the totality of bishops in the Church; it allowed and exercised the right of discussion to an extent perhaps never witnessed before; it appealed to a general tradition, present and past, containing the effective principle of the doctrine under discussion, viz.这是由主教人数最多的,无论是绝对的比例在教会主教整体,它允许和行使权利的讨论也许从未见过的程度之前,它呼吁一般的传统,现在和过去,含有受讨论的学说有效的原则,即 the duty of submitting in obedience to the Holy See and of conforming to its teaching; lastly it gave its final definition with absolute unanimity, and secured the greatest majority -- nine-tenths -- for its preparatory judgment.为筹备判断 - - 十分之九的最后它给了其绝对一致的最终定义,并获得最大的多数;在递交服从罗马教廷和符合其教学任务。


All the arguments which go to prove the infallibility of the Church apply with their fullest force to the infallible authority of general councils in union with the pope.所有的论据去证明教会犯错误适用于他们的最大力量,在联盟总议会与教宗犯错​​的权力。For conciliary decisions are the ripe fruit of the total life-energy of the teaching Church actuated and directed by the Holy Ghost.对于conciliary决定的总的教学教会驱动和圣灵定向生命能量成熟果实。Such was the mind of the Apostles when, at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:28), they put the seal of supreme authority on their decisions in attributing them to the joint action of the Spirit of God and of themselves: Visum est Spiritui sancto et nobis (It hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us).这些是使徒的头脑,在耶路撒冷委员会(徒15:28),他们把自己的决定,归功于他们对上帝和自己的精神联合行动的最高权力机构印章:VISUM EST Spiritui sancto等nobis(它祂所似乎好圣灵和我们)。This formula and the dogma it enshrines stand out brightly in the deposit of faith and have been carefully guarded throughout the many storms raised in councils by the play of the human element.这个公式和教条,它供奉着中脱颖而出的信仰存款明亮,并已在各地精心议会提出了人的因素发挥了许多风暴守卫。From the earliest times they who rejected the decisions of councils were themselves rejected by the Church.从最早的时候,他们谁拒绝了议会的决定是自己拒绝了教会。Emperor Constantine saw in the decrees of Nicaea "a Divine commandment" and Athanasius wrote to the bishops of Africa: "What God has spoken through the Council of Nicaea endureth for ever."皇帝君士坦丁看到的尼西亚“一个神圣的戒律”和亚他那修写信给非洲的主教法令:“什么神通过尼西亚长存永远会发言。” St. Ambrose (Ep. xxi) pronounces himself ready to die by the sword rather than give up the Nicene decrees, and Pope Leo the Great expressly declares that "whoso resists the Councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon cannot be numbered among Catholics" (Ep. lxxviii, ad Leonem Augustum).圣刘汉铨(插曲XXI)宣告自己准备死在刀下,而不是放弃尼西亚法令,和教皇利奥大明确宣布,“whoso抵抗的尼西亚和迦克墩安理会不能天主教徒之间的编号为”(插曲LXXVIII,广告Leonem Augustum)。In the same epistle he says that the decrees of Chalcedon were framed instruente Spiritu Sancto, ie under the guidance of the Holy Ghost.在同书信,他说,法令的迦克墩被诬陷下圣灵指导instruente Spiritu Sancto,即。How the same doctrine was embodied in many professions of faith may be seen in Denzinger's (ed. Stahl) "Enchiridion symbolorum et definitionum", under the heading (index) "Concilium generale representat ecclesiam universalem, eique absolute obediendum" (General councils represent the universal Church and demand absolute obedience).如何在同一学说的信仰体现很多行业可能会出现在登青格的(编辑斯塔尔)“便览symbolorum等definitionum”的标题下(索引),“Concilium兴业representat ecclesiam universalem,eique绝对obediendum”(总议会代表普世教会和要求绝对服从)。The Scripture texts on which this unshaken belief is based are, among others: "But when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will teach you all truth . . ."在本圣经的信念是不可动摇的基础文本,其中包括:“但是,当他,真理的圣灵,是来了,他会教你一切的真理。”John xvi, 13) "Behold I am with you [teaching] all days even to the consummation of the world" (Matthew 28:20), "The gates of hell shall not prevail against it [ie the Church]" (Matthew 16:18).约翰十六,13)“看哪,我与你同在[教学]所有甚至到了圆满的世界日”(马太福音28:20),“地狱之门,应不会得逞反对[即堂]”(马太福音16 :18)。


