Council of Ephesus以弗所 理事会

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The Council of Ephesus (431), the third ecumenical council of the Christian church was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary in the celestial hierarchy and on the nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ.安理会的以弗所(431),第三的基督教教会大公会议有显着性为它的教条对圣母玛利亚在天体阶层中的位置和对耶稣基督的化身性质的法令。 It was convened by the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II with the approval of Pope Celestine I in order to respond to the teachings of Nestorius that Mary be considered only the "mother of Christ" and not the "mother of God" (see Nestorianism).它的召开与教皇圣境我审批,以应对涅斯的玛丽被认为只是“基督之母”,而不是“神的母亲”(见景教)教义由东方罗马皇帝狄奥多西二世。 After lengthy debates continuing even after the end of the council, the pope's representative, Cyril of Alexandria, reached an accord in which the appellation "mother of God," formally decreed by the council, was accepted by all.即使在后的安理会结束持续长时间的辩论后,教皇的代表,西里尔亚历山大,达成了在该称呼“上帝之母”,安理会正式颁布协议,被所有人接受。 The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine aspects of Jesus, now declared to be of two separate natures though perfectly united in Christ.该委员会还细化了对耶稣神性方面的人力和教条,现在宣布为两个独立的性质虽然在基督完美统一。

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In 449 another council, known in history as the latrocinium, or Robber Synod, met in Ephesus.另外在449局,在历史上被称为latrocinium,或强盗主教会见了以弗所。It approved the doctrines of Eutyches, which were subsequently condemned (451) at the Council of Chalcedon.它批准了Eutyches学说,随后谴责在Chalcedon委员会(451)。

T. Tackett T. Tackett


Ephesus以弗所

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Ephesus was the capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor.以弗所是地方总督亚洲资本,这是小亚细亚西部。It was colonized principally from Athens.这是殖民统治主要来自雅典。In the time of the Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia."在罗马人的时间内孔的标题“亚洲第一和最大的都市。”It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (qv), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators.这是尊贵的戴安娜(QV)寺,谁那里有她的主要圣地,以及为它的戏剧,这是世界上最大的,含有5万观众的能力。 It was, like all ancient theatres, open to the sky.这是,像所有的古剧场,开放天空。Here were exhibited the fights of wild beasts and of men with beasts.这里展出的野兽和野兽与人的战斗。(Comp. 1 Cor. 4:9; 9:24, 25; 15:32.) Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost (Acts 2:9; 6:9).(Comp.林前4时09分; 9时24分,25; 15:32)许多犹太人占去了这个城市的居住,这里的福音的种子,播种后立即五旬(使徒2时09分,6 :9)。

At the close of his second missionary journey (about AD 51), when Paul was returning from Greece to Syria (18:18-21), he first visited this city.在他的第二次传教之旅(约公元51),保罗是从希腊返回叙利亚(18:18-21)关闭,他第一次访问这个城市。He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem; but he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of spreading the gospel.他依然存在,但是,只有很短的时间,因为他很可能加速,以保持五旬节盛宴,在耶路撒冷,但他离开拉奎拉和他身后的梁美芬进行的传播福音的工作。 During his third missionary journey Paul reached Ephesus from the "upper coasts" (Acts 19:1), ie, from the inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years; and so successful and abundant were his labours that "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks" (19:10).在他的第三次宣教旅程保罗到达以弗所从“上海岸”(徒19:1),即由小亚细亚的内陆地区,并守侯三年左右在这里,等是他的成功和丰富的劳动力,“所有他们是住在亚洲听到了主耶稣的话,无论是犹太人和希腊人“(19:10)。 Probably during this period the seven churches of the Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul's personal labours, but by missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the influence of converts returning to their homes.在此期间可能的启示七个教会创立,而不是由保罗的个人劳动,而是由人,他可能派出由以弗所了传教士,由返回家园转换的影响。

