Epistle to the Ephesians书信的以弗所

General Information一般资料

The Epistle to the Ephesians is a book of the New Testament in the Bible.在书信的以弗所是一个在新约圣经的书。The text states that it was written by Saint Paul while in prison (3:1, 4:1; 6:20), but most scholars attribute it to a later follower of Paul.,但多数学者把它归功于保罗后来的追随者;的文本,它的作者是圣保罗而在监狱(6时20 3:1,4:1)的状态。It uses much Pauline terminology in an unusual rhetorical style and has, along with Colossians, ideas that seem later than Paul.它采用一个不寻常的浮夸风大宝莲术语,并连同歌罗西书,以后的想法,似乎比保罗。The reference to the Ephesians (1:1) is missing in some manuscripts, and the epistle may have been a circular letter to several churches.到以弗所书(1:1)的引用中缺少一些手稿和书信可能已通函几个教堂。

Ephesians proclaims the unity of all people and the universe in Jesus Christ, and describes the church as a body and a building with the apostles and prophets as a foundation (2:20).弗宣布所有人民和在耶稣基督宇宙的统一,并介绍了作为一个机构,并与使徒和为基础(2:20)先知建筑物的教堂。It also proposes the relationship of Christ to the church as a model for marriage relationships.它还提出了基督的关系,教会作为婚姻关系的典范。Later, the proponents of Gnosticism used the symbolic and spiritual aspect of the church's relationship to Christ for their own teachings, and the Fathers of the Church emphasized the apostolic foundations of the church.后来,诺斯替主义的支持者使用了教会的象征和精神方面的关系,以基督为自己的教导,教会的神父们强调了教会的使徒基础。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
Anthony J Saldarini安东尼J Saldarini

Bibliography 参考书目
CE Arnold, Ephesians (1989); M Barth, ed., Ephesians (1974).行政长官阿诺德,以弗所书(1989年),M巴特,ED,以弗所书(1974)。


Epistle to the Ephesians书信的以弗所

Brief Outline简述

  1. Doctrine (redemptive blessings, Jew and Gentile one Body in Christ, Paul the messenger of this mystery) (1-3)主义(救赎的祝福,犹太人和外邦人在基督一个身体,保罗这个神秘使者)(1-3)
  2. Practical exhortations (Christians to walk as God's Saints; their duties as God's Family; the Christian warfare) (4-6)实用嘱托(基督徒走路作为上帝的圣徒;作为上帝的家庭职责;基督教战)(4-6)


Epistle to the Ephesians书信的以弗所

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Epistle to the Ephesians was written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles.在书信的以弗所写在罗马大约在同一时间,为歌罗西书,在许多相似点,它由保罗。Contents of the Epistle to the Colossians is mainly polemical, designed to refute certain theosophic errors that had crept into the church there.在歌罗西的书信内容主要是论战,旨在反驳肯定了蹑手蹑脚进教堂有theosophic错误。That to the Ephesians does not seem to have originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter springing from Paul's love to the church there, and indicative of his earnest desire that they should be fully instructed in the profound doctrines of the gospel.那对以弗所似乎没有在任何特殊情况下起源,但仅仅是一个字母雨后春笋般从保罗的爱教会那里,和他的earnest的愿望,他们应该是完全的福音profound教义instructed指示。

It contains (1) the salutation (1:1, 2); (2) a general description of the blessings the gospel reveals, as to their source, means by which they are attained, purpose for which they are bestowed, and their final result, with a fervent prayer for the further spiritual enrichment of the Ephesians (1:3-2:10); (3) "a record of that marked change in spiritual position which the Gentile believers now possessed, ending with an account of the writer's selection to and qualification for the apostolate of heathendom, a fact so considered as to keep them from being dispirited, and to lead him to pray for enlarged spiritual benefactions on his absent sympathizers" (2:12-3:21); (4) a chapter on unity as undisturbed by diversity of gifts (4:1-16); (5) special injunctions bearing on ordinary life (4:17-6:10); (6) the imagery of a spiritual warfare, mission of Tychicus, and valedictory blessing (6:11-24).它包含(1)称呼(1:1,2);(2)一般的祝福描述揭示了福音,因为他们的来源,他们是通过何种方式实现,目的是赋予他们,他们的最终结果,在为进一步的以弗所(1:3-2:10)精神充实热切的祈祷(3)“的精神,在其中的地位有了明显的变化外邦信徒现在拥有的记录,与该帐户结束作家的选择,以和为heathendom使徒,所以考虑以防止它们被萎靡,并导致他祈求他缺席的同情者“(2:12-3:21)扩大​​会议精神benefactions事实资格;(4 )一章的礼物(4:1-16)多样性作为不受干扰团结的;(5)特殊禁令的普通生活(4:17-6:10)轴承(6)战争的一种精神意象,使命Tychicus,并告别祝福(6:11-24)。

Planting of the church at Ephesus.教会的种植在以弗所。Paul's first and hurried visit for the space of three months to Ephesus is recorded in Acts 18:19-21.保罗的第一次,急忙为三个月至以弗所空间访问记录在使徒18:19-21。The work he began on this occasion was carried forward by Apollos (24-26) and Aquila and Priscilla.这项工作开始,他这次是发扬阿波罗(24-26)和百基拉和亚居拉。On his second visit, early in the following year, he remained at Ephesus "three years," for he found it was the key to the western provinces of Asia Minor.在他第二次访问,早在一年后,他仍然在以弗所“三年大变样”,因为他发现这是到小亚细亚西部省份的关键。Here "a great door and effectual" was opened to him (1 Cor. 16:9), and the church was established and strengthened by his assiduous labours there (Acts 20:20, 31).这里的“一个伟大的门及作用”被打开了他(林前16:9),和教会成立,并通过他的刻苦劳作有(使徒20时20分,31)加强。 From Ephesus as a centre the gospel spread abroad "almost throughout all Asia" (19:26).从以弗所为中心的福音传到了国外“几乎在所有亚洲”(19:26)。The word "mightily grew and prevailed" despite all the opposition and persecution he encountered.单词“境地增长和战胜”尽管所有的反对和迫害,他遇到了。On his last journey to Jerusalem the apostle landed at Miletus, and summoning together the elders of the church from Ephesus, delivered to them his remarkable farewell charge (Acts 20:18-35), expecting to see them no more.在他的最后旅程耶路撒冷的使徒降落在米利都,并召集一起从以弗所教会的长老,交付给他们的杰出告别收费(徒20:18-35),他们不希望看到更多。

The following parallels between this epistle and the Milesian charge may be traced:- (1.) Acts 20:19 = Eph.这之间的书信和Milesian主管以下的相似之处可追溯到: - (1)行为20时十九分=弗。4:2.4:2。The phrase "lowliness of mind" occurs nowhere else.短语“的心态谦卑”发生无处。(2.) Acts 20:27 = Eph. (2)行为20:27 =弗。1:11. 1:11。The word "counsel," as denoting the divine plan, occurs only here and Heb.这个词“律师”,为表示对神的计划,只发生在这里和河北。6:17.6点17分。(3.) Acts 20:32 = Eph.(3)徒20:32 =弗。3:20. 3:20。The divine ability.神圣的能力。(4.) Acts 20:32 = Eph. (4)使徒行传20:32 =弗。2:20.2:20。The building upon the foundation.而在基础建设。(5.) Acts 20:32 = Eph. (5)使徒行传20:32 =弗。1:14, 18.1:14,18。"The inheritance of the saints."他说:“继承的圣人。”Place and date of the writing of the letter.地点和信的写作日期。It was evidently written from Rome during Paul's first imprisonment (3:1; 4:1; 6:20), and probably soon after his arrival there, about the year 62, four years after he had parted with the Ephesian elders at Miletus.这显然​​是在罗马的书面保罗的第一监禁(3:1,4:1; 6:20),并可能不久后,他到达那里,大约62年,四年后他与以弗所的长老分手在米利都。The subscription of this epistle is correct.这种书信订阅是正确的。There seems to have been no special occasion for the writing of this letter, as already noted.似乎已经为这封信的写作没有特别的机会,正如已经指出的。Paul's object was plainly not polemical.保罗的对象显​​然不是论战。

No errors had sprung up in the church which he sought to point out and refute.没有错误已如雨后春笋般出现在教会里,他试图指出和驳斥。The object of the apostle is "to set forth the ground, the cause, and the aim and end of the church of the faithful in Christ. He speaks to the Ephesians as a type or sample of the church universal."使徒的对象是“阐述了地面,原因,目的及对教会在基督信徒结束,他讲的以弗所作为一个类型或教会普遍的样本。” The church's foundations, its course, and its end, are his theme.教会的根基,它的路线,它的结束,是他的主题。"Everywhere the foundation of the church is the will of the Father; the course of the church is by the satisfaction of the Son; the end of the church is the life in the Holy Spirit."“到处教会的基础是天父的旨意,教会的课程由圣子的满意是,教会的结束是在圣灵的生活。”In the Epistle to the Romans, Paul writes from the point of view of justification by the imputed righteousness of Christ; here he writes from the point of view specially of union to the Redeemer, and hence of the oneness of the true church of Christ.在向罗马人书信,保罗写道从由基督的估算正义的理由来看,这里他从工会的角度特别点到救世主,以及基督的真教会合一因此。 "This is perhaps the profoundest book in existence."“这也许是存在深刻的书。”It is a book "which sounds the lowest depths of Christian doctrine, and scales the loftiest heights of Christian experience;" and the fact that the apostle evidently expected the Ephesians to understand it is an evidence of the "proficiency which Paul's converts had attained under his preaching at Ephesus."这是一本书“,这听起来基督教教义的最低深度和规模的基督教经验的最崇高的高度”,以及认为使徒显然预期弗来理解它其实是对“能力,其中保罗的转换已经达到下证据他在以弗所传道。“ Relation between this epistle and that to the Colossians (qv).这书信的关系,而且向歌罗西书(请参阅)。