Papal and conciliar infallibility are correlated but not identical.教皇和conciliar的犯错误是相关但不相同。A council's decrees approved by the pope are infallible by reason of that approbation, because the pope is infallible also extra concilium, without the support of a council.一个议会的法令是由教皇批准由该认可的原因犯错,因为教皇是不变的真理还额外concilium,没有一个会的支持。 The infallibility proper to the pope is not, however, the only formal adequate ground of the council's infallibility.正确的犯错误的教皇是没有,不过,唯一的正式议会的犯错误充分理由。The Divine constitution of the Church and the promises of Divine assistance made by her Founder, guarantee her inerrancy, in matters pertaining to faith and morals, independently of the pope's infallibility: a fallible pope supporting, and supported by, a council, would still pronounce infallible decisions.该教会和她创办了神州援助的承诺神圣宪法,保证她的无误,在有关信仰和道德的问题,独立于教宗的犯错误:一个犯错误的教皇支持,并通过,一个议会的支持下,仍然会发音犯错的决定。 This accounts for the fact that, before the Vatican decree concerning the supreme pontiff's ex-cathedra judgments, Ecumenical councils were generally held to be infallible even by those who denied the papal infallibility; it also explains the concessions largely made to the opponents of the papal privilege that it is not necessarily implied in the infallibility of councils, and the claims that it can be proved separately and independently on its proper merits.为事实这帐户之前,梵蒂冈法令关于最高教皇的前cathedra判断,基督教议会被普遍认为是即使是那些谁否认教皇infallibility犯错,它也说明在很大程度上作出了教皇的对手让步特权,这是不一定的议会,以及它可以证明其正确的案情分开和独立索赔犯错误暗示。 The infallibility of the council is intrinsic, ie springs from its nature.理事会犯错误是内在的,从它的性质,即弹簧。Christ promised to be in the midst of two or three of His disciples gathered together in His name; now an Ecumenical council is, in fact or in law, a gathering of all Christ's co-workers for the salvation of man through true faith and holy conduct; He is therefore in their midst, fulfilling His promises and leading them into the truth for which they are striving.基督许诺要在两个或两个门徒three聚集在他的名字当中,现在是一个大公会议是在事实上或法律,对所有基督的同工的人通过真正的信仰和神圣的救赎聚会行为;因此,他在他们中间,履行他的诺言,并领先进入真理,他们正在努力为他们。 His presence, by cementing the unity of the assembly into one body -- His own mystical body -- gives it the necessary completeness, and makes up for any defect possibly arising from the physical absence of a certain number of bishops.他的存在,通过固井为一体的大会团结 - 为它提供必要的完整性,并提出任何可能从一个主教一定数量的物理缺陷的情况下产生了 - 他自己的神秘的身体。The same presence strengthens the action of the pope, so that, as mouthpiece of the council, he can say in truth, "it has seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us", and consequently can, and does, put the seal of infallibility on the conciliar decree irrespective of his own personal infallibility.同样的存在加强了教皇的行动,因此,作为安理会的喉舌,他可以说,在真理“,它似乎好圣灵和我们”,因此就可以了,确实,把印章犯错误的conciliar的法令,他自己的个人犯错误无关。 Some important consequences flow from these principles.一些重要的后果流量从这些原则。Conciliar decrees approved by the pope have a double guarantee of infallibility: their own and that of the infallible pope.conciliar的法令批准的教皇有一个一贯正确的双重保证:自己和犯错的教皇了。The council's dignity is, therefore, not diminished, but increased, by the definition of papal infallibility, nor does that definition imply a "circular demonstration" by which the council would make the pope infallible and the pope would render the same service to the council.该委员会的尊严,因此,没有减弱,反而增加了教皇犯错误的定义,也没有这一定义意味着“循环论证”,其中安理会将使教皇无误和教皇将呈现相同的服务,该局。 It should however, be borne in mind that the council without the pope has no guarantee of infallibility, therefore the conciliar and the papal infallibilities are not two separate and addible units, but one unit with single or double excellence.它应该不过,紧记,没有教皇会没有一贯正确的保证,因此conciliar的和教皇infallibilities不是两个独立的,addible单位,但有单个或双优单位。 An infallible statement of Divine truth is the voice of Christ speaking through the mouth of the visible head of His mystical body or in unison, in chorus, with all its members.一个神圣的真理无误的声明是基督说通过他的神秘体可见头口或一致,齐声及其所有成员的声音。The united voice of the whole Church has a solemnity, impressiveness, and effectiveness, an external, circumstantial weight, which is wanting in simple ex-cathedra pronouncements.整个教会团结的声音有一个严肃,感人,和有效性,一个外部的,偶然的重量,这是简单的前cathedra声明希望。 It works its way into the minds and hearts of the faithful with almost irresistible force, because in the universal harmony each individual believer hears his own voice, is carried away by the powerful rhythm, and moved as by a Divine spell to follow the leaders.它的工作原理进头脑,在几乎不可抗拒的力量忠实的心的方式,因为在世界大同每个信徒听到自己的声音,是由强大的节奏走,并提出一个神圣的咒语跟随领导人。 Again, the bishops who have personally contributed to the definitions have, in that fact, an incentive to zeal in publishing them and enforcing them in their dioceses; nay the council itself is an effective beginning of its execution or enforcement in practice.再次,谁曾亲自促成的定义主教,在这一事实,在他们出版的教区和实施激励他们的热情,不仅如此,安理会本身是其在实践中执行或执行有效的开始。 For this reason alone, the holding of most Eastern councils was a moral necessity -- the great distance between East and West, the difficulty of communication, the often keen opposition of the Orientals to Old Rome made a solemn promulgation of the definitions on the spot more than desirable.仅仅出于这个原因,大多数东欧政局的控股是道德的必要性 - 东方和西方之间的巨大距离,沟通困难,对东方人往往热衷于反对旧罗马当场作出的庄严颁布的定义较可取的。No aids to effectiveness were to be neglected in that centre of heresies.没有实效教具,将在该中心的歪理邪说忽视。

These considerations further account for the great esteem in which conciliar definitions have always been held in the Church, and for the great authority they universally enjoyed without any detriment to, or diminution of, the authority of the Apostolic See.这些因素的大力推崇,其中conciliar的定义一直在教会举行,并为伟大的权威,他们普遍享有不受任何损害,或缩减进一步账户,权威的使徒见。 From of old it has been customary to place side by side, in the rule of faith, the authority of the councils and that of the popes as substantially the same.从旧的已经习惯并排放置在信仰的规则,议会和教皇,由于大致相同的权威。Thus, we read in the formula, or profession of faith imposed by Pope Hormisdas (514-23) on the Eastern bishops implicated in the schism of Acacius: "The first [step towards] salvation is to keep the rule of orthodox [rectae] faith and in no wise to deviate from the constitutions of the Fathers [ie councils]. But the words of Our Lord to St. Peter (Thou art Peter . . . ) cannot be passed over, for what He said has been verified by the events, since in the Apostolic See the Catholic religion has always been preserved without spot or stain. Wishing by no means to be separated from this hope and faith, and following the constitutions of the Fathers, we anathematize all heresies, especially the heretic Nestorius, in his time Bishop of Constantinople, who was condemned in the Council of Ephesus by Blessed Celestine, Pope of Rome, and by Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria . . . We declare and approve all the letters of Leo, Pope, which he wrote concerning the Christian religion, as we have stated before, following in all things the Apostolic See and professing [praedicantes] all its constitutions. And therefore I hope to be worthy to be with you [the pope] in the one communion which this Apostolic See professes, in which lies the entire, veracious, and peaceful solidity of the Christian religion. . . ."因此,我们读到的公式,或信仰的职业施加教皇卡尔米斯达斯(514-23)关于在Acacius分裂牵连东部主教:“第一个得救[实现一步]是保持正统[rectae]规则在没有信仰和明智的偏离宪法的父亲[即议会],但我们的主的话来圣彼得(你是彼得。)无法传递过来对他说,已经验证了事件,因为在使徒见的天主教一直没有点保留或污点。许愿绝不是从这个希望和信心分离手段,并按照宪法的父亲,我们诅咒所有的异端邪说,尤其是邪教涅斯,在他的君士坦丁堡,谁是在安理会的以弗所谴责有福圣境,罗马教皇和西里尔主教亚历山大。时间主教,我们申报和批准的狮子座,教皇所有的字母,他写了关于基督教,正如我们前面所说,在所有事物的使徒见和信奉[praedicantes]所有的宪法。因此,我希望能值得与你同在[教宗]在一个共融本使徒见自称,其中坐落着整个基督教,为己任,与和平的稳固。“ It should be noted that in this formula the infallibility of the Apostolic See is the centre from which radiates the infallibility of the councils.应该指出,在这个公式中的使徒见犯错误是该中心从中散发的议会犯错误。