On his return from his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of Ephesus (Acts 20:15), and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which is recorded in Acts 20:18-35.在他从他的回归之旅,保罗在米利都感动,大约30英里以南的以弗所(徒20:15),并为以弗所的长老派,以满足他那里,他提供给他们,抚摸告别的开支,在行为记录20:18-35。 Ephesus is not again mentioned till near the close of Paul's life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to "abide still at Ephesus" (1 Tim. 1:3).以弗所是不会再次到附近的保罗的生活密切提到,当他写信给提摩太嘱咐他“仍然在以弗所遵守”(提前1:3)。Two of Paul's companions, Trophimus and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus (Acts 20:4; 21:29; 2 Tim. 4:12).保罗的同伴,特罗和Tychicus二,很可能是当地人的以弗所(徒二十点04分,21时29分,2添4:12)。In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus (2 Tim. 1:18).在他的第二书信给提摩太,保罗说,作为拥有曾在很多事情在以弗所(提后1:18)他的Onesiphorus。He also "sent Tychicus to Ephesus" (4:12), probably to attend to the interests of the church there.他还“送Tychicus到以弗所”(4:12),可能无暇顾及教会的利益存在。Ephesus is twice mentioned in the Apocalypse (1:11; 2:1).以弗所是两次提到的启示(1:11; 2:1)。The apostle John, according to tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried.使徒约翰,根据传统,度过了许多年的以弗所,在那里他死后被埋葬。A part of the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek words, hagios theologos; ie, "the holy divine."一个曾经在这个网站的一部分,是著名的城市现在土耳其占领一个小村庄,Ayasaluk,这是作为两个希腊词腐败,hagios theologos认为,“神圣的神圣的”,也就是说,

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


The Council of Ephesus - 431 AD安理会的以弗所 - 431 AD

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Contents目录

  1. Introduction 简介
  2. Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved二是西里尔字母涅斯-批准
  3. Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril - condemned第二封信的涅斯西里尔-谴责
  4. Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved三是西里尔字母涅斯-批准
  5. The judgment against Nestorius反对涅斯判决
  6. Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.)关于东部主教驱逐Synodical信(等)
  7. Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431]定义的信念在尼西亚[第6次会议7月22日431]
  8. Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites定义对不虔诚Messalians或Euchites
  9. Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations决议:即塞浦路斯进行祝圣主教本身可能
  10. Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch工会公式和约翰之间Cyrill安提
  11. Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace信西里尔约翰约和平安提阿
  12. Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon accepting the Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace.从Chalcedon委员会摘录接受的西里尔字母的关于和平安提阿约翰。

Introduction简介

Nestorius , who had been condemned in a council at Rome on 11 August 430, asked the emperor Theodosius II to summon this council.涅斯 ,谁曾在位于罗马8月11日安理会谴责430,要求皇帝狄奥多西二世召集本会。The emperor therefore decided to summon it together with his co-emperor Valentinian III and with the agreement of Pope Celestine I . Theodosius's letter of 19 November 430 requested all those who had been summoned to be present at Ephesus on 7 June 431, the feast of Pentecost.皇帝因此决定传召与他的共同皇帝瓦伦蒂安III与教皇圣境我同意一起。狄奥多西的11月19日430信中要求所有那些谁被召唤7日将在以弗所目前六月431的盛宴圣灵降临节。

On 22 June, however,6月22日,然而,

  • before the arrival either of the Roman legates or the eastern bishops led by John of Antioch ,之前任罗马使节或由安提阿主教约翰率领东部的到来,
  • Cyril of Alexandria began the council.西里尔亚历山大开始了议会。
  • Nestorius was summoned three times but did not come.涅斯被传唤三次,但没有来。
  • His teaching was examined and judgment passed upon it, which 197 bishops subscribed at once and others later accepted.他的教学进行了检查和判断后,通过它,这一次认购197主教等人后来接受。

    Shortly afterwards John of Antioch and the easterners arrived: they refused communion with Cyril and set up another council. The Roman legates (the bishops Arcadius and Projectus and the priest Philip), on arriving, joined Cyril and confirmed the sentence against Nestorius.不久之后的安提阿和东方人约翰抵达:他们拒绝与西里尔共融,并成立一个理事会 (主教Arcadius和Projectus和牧师菲利普) 罗马使节 ,就抵达, 加入反对涅斯西里尔和确认判决。Then the council in its fifth session on 17 July excommunicated John and his party.然后,在其第五次会议7月17日议会驱逐约翰一行。

    The documents of the Cyrilline council , the only one which is ecumenical , are included below and are as follows.在Cyrilline理事会 ,只有一个是合一 ,该文件包含下面如下。