"The letters of the apostle are the fervent outburst of pastoral zeal and attachment, written without reserve and in unaffected simplicity; sentiments come warm from the heart, without the shaping out, pruning, and punctilious arrangement of a formal discourse. There is such a fresh and familiar transcription of feeling, so frequent an introduction of coloquial idiom, and so much of conversational frankness and vivacity, that the reader associates the image of the writer with every paragraph, and the ear seems to catch and recognize the very tones of living address." “的使徒的字母都是牧区的热情和依恋毫无保留地和影响简单写的,强烈突出;情绪来温暖从心里没有塑造出,修剪,并正式话语执安排,有这样一个。新鲜和熟悉的转录的感觉,所以经​​常介绍的coloquial成语等,坦率的对话和活泼得多,读者相关联的每一段作家的形象,耳边似乎捕捉和认识生活的很铃声地址。“ It is then any matter of amazement that one letter should resemble another, or that two written about the same time should have so much in common and so much that is peculiar?它是那么任何一个字母惊奇事项应该像另一个,或者说,大约在同一时间写了两本应该有共同的与其说是特殊的这么多? The close relation as to style and subject between the epistles to Colosse and Ephesus must strike every reader.作为样式之间的书信和以弗所到Colosse受到密切的关系必须取得每一位读者。Their precise relation to each other has given rise to much discussion.他们的确切相互关系已经引起了很多讨论。

The great probability is that the epistle to Colosse was first written; the parallel passages in Ephesians, which amount to about forty-two in number, having the appearance of being expansions from the epistle to Colosse.伟大的概率是,到Colosse书信首次写入,在以弗所的,平行通道的数量大约在42量,具有被从外观到Col​​osse书信扩展。 "The style of this epistle is exceedingly animated, and corresponds with the state of the apostle's mind at the account which their messenger had brought him of their faith and holiness (Eph. 1:15), and transported with the consideration of the unsearchable wisdom of God displayed in the work of man's redemption, and of his astonishing love towards the Gentiles in making them partakers through faith of all the benefits of Christ's death, he soars high in his sentiments on those grand subjects, and gives his thoughts utterance in sublime and copious expression."他说:“这书信的风格是极其动画,并与使徒的精神状态相对应的,他们的使者带来了他们的信仰和圣洁(弗1:15)他,并与智慧的unsearchable考虑运输的帐户神显示在人的赎回工作,和他对外邦人惊人的热爱使他们通过所有的基督的死亡保险金的信念有分,他翱翔在这些宏大主题他的情绪很高,而且给出了崇高的思想话语和丰富的表达。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistle to the Ephesians书信的以弗所

Catholic Information天主教信息

This article will be treated under the following heads:这篇文章将被视为根据以下元首:

I. Analysis of the Epistle;一,分析的书信;

II. II。Special Characteristics:特点:

(1) Form: (a) Vocabulary; (b) Style;(1)表格:(一)词汇;(二)风格;

(2) Doctrines;(2)理论;

III. III。Object;对象;

IV. IV。To Whom Addressed;为了谁的问题;

V. Date and Place of Composition; Occasion;五,日期和地点组成;场合;

VI. VI。Authenticity:真品:

(1) Relation to other books of the New Testament;(1)相关的新约其他书籍;

(2) Difficulties arising from the form and doctrines;(2)难以从形式和教义出现的问题;

(3) Tradition.(3)传统。

I. ANALYSIS OF THE EPISTLE一,分析书信

The letter which, in the manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul, bears the title "To the Ephesians" comprises two parts distinctly separated by a doxology (Ephesians 3:20 sq.).的信中,在含有圣保罗的书信手稿的标题是“致以弗所书”包括明显由两部分分开doxology(以弗所3点20分平方米)。 The address, in which the Apostle mentions himself only, is not followed by a prologue; in fact, the entire dogmatic part develops the idea which is usually the subject of the prologue in the letters of St. Paul.地址,其中只有使徒提到自己,是不是跟一个序幕,事实上,整个教条的一部分开发的构想,通常是在圣保罗的字母序幕的主题。 In a long sentence that reads like a hymn (Ephesians 1:3-14), Paul praises God for the blessings which He has bestowed upon all the faithful in accordance with the eternal plan of His will, the sublime plan by which all are to be united under one head, Christ, a plan which, although heretofore secret and mysterious, is now made manifest to believers.在一个长句,像一首赞美诗(以弗所书1:3-14)读取,保罗称赞的是他呼吁所有的信徒赠送与他的意志的永恒计划,崇高的计划,所有这些都为按照神的祝福团结在一个头,基督,一个是,虽然迄今秘密和神秘的,目前由舱单信徒的计划。 Those to whom the Epistle is addressed, having received the Gospel, have, in their turn, been made participants of these blessings, and the Apostle, having recently learned of their conversion and their faith, assures them that he ceases not to give thanks to Heaven for the same (Ephesians 1:15, 16) and that, above all, he prays for them.那些人的书信是写给在收到福音,有,在轮到自己,已经取得的这些祝福的参与者,和使徒,最近的转换和他们的信仰教训,保证他们不给他不再感谢对于同一(以弗所书1:15,16),并且天堂,首先,他为他们祈祷。 The explanation of this prayer, of its object and motives, constitutes the remainder of the dogmatic part (cf. Ephesians 3:1, 14).这个祈祷解释其目的和动机,构成了教条式的一部分(见以弗所书3:1,14)的其余部分。 Paul asks God that his readers may have a complete knowledge of the hope of their calling, that they may be fully aware both of the riches of their inheritance and the greatness of the Divine power which guarantees the inheritance.保罗问上帝,他的读者可能有一个对自己要求希望完整的知识,使他们既得到充分的继承和的神圣权力,保证了继承伟大的财富知道。 This Divine power manifests itself first in Christ, Whom it raised from the dead and Whom it exalted in glory above all creatures and established head of the Church, which is His body.这神圣的权力首先表现出来的基督,谁死谁从它上面的所有生物和建立教会的头,这是他的身体光荣崇高的提高。Next, this power and goodness of God was evidenced in the readers, whom it rescued from their sins and raised and exalted with Christ.其次,这种力量和神的善良,这体现在读者,谁救出他们的罪孽,并提出与基督崇高。But it shone forth, above all, in the establishment of a community of salvation welcoming within its fold both Jews and Gentiles without distinction, the Death of Christ having broken down the middle wall of partition, ie the Law, and both sections of the human race having thus been reconciled to God so as thenceforth to form but one body, one house, one temple, of which the apostles and Christian prophets are the foundation and Christ Himself is the chief cornerstone.但照规定,首先在一个范围内的犹太人和外邦人折欢迎不分救恩共同体的建立,基督的死有分解的分区中墙,即法,和人类两个部分比赛有这样被与神使,但此后形成一个机构,一个家,一个寺庙,其中使徒和基督教先知的基础和基督自己是主要的基石。 (Ephesians 1:16-2:20) Paul, as his readers must have heard, was the minister chosen to preach to the Gentiles of this sublime mystery of God, hidden from all eternity and not revealed even to the angels, according to which the Gentiles are made coheirs with the Jews, constitute a part of the same body, and are joint partakers in the same promises (Ephesians 3:1-13). (以弗所书1:16-2:20)保罗,因为他的读者一定听说过,被选为宣讲这一崇高的神之谜的外邦人,从所有永恒隐藏的部长和没有透露甚至天使,根据该外邦人是由与犹太人coheirs,构成相同身体的一部分,并在(弗3:1-13)相同的承诺联合有分。 Deeply imbued with this mystery, the Apostle implores the Father to lead his readers to the perfection of the Christian state and the complete knowledge of Divine charity (Ephesians 3:14-19), continuing the same prayer with which he had begun (Ephesians 1:16 sq.).深为这个充满神秘,使徒恳请父亲带领他的读者的基督教国家和完整的知识神圣慈善(以弗所书3:14-19)完善,继续同祈祷,使他开始了(以弗所书1 :16平方米)。

Having praised God anew in the solemn doxology (Ephesians 3:20 sq.), Paul passes on to the moral part of his letter.经称赞庄严doxology上帝重新(以弗所3点20平方米),保罗传递给他的信德的一部分。His exhortations, which he bases more than is his wont on dogmatic considerations, all revert to that of chapter iv, verse 1, wherein he entreats his readers to show themselves in all things worthy of their vocation.他的嘱托,这是他的基地多是他的习惯上教条式的因素,所有恢复到第四章,第一节,其中,他恳求他的读者,以显示其所有的东西值得自己的天职。 First of all, they must labour to preserve the unity described by the author in the first three chapters and here again brought into prominence: One Spirit, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God.首先,他们必须劳动保护撰文描述的前三章,并再次成为突出带到这里的统一:一是精神,一主,一信,一洗,一神。There is, of course, a diversity of ministries, but the respective offices of apostles, prophets, etc. have all been instituted by the same Christ exalted in glory and all tend to the perfection of the society of saints in Christ (Ephesians 4:2-16).有,当然,各部委的多样性,但使徒,先知,等各自的办事处已全部实行由同一基督荣耀尊贵和所有趋向于在基督社会的圣人(以弗所书4完善: 2-16)。From these great social duties, Paul proceeds to the consideration of individual ones.从这些巨大的社会责任,保收益个别的考虑。He contrasts the Christian life that his readers are to lead, with their pagan life, insisting above all on the avoidance of two vices, immodesty and covetousness (Ephesians 4:17-5:3).他对比了基督徒的生活,他带领读者,与他们的异教徒的生命,首先坚持两个恶习,不慎和贪婪(弗4:17-5:3)回避。 Then, in treating of family life, he wells on the duties of husbands and wives, whose union he likens to that of Christ with His Church, and the duties of children and servants (v, 21-vi, 9).然后,在治疗的家庭生活在丈夫和妻子,他们的结合中,他与他的比喻,以基督的教会,以及儿童和公务员的职责(V,21 - VI,9)的职责,他井。In order to fulfil these duties and to combat adverse powers, the readers must put on the armour of God (vi, 10-20).为了履行这些职责和权力,以打击不利,读者必须把上帝的盔甲(六,10-20)。

The Epistle closes with a short epilogue (vi, 21-24), wherein the Apostle tells his correspondents that he has sent Tychicus to give them news of him and that he wishes them peace, charity, and grace.关闭的书信和一个短的尾声(六,21日-24日​​),其中使徒告诉他的记者说,他已派Tychicus给他们他的消息,他希望他们和平,慈善,和优雅。