The subject matter of infallibility, or supreme judicial authority, is found in the definitions and decrees of councils, and in them alone, to the exclusion of the theological, scientific, or historical reasons upon which they are built up.对犯错误,或最高司法机关的题材,被发现在定义和议会的法令,并在他们独处,对神学,科学或历史时,他们都建立起来的原因排除。 These represent too much of the human element, of transient mentalities, of personal interests to claim the promise of infallibility made to the Church as a whole; it is the sense of the unchanging Church that is infallible, not the sense of individual churchmen of any age or excellence, and that sense finds expression only in the conclusions of the council approved by the pope.这些代表过多的瞬态心态的人的因素,个人的利益,要求在向教会作为一个整体犯错误的承诺,它是不变的教会是犯错的感觉,而不是任何个人的牧师感年龄或卓越,并认为只有在这个意义上说,由教皇批准理事会的结论表达。 Decisions referring to dogma were called in the East diatyposeis (constitutions, statutes); those concerned with discipline were termed kanones (canons, rules), often with the addition of tes eutaxias (of discipline, or good order).决定所指的教条被称为东方diatyposeis(宪法,法令),与纪律有关的那些人称为kanones(大炮,规则)往往与TES eutaxias(纪律,良好秩序或)增加。The expressions thesmoi and horoi apply to both, and the short formulae of condemnation were known as anathematismoi (anathemas).表达thesmoi和霍罗伊同时适用于和谴责短公式分别为anathematismoi(anathemas)闻名。

In the West no careful distinction of terms was observed: canones and decreta signify both dogmatic and disciplinary decisions.在西方没有的条款仔细区分,观察:canones和decreta意味着双方教条和纪律处分决定。The Council of Trent styled its disciplinary edicts decreta de reformatione; its dogmatic definitions decreta, without qualification, where they positively assert the points of faith then in dispute, and canones when, in imitation of the ancient anathematisms, they imposed an anathema sit on those that refused assent to the defined propositions.安理会的遄达风格的纪律条令decreta DE reformatione,它的教条式的定义decreta,没有资格,他们积极主张争议的信仰点然后和canones时,在古anathematisms模仿,他们强加给那些an诅咒坐该拒绝同意的定义主张。 An opinion too absurd to require refutation pretends that only these latter canons (with the attached anathemas) contain the peremptory judgment of the council demanding unquestioned submission.一项民意太荒谬了,要求驳斥假装,只有这些(与附anathemas)后者大炮包含不容置疑的要求提交议会强制性的判决。 Equally absurd is the opinion, sometimes recklessly advanced, that the Tridentine capita are no more than explanations of the canones, not proper definitions; the council itself, at the beginning and end of each chapter, declares them to contain the rule of faith.同样是荒谬的意见,有时硬拼先进的德律但丁人均没有比canones解释,不正确的定义多;安理会本身,在每章开始和结束时,宣布他们包含信仰的规则。 Thus Session XIII begins: "The Holy Synod forbids to all the faithful in future to believe, teach, or preach concerning the Holy Eucharist otherwise than is explained and defined in the present decree", and it ends: "As, however, it is not enough to speak the truth without discovering and refuting error, it has pleased the Holy Synod to subjoin the following canons, so that all, now knowing the Catholic doctrine, may also understand what heresies they have to beware against and avoid."因此,会议第十三开始:“神圣的宗教会议禁止所有信徒相信在未来,教,或宣讲有关圣体圣事并非是解释和目前的法令规定”,并结束:“但是,由于它是没有足够的说话没有发现和反驳错误的真理,它具有高兴圣主教,以添以下大炮,让所有的,现在知道了天主教教义,也明白他们必须提防异端防范和避免的。“ The same remark applies to the chapters of the Vatican Council in its two Constitutions, as appears from the concluding words of the proemium of the first Constitution and from the initial phrases of most chapters.同样的说法适用于在它的两个宪法梵蒂冈理事会的章节,作为从第一部宪法proemium的结论性的话,从最初的大部分章节的词组出现。 All that may be conceded is that the chapters of both councils contain the doctrina catholica, ie the authorized teaching of the Church, but not always and invariably dogmata formalia, ie propositions of faith defined as such.所有可能承认的是,两局的章节包含doctrina catholica,即教会认可的教学,但并不总是和总是dogmata formalia,信仰即界定为命题。


Promulgation of conciliar decrees is necessary because they are laws and no law is binding until it has been brought unmistakably to the knowledge of all it intends to bind.conciliar的法令的颁布是必要的,因为他们是法律,没有法律约束力,直到它已提请明白无误地向它的所有知识打算绑定。 The decrees are usually promulgated in the name of the synod itself; in cases of the pope presiding in person they have also been published in the form of papal decrees with the formula: sacrâ universali synodo approbante.该法令颁布通常在主教会议本身的名称,在教皇亲自主持的案件他们也已经在罗马教皇的法令形式公布的公式:萨克拉universali synodo approbante。This was done first at the Third Lateran Council, then at the Fourth and Fifth Lateran, and also partly at the Council of Constance.这样做是第一次在第三次拉特兰会议,然后在第四和第五拉特兰,也部分地在安理会的康斯坦茨。


The Councils of Constance and of Basle affirmed with great emphasis that an Ecumenical council is superior in authority to the pope, and French theologians have adopted that proposition as one of the famous four Gallican Liberties.康斯和巴塞尔的议会肯定与高度重视,一个大公会议是在权力的教皇优越,法国神学家采用为著名的四大自由高卢一个命题。 Other theologians affirmed, and still affirm, that the pope is above any general council.其他神学家的肯定,而且还肯定,认为教皇上述任何总理事会。The leading exponents of the Gallican doctrine are: Dupin (1657-1719), professor at the Sorbonne in Paris ("Dissertatio de concilii generalis supra Romanum Pontificem auctoritate", in his book on the ancient discipline of the Church, "De antiquâ Ecclesiae disciplinâ dissertationes historicae"); and Natalis Alexander, 0.P.在高卢主义的代表人物有:独品(1657年至1719年),教授,在巴黎索邦大学(“Dissertatio DE concilii generalis超Romanum Pontificem auctoritate”,在他的教会的古老学科的书,“德antiquâ,该书disciplinâ dissertationes historicae“)和陈百祥亚历山大,0.P.(1639-1724), in the ninth volume of his great "Historia Ecclesiastica" (Diss. iv ad saeculum XV). (1639年至1724年),在他的伟大的“Historia Ecclesiastica”(Diss. IV广告saeculum XV)第九届量。 On the other side Lucius Ferraris (Bibliotheca Canonica, sv Concilium) and Roncaglia, editor and corrector of Natalis Alexander's history, stoutly defend the papal superiority.在另一边卢修斯法拉利(书目卡诺尼卡,SV Concilium)和Roncaglia,编辑和陈百祥亚历山大的历史校正,坚决保卫教皇的优越性。Hefele, after carefully weighing the main arguments of the Gallicans (viz. that Pope Martin V approved the declaration of the Council of Constance, and Pope Eugene IV the identical declaration of the Council of Basle, affirming the superiority of an Ecumenical synod over the pope), concluded that both popes, in the interests of peace, approved of the councils in general terms which might imply an approbation of the point in question, but that neither Martin nor Eugene ever intended to acknowledge the superiority of a council over the pope.黑弗勒,经过仔细权衡的Gallicans的主要论点(即教皇马丁五世批准了安理会的康斯坦茨声明,教皇尤金四是对巴塞尔委员会一致声明,申明了一个基督教主教对教宗的优越性),得出结论,无论是在和平的利益教皇,一般意义上可能意味着是有问题的点认可的议会批准,但是,无论是马丁尤金永远也不打算承认比教皇议会的优越性。 (See Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, I, 50-54)(见黑弗勒,Conciliengeschichte,I,50-54)