    1. The central dogmatic act of the council is its judgment about whether the second letter of Cyril to Nestorius, or Nestorius's second letter to Cyril, was in conformity with the Nicene creed which was recited at the opening of the council's proceedings.中央理事会的教条式的行为是其是否对西里尔第二封信涅斯,或涅斯的第二封信利禄,与尼西亚信条这是在安理会的程序开始背诵是符合判断。 Both are here printed.两者都是在这里印刷。Mention is made of Cyril's letter in the definition of Chalcedon.提到了西里尔的定义在迦克墩信。
    2. The 12 anathemas and the preceding explanatory letter, which had been produced by Cyril and the synod of Alexandria in 430 and sent to Nestorius, were read at Ephesus and included in the proceedings .12 anathemas前面的解释信,这已经产生西里尔和亚历山大在430 主教 ,被送往涅斯, 是读以弗所和在诉讼中
    3. The decision about Nestorius.关于涅斯决定。
    4. The letter of the council advising all the bishops, clergy and people about the condemnation of John of Antioch; and some paragraphs dealing with the discipline of the Nestorian party.安理会的信中建议所有的主教,神职人员和有关的安提阿人约翰谴责;和一些段落与景教党的纪律处理。
    5. A decree on the faith, approved in the sixth session on 22 July, which confirmed the Nicene creed, ordered adherence to that alone and forbade the production of new creeds.关于信仰的法令,在7月22日第六届会议,这证实了尼西亚信经批准的,责令坚持,仅此并禁止生产的新信条。
    6. A definition against the Messalians.反对Messalians定义。
    7. A decree about the autonomy of the church of Cyprus.一个关于塞浦路斯教会自治法令。

    Both councils sent legates to the emperor Theodosius, who approved neither and sent the bishops away.两局派出使节向皇帝狄奥多西,谁也不批准并派主教了。Nestorius had already been given permission to revisit his monastery at Antioch, and on 25 October 431 Maximianus was ordained patriarch at Constantinople. The decrees of the council were approved by Pope Sixtus III shortly after his own ordination on 31 July 432.涅斯已获准重新在安提阿他的寺院,和10月25日431 Maximianus被规定在君士坦丁堡族长。 理事会的法令是由教皇Sixtus III批准后不久,他7月31日432自己的协调。

    The reconciliation between the Cyrilline party and the eastern bishops was not easy.之间的Cyrilline党和东部主教和解是不容易的。In the end, on 23 April 433, Cyril and John of Antioch made peace.最后,4月23日433,西里尔和安提阿约翰提出的和平。John's profession of faith was accepted by Cyril and became the doctrinal formula of union. It is included here, together with Cyril's letter in which he at some length praises John's profession and accepts it, adding to it some explanation about his own expressions; this letter is mentioned in the definition of Chalcedon .约翰的信仰界接受了西里尔,成为工会理论公式。它包括在这里,连同西里尔的信中,他在一些长度称赞约翰的专业和接受它,增添了一些关于他自己的表现作出解释,这信被提及的迦克墩定义Shortly afterwards, probably in 436, Nestorius was definitely sent into exile by the emperor .不久之后,大概在436涅斯肯定送入流放的皇帝。

    The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version.英文翻译是从希腊文,这是比较权威的版本。


    Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius第二个字母的西里尔到涅斯

    [Declared by the council of Ephesus to be in agreement with Nicaea][由以弗所委员会宣布将与尼西亚协议]

    Cyril sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Nestorius西里尔发送问候在主最宗教和可敬的同胞部长涅斯

    I understand that there are some who are talking rashly of the reputation in which I hold your reverence, and that this is frequently the case when meetings of people in authority give them an opportunity.据我所知,有一些谁谈的声誉在我握住你的崇敬草率,并认为这是经常出现的情况时,当权者会议给他们一个机会。 I think they hope in this way to delight your ears and so they spread abroad uncontrolled expressions.我认为他们希望用这种方式来满足您的耳朵,所以他们在国外的传播不受控制表达式。They are people who have suffered no wrong, but have been exposed by me for their own profit, one because he oppressed the blind and the poor, a second because he drew a sword on his mother, a third because he stole someone else's money in collusion with a maidservant and since then has lived with such a reputation as one would hardly wish for one's worst enemy.他们是人谁遭受没有错,但都被我暴露自己的利润,因为他被压迫的盲目和穷人,第二个是因为他画了他的母亲,一个第三剑,因为他偷了别人的钱一个侍女,此后一直生活勾结这样的声誉,几乎没有人会愿意为自己的最大的敌人。 For the rest I do not intend to spend more words on this subject in order not to vaunt my own mediocrity above my teacher and master or above the fathers.至于其他,我不打算在这个问题上花费更多的单词,为了不吹嘘以上我的老师和硕士以上的父亲自己的平庸。For however one may try to live, it is impossible to escape the malice of evil people, whose mouths are full of cursing and bitterness and who will have to defend themselves before the judge of all.然而对于一个可能试住,就不可能逃脱邪恶的人,其口是咒骂苦毒,谁必须捍卫之前,所有衡量自己恶意。