II. II。SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS特殊特性

(1) Form (1)表格

(a) Vocabulary(一)词汇

This letter like all of those written by St. Paul, contains hapax legomena, about seventy-five words which are not found in the Apostle's other writings; however, it were a mistake to make this fact the basis of an argument against Pauline authenticity.这就好比由圣保罗撰写的所有信件,包含hapax约75这是没有发现在使徒的其他著作的话legomena,但是,它是一个错误,使这一事实的一项打击波利娜真实性论证的基础上。 Of these works nine occur in quotations from the Old Testament and others belong to current language or else designate things which Paul elsewhere had had no occasion to mention.这些作品nine发生在从旧约的报价和其他属于当前语言或者其他指定东西保罗其他地方有没有机会提一提。Others, again, are derived from roots used by the Apostle and besides, in comparing these hapax legomena one with another, it is impossible to recognize in them a characteristic vocabulary that would reveal a distinct personality.其他人,再次,是源自于使徒和之外,在比较与另一这些hapax legomena之一,它是不可能在他们认识的词汇,将一个特点鲜明的个性显露使用根。(Cf. Brunet, De l'authenticité de l'épître aux Ephésiens; preuves philologiques", Lyons 1897; Nägeli, "Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus", Göttingen, 1905.)(参见布吕内,DE L' authenticité DE L' épître辅助Ephésiens; preuves philologiques“,里昂1897; Nägeli,”明镜Wortschatz DES Apostels保卢斯“,哥廷根,1905年)

(b) Style (二)型

This Epistle, even more than that to the Colossians, is remarkable for the length of its periods.这书信,甚至比这更多的歌罗西书,是为它的周期长度显着。The first three chapters contain hardly more than three sentences and these are overladen with relative or participial causes that are simply strung together, frequently without being connected by the logical particles that occur so frequently in St. Paul.前三个章节包含很难超过三句话,这些都是相对简单或分词是经常串在一起而不会被认为发生在圣保罗这样频繁的逻辑颗粒连接,导致过分的。 Each particular clause is itself encumbered with numerous prepositional modifiers (especially with en and syn) of which it is difficult to state the exact meaning.每个特定的条款本身就是与许多介词修饰符(特别是连接和同步),其中,很难说出确切含义担保。Often, too, several synonyms are in juxtaposition and in very many cases a noun has an explanatory genitive, the sense of which differs but very slightly from that of the noun itself.通常情况下,也并列几个同义词在许多情况下,在非常具有说明性名词所有格,其中的意义不同,但是从名词本身很轻微。 For all of these reasons the language of the Epistle, heavy, diffuse, and languid, seems very different from the dialectical, animated, and vigorous style of the Apostle's uncontested letters.对于所有这些原因的书信的语言,厚重,弥漫性,并懒洋洋,似乎很从使徒的无可争议的信件辩证的,动画,积极向上的风格。 It is important to note that in the moral part of the Epistle these peculiarities of style do not appear and hence they would seem to depend more on the matter treated than on the author himself; in fact, even in the dogmatic expositions in the great Epistles, St Paul's language is frequently involved (cf. Romans 2:13 sq.; 4:16 sq.; 5:12 sq.; etc.).重要的是要注意,在道德的书信部分的风格不会出现这些特殊性,因此,他们似乎比上取决于作者本人处理此事的,事实上,即使在伟大的书信的教条式的论述,圣保罗的语言是经常参与(参见罗马书2点13平方米; 4时16平方米; 5时12平方米;等)。Moreover, it must be observed that all these peculiarities spring from the same cause: They all indicate a certain redundancy of ideas surging in upon a deep and tranquil meditation on a sublime subject, the various aspects of which simultaneously appear to the author's mind and evoke his admiration.此外,必须指出,所有这些来自同一个原因特殊性春:他们都表示了涌动在上的一个崇高的主题深刻而宁静冥想的想法一定的冗余,其中的各个方面同时出现在作者的头脑和唤起他的钦佩。 Hence also the lyric tone that pervades the first three chapters, which constitute a series of praises, benedictions, thanksgivings, and prayers.因此也抒情音调弥漫在前三章,这构成了一系列的赞美,祝福,感恩节,并为他们祈祷。 A sort of rhythmic composition has been pointed out in chapter i (cf. T. Innitzer, "Der 'Hymnus' im Eph., i, 3-14" in "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1904, 612 sq.), and in chapter iii traces of liturgical hymnology have been observed (Ephesians 3:20), but they are no more striking than in I Cor.节奏组成的排序已经指出,在第一章(参见T. Innitzer,“明镜”Hymnus“IM弗,我3-14”中的“(杂志)皮草katholische神学”,1904年,612平方米),以及在第三章礼仪hymnology痕迹已观察(弗3:20),但他们并没有比我肺心病引人注目。 and are not to be compared with the liturgical language of I Clement.并没有要比较的I克莱门特礼仪语言。

(2) Doctrines(2)教义

The doctrines on justification, the Law, faith, the flesh, etc., that are characteristic of the great Pauline Epistles, are not totally lacking in the Epistle to the Ephesians, being recognizable in chapter ii (1-16).该学说的理由,法律,信仰,果肉等,是伟大的宝莲书信的特点,并非完全缺乏的以弗所书信,被第二章(1-16)辨认。 However, the writer's subject does not lead him to develop these particular doctrines.但是,作家的主体不会导致他制定这些特定的教义。On the other hand, he clearly indicates, especially in chapter i, the supreme place which, in the order of nature and grace, is allotted to Christ, the author and centre of creation, the point towards which all things converge, the source of all grace, etc. Although, in his great Epistles, St. Paul sometimes touches upon these doctrines (cf. 1 Corinthians 8:6; 15:45 sq.; 2 Corinthians 5:18 sq.), they constitute the special object of his letter to the Colossians, where he develops them to a much greater extent than in that to the Ephesians.另一方面,他清楚地表明,尤其是在第一章,其中最高的地方,在自然和优雅秩序,是分配给基督,作者和创作,这一点对所有的东西融合,源的中心所有宽限期等虽然,在他伟大的书信,圣保禄有时在这些学说接触(参哥林多前书8:6; 15点45平方米;哥林多后书5点18平方米),它们构成了特殊的对象他写信给歌罗西书,他认为发展比他们的以弗所更大的程度上。In fact this Epistle treats more of the Church than of Christ.事实上,这书信对待教会以上的基督。(On the doctrine of the Church in the Epistle to the Ephesians see Méritan in "Revue biblique", 1898, pp. 343 sq., and WH Griffith Thomas in the "Expositor", Oct., 1906, pp. 318 sq.) The work church no longer means, as is usual in the great Epistles of St. Paul (see, however, Galatians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 12:28, 15:9), some local church or other, but the one universal Church, and organic whole uniting all Christians in one body of which Christ is the head. (关于在书信的以弗所教会的教义看到“歌剧biblique”Méritan,1898年,第343平方米,并WH格里菲斯托马斯在“解释者”,10月,1906年,第318平方米)教堂的工作不再手段,是在圣保罗的伟大书信通常(见,然而,加拉太1时13分;哥林多前书12:28 15:9),教会或其他一些地方,但一个普遍的教会,并有机的整体团结一体的基督是头所有的基督徒。Here we find the systematized development of elements insinuated from time to time in the letters to the Galatians, Corinthians, and Romans.我们发现这里的元素系统化的发展影射在给加拉太,科林蒂安,和罗马字母不时时间。The author who has declared that there is now neither Jew nor Greek but that all are one in Jesus (Galatians 3:28); that in each Christian the life of Christ is made manifest (Galatians 2:20; 2 Corinthians 4:11 sq.); that all are led by the Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9-14); that each one of the faithful has Christ for head (1 Corinthians 11:3), could, by combining these elements, easily come to consider all Christians as forming but one body (Romans 12:5; 1 Corinthians 12:12, 27), animated by one spirit (Ephesians 4:4), a single body having Christ for head.在每一个基督徒的基督的生命是由清单(加拉太书2:20;;哥林多后书4点11平方米的谁已经宣布,现在有没有犹太人或希腊人但都在耶稣一(加拉太书3:28)作者);这都是领导的上帝和基督(罗8:9-14)精神,每个人的忠实的头基督(林前11:3),可以通过结合这些元素,很容易来考虑所有的基督徒,但形成一个机构(罗马书十二点05分;哥林多前书12时12分,27),一个个精神(以弗所书4:4),一个机构有基督为头动画。 To this body the Gentiles belong by the same right as the Jews.这个机构的外邦人属于由作为犹太人同样的权利。Undoubtedly this mysterious dispensation of Providence was, according to the Epistle to the Ephesians, made manifest to all the Apostles, a declaration which, moreover, the Epistle to the Galatians does not contradict (Galatians 2:3-9); however, this revelation remains, as it were, the special gift of St. Paul (Ephesians 3:3-8), The right of pagans seems to be no longer questioned, which is easily understood at the close of the Apostle's life.毫无疑问,这种神秘的福音是上帝,根据书信的以弗所,体现了所有的使徒,一项宣言,而且,对加拉太书信并不矛盾(加拉太书2:3-9),但是,这启示仍然存在,因为它是,在圣保罗(弗3:3-8),右边的异教徒特别的礼物似乎不再怀疑,这是很容易在使徒的生活密切理解。 At the death of Christ the wall of separation was broken down (cf. Galatians 3:13), and all have since had access to the Father in the same spirit.在基督死亡的隔离墙被分解(参见加拉太书3:13),并且都因为曾在同样的精神获得了父亲。They do not meet on the Jewish ground of the abolished Law but on Christian ground, in the edifice founded directly on Christ.他们并不满足于在废除法犹太地,但地面上的基督教,在大厦建立在基督直接。The Church being thus constituted, the author contemplates it just as it appears to him.教会正在从而构成,作者设想它只是因为它似乎给他。Besides, if in the extension of the Church he beholds the realization of the eternal decree by which all men have been predestined to the same salvation, he is not obliged to repeat the religious history of mankind in the way he had occasion to describe it in the Epistle to the Romans; neither is he constrained to explore the historical privileges of the Jews, to which he nevertheless alludes (Ephesians 2:12) nor to connect the new economy to the old (see, however, Ephesians 3:6) nor indeed to introduce, at least into the dogmatical exposition, the sins of the pagans, whom he is satisfied to accuse of having lacked intimate communion with God (Ephesians 2:12).此外,如果在延长他的教会beholds永恒的法令,其中所有的人都已经注定要实现相同的救恩,他没有义务重复的方式,他有机会来形容它在人类宗教历史到罗马人的书信,也不是他的限制,探索犹太人的历史特权,但他暗示(以弗所书2:12),也不连接新经济的旧(见,不过,弗3:6),也不的确引进至少到独断的论述,是异教徒,他们指责他是满意的有缺乏亲密的罪与神的共融(以弗所书2:12)。 For the time being all these points are not the main subject of meditation.对于暂时所有这些点都不是冥想的主要议题。It is rather the recent, positive fact of the union of all men in the Church, the body of Christ, that he brings into prominence; the Apostle contemplates Christ Himself in His actual influence over this body and over each of its members; hence it is only occasionally that he recalls the redemptive power of Christ's Death.这是相当近期,对在教会,基督的身体,他把所有的人带来了突出工会积极的事实;使徒在他的设想在本机构的实际影响力和其每个成员基督自己,因此它只是偶尔,他回顾了基督的死亡救赎的力量。 (Ephesians 1:7; 2:5-6) From heaven, where He has been exalted, Christ bestows His gifts on all the faithful without distinction, commanding, however, that in His Church certain offices be held for the common welfare.(弗1:7; 2:5-6)从天上,在那里他一直崇高,基督赋予的所有不分忠实他的礼物,指挥,但是,在他的教会某些办事处是为了共同的福利举行。The hierarchical terms used so constantly later on (episkopoi, presbyteroi, diakonoi) are not met with here.使用,以便不断稍后(episkopoi,presbyteroi,diakonoi)分层条件不会见了在这里。The apostles and prophets, always mentioned together, in the Epistle to the Ephesians, play a like part, being the founders of the Church (Ephesians 2:20).在使徒和先知,总是提到在一起,在书信的以弗所,起到类似的一部分,是教会的创始人(以弗所书2:20)。Thus placed on an equality with the prophets, the apostles are not the chosen Twelve but, as indicated in the letters of St. Paul, those who have seen Christ and been commissioned by Him to preach His Gospel.因此,在与先知置于平等,使徒不是选择十二,但作为在圣保罗,那些谁见过基督,是由他委托他的传福音的字母表示。It is for the same purpose that the prophets in the Epistle to the Ephesians used the charisma, or spiritual gifts described in I Cor., xii-xiv.正是出于同样的目的,在书信的以弗所先知所使用的人格魅力,或在林前所述的精神礼物。,十二至十四。The evangelists, who are not noticed in Eph, ii, 20, or iii, 5, are inferior in dignity to the apostles and prophets in connection with whom they are, nevertheless, mentioned (Ephesians 4:11).的福音,谁没有在弗,二,20,或三,五注意到,处于劣势的尊严的使徒和与他们有联系的先知,然而,提到(以弗所书4:11)。 In his first letters St. Paul had no occasion to allude to them, but they belong to the Apostolic age, as at a later epoch they are never referred to.在他的第一个字母圣保禄没有暗示给他们机会,但他们属于使徒时代,因为在以后的时代,他们从不提及。Finally the "pastors and doctors" (AV pastors and teachers), who are clearly distinguished (Ephesians 4:11) from the apostles and prophets, founders of the churches, seem to be those local authorities already indicated in I Thess., v, 12; I Cor., xvi, 15 sq.; Act, xx, 28.最后,“牧师和医生”(AV牧师和教师),谁是明确区分开来的使徒和先知(弗4:11),教会的创始人,似乎是那些地方当局已表示在我帖前,V, 12,我肺心病,十六,15平方米;法,XX,28。While the attention given to these different ministers forms a distinctive note in the Epistle to the Ephesians, we cannot therefore admit (with Klöpper, for example) that the author is preoccupied with the hierarchy as such.虽然给这些不同形式的部长们的重视,在书信的以弗所鲜明注意,我们不能因此承认(与KLÖPPER,例如),作者是与这类等级心事重重。 The unity of the Church, a point that he clearly emphasizes, is not so much the juridical unity of an organized society as the vital unity that binds all the members of the body to its head, the glorified Christ.教会的团结,这一点,他明确强调,与其说是一个统一的组织作为重要的社会,结合所有的班子成员到其头部,荣耀基督的司法统一。 Nor is it true that the author already predicts centuries of future existence for this Church (Klopper) as, properly speaking, the ages to come, referred to in the Epistle to the Ephesians (ii, 7) are to come in the Kingdom of Heaven (cf. ii, 6).它也不是真正的作者已经预测未来存在这个教堂(KLÖPPER)一样,确切地说世纪,年龄来,中提及的以弗所书信(二,7)来在天国(见二,六)。 On the other hand we know that St. Paul's hope of soon witnessing Christ's second coming kept constantly diminishing, and therefore, in the latter years of his life, he might well define (Ephesians 5:22 sq.) the laws of Christian marriage, which at an earlier period (1 Corinthians 7:37 sq.) he regarded only in the light of the approaching advent of Christ.另一方面,我们知道,圣保禄希望尽快看到基督的第二次来保持不断减少,因此在他生命的最后几年,他很可能定义(以弗所书5时22平方米)的基督教婚姻的法律,而在更早时期(哥林多前书7点37平方米),他认为只有在基督的光接近的到来。 The exposition that we have given of the doctrines proper to the Epistle to the Ephesians has been so made as to show that none of these doctrines taken separately contradicts the theology of the great Pauline Epistles and that each one individually can be connected with certain elements disseminated in these Epistles.在我们的理论正确的书信的以弗所给予博览会已如此作出以表明,采取这些学说都没有分别违背了伟大的宝莲书信神学和每一个单独可与传播某些元素连接在这些书信。 It is nevertheless true that, taken in its entirety, this letter to the Ephesians constitutes a new doctrinal system, the Pauline authenticity of which can only be critically defended by pointing out the circumstances in consequence of which the Apostle was able thus to develop his first theology and profoundly to modify his manner of setting it forth.虽然如此,诚然,在整个拍摄,这对以弗所书构成了新的理论体系,波利娜真实性只能是批判,指出在后果的情况,而使徒能够以此来发展他的第一辩护神学和深刻地修改自己的设置它提出的方式。 Naturally this leads us first of all to try to ascertain the object of the letter to the Ephesians.自然,这使我们首先要设法确定的以弗所书的对象。