The principles hitherto set forth supply a complete solution to the controversy.迄今提出的原则的争论提供一个完整的解决方案。General councils represent the Church; the pope therefore stands to them in the same relation as he stands to the Church.总议会代表教会;教皇因此站在同一关系到他们,因为他代表教会。But that relation is one of neither superiority nor inferiority, but of intrinsic cohesion: the pope is neither above nor below the Church, but in it as the centre is in the circle, as intellect and will are in the soul.但这种关系既不是优势还是劣势之一,但内在的凝聚力:教皇既不高于也不低于教会,但它为中心的圆,作为智力和将在灵魂的。 By taking our stand on the Scriptural doctrine that the Church is the mystical body of Christ of which the pope is the visible head, we see at once that a council apart from the pope is but a lifeless trunk, a "rump parliament", no matter how well attended it be.通过采取对圣经的教义,教会是基督的奥体,其中教皇是可见的头我们的立场,我们同时看到,一个议会除了教皇只是一个没有生命的树干,一个“臀部议会”,无再好也参加这样。


This question is a legitimate one, for in the history of the Church circumstances have arisen in which several pretenders contended for papal authority and councils were called upon to remove certain claimants.这个问题是正当的,在教会的情况也出现了历史上的几个觊觎的罗马教皇的权威和被要求删除某些索赔议会争论。The Councils of Constance and Basle, and Gallican theologians, hold that a council may depose a pope on two main grounds:康斯和巴塞尔,神学家和高卢的议会,议会认为,一个可能推翻两个主要理由,教宗:

ob mores (for his conduct or behaviour, eg his resistance to the synod) OB习俗(为他的行为或行为,例如他的抵抗主教)

ob fidem (on account of his faith or rather want of faith, ie heresy).OB fidem(对他的信仰或者说要考虑的信仰,即异端)。

In point of fact, however, heresy is the only legitimate ground.在事实点,但是,异端是唯一合法的理由。 For a heretical pope has ceased to be a member of the Church, and cannot, therefore, be its head.对于邪教教皇已不再是教会的成员,并不能因此被发挥得淋漓尽致。A sinful pope, on the other hand, remains a member of the (visible) Church and is to be treated as a sinful, unjust ruler for whom we must pray, but from whom we may not withdraw our obedience.一个有罪的教皇,另一方面,仍然是(可见)教会的成员,是作为一个有罪的,不公正的统治者对他们来说,我们必须祈祷治疗,但我们可以从他们不会撤回我们的服从。

But the question assumes another aspect when a number of claimants pretend to be the rightful occupants of the Apostolic See, and the right of each is doubtful.但问题的另一个方面承担当索赔人假装是使徒见的合法居民,以及每一项权利是值得怀疑的。In such a case the council, according to Bellarmine (Disputationes, II xix, de Conciliis) has a right to examine the several claims and to depose the pretenders whose claims are unfounded.在这种情况下,安理会根据贝拉明(Disputationes,二十九,去Conciliis)有权检查的几个请求,并推翻了觊觎的索赔是毫无根据的。 This was done at the Synod of Constance.这样做是在康斯坦茨宗教会议。But during this process of examination the synod is not yet Ecumenical; it only becomes so the moment the rightful pope assents to its proceedings.但在这个过程中,主教会议审查尚未合一,它只是变得如此的时刻应有的教皇允许书其诉讼。It is evident that this is no instance of a legitimate pope being deposed by a legitimate council, but simply the removal of pretender by those on whom he wishes to impose will.很明显,这是不合法的议会被废黜的合法教皇的实例,但仅仅是伪装的人,他就希望将这些强加拆除。

Not even John XXIII could have been deposed at Constance, had his election not been doubtful and himself suspected of heresy.甚至连约翰二十三世废黜本来在康斯,有他的当选和他本人没有被怀疑的异端之嫌。John XXIII, moreover, abdicated and by his abdication made his removal from the Apostolic See lawful.约翰二十三世,而且,他的退位和退位制成的使徒见他的合法拆除。In all controversies and complaints regarding Rome the rule laid down by the Eighth General Synod should never be lost sight of: "If a universal synod be assembled and any ambiguity or controversy arise concerning the Holy Church of the Romans, the question should be examined and solved with due reverence and veneration, in a spirit of mutual helpfulness; no sentence should be audaciously pronounced against the supreme pontiff of the elder Rome" (can. xxi. Hefele, IV, 421-22).在所有的争议,关于罗马的投诉所规定的第八届总议会下的规则不应该失去视力的:“如果一个普遍的主教进行组装和出现任何歧义或争议有关的罗马圣教会,这个问题应该加以研究和解决了因崇敬和敬仰,在相互乐于助人的精神,没有一句应大胆地反对老罗马“(。can. XXI黑弗勒,四,421-22)最高教皇明显。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息书面由J.威廉。Transcribed by Gerard Haffner.转录由杰拉德哈夫纳。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