    But I turn to a subject more fitting to myself and remind you as a brother in Christ always to be very careful about what you say to the people in matters of teaching and of your thought on the faith.不过,我想谈谈一个主题更贴合,并提醒你对自己作为一个在基督里的兄弟总是非常关注你说的话,在你的教学和思想信仰上的事宜,向市民小心。 You should bear in mind that to scandalise even one of these little ones that believe in Christ lays you open to unendurable wrath.你应该记住,要scandalise甚至在基督相信这些小子里的一个开放奠定了你无法忍受的愤怒。 If the number of those who are distressed is very large, then surely we should use every skill and care to remove scandals and to expound the healthy word of faith to those who seek the truth.如果那些谁是心疼数量非常大,那么一定要利用各种技能和护理消除丑闻和阐述信仰的健康单词​​那些谁寻求真理。The most effective way to achieve this end will be zealously to occupy ourselves with the words of the holy fathers , to esteem their words, to examine our words to see if we are holding to their faith as it is written, to conform our thoughts to their correct and irreproachable teaching.最有效的方式来实现这一目标将热忱占据了神圣的父亲的话自己,尊重他们的话,检查我们的话,看看我们是抱着自己的信仰,因为它写的是符合我们的思想,以正确的和无可指责的教学。

    The holy and great synod, therefore, stated that神圣和伟大的主教会议,因此,说

  • 1. 1。the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, 唯一的独生子,神独生子的父亲根据性质,真正从真神,从光灯,一个经手的父亲所有的东西,神下来,成了肉身,成为人,
  • 2. 2。suffered, rose on the third day and ascended to heaven .深受其害,在第三天上涨和升天。

  • 1. 1。We too ought to follow these words and these teachings and consider what is meant by saying that the Word from God took flesh and became man.我们也应该遵循这些词和这些教导,并考虑什么是说,从神的话语了肉体,成为人的意思。For we do not say that the nature of the Word was changed and became flesh, nor that he was turned into a whole man made of body and soul.因为我们不说,该字的性质变了,变得肉,也不是说他的身体和灵魂进入了一个整体男子出现。Rather do we claim that the Word in an unspeakable, inconceivable manner united to himself hypostatically flesh enlivened by a rational soul, and so became man and was called son of man, not by God's will alone or good pleasure, nor by the assumption of a person alone.而我们主张在一个不可告人的,不可思议的方式Word的团结,以自己hypostatically肉由一个理性的灵魂活跃,所以成为人,被称为人的儿子,而不是由上帝的意志单独或喜悦,也不是由一个假设人独处。 Rather did two different natures come together to form a unity , and from both arose one Christ, one Son.两种不同的性质 ,而是没有走到一起,形成一个团结 ,同时从出现一个基督,一个儿子。It was not as though the distinctness of the natures was destroyed by the union , but divinity and humanity together made perfect for us one Lord and one Christ, together marvellously and mysteriously combining to form a unity.不是因为虽然该性质的独特性是由工会的破坏 ,但神和人类共同提出要为我们的主,一个基督完美的,奇妙而神秘结合在一起,形成一个统一。So he who existed and was begotten of the Father before all ages is also said to have been begotten according to the flesh of a woman, without the divine nature either beginning to exist in the holy virgin, or needing of itself a second begetting after that from his Father.于是,他存在,谁是父独生子之前,所有年龄段也说已经独生子根据女人的肉没有神性或开始存在于神圣的处女,或自身需要后,第二begetting,从他的父亲。 (For it is absurd and stupid to speak of the one who existed before every age and is coeternal with the Father, needing a second beginning so as to exist.) The Word is said to have been begotten according to the flesh, because for us and for our salvation he united what was human to himself hypostatically and came forth from a woman. (因为它是荒谬和愚蠢可言之前存在一个谁每一个时代,并与父coeternal,需要第二次开始,以存在的。)一词据说已经独生子按肉体,因为对我们来说,和我们的拯救他团结什么人对自己hypostatically和来自一个女人等等。 For he was not first begotten of the holy virgin, a man like us, and then the Word descended upon him; but from the very womb of his mother he was so united and then underwent begetting according to the flesh, making his own the begetting of his own flesh.因为他不是第一个独生的圣处女,像我们的人,然后在Word降临他,但他从母亲的子宫很他是如此统一,然后进行begetting按肉体,使他自己的begetting他自己的肉。