III. III。OBJECT OBJECT

It has been said that St. Paul combated immoral doctrines and an antinomian propaganda that especially endangered those to whom the letters were addressed (Pfleiderer), but this hypothesis would not explain the dogmatic part of the Epistle, and even in the hortatory part nothing betokens polemical preoccupation.有人说,圣保禄打击不道德的理​​论和唯信仰论宣传,尤其是濒临灭绝的那些人的信件得到解决(弗莱德尔),但这一假说不能解释的书信教条的一部分,即使在劝告部分没有betokens论战的当务之急。 All the warnings administered are called forth by the pagan origin of the readers, and when the author addresses his prayers to Heaven in their behalf (Ephesians 1:17 sqq; 3:14 sqq.) he does not mention any particular peril from which he would have God deliver their Christian life.所有的警告管理的要求提出由读者异教的起源,而当笔者在地址代表他的祈祷上天(以弗所书1时17 SQQ; 3时14 SQQ)他没有提及任何特定的危险,从他本来上帝交付其基督徒的生活。Klopper thought that the author had Judeo-Christians in view, still denying converted pagans their full right in the Church, and Jacquier gives this as an additional motive. KLÖPPER认为作者有犹太教和基督教的观点,仍然拒绝转化异教徒他们在教会完全正确的,Jacquier给作为额外的动机这一点。Others have said that the Gentile-Christians of the Epistle had to be reminded of the privileges of the Jews.也有人说,书信的外邦基督徒必须对犹太人的特权提醒。But not one word in the letter, even in the section containing exhortations to unity (Ephesians 4:2 sq.), reveals the existence of any antagonism among those to whom the Apostle writes, and there is no question of the reproduction or re-establishment of unity.但没有一个字甚至在信中包含嘱托团结(以弗所书4时02平方米)部分,揭示了那些人之间的任何使徒写道对立的存在,并没有复制或重新问题建立统一。 The author never addresses himself to any save converted pagans, and all his considerations tend solely to provide them with a full knowledge of the blessings which, despite their pagan origin, they have acquired in Christ and of the greatness of the love that God has shown them.笔者从来没有任何挽救自己的地址转换异教徒,和他所有的考虑往往只提供一个在其中,尽管他们的异教起源,他们已获得在基督和神的伟大的爱表现出充分的了解他们的祝福他们。 If, in chapter iii, St. Paul speaks of his personal Apostleship, it is not by way of defending it against attacks but of expressing all his gratitude for having been called, in spite of his unworthiness, to announce the great mystery of which he had sung the praises.如果在第三章,圣使徒保罗谈到他个人的,它不是由它的防御攻击的方式,但表达他所有的已被称为感激之情,尽管在他不配,宣布伟大的奥秘,他有唱的赞誉。 Briefly, nothing in the letter allows us to suspect that it responds to any special need on the part of those to whom it is addressed, nor that they, on their side, had given the author any particular occasion for writing it.简单地说,在信中没有让我们怀疑它响应任何关于那些人,这是解决部分特殊需要的,也不是说他们,站在他们一边,给了作者的任何书面特定场合。 In so far as either its dogmatic or moral part is concerned, it might have been addressed to any churches whatever founded in the pagan world.到目前为止,无论是在其作为教条或道德的一部分而言,它可能已经给任何教堂无论在异教世界成立。

IV. IV。TO WHOM ADDRESSED敬启者ADDRESSED

To whom, then, was the Epistle addressed?为了谁,那么,是书信处理?This question has evoked a variety of answers.这个问题已经引起了各种各样的答案。There are critics who maintain the traditional opinion that the Epistle was written to the Ephesians exclusively (Danko, Cornely), but the greater number consider it in the light of a circular letter.有批评谁保持传统认为,书信是专门写信给以弗所(丹科,Cornely),但更多考虑的通函光。Some maintain that it was addressed to Ephesus and the churches of which this city was, so to speak, the metropolis (Michelis, Harless, and Henle), while others hold that it was sent to the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse (H. Holtzmann) or to the circle of Christian communities within and around Coloss Colossae aelig; and Laodicea (Godet, Haupt, Zahn, and Belser); or again to the faithful of Asia Minor (B. Weiss) or to all the Gentile-Christian Churches (Von Soden).有的认为这是给以弗所和教会的本城,可以这么说,在大都市(米歇莉丝,Harless和Henle),而其他人认为这是发送到启示录七教会(H. HOLTZMANN )或基督教社区内和周围Coloss Colossae aelig圈;和老底嘉(戈代,豪普特,赞恩,并贝尔瑟),或再小亚细亚的忠实(B.魏斯)或所有詹蒂莱基督教教会(冯索登)。The question can only be solved by comparing the Epistle with the knowledge possessed of the life and literary activity of the Apostle.这个问题只能通过比较解决了生活和文学活动的使徒所拥有的知识的书信。Those who deny the authenticity of the letter must certainly grant that the Pseudo-Paul (i, 1) was careful to conform to literary and historical probabilities, and if not, since the letter vouchsafes no direct indication as to the correspondents whom he supposed the Apostle to be addressing, it would be idle to imagine who they were.这些谁否认信的真实性一定要授予的伪保罗(I,1)小心地符合文学和历史的可能性,如果没有,因为信vouchsafes至于记者的人,他应该没有直接的指示使徒要解决,这将是闲置想象他们是谁。