SCHEEBEN wrote copiously and learnedly in defence of the Vatican Council; his article in the Kirchenlexicon, written in 1883, contains the marrow of his previous writings, while HEFELE'S History of the Councils is the standard work on the subject. SCHEEBEN写了丰富地和learnedly在梵蒂冈会防御,他的文章在Kirchenlexicon,在1883年写的,包含了他以前的著作骨髓,而黑弗勒的安理会历史是关于这一主题的标准工作。 For a deeper study of the councils a good collection of the Acta Conciliorum is indispensable.对于一个在议会的一个更深层次的研究文献Conciliorum好收集是必不可少的。The first ever printed was the very imperfect one of MERLIN (Paris, 1523).有史以来第一次印刷是非常不完善的MERLIN一(巴黎,1523)。A second and richer collection, by the Belgian Franciscan PETER CRABBE, appeared in 1538 at Cologne, in 3 vols.第二个和更丰富的收集由比利时方济匡克拉布,出现在1538年在科隆,3卷。Completer editions were published as time went on: SURIUS (Cologne, 1567, 5. vols.); BOLANUS (Venice, 1585, 5 vols.); BINIUS (Cologne, 1606), with historical and explanatory notes from Baronius -- republished 1618, and in Paris, 1636, in 9 vols.; the Roman collection of general councils with Greek text, arranged by the Jesuit SIRMOND (1608 -- 1612), in 4 vols.完成者版本出版随着时间的推移:SURIUS(。科隆,1567年,5卷); BOLANUS(威尼斯,1585年,5卷); BINIUS(科隆,1606)与Baronius历史和注解 - 再版1618 ,并在巴黎,1636年,9卷,一般议会与希腊文的耶稣会SIRMOND(1608年至1612年)安排,罗马收集4卷,。-- each council is preceded by a short history.- 每个议会前面有一个短的历史。On Bellarmine's advice Sirmond omitted the Acts of the Synod of Basle.在贝拉明的意见Sirmond省略的巴塞尔主教的行为。This Roman collection is the foundation of all that followed.这罗马集合是所有随后的基础。First among these is the Paris Collectio Regia, in 37 vols.首先是巴黎Collectio核桃,37卷其中。(1644).(1644年)。Then comes the still completer collection of the Jesuits LABBE and COSSART (Paris, 1674), in 17 folio vols., to which BALUZE added a supplementary volume (Paris, 1683 and 1707).接着而来的仍然完成者的耶稣会拉韦和COSSART(巴黎,1674)的收集,在17个对开卷,哪个BALUZE增加了一个补充卷(巴黎,1683年和1707年)。 Most French authors quote from LABBE-BALUZE.大多数法国作家引述拉韦- BALUZE。Yet another and better edition is due to the Jesuit HARDOUIN; it is of all the most perfect and serviceable.还有一种更好的版本,是因为耶稣会HARDOUIN,它的所有最完美和维修的。MANSI -- later Archbishop of Lucca, his native town -- with the help of many Italian scholars, brought out a new collection of 31 volumes, which, had it been finished, would have surpassed all its predecessors in merit.曼西 - 以后大主教卢卡,他的家乡 - 与许多意大利学者的帮助下,带出了31卷新的集合,其中,已完成了它,将超越所有前辈的优点。Unfortunately it only comes down to the fifteenth century, and, being unfinished, has no indexes.不幸的是它只是归结到十五世纪,惟未完成的,没有索引。To fill this gap, WELTER, a Paris publisher, took up (1900) the new collection proposed (1870) by V .为了填补这一空白,飞扬,巴黎出版,拿起(1900)新集由V建议(1870年)。Palme.帕尔梅。To a facsimile reprint of the 31 volumes of MANSI (Florence, Venice, 1757-1797) he added 19 supplementary volumes, furnishing the necessary indexes, etc. The Acta et Decreta sacrorum conciliorum recentiorum Collectio Lacensis (Freiburg im Br.,1870-90), published by the Jesuits of Maria-Laach, extends from 1682 to 1869.对于一个对曼西(佛罗伦萨,威尼斯,1757年至1797年)31卷传真重印他补充说19卷,家具必要的指标等文献等Decreta sacrorum conciliorum recentiorum Collectio Lacensis(弗莱堡溴。,1870 - 90 ),由玛丽亚 - Laach耶稣会出版,延伸1682年至1869年。An English translation of HEFELE'S standard History of the Christian Councils, by WR CLARK, was commenced in 1871 (Edinburgh and London); a French translation by the Benedictines of Farnborough is also in course of publication (Paris, 1907).一个黑弗勒的基督教议会的英文翻译标准的历史,由WR CLARK,是开始于1871年(爱丁堡和伦敦),一个由法国范堡罗本笃翻译出版过程中也(巴黎,1907年)。Among the latest authors treating of councils are WERNZ, Jus Decretalium (Rome, 1899), I, II; OJETTI, Synopsis rerum moralium et juris canonici, sv Concilium.在最近的议会治疗作者WERNZ,强制Decretalium(罗马,1899年),I,II; OJETTI,概要rerum moralium等法学canonici,SV Concilium。

(Catholic) Church Councils(天主教)教会议会

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

Synods of the Roman Catholic Church, possessing legislative power in matters pertaining to doctrine and discipline.罗马天主教主教会议,拥有在有关理论和纪律事宜的立法权。The Apostles' synod at Jerusalem (Acts xv.) is regarded as the oldest example of such an assembly.使徒在耶路撒冷(徒十五)主教被认为是最古老的这些集会的例子。Besides the general (ecumenical) councils, of which the Catholic Church recognizes twenty, there are nationaland provincial councils and diocesan synods.除了一般(大公)议会,其中天主教教会承认二十,有nationaland省议会和教区主教。The decisions of these lesser synods were naturally authoritative only within their own particular districts; but as they were sometimes recognized by other provincial synods, or even by a general council, they acquired a more or less general validity.这些较小的主教会议的决定,自然只能在他们自己的个别地区的权威,但因为他们有时被其他省主教会议的认可,甚至由一个总理事会,他们获得了或多或少的普遍有效性。 Many of the Church councils have concerned themselves with the Jews, with the object of removing Judaizing institutions and teachings from among Christians, destroying any influence which Jews might exercise upon Christians, preventing, on the one hand, the return to Judaism of baptized Jews, and devising, on the other, means to convert Jews to Christianity.议会,教会许多关心自己的犹太人与基督徒之间的去除机构和教导犹太化,摧毁任何可能影响其行使犹太人在基督徒,防止一方面,对象,对犹太人犹太教的洗礼的回报,并制订另一方面,意思是转换犹太人基督教。 It is characteristic of the decisions of these councils in respect to the Jews that up to the end of the Middle Ages they became ever harsher and more hostile, a few isolated instances only of benevolent resolutions standing on record.它是在尊重犹太人的这些特点,议会的决定,到了中世纪末期,他们越来越苛刻,更成为敌对,仅是站在善意的决议记录几个孤立的实例。 Many of the Church decrees, however, were enforced only after they had been several times confirmed; while some of them were never enforced at all.教会的法令很多,但是,被执行后,才证实了几次,而其中一些人从来没有强制执行的。