  • 2. 2。In a similar way we say that he suffered and rose again, not that the Word of God suffered blows or piercing with nails or any other wounds in his own nature (for the divine, being without a body, is incapable of suffering), but because the body which became his own suffered these things, he is said to have suffered them for us.用类似的方法,我们说,他再次遭遇和玫瑰,而不是神的话语出现在他用钉子或任何其他性质的伤口(为神圣的,没有身体,但有苦难的能力)的打击或穿孔,但因为身体这成为他自己的遭遇这些事,他说已经为我们遭受他们。 For he was without suffering, while his body suffered.因为他没有痛苦,而他的身体受到影响。Something similar is true of his dying.类似的东西是他的死如此。For by nature the Word of God is of itself immortal and incorruptible and life and life-giving, but since on the other hand his own body by God's grace, as the apostle says, tasted death for all, the Word is said to have suffered death for us, not as if he himself had experienced death as far as his own nature was concerned (it would be sheer lunacy to say or to think that), but because, as I have just said, his flesh tasted death.对于由自然神的话语是本身不朽和廉洁的生活和生命的付出,但由于在另一方面由上帝的恩典自己的身体,为使徒说,尝过所有的死亡,这个词是说已经遭受为我们死,还不如他自己经历过死亡,据他自己的本性而言(这将是纯粹的愚蠢说或认为),而是因为,正如我刚才所说,他的肉体尝到死亡。 So too, when his flesh was raised to life, we refer to this again as his resurrection, not as though he had fallen into corruption--God forbid--but because his body had been raised again.所以也有人提出,当他的肉体生命,我们把这种再次为他的复活,并不是说他已经堕落成腐败 - 上帝保佑 - 而是因为他的身体已经提出了。

    So we shall confess one Christ and one Lord.因此,我们应当承认一个基督和一个主。We do not adore the man along with the Word, so as to avoid any appearance of division by using the word "with".我们不崇拜随着字的人,这样才能避免使用这个词“与”任何分裂的外观。But we adore him as one and the same, because the body is not other than the Word, and takes its seat with him beside the Father, again not as though there were two sons seated together but only one, united with his own flesh. If, however, we reject the hypostatic union as being either impossible or too unlovely for the Word, we fall into the fallacy of speaking of two sons .但我们崇拜的是同一个他,因为身体并不比其他的字,并采取与他的座位旁边的父亲,又不是尽管有层次的合作,但只有一个,用他自己的肉体团结两个儿子。 但是,如果我们拒绝作为是根本无法为Word或太不可爱了本质的联盟,我们陷入了两个儿子说的谬误We shall have to distinguish and speak both of the man as honoured with the title of son, and of the Word of God as by nature possessing the name and reality of sonship, each in his own way.我们将要区分和说话都作为与儿子称号荣获男子,和神的话语所拥有的名称和sonship现实,在他自己的方式性质。We ought not, therefore, to split into two sons the one Lord Jesus Christ.我们不应该,因此,分裂成两个儿子一个主耶稣基督。Such a way of presenting a correct account of the faith will be quite unhelpful, even though some do speak of a union of persons.这样一种呈现出信仰正确的帐户的方式将是相当无助,即使有的说一个人的联合。For scripture does not say that the Word united the person of a man to himself, but that he became flesh.对于圣经没有说一个字团结了对自己男人的人,但他成了肉身。The Word's becoming flesh means nothing else than that he partook of flesh and blood like us; he made our body his own, and came forth a man from woman without casting aside his deity, or his generation from God the Father, but rather in his assumption of flesh remaining what he was.在Word的成为肉体的手段无非都是他的肉和我们一样的血液partook,他使我们的身体他自己,并站出来的女人没有抛开他的神的男人,或者他从神代父,而是在他的假设剩余什么他的肉。