The words en Epheso, in the first verse of the Epistle, do not belong to the primitive text.EN Epheso的话,在第一首诗歌,书信,不属于原始文字。St. Basil attests that, even in his day, they were not met with in the ancient manuscripts; in fact they are missing from the Codices B and Aleph (first hand).圣罗勒证明,即使在他的天,他们没有在古代手稿满足,实际上他们从抄本B和阿莱夫(第一手)失踪。Moreover, the examination of the Epistle does not warrant the belief that it was addressed to the church in which the Apostle had sojourned longest.此外,书信检查不值得,这是给其中最长的教会使徒曾旅居信念。 When St. Paul writes to one of his churches, he constantly alludes to his former relations with them (see Thess., Gal., Cor.), but here there is nothing personal, no greeting, no special recommendation, no allusion to the author's past.当圣保禄写信给他的教堂之一,他不断暗示他的前与他们的关系(见帖前,镀锌,肺心病),但这里并没有什么个人的,没有问候,没有特别的建议,没有对典故作者的过去。 Paul is unacquainted with his correspondents, although he has heard them spoken of (Ephesians 1:15), and they have heard of him (Ephesians 3:2; cf. 4:21).保罗是不熟悉他的记者,尽管他已经听到了他们的(弗1:15)说,他们已经听说过他(弗3:2;比照4:21)。When addressing himself to any particular church, even be it at the time still a stranger to him as, for instance, Rome or Coloss Colossae,aelig;, the Apostle always assumes a personal tone; hence the abstract and general manner in which he treats his subject from the beginning to the end of the Epistle to the Ephesians can best be accounted for by beholding in this Epistle a circular letter to a group of churches still unknown to Paul.在处理自己的任何特别的教堂,甚至它在当时还是对他并不陌生的,例如,罗马或Coloss Colossae,aelig;,使徒总是假定个人基调,因此抽象和一般的方式对待他他的主题从一开始到结束的以弗所书信最能占在此书信通函的教堂仍然不明保罗组仰望。 Bur this explanation, founded on the encyclical character of the Epistle, loses its value if the Church of Ephesus is numbered among those addressed; for, during his three years' sojourn in this city, the Apostle had had frequent intercourse with the neighbouring Christian communities, and in this case he would have had Ephesus especially in view, just as in wring to all the faithful of Achaia (2 Corinthians 1:1) it was chiefly to the Church of Corinth that he addressed himself.柏迪这个解释,对人物的书信谕成立,失去它的价值如果以弗所教会中解决这些编号;期间他的三年“在这个城市逗留,使徒曾与邻近的基督教社区频繁性交,在这种情况下,他将不得不以弗所,特别是在视图中,就像在拧到了亚该亚所有信徒(林后1:1)这是主要的科林斯教会他自己解决。

Nevertheless, it was to a rather restricted circle of Christian communities that Paul sent this letter, as Tychicus was to visit them all and bring news of him (Ephesians 6:21 sq.), which fact precludes the idea of all the churches of Asia Minor or of all the Gentile-Christian churches.不过,它是一组保发此信的基督教社区,而限制圈,作为Tychicus是访问所有这些,使他的消息(以弗所书6时21分平方米),这实际上排除了所有的亚洲教会的想法轻微或所有詹蒂莱基督教教堂。 Moreover, since Tychicus was bearer of the Epistle to the Colossians and that to the Ephesians at one and the same time (Colossians 4:7 sq.), those to whom the latter was addressed could not have been far from Coloss Colossae,aelig;, and we have every reason to suppose them in Asia Minor.此外,由于Tychicus是承载的书信向歌罗西书,并且向弗在同一个时间(歌罗西书4点07平方米),那些人,后者是处理已经远远不能从Coloss Colossae,aelig; ,我们有充分的理由认为他们在小亚细亚。However, we do not believe that the Epistle in question was addressed to the churches immediately surrounding Coloss Colossae,aelig;, as the perils which threatened the faith of the Colossians virtually endangered that of the neighbouring communities, and wherefore, then, two letter differing in tone and object?但是,我们并不认为有问题的书信是写给教会立刻围拢Coloss Colossae,aelig;,作为其中的危险威胁到歌罗西书几乎濒临灭绝的信念是邻近社区,何故,然后,两个字母不同在语气和对象?Having had no personal intercourse with the Colossians, the Apostle would have been satisfied to address to them and their Christian neighbours an encyclical letter embodying all the matter treated in both Epistles.有没有个人交往与歌罗西书,使徒将得到满足,以解决他们和他们的基督教邻居an谕信都体现在两个书信处理此事。 Hence it behooves us to seek elsewhere in Asia Minor, towards the year 60, a rather limited group of churches still unknown to St. Paul.因此我们有必要寻求其他地方的小亚细亚对今年60岁,是教堂还是未知的,而圣保罗集团有限公司。 Now, in the course of his three journeys, Paul had traversed all parts of Asia Minor except the northern provinces along the Black Sea, territory which he did not reach prior to his captivity.如今,在他的三个行程的过程中,保罗曾走过除沿黑海,境内北部省份,他没有达到之前,他囚禁小亚细亚各地。Nevertheless, the First Epistle of St. Peter shows us that the Faith had already penetrated these regions; hence, with the historical data at our disposal, it is in this vicinity that it seems most reasonable to seek those to whom the Epistle was addressed.然而,第一使徒圣彼得告诉我们,信仰已经深入这些地区,因此,与我们所掌握的历史数据,在这附近,它似乎是最合理,寻求那些人的书信处理。 These Christians must have been named in the authentic text of the inscription of this Epistle, as they are in all of St. Paul's letters.这些基督徒必须被命名在此书信题词正宗的文字,因为他们在圣保罗的书信皆是。Now, whenever the substantive participle appears in one of these inscriptions, it serves the sole purpose of introducing the mention of locality.现在,每当实质性过去分词在这些铭文一出现,它服务的引入地方提到的唯一目的。We are therefore authorized to believe that, in the address of the Epistle to the Ephesians (Ephesians 1:1: tois hagiois ousin kai pistois en Christo Iesou), this participle, so difficult to understand in the received text, originally preceded the designation of the place inhabited by the readers.因此,我们有权相信,在书信的以弗所(以弗所书1:1:tois hagiois ousin偕pistois EN克里斯托Iesou)的地址,这个分词,所以很难理解在收到的文字,原来早于指定这个地方居住着读者。One might assume that the line containing this designation was omitted owing to some distraction on the part of the first copyist; however, it would then be necessary to admit that the mention of locality, now in question, occurred in the midst of qualifying adjectives applied by the Apostle to his readers (hagiois tois ousin . . . . . pistois), and this is something that is never verified in the letters of St. Paul.有人可能会认为该行包含此称号是因为省略了一些关于第一抄写部分分心,但是,它便会必须承认,在当地提现的问题,在符合条件的申请形容词中间发生通过向他的读者使徒(hagiois tois ousin。。。pistois),这是东西是永远不会在圣保罗的字母验证。Hence we may suppose that, in this address, the indication of place was corrupted rather than omitted, and this paves the way for conjectural restorations.因此,我们可以假设,在这个报告中,显示已损坏的地方,而不是省略了,这铺平了道路推测修复方法。We ourselves have proposed the following: tois hagiois tois ousin kat Irin tois en Christo Iesou.我们自己也提出以下建议:tois hagiois tois ousin吉IRIN tois EN克里斯托Iesou。 (Ladeuze in Revue biblique, 1902, pp 573 sq.) Grammatically, this phrase corresponds perfectly with the Apostle's style (cf. Galatians 1:22; 1 Corinthians 1:2; Philippians 1:1) and palaeographically, if transcribed in ancient capitals, it readily accounts for the corruption that has certainly been produced in the text. (Ladeuze在歌剧biblique,1902年,页573平方米)从语法,这句话对应完全与使徒的风格(参见加拉太1时22分;哥林多前书1:2;腓1:1)和palaeographically,如果在古都转录,它很容易占所肯定已经在文字产生腐败。 The Epistle to the Ephesians was, therefore, written to distant churches, located perhaps in various provinces [Pontus, Galatia, Polemonium (the kingdom of Polemon)] and, for this reason, requiring to be designated by the general term, but all situated along the River Iris.在书信的以弗所,因此,书面向远处的教堂,位于各省或许[本都,加拉太,Polemonium(即Polemon王国)],并基于这个原因,要求必须由指定的总称,但都位于沿江光圈。

These churches of the north-east of Asia Minor played rather an obscure part in the first century.在东北小亚细亚,而这些教会发挥在第一世纪的模糊部分。When the first collection of the Apostle's letters was made, a collection on which the entire textual tradition of these letters depends (cf. Zahn, Geschichte des NT Kanons, I, ii, p. 829), it was Ephesus that furnished the copy of this Epistle, having obtained it when Tychicus landed at that port, thence to set out for Coloss Colossae aelig; and in the direction of Pontus, and in this copy the text of the address had already been corrupted.当使徒的书信集是第一次做,集合上的整个传统取决于这些信件的文本(参见赞恩,历史馆DES NT Kanons,I,II,第829页),它提供的是以弗所的副本这书信中获得它时Tychicus降落在该港口,从那里设置Coloss Colossae aelig;及在本都的方向,并在此复制的地址文本已经被损坏。Having come from Ephesus, this letter quickly passed for one to the Ephesians, the more so as there was no other written by the Apostle to the most celebrated of churches.经从以弗所来,这封信很快通过了一到以弗所,更何况因为是由最使徒教会庆祝书面没有其他。This explains why, from the beginning, all except Marcion, even those who did not read the words en Epheso in the first verse (Origen, Tertullian), look upon this letter as an Epistle to the Ephesians, and why in all manuscripts, it is transcribed under this title.这就解释了为什么所有的除外马吉安从一开始,即使是那些谁没有看过EN Epheso在第一首诗歌(奥利,良)的话来说,看待这个作为书信的以弗所书,为什么在所有的手稿,它转录本的标题。