Spanish Synods.西班牙主教会议。

The Jews are mentioned for the first time in the resolutions of the synod at Elvira, at the beginning of the fourth century, immediately after the persecutions under Diocletian.犹太人都提到了在主教在埃尔维拉的决议首次在第四世纪初,戴克里先下后,立即在迫害。The synod opposed the custom existing among Christians of having the fruits of their fields blessed by Jews, and forbade all familiar intercourse, especially eating, with Jews (canons 49, 50).自定义的主教反对之间具有得天独厚的犹太人基督徒现有领域的果实,并禁止所有熟悉的交往,尤其是饮食与犹太人(大炮49,50)。 The spirit of intolerance, arising almost before the persecution of the Christians themselves had ended, remained characteristic of the Spanish Church.不容忍的精神,几乎是之前的自己结束了基督徒的迫害而产生,仍然是西班牙教会的特点。When the Arian creed was exchanged for the Catholic by the third Toledo Synod held under Reccared in 582, resolutions hostile to the Jews were passed.当阿里安信条是为天主教交换的第三托莱多举行下Reccared 582主教会议,决议敌视犹太人被通过。The synod forbade intermarriage with Jews, and claimed the children of mixed marriages for Christianity.与犹太人的宗教会议禁止通婚,并声称对基督教的异族通婚的子女。It disqualified Jews from holding any public office in which they would have power to punish Christians, and forbade them to keep slaves for their own use (canon 14).它丧失担任任何公职中,他们将有权惩罚基督徒犹太人,并禁止他们继续为自己所用(佳能14)的奴隶。Still more severe are the decrees of the fourth Synod of Toledo, in 633 (canons 57-66), directed more especially against the pretended Christianity of those converted by force under Sisebut.但更严重的是第四的托莱多主教法令,在633(大炮57-66),针对以武力转换下Sisebut多,特别是那些假装基督教。 Though it was decreed that in the future no Jew should be baptized by force, those who were once baptized were obliged to remain Christians.虽然是下令,今后不应该通过武力犹太人洗礼,那些谁是一次洗礼不得不留基督徒。 Whoever protected the Jews was threatened with excommunication.谁保护了犹太人被逐出教会的威胁。The sixth Synod of Toledo, in 638, confirmed King Chintila's decree providing for the expulsion of the Jews, and demanded that every future king on his accession should take an oath to observe faithfully the laws concerning the Jews.第六届世界主教会议的托莱多,在638,证实王Chintila的法令,被驱逐的犹太人提供,并要求每一个未来的国王在他的加入应宣誓忠实地遵守法律有关犹太人。 The twelfth Synod of Toledo, in 681, went furthest, and adopted in its resolutions (canon 90) King Erwig's laws in reference to Jews ("Leges Visigothorum," xii. 3): celebration of the Sabbath and of feast-days, observance of dietary laws, work on Sunday, defense of their religion, and even emigration were forbidden.在托莱多第十二届世界主教会议,在681,去最远,并在其决议(佳能90)中提到犹太人的王Erwig的法律(“Leges Visigothorum,”十二3)通过:庆祝安息日和节日天,戒律饮食规律,周日工作,国防他们的宗教,移民,甚至被禁止。One generation later Spain was under Moorish dominion.一代后来西班牙摩尔人的统治之下。

Other Synods其他主教会议

More comprehensive were the measures adopted by the councils outside of Spain.更全面的是由西班牙议会外采取的措施。Before 450 they confined themselves to the prohibition of familiar intercourse with Jews; of the celebration of their feast-days, especially the Passover; of resting from labor on their Sabbath; of entrance into their synagogues, etc. The General Council of Chalcedon (451) went a step further, though only as a result of previous resolutions, in forbidding intermarriage-at first only in the case of the children of lectors or precentors (canon 14).他们在450只局限于自己熟悉的与犹太人禁止性交,对他们的节日天庆祝活动,特别是逾越节,安息日,从他们的劳动休息;入口到他们的犹太教堂等的总理事会迦克墩(451 )更进了一步,但只是作为以往的决议结果,只有在禁止的讲师或precentors(佳能14)儿童案件通婚,在第一。The synods of Orléans (in 533 and 538) and the above-mentioned Spanish synods forbade marriages between Jews and Christians altogether, and this legislation was repeated.奥尔良(在533和538)和上面提到的西班牙主教会议的主教禁止犹太人和基督徒之间的婚姻完全,这是重复立法。 by the Synod of Rome in 743.由罗马主教在743。As the Jews themselves were opposed to such marriage, there was no difficulty in the enforcement of these decrees.由于本身是反对这种婚姻的犹太人,并没有在这些法令的执行难。Only in countries where Christianity had not yet gained entire mastery was there a repetition of these marriage prohibitions, as in Hungary (1092) and in Spain (1239).只在基督教尚未获得国家整个的掌握是有禁止结婚的这些重复,如匈牙利(1092)和西班牙(1239)。The Quinisext Synod of Constantinople, in 692, and a number of later synods forbade Christians to receive treatment from Jewish physicians.在君士坦丁堡Quinisext区会在692和后来的主教会议数量禁止基督徒接受犹太医生的治疗。In spite of this interdiction (repeated several times, at Avignon as late as 1594), even popes often employed Jews as court physicians.在此停职(如1594年底反复多次在阿维尼翁)尽管如此,即使教皇经常聘请为法院的医生犹太人。

Third Lateran Council, 1179.第三拉特兰会议,1179。

After the Synod of Orléans, in 538, the councils turned their attention to the Christian slaves in the service of Jews, at first merely prescribing the protection of the slaves' persons and religious belief, but later prohibiting absolutely the possession of Christian slaves.奥尔良主教会议后,在538,议会将注意力转向基督教奴隶的犹太人服务,起初只是订明的奴隶“人员和宗教信仰的保护,但后来绝对禁止的基督教奴隶占有。 Together with this decree, which only repeated a law in the Theodosian Code, came laws forbidding Jews to have free Christians in their employ.再加上这项法令,只反复在Theodosian代码的法律,法规来禁止犹太人在他们雇用自由基督徒。By a general decree of the third Lateran Council of 1179 (canon 26), Christians were strictly forbidden to act as servants to Jews, with so little effect, however, that nearly all later Church councils had to renew the interdict; for instance, the Synod of Milan in 1565 (canon 14).由该委员会1179年第三次拉特兰(佳能26)一般法令,基督徒被严禁作为犹太人的仆人,用这么少的影响,但是,几乎所有的后堂议会​​不得不延长禁令,例如,米兰主教会议于1565年(佳能14)。 Jews of all lands were in great fear of the third Lateran Council ("Shebeṭ Yehudah," ed. Wiener, p. 112).所有土地的犹太人在第三次拉特兰会议的有很大的恐惧(“ShebeṭYehudah,”埃德。维纳,第112页)。Their fears, however, proved groundless; for, aside from the decree in respect to the employment of Christian servants, especially of nurses and midwives-a decree due to the fear of the common people's apostasy to Judaism-the following are the important decisions of the council: (1) Christians must not live together with Jews (a repetition of an old decree).他们的恐惧,然而,事实证明毫无根据的,因为,除了在对于基督教公务员就业法令,尤其是护士和助产士,一项法令,由于对老百姓的叛教害怕犹太教,以下是重要的决定理事会:(1)基督徒与犹太人不能住在一起(一个旧法令重复)。 (2) new synagogues must not be built; old ones may be repaired only when dilapidated, but on no account may they be beautified; (3) the testimony of Christians against Jews must be admitted, since Jews are accepted as witnesses against Christians; (4) neophytes must be protected against the fanaticism of the Jews, and Jews are forbidden to disinherit baptized persons (compare "Codex Theodosian.," xvi. 8, 28). (2)新犹太教堂决不能建,旧的可能被修复只有破旧,但决不可能他们加以美化;(3)对犹太人基督徒的证词必须承认,因为犹太人是作为证人接受对基督徒; (4)新手必须加以保护,防止犹太人的狂热,和犹太人被禁止剥夺继承权受洗的人(比较“法典Theodosian。”十六,8,28)。A characteristic clause states that Jews may be protected only for reasons of common humanity.第一个特点,犹太人可能只为保护人类共同的原因状态。