V. DATE AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION; OCCASION五,日期和地点组成; OCCASION

Like the Epistles to the Colossians, to the Philippians, and to Philemon, that to the Ephesians was written during the leisure hours of one of the Apostle's imprisonments (Ephesians 3:1; 4:1; 6:20), when he had but little reason to resort to the services of a disciple to write in his name (De Wette, Ewald, and Renan).像向歌罗西书,到腓,和腓利门书,这是在给以弗所的使徒的监禁一(弗3:1; 4:1; 6:20)的闲暇时间写的书信,但是当他没有理由诉诸弟子的服务,以他的名字写在(德Wette,埃瓦尔德,和雷南)。Lisco (Vincula Sanctorum, Berlin, 1900) is the only one nowadays who claims that these letters antedate the great captivity of St. Paul, maintaining that the Apostle must have written them while a prisoner in Ephesus in 57 and prior to those which he sent to the Corinthians and Romans.利斯科(Vincula Sanctorum,柏林,1900年)是唯一一个现在谁声称,这些信件早于在圣保罗大圈养,认为使徒必须有书面他们,而在57及以前他送的那些囚犯在以弗所在科林蒂安和罗马人。 But we are not acquainted with any of the details of this captivity at Ephesus.但我们不熟悉的以弗所这个囚禁任何细节。Moreover, the doctrine set forth in the letters in question belongs to an epoch subsequent to the composition of the Epistle to the Romans (58); hence they were not written previously to the captivity in Caesarea (58-60).此外,设置有问题的信件提出的学说是属于一个时代之后的书信组成的罗马(58),因此他们不写在凯撒利亚以前的人工饲养(58-60)。 On the other hand, they are anterior to the first persecution, to which the author makes no allusion when describing the armour and combats of the faithful; wherefore they cannot be assigned to the last captivity.另一方面,他们是前第一迫害,对此笔者不作任何暗示在描述装甲和战斗的忠实;何故,他们不能被分配​​到最后被俘。 It consequently remains for them to be ascribed to a period between 58 and 63, but whether they were produced in Caesarea or in Rome (61-63) is still a much mooted question.因此它仍然是它们被归因于58和63之间的时期,但他们是否在该撒利亚或罗马生产(61-63)仍然是一个多酝酿的问题。 The information gleaned here and there is very vague and the arguments brought forward are very doubtful.收集的信息在这里和那里很模糊,提出的论据是很值得怀疑的。

However, the freedom allowed Paul, and the evangelical activity he displays at the time of writing these letters, would seem more in keeping with his captivity in Rome (Acts 28:17-31) than in Caesarea (Acts, xxiii, sq.).然而,允许自由保罗和福音活动在撰写这些信件时,他显示,似乎与他在罗马囚禁(徒28:17-31)保持较撒利亚(徒,二十三,平方米) 。One thing, however, is certain, once the authenticity of the Epistles to the Colossians and to the Ephesians is admitted, and that is that they were written at the same time.有一件事情,但是,可以肯定,一旦到歌罗西和以弗所书信的真实性承认,那就是他们是在同一时间写的。They both show fundamentally and formally a very close connection of which we shall speak later on.他们都从根本上正式展示了非常密切的联系,其中我们将在稍后发言。Tychicus was appointed to convey both Epistles to those to whom they were respectively addressed and to fulfil the same mission in behalf of them (Colossians 4:7 sq.; Ephesians 6:21 sq.). Tychicus同时被任命为传达书信的那些人,他们分别处理,并履行了代表他们的使命(西四时07平方米;以弗所书6点21平方米)。Verse 16 of chapter iv of Colossians does not seem to allude to the letter to the Ephisians, which would need to have been written first; besides, the Epistle here mentioned is scarcely an encyclical, the context leading us to look upon it as a special letter of the same nature as that sent to the Colossians.诗歌歌罗西书第四章16似乎并不暗示到Ephisians,这将需要被写入的第一个字母,此外,这里提到的是书信几乎an谕,上下文领导我们在看它作为一种特殊的同样性质的函件的发送到歌罗西书。 If, moreover, Paul knew that, before reaching Coloss Colossae,aelig;, Tychicus would deliver the Epistle to the Ephesians to the Christians at Laodicea, there was no reason why he should insert greetings for the Laodiceans in his Epistle to the Colossians (Colossians 4:15).此外,如果保罗知道,才到达Coloss Colossae,aelig;,Tychicus将传递书信的以弗所,以在老底嘉的基督徒,但没有理由为什么他要插在他的书信问候的老底嘉向歌罗西书(歌罗西书4:15)。 It is more probable that the Epistle to the Ephesians was written in the second place.这是更可能的以弗所书信写在第二位。 It would be less easy to understand why, in repeating to the Colossians the same exhortations that he had made to the Ephesians, for instance, on remarriage (Ephesians 5:22 sqq.), the author should have completely suppressed the sublime dogmatic considerations upon which these exhortations had been based.这将是不容易理解为什么在重复的歌罗西书,他已经向以弗所书上再婚(以弗所书5点22 SQQ),例如,同样的嘱托,作者应该完全压制了崇高教条考虑后这些规劝了基础。Moreover we believe with Godet that: It is more natural to think that, of these two mutually complemental letters, the one provoked by a positive request and a definite need [Col.] came first, and that the other [Eph.] was due to the greater solicitude evoked by the composition of the former."此外,我们相信,戈代说:这是更自然地认为,这两个互相补足字母,由一个积极要求和一定的需要挑起之一[上校]是先,而其他的原因[弗。]以更大的关怀由前组成诱发。“

How, then, admitting that St. Paul wrote the Epistle to the Ephesians, shall we explain the origin of this document?那么,如何承认圣保禄写书信的以弗所,我们应解释这份文件的来源?The Apostle, who was captive at Rome, was informed by Epaphras of the dogmatic and moral errors that had come to light in Coloss Colossae aelig; and the neighbouring cities, in churches of which he was not the founder.使徒,谁是在罗马俘虏,获悉由教条和道德已经到了光Coloss Colossae aelig错误Epaphras;和邻近城市,教堂,其中他不是创始人。He also learned that he had been censured for not bringing to the perfection of Christianity those whom he had once converted, and for not taking sufficient interest in churches that had sprung up side by side with his own, although without his personal intervention (Colossians 1:28-2:5).他还了解到,他一直没有把对基督教的完美的人,他曾经改装,并没有采取在那些如雨后春笋般出现了与自己并肩教堂足够的兴趣,虽然没有责备他个人的干预(歌罗西书1 :28 - 2:5)。At the same time that Paul received the news concerning Coloss Colossae,aelig;, and its surroundings, he also heard (Ephesians 1:15) that in a distant part of Asia Minor Christian communities had been brought to the Faith, perhaps by evangelists (Ephesians 4:11).与此同时,保罗得到的消息有关Coloss Colossae,aelig;,和它的周围,他也听说(弗1:15),在一个遥远的小亚细亚基督教社区的一部分已提请信仰,也许是由福音(以弗所书4:11)。 Impressed by the accusations made against him, Paul took advantage of the departure of Tychicus for Coloss Colossae,aelig;, to enter into communication with those Christians who had heard of him (Ephesians 3:2) and to address them a letter in which he had to limit himself to general considerations on Christianity, but he wished to prove his Apostolic solicitude for them by making them realize not only the dignity of their Christian vocation, but the oneness of the Church of God and the intimate union by which all the faithful, no matter what their history, are constituted a single body of which Christ is the head.通过对他的指控留下深刻印象,保罗注意到为Coloss Colossae,aelig Tychicus出发优势;,进入通信与那些谁曾听说过他的基督徒(弗3:2),并解决他们的信中,他不得不限制自己对基督教的一般考虑,但他希望证明,使它们不仅实现了自己的尊严基督教职业,但上帝的教会合一与亲密的联盟,其中所有的信徒他对他们的关怀使徒,不管他们的历史,是构成一个单一的机构,其中基督是头。

VI. VI。AUTHENTICITY真实性

If one would only remember to whom the Epistle was addressed and on what occasion it was written, the objections raised against its Pauline authenticity could be readily answered.如果一个人只会记住谁的书信是写给和什么场合它是书面的,针对其宝莲的真实性提出的异议可以很容易地回答。

(1) Relation to Other Books of the New Testament(1)相关的新约书籍

The letter to the Ephesians bears some resemblance to the Epistle to the Hebrews and the writings of St. Luke and St. John, in point of ideas and mode of expression, but no such resemblance is traceable in the great Pauline Epistles.到以弗所书负有一些向希伯来和圣卢克和圣约翰的著作书信相似,在思想和表达方式来看,但没有这样的相似性,是在伟大的宝莲书信溯源。 Of course one of the Apostle's writings might have been utilized in these later documents but these similarities are too vague to establish a literary relationship.当然,使徒的著作人们可能已经利用这些文件,但后来这些相似之处过于含糊建立一个文学的关系。During the four years intervening between the Epistle to the Romans and that to the Ephesians, St. Paul had changed his headquarters and his line of work, and we behold him at Rome and Caesarea connected with new Christian centres.在四年的罗马人之间的书信和干预的以弗所年,圣保罗改变了他的总部和他的老本行,我们不料他在罗马和恺撒与新的基督教中心相连。 It is, therefore, easy to understand why his style should savour of the Christian language used in these later books, when we recall that their object has so much in common with the matter treated in the Epistle to the Ephesians.正是因此,不难理解为什么他的风格应该细细品味,在这些后来的基督教书籍使用的语言,当我们回顾自己的对象有很多共同之处,以便与在书信的以弗所处理此事。 Whatever may now and then have been said on the subject, the same phenomenon is noticeable in the Epistle to the Colossians.无论现在,然后一直就这个问题说,同样的现象在书信的歌罗西明显。If, indeed, the Epistle to the Ephesians agrees with the Acts in more instances than does the Epistle to the Colossians, it is because the two former have one identical object, namely, the constitution of the Church by the calling of the Jews and Gentiles.事实上,如果到以弗所书信与多个实例比不向歌罗西书信的行为表示同意,这是因为两个前已经由犹太人和外邦人调用一个相同的对象,即教会的宪法。

The relationship between the Epistle to the Ephesians and I Peter is much closer.之间的以弗所和彼得书信的关系更为密切。The letter to the Ephesians, unlike most of the Pauline Epistles, does not begin with an act of thanksgiving but with a hymn similar, even in its wording, to that which opens I Peter.到以弗所书,不同于大多数的宝莲书信,不以一种感恩的行为,而是一个赞歌相似,甚至在其措辞,该它打开彼得。Besides, both letters agree in certain typical expressions and in the description of the duties of the domestic life, which terminates in both with the same exhortation to combat the devil.此外,双方同意在某些字母典型表现和在国内的生活,这两个相同的劝告终止与恶魔作斗争的职责说明。With the majority of critics, we maintain the relationship between these letters to be literary.随着大部分的批评,我们之间保持这些字母的关系是文学。But I Peter was written last and consequently depends on the Epistle to the Ephesians; for instance, it alludes already to the persecution, at least as impending.但我写的彼得最后,因此在书信的以弗所依赖,例如,它的意思已经向迫害至少为即将到来的。Sylvanus, the Apostle's faithful companion, was St. Peter's secretary (1 Peter 5:12), and it is but natural that he should make use of a letter, recently written by St. Paul, on questions analogous to those which he himself had to treat, especially as according to us, those addressed in both of these Epistles are, for the greater part, identical (cf. 1 Peter 1:1). Sylvanus,使徒的忠实伴侣,是圣彼得的秘书(彼前5:12),它只不过是自然的,他应该对类似的问题作那些他本人最近由圣保罗写了一封信,请使用来对待,尤其是根据我们,在这些书信是双方讨论的,对于大部份,相同的(参见彼得前书1:1)。 The attacks made upon the authenticity of the Epistle to the Ephesians have been based mainly on its similarity to the Epistle to the Colossians, although some have maintained that the latter depends upon the former (Mayerhoff).后,到以弗所书信的真实性作出的攻击,主要是基于其相似的书信向歌罗西书,尽管有些人认为,后者在前者(Mayerhoff)而定。 In the opinion of Hitzig and Holtzmann, a forger living early in the second century and already imbued with Gnosticism used an authentic letter, written by Paul to the Colossians against the Judeo-Christians of the Apostolic Age, in composing the Epistle to the Ephesians, in conformity to which he himself subsequently revised the letter to the Colossians, giving it the form it has in the canon.在希齐格和HOLTZMANN,一个伪造的生活早在公元二世纪,并已与诺斯替主义充满认为用一个真实的信,写的保罗反对使徒时代的犹太教和基督教,在作曲的歌罗西书的书信的以弗所,在是否符合他自己后来修改了一封信给歌罗西书,给它的形式在佳能。 De Wette and Ewald looked upon the Epistle to the Ephesians as a verbose amplification of the uncontroversial parts of the letter to the Colossians.德Wette和Ewald白眼的书信的以弗所作为对向歌罗西书的争议部分详细的放大。However, it is only necessary to read first one of these documents and then the other, in order to see how exaggerated is this view.然而,这只是第一个要读这些文件,然后另一方面,为了看如何夸张的是这个观点。Von Soden finds a great difference between the two letters but nevertheless holds that several sections of the Epistle to the Ephesians are but a servile paraphrase of passages from the letter to the Colossians (Ephesians 3:1-9 and Colossians 1:23-27; Ephesians 5:21-6:9 and Colossians 3:18-4:1) and that still more frequently the later author follows a purely mechanical process by taking a single verse from the letter to the Colossians and using it to introduce and conclude, and serve as a frame, so to speak, for a statement of his own.冯索登发现了两者之间的巨大差异,但信不过持有的以弗所书信的几个部分,不过是从段落到歌罗西书(弗3:1-9和歌罗西书1:23-27奴性的意译;以弗所书5:21-6:9和歌罗西书3:18-4:1),并且更加频繁后来撰文如下方式为:从到歌罗西书单节并用它来介绍和总结一个纯粹的机械过程,并作为一个框架,可以这么说,对于他自己的声明。 Thus, he maintains that in Eph., iv, 25-31, the first words of verse 8 of Col., iii, have served as an introduction (Ephesians 4:25) and the last words of the same verse as a conclusion (Ephesians 4:31).因此,他认为,在弗,四,25-31,诗的上校,三8的第一句话,曾担任介绍(弗4:25),并作为一个结论同诗最后的话(以弗所书4:31)。 Evidently such methods could not be attributed to the Apostle himself.显然,这种方法不能归因于使徒自己。But, neither are we justified in ascribing them to the author of the Epistle to the Ephesians.但是,也不是我们有理由归咎于他们的书信的以弗所作者。For instance, the duties of husband and wife are well set forth in Col., iii, 18, 19, but in these verses there is no comparison whatever between Christian marriage and that union of Christ with His Church such as characterizes the same exhortation in Eph., v, 22 sq.; consequently, it would be very arbitrary to maintain the latter text to be a vulgar paraphrase of the former.例如,丈夫和妻子的工作内容都载于上校,三,18,19,但在这些诗句没有什么比较基督教之间的婚姻和他的教会与基督联合的特点,如在相同的规劝弗,V,22平方米;因此,这将是非常武断保持后者的文字是一个前庸俗意译。 In comparing the texts quoted, the phenomenon of framing, to which von Soden called attention, can be verified in a single passage (Ephesians 4:2-16, where verse 2 resembles Colossians 3:12 sq. and where verses 15-16 are like Colossians 11 and 19).在比较文本引用,在取景的现象,对此冯索登呼吁注意,可以验证在一个单一的通道(弗4:2-16,其中第2节类似歌罗西书3时12分平并在15-16诗句是像歌罗西11和19)。 In fact, throughout his entire exposition, the author of the Epistle to the Ephesians is constantly repeating ideas and even particular expressions that occur in the letter to the Colossians, and yet neither a servile imitation nor any one of the well-known offences to which plagiarists are liable, can be proved against him.事实上,在他的整个论述中,作者以书信的以弗所是不断重复的想法,甚至在向歌罗西书,可是既不是奴性模仿也没有任何知名的罪行,其中之一发生特定的表达剽窃者的责任,可对他证明。

Moreover, it is chiefly in their hortatory part that these two letters are so remarkably alike and this is only natural if, at intervals of a few days or hours, the same author had to remind two distinct circles of readers of the same common duties of the Christian life.此外,它在他们的劝告的一部分,主要是这两个字母是如此显着的一致好评,这是很自然的,如果,在几天或几小时的时间间隔,同一作者不得不提醒的是两个相同的公共职责分明各界读者基督徒的生活。 In the dogmatic part of these two Epistles there is a change of subject, treated with a different intention and in another tone.在这两个书信教条式的部分有一个主体的变化,用不同的意图,而在另一个调处理。In the one instance we have a hymn running through three chapters and celebrating the call of both Jews and Gentiles and the union of all in the Church of Christ; and in the other, an exposition of Christ's dignity and of the adequacy of the means He vouchsafes us for the obtaining of our salvation, as also thanksgiving and especially prayers for those readers who are liable to misunderstand this doctrine.在一个实例中,我们有一个赞美诗贯穿三章和庆祝犹太人和外邦人和所有在基督的教会联盟的呼吁,以及在另一方面,一个基督的尊严和的手段充分阐述他vouchsafes为获得拯救我们一样,也感恩和谁的读者有可能被误解了这一学说,特别是祈祷,我们。 However, these two objects, Christ and the Church, are closely akin.然而,这两个对象,基督和教会有密切的类似。Besides, if in his letter to the Ephesians, St. Paul reproduces the ideas set forth in that to the Colossians, it is certainly less astonishing than to find a like phenomenon in the Epistles to the Galatians and to the Romans, as it is very natural that the characteristic expressions used by the Apostle in the Epistle to the Colossians should appear in the letter to the Ephesians, since both were written at the same time.此外,如果在他写信给以弗所,圣保禄再现于该出来的歌罗西书的想法,那肯定是惊人的,而不是少找一个在向加拉太和罗马人的书信一样的现象,因为它是非常自然,通过在使徒书信向歌罗西书所使用的特征表现应该出现在以弗信,因为两者是在同一时间写的。 In fact it has been remarked that he is prone to repeat typical expressions he has one coined (cf. Zahn, Einleitung, I, p. 363 sq.).事实上,它已经表示,他很容易出现重复的典型表现,他已经创造了(参见赞恩,导论,我,第363平方米)之一。 Briefly, we conclude with Sabatier that: "These two letters come to us from one and the same author who, when writing the one, had the other in mind and, when composing the second, had not forgotten the first."简而言之,我们的结论与萨巴蒂尔说:“这两个来自同一个作者谁,在写一个,脑子里想其他,当我们的第二个组成字母,没有忘记第一次。” The vague allusions made in the Epistle to the Ephesians to some of the doctrinal questions treated in the Epistle to the Colossians, can be accounted for in this manner, even though these questions were never proposed by those to whom the former Epistle was addressed.模糊在书信的以弗所,以在书信的歌罗西处理的一些理论问题典故,可占这种方式,即使这些问题从未被那些人的书信是写给前提出。

(2) Difficulties Arising from the Form and Doctrines(2)所引起的困难的形式和教义

The denial of the Pauline authenticity of the Epistle to the Ephesians is based on the special characteristics of the Epistle from the viewpoint of style as well as of doctrine, and, while differing from those of the great Pauline Epistles, these characteristics although more marked, resemble those of the letter to the Colossians.而对保罗的以弗所书信的真实性否认是根据从风格的角度,以及学说,书信的特点,并同时从大宝莲书信的不同,虽然这些特征更加明显,类似的信给歌罗西的。 But we have already dwelt upon them at sufficient length.但是,我们已经住在他们在足够的长度。