Fourth Lateran Council, 1215.第四次拉特兰会议,1215。

The fourth Lateran Council, in 1215, was of crucial importance.第四次拉特兰会议,1215年,是至关重要的。Its resolutions inaugurated a new era of ecclesiastical legislation in regard to the Jews, and reduced them virtually to the grade of pariahs.它的决议成立的关于犹太人的宗教立法的新时代,并减少他们无形中给了贱民等级。 In the south of France an assembly of Jewish notables, which was held at the demand of Isaac Benveniste, sent a delegation to Rome to try to avert the impending evil.在法国南部的一个犹太知名人士,这是在以撒的维尼斯特需求举行,大会派出一个代表团前往罗马,试图避免即将发生的罪恶。 The last four resolutions or canons which the council adopted were concerned with the Jews.Canon 67 adopts measures against usury by the Jews.最后四门炮的决议或理事会通过关注与Jews.Canon 67采用反高利贷措施的犹太人。A synod at Avignon had anticipated the Lateran Council in this respect, and it was imitated by other councils of the thirteenth century.在阿维尼翁主教曾预期在这方面的拉特兰会议,它是由十三世纪其他议会模仿。At the same time very strict regulations were made against Lombard usurers, who, according to Matthew of Paris, were much worse than the Jews.同时提出了非常严格的规定对隆巴德高利贷者,谁,根据巴黎马修,分别比犹太人差。For houses and landed property Jews were obliged to give a tithe to the Church, and besides each Jewish family had to pay at Easter a tax of six denarii.对于房屋和地产犹太人被迫给予十分之一给教会,除了每个犹太家庭不得不在复活节付出了六denarii税。Canon 68 ordains a special dress for Jews and Saracens, ostensibly "to prevent sexual intercourse, which has occasionally occurred by mistake," but in reality to make a sharp distinction between Jews and Christians.佳能68 ordains一个犹太人和撒拉逊人的特殊装扮,表面上是“防止性交,而偶尔发生的错误”,但在现实中做一个犹太人和基督徒之间的严格区分。The Jewish badge and hat exposed the Jews to scorn and ridicule, and their complete abasement dates from this time.犹太人的徽章,帽子暴露了犹太人蔑视和嘲笑,他们完全屈辱从这个时候的日期。Later councils, even up to comparatively modern times, have renewed these regulations, fixing the form and color of the Jewish badge in various countries, or forbidding the Jews to wear certain costumes (see Badge; Head, Covering of).后来议会,甚至达到比较近代,有更新这些规定,固定的形式和在各国的犹太徽章的颜色,或禁止某些犹太人穿的服装(见徽章;头,覆盖)。 Because many Jews were said to parade in their best clothes during Holy Week (in which the Feast of the Passover usually falls) on purpose to mock the Christians, the Jews were not thenceforth allowed to leave their houses at all during those days.由于许多犹太人说,在他们的最好的衣服在圣周游行的目的,以模拟的基督徒(在其中的逾越节通常跌倒),此后,犹太人不获准离开那些日子都在他们的房子。 This Draconian decree, however, supported by similar decrees of French and Spanish synods of the sixth century, was not without its advantages for the Jews, as many subsequent synods (for instance, at Narbonne, 1227; Béziers, 1246) were obliged expressly to protect the Jews against ill treatment during Holy Week.这种严厉的法令,但是,通过类似的六世纪的法国和西班牙主教会议的法令的支持,是不是没有为犹太人的优势,尽可能多的(例如,在纳博讷,1227; Béziers的,1246),随后主教被迫明文圣周期间防止虐待犹太人。Other synods of the thirteenth century forbade Jews to eat meat on Christian fast-days (Avignon, 1209), or to carry it across the street (Vienna, 1267).十三世纪的其他主教禁止犹太人在基督教快吃天肉(阿维尼翁,1209),或进行过街它(维也纳,1267)。The synods of Narbonne (1227), Béziers (1246), Albi (1255), and Anse (1300) forbade altogether the sale of meat by Jews.纳博讷(1227),Béziers的(1246),阿尔比(1255)和安塞(1300)的主教完全禁止犹太人的肉类出售。 Canon 69, which declares Jews disqualified from holding public offices, only incorporated in ecclesiastical law a decree of the Holy Christian Empire.佳能69,其中宣布从公职,只有在法律注册成立的教会的神圣基督教帝国法令被取消资格的犹太人。As has been mentioned, the synods of Toledo, and the French councils also, had debarred Jews from the office of judge, and from any office in which they would possess the right to punish Christians.正如已经提到的,托莱多主教会议,与法国议会也已经被禁从法官的职位犹太人,从任何职位中,他们将拥有的权利,惩罚基督徒。 The fourth Lateran Council simply extended this statute over the whole Roman Catholic world, referring to the synods of Toledo in support of its decision.第四次拉特兰会议只是延长了整个罗马天主教的世界,这些法规,指在其决策支持托莱多主教会议。Canon 70 takes measures to prevent converted Jews from returning to their former belief.佳能70采取措施,以防止返回到原来的信仰转化犹太人。

Vienna Synod of 1267.维也纳主教的1267。

The concluding act of the fourth Lateran Council-the Crusades decree-compelled Jewish creditors to renounce all claim to interest on debts, and facilitated in other ways the movements of the Crusaders.第四次拉特兰会议结束行为,十字军东征法令,犹太人被迫放弃所有要求债权人对债务利息,并在十字军的动向等方面提供便利。 Similar ordinances were adopted by the first Council of Lyons (1245).类似的法例通过了里昂(1245)第一届理事会。The decisions of the Synod of Vienna, in 1267, were practically the same as those of the fourth Lateran Council, but were more severe in some points.在维也纳议会的决定,在1267年,几乎被作为第四届拉特兰会议相同,但更严重的一些要点。For example, Jews were forbidden to frequent Christian inns or baths; they were ordered to stay at home with closed doors and windows when the host was carried past, etc. Nevertheless, these decrees did not succeed in making entirely unbearable the position of the Jews in Austria (see Bärwald, in "Jahrbuch für lsraeliten,"1859).例如,犹太人被禁止频繁基督教旅馆或洗澡,他们被勒令留在关闭门窗时,主机进行过去,等等,但这些法令在国内并没有成功地使完全无法忍受的是犹太人的位置在奥地利(见“Jahrbuch献给lsraeliten,”1859年Bärwald)。 The same may be said of the decrees of the Hungarian Council at Ofen, in 1279 (Grätz, "Geschichte," vii. 139 et seq.).同样可以说,法令在奥芬匈牙利议会于1279年,(格拉茨,“历史馆,”七。139及以下)。

The later councils went a step further in restricting and humiliating the Jews by limiting their freedom in the choice of dwelling-places.后来的议会又在限制和侮辱犹太人进一步限制其在住宅,地点选择的自由。The Synod of Bourges, 1276, ordained that Jews should live only in cities or large towns, in order that the simple country folk might not be led astray.该布尔,1276年,主教祝圣,犹太人应该只生活在城市或大城镇,为了使简单的乡下人可能不引入歧途。Similarly the Synod of Ravenna, 1311, ordained that Jews should be allowed to live only in cities that had synagogues.同样,拉文纳,1311,主教祝圣,犹太人应被允许只生活在城市有犹太教堂。The Synod of Bologna, 1317, forbade renting or selling houses to Jews, and the Synod of Salamanca, 1335, forbade Jews to live near a churchyard or in houses belonging to the Church.在博洛尼亚,1317年,议会禁止出租或出售房子,犹太人,和萨拉曼卡,1335年,议会禁止犹太人居住在附近的教堂或房子属于教会。 Finally, the Spanish Council of Palencia, 1388, under the presidency of Pedro de Luna, demanded separate quarters for Jews and Saracens, a demand afterward renewed by many Church councils.最后,西班牙帕伦西亚会,1388下,佩德罗 - 德 - 月神总统,要求独立的宿舍犹太人和撒拉逊人,后来被许多教会议会续期的需求。

Council of Basel.巴塞尔委员会。

The compulsory conversion of Jews was often forbidden by the councils (for instance, Toledo, 633; Prague, 1349).对犹太人禁止强制转换往往由议会(例如,托莱多,633,布拉格,1349)。Toward the end of the Middle Ages the General Council of Basel, in its nineteenth sitting (1434), adopted a new method of moral suasion by compelling the Jews to listen periodically to sermons for their conversion, a decision renewed, for instance, by the Synod of Milan in 1565.朝中世纪末的巴塞尔总理事会在其第十九届会议(1434),通过了一项由迫使犹太人的道德劝说的新方法,听取他们的定期转换,决定更新,例如以布道,由米兰主教会议于1565年。 A last attack on the scanty freedom of the Jews was brought about directly by the art of printing.关于犹太人的最后一次进攻是微薄的自由带来直接的印刷艺术。The committee on index of the General Council of Trent (1563) decided to refer to the pope the question of placing the Talmud on the list of forbidden books; and although the Italian Jews succeeded with bribes in preventing the absolute prohibition of the work, it was permitted to be printed only on condition that the title "Talmud" and all passages supposed to be hostile to Christianity be omitted (Mortara, in "Hebr. Bibl." 1862, pp. 74, 96; see Censorship of Hebrew Books).关于总理事会的遄达(1563)指数委员会决定将在教皇的放置在禁书名单犹太法典的问题;虽然意大利犹太人的成功与行贿预防工作绝对禁止,它只被允许的条件是,题目是“犹太法典”,所有通道应该是敌视基督教省略打印(Mortara,在“黑布尔Bibl。”1862年,第74,96,见希伯来书检查)。

Vatican Council, 1869-70.梵蒂冈理事会,1869年至1870年。

The General Vatican Council of 1869-70 did not concern itself at all about the Jews beyond inviting them, on the suggestion of the convert Léman, to attend the council (Friedberg, "Sammlung der Aktenstücke zum Ersten Vatikanischen Concil." pp. 65 et seq.).一般梵蒂冈理事会1869年至1870年在不涉及自身以外的所有关于犹太人邀请他们,对转换的Léman建议,出席理事会(弗里德伯格,“Sammlung DER Aktenstücke ZUM Ersten Vatikanischen Concil。”第65等以下各段)。Regarding a supposed synod in Rome in 314-324, directed against the Jews (Jaffe, "Regesta Pontif. Roman."), nothing is known.就在罗马主教应该在314-324,对犹太人导演(谢斐,“Regesta Pontif。罗马”),没有什么是已知的。 Untrustworthy also is the report that a synod, summoned at Toulouse in 883 by the Frankish king Carloman, on the complaint brought by Jews of their ill treatment, ordained the corporal chastisement of a Jew before the church door on Christmas Day, Good Friday, and Ascension Day, and that the degradation was increased by compelling the Jew to acknowledge his punishment as just (Mansi, "Concilia," xvii. 565).不可信也是一个宗教会议,召集在图卢兹在883的法兰克国王卡洛曼由他们虐待犹太人带来的投诉,祝圣前的圣诞节,耶稣受难日教堂门口的一个犹太人下士责罚报告,并耶稣升天节,而退化是由强迫犹太人增至承认他的惩罚只是(曼西,“Concilia,”十七,565)。

Richard Gottheil, Hermann Vogelstein理查德Gottheil,赫尔曼沃格尔斯坦
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Hardouin, Conciliorum Collectio, Paris, 1715; Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio, Florence, 1759-98: Hefele.Hardouin,Conciliorum Collectio,巴黎,1715;曼西,Sacrorum Conciliorum新星等Amplissima Collectio,佛罗伦萨,1759年至1798年:黑弗勒。Conciliengeschichte, Freiburg, 1890-93; Binterim, Pragmatische Geschichte der Deutschen National,-Provinzial-und Vorzüglichsten Diözesanconcilien; Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, Index, svConciliengeschichte,弗赖堡,1890年至1893年; Binterim,Pragmatische历史馆DER Deutschen国家,- Provinzial - UND Vorzüglichsten Diözesanconcilien;亚伯拉罕,在中世纪犹太生活,索引,SV

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