The circumstances under which the Apostle must have written the Epistle to the Ephesians seem to account for the development of the doctrine and the remarkable change of style.在何种情况下必须有书面的使徒书信的以弗所情况似乎占了该学说的发展和风格显着的变化。During his two years' captivity in Caesarea, Paul could not exercise his Apostolic functions, and in Rome, although allowed more liberty, he could not preach the Gospel outside of the house in which he was held prisoner.在他两年的囚禁在凯撒利亚,保罗不能行使他的使徒的功能,并在罗马,虽然允许更多的自由,他不能传外,在其中他被关押囚犯的房子福音。 Hence he must have made up for his want of external activity by a more profound meditation on "his Gospel".因此,他必须已经为他的外部活动要由一个“福音”更深刻的沉思。The theology of justification, of the Law, and of the conditions essential to salvation, he had already brought to perfection, having systematized it in the Epistle to the Romans and, although keeping it in view, he did not require to develop it any further.神学的理由,在法律和必要的条件得救,他已经带来了完善,具有系统化它在给罗马人书信,虽然保持在观看,他并不需要它的任何进一步发展。 In his Epistle to the Romans (viii-xi, xvi, 25-27) he had come to the investigation of the eternal counsels of Providence concerning the salvation of men and had expounded, as it were, a philosophy of the religious history of mankind of which Christ was the centre, as indeed He had always been the central object of St. Paul's faith.在他的书信向罗马(八喜,十六,25至27日)他到了永恒的上帝救恩有关的男子调查,并阐述了律师,因为它是一个对人类的宗教历史哲学其中基督为中心,事实上他一直是圣保罗的信仰中心对象。 Thus, it was on Christ Himself that the solitary meditations of the Apostle were concentrated; in the quiet of his prison he was to develop, by dint of personal intellectual labour and with the aid of new revelations, this first revelation received when "it pleased God to reveal His Son in him".因此,它是在基督的使徒自己,孤独的沉思集中,在他的监狱,他平静地发展个人的智力劳动力,并与新的启示援助,这第一次的启示时,收到“它高兴上帝在他透露,他的儿子“。 He was, moreover, urged by the news brought him from time to time by some of his disciples, as, for instance, by Epaphras, that, in certain churches, errors were being propagated which tended to lessen the role and the dignity of Christ, by setting up against Him other intermediaries in the work of salvation.他是,而且,敦促带来的消息时他的时间由他的一些弟子,因为,例如由Epaphras,即在某些教会,错误被传播而趋于减少的作用和基督的尊严, ,通过建立在对他的拯救工作的其他中介机构。On the other hand, separated from the faithful and having no longer to travel constantly from one church to another, the Apostle was able to embrace in one sweeping glance all the Christians scattered throughout the world.另一方面,脱离忠实并不再有旅行不断从一个教堂到另一个,使徒能够在一个拥抱扫一眼所有的散布在世界各地的基督徒。While he resided in the centre of the immense Roman Empire which, in its unity, comprised the world, it was the one universal Church of Christ, the fulfilment of the mysterious decrees revealed to him, the Church in which it had been his privilege to bring together Jews and pagans, that presented itself to him for contemplation.虽然他在罗马帝国的巨大,在它的统一,包括居住在世界的中心,这是一个普遍的基督教会,向他透露的神秘的法令履行,教会在它曾经是他的荣幸汇集犹太人和异教徒,即提出了自己对他的沉思。

These subjects of habitual meditation are naturally introduced in the letters that he had to write at that time.习惯性自然冥想这些科目中引入信,他写在那个时间。To the Colossians he speaks of Christ's dignity; to the Ephesians, and we have seen why, of the unity of the Church.向歌罗西书,他谈到了基督的尊严;的以弗所,我们已经看到为什么,教会的统一。But in these Epistles, Paul addresses those who are unknown to him; he no longer needs, as in preceding letters, to combat theories which undermined the very foundation of the work and to refute enemies who, in their hatred, attacked him personally.但是,在这些书信,保罗地址不明的谁是他的,他不再需要,因为在前面的字母,以作战理论这有损于工作的基础,并驳斥敌人谁,在他们的仇恨,攻击他本人。 Accordingly, there is no further occasion to use the serried argumentation with which he not only overthrew the arguments of his adversaries but turned them to the latters' confusion.因此,没有进一步的场合使用林立的论证,使他不仅推翻了他的对手的论据,但他们拒绝向后者的混乱。There is more question of setting forth the sublime considerations with which he is filled than of discussions.还有更多的设置提出了与他有比讨论充满崇高考虑的问题。Then, ideas so crowd upon him that his pen is overtaxed; his sentences teem with synonyms and qualifying epithets and keep taking on new propositions, thus losing the sharpness and vigour of controversy and assuming the ample proportions of a hymn of adoration.然后,众人向他这样的想法,他的笔是负担过重,他的刑期,盛产各种同义词和排位赛绰号,不断以新的命题,从而失去了清晰度和争议的生机和假设的崇拜赞歌充裕的地步。 Hence we can understand why, in these letters, Paul's style grows dull and sluggish and why the literary composition differs so widely from that of the first Epistles.因此,我们可以理解为什么在这些信件,保罗的风格沉闷和缓慢增长,以及为什么如此广泛的文学成分有所不同,从第一书信。 When writing to the Colossians he at least had one particular church to deal with and certain errors to refute, whereas, in the Epistle to the Ephesians, he addressed himself at one and the same time to a group of unknown churches of which he had received but vague information.当以书面形式向歌罗西书他至少有一个特别的教会,以处理和某些错误反​​驳,而在书信的以弗所,他在处理同一个时间自己的,而他已收到未知的教堂群但是模糊的信息。 There was nothing concrete in this and the Apostle was left entirely to himself and to his own meditations.有没有具体在这方面和使徒是完全留给自己和自己的沉思。This is the reason why the special characteristics already indicated in the Epistle to the Colossians appear even more pronounced in that to the Ephesians, particularly in the dogmatic part.这就是为什么的特点已经在书信的歌罗西表示,即使出现更明显的以弗所,特别是在教条的一部分。

(3) Tradition(3)传统

If we thus keep in mind the circumstances under which Paul wrote both of these letters, their peculiar character seems no obstacle to their Pauline authenticity.如果我们由此记住在什么情况下,保罗写了这些信都,其独特的性格,似乎没有他们的波利娜真实性障碍。Therefore, the testimony which, in their inscriptions (Colossians 1:1; Ephesians 1:1), they themselves render to this authenticity and the very ancient tradition which unanimously attributes them to the Apostle preserve all their force.因此,证词,在他们的铭文(歌罗西书1:1;弗1:1),他们自己提供这种真实性和非常古老的传统,一致属性他们使徒维护他们所有的力量。 From the traditional viewpoint the Epistle to the Ephesians is in the same class as the best attested letters of St. Paul.从传统观点的以弗所书信是最好的证明信圣保罗在同一类。Used in the First Epistle of St. Peter, in the Epistle of St. Polycarp, in the works of St. Justin, perhaps in the Didache and I Clement, it appears to have been already well known towards the end of the first century.用于在圣彼得第一书信,在圣波利卡普书信,在圣贾斯汀的作品,或许在十二使徒遗训,我克莱门特,它似乎已经早已实现第一世纪末闻名。 Marcion and St. Irenæus ascribe it to St. Paul and it seems that St. Ignatius, when writing to the Ephesians, had already made use of it as Pauline.马吉安和圣Irenæus赋予它圣保罗和圣依纳爵看来,写作时的以弗所,已经取得使用它作为宝莲。It is also to be noted that if the authenticity of this Epistle has been denied by most of the liberal critics since Schleiermacher's day, it is nevertheless conceded by many modern critics, Protestants among them, and held at least as probable by Harnack and Julicher.它也应当指出,如果此书信的真伪已自施莱尔马赫的一天自由批评最否认,但它仍然是承认许多现代的批评,其中新教徒,并举行了至少可能由哈尔纳克和Julicher。 In fact the day seems to be approaching when the whole world will recognize as the work of St. Paul, this Epistle to the Ephesians, of which St. John Chrysostom admired the sublime sentences and doctrines: noematon meste .事实上,天似乎是接近的时候,整个世界都会承认的圣保罗,这对以弗所书信,其中圣约翰金口欣赏壮美的句子和理论工作:noematon meste。. .....hypselon kai dogmaton. hypselon偕dogmaton。

Publication information Written by P. Ladeuze.出版信息P. Ladeuze书面。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五,1909年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Consult Introductions to the New Testament.咨询介绍新约。We shall content ourselves here with indicating the latest commentaries, in which the earlier bibliography is mentioned.我们将在这里与自己的内容显示最新的评论,其中提到早期的书目。Catholic Commentaries: Bisping, Erklarung der Briefe an die Epheser, Philipper und Kolosser (Munster, 1866); Henle, Der Epheserbrief des hl.天主教评:比斯平,Erklarung DER Briefe an死Epheser,Philipper UND Kolosser(明斯特,1866); Henle,DER Epheserbrief DES HL。Apostela Paulus erklart Augsburg, 1908); Belser, Der Epheserbrief ubersetzl und erklart (Freiburg im Br., 1908); Maunoury, Commentaire sur l'epitre aux Galates, aux Ephesiens, etc. (Paris, 1881).Apostela保卢斯erklart奥格斯堡,1908年);贝尔瑟,DER Epheserbrief ubersetzl UND erklart(弗赖堡IM溴,1908年); Maunoury,评注河畔L' epitre辅助Galates,辅助Ephesiens等(巴黎,1881年)。Non-Catholic Commentaries: Oltramare, Commentair sur les epitres de S. Paul aux Colossiens, aux Ephesiens et a Philemon (Paris, 1891); Von Soden, Die Briefe an die Kolosser, Epheser, Philemon in Hand-Commeniar sum NT, ed.非天主教评:拉马尔,Commentair SUR LES epitres DE S.保罗辅助Colossiens,辅助Ephesiens等a腓利门书(巴黎,1891年);冯索登,模具Briefe在手Commeniar总和NT,编an死Kolosser,Epheser,腓利门书。 Holtzmann (Freiburg im Br., 1893); Haupt, Die Gefangenachaftsbriefe in Krit.-exeg. HOLTZMANN(弗赖堡IM溴,1893年);豪普特,模具Gefangenachaftsbriefe在Krit. - exeg。Kommentar, ed. Kommentar,编辑。Meyer (8th ed., Gottingen, 1902); Ewald, Die Briefe des Paulus an die Epheser, Kolosser, und Philemon in Kommentar zum NT , ed.迈耶(第8版,哥廷根,1902年);埃瓦尔德,模具Briefe DES保卢斯an死Epheser,Kolosser,UND在Kommentar ZUM NT编腓利门书。Zahn (Leipzig, 1905); Baljon, Commentaar op de briven van Paulus aan der Thess., Ef., Kol.赞恩(莱比锡,1905年); Baljon,Commentaar OP DE briven车保卢斯AAN DER帖,EF,KOL。en aan Philemon (Utrecht, 1907); Abbott, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Epistles to the Ephisians and to the Colossians in International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh, 1897); Robinson, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (London, 1903); Westcott, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (London, 1906); Gore, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (London, 1907).EN AAN腓利门书(乌得勒支,1907年);,A到Ephisians和国际评论文章(爱丁堡,1897年)的歌罗西书信关键和训诂解说雅培,罗宾逊,圣保禄书信的以弗所(伦敦,1903年);韦斯科特,圣保禄书信的以弗所(伦敦,1906年);戈尔,圣保禄的书信的以弗所(伦敦,1907年)。



This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html