    This is the account of the true faith everywhere professed .这是真正的信仰到处宣称帐户So shall we find that the holy fathers believed.因此,我们应发现神圣的父亲认为。So have they dared to call the holy virgin, mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word or his godhead received the origin of their being from the holy virgin, but because there was born from her his holy body rationally ensouled, with which the Word was hypostatically united and is said to have been begotten in the flesh.因此,他们有敢叫圣母, 上帝的母亲 ,而不是虽然他的Word或神格性得到了他们从圣母被出身,但因为从她出生合理ensouled他的圣体,与这道就是hypostatically团结,据说已经在肉体独生子。 These things I write out of love in Christ exhorting you as a brother and calling upon you before Christ and the elect angels, to hold and teach these things with us, in order to preserve the peace of the churches and that the priests of God may remain in an unbroken bond of concord and love.这些东西我写在基督告诫作为哥哥你和你之前呼吁基督和选举天使,持有并教导我们爱这些东西出来,为了维护和平与教会,神可能祭司留在一个和谐和爱不间断的联系。


    Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril二,以西里尔字母涅斯

    [condemned by the council of Ephesus][由以弗所安理会谴责]

    Nestorius sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Cyril.涅斯在主发送问候最宗教和可敬的同胞部长西里尔。I pass over the insults against us contained in your extraordinary letter.我通过了对我们在您的非凡的信中的侮辱。They will, I think, be cured by my patience and by the answer which events will offer in the course of time.他们会,我认为,要治愈我的耐心和答案将提供哪些事件在时间的过程。On one matter, however, I cannot be silent, as silence would in that case be very dangerous.在一个问题,但是,我不能沉默,沉默会在这种情况下是非常危险的。On that point, therefore avoiding longwindedness as far as I can, I shall attempt a brief discussion and try to be as free as possible from repelling obscurity and undigestible prolixity.关于这一点,从而避免longwindedness据我可以,我会尝试简短的讨论,并尝试尽可能不受排斥默默无闻和undigestible罗唆。 I shall begin from the wise utterances of your reverence, setting them down word for word.我会从你开始崇敬智者的话语,它们设置了一字。What then are the words in which your remarkable teaching finds expression ?那么,什么是您的话中发现显着的教学体现在哪里?

    "The holy and great synod states that the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, suffered, rose."他说:“神圣和伟大的主教指出,独生子,神独生子的父亲根据性质,真正从真神,从光灯,一个经手的父亲所有的东西,神下来,成了肉身,成为人,遭遇,玫瑰。“

    These are the words of your reverence and you may recognise them.这些都是你的崇敬之情的话,你可以识别它们。Now listen to what we say, which takes the form of a brotherly exhortation to piety of the type of which the great apostle Paul gave an example in addressing his beloved Timothy: "Attend to the public reading of scripture, to preaching, to teaching. For by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers".现在听我们说什么,这需要一个兄弟般的劝告形式的类型,其中给了伟大的使徒保罗在提摩太解决他心爱的一个例子虔诚:“参加的经文公众阅读,说教,教学。对于这样你会节省你和你的听众。“ Tell me, what does "attend" mean?告诉我,什么是“出席”呢?By reading in a superficial way the tradition of those holy men (you were guilty of a pardonable ignorance), you concluded that they said that the Word who is coeternal with the Father was passible.在肤浅的方式阅读这些(你是一个情有可原的无知有罪)圣人的传统,你认为他们说的字是谁与父亲coeternal是passible。 Please look more closely at their language and you will find out that that divine choir of fathers never said that the consubstantial godhead was capable of suffering, or that the whole being that was coeternal with the Father was recently born, or that it rose again, seeing that it had itself been the cause of resurrection of the destroyed temple.请看他们的语言更加紧密,你会发现,这一神圣的合唱团的父亲从来没有说过同质神格是痛苦的能力,或者说,整个被认为是与父亲coeternal最近出生的,或者说,它再次上升,看到它本身已受到了被毁坏的寺庙复活的原因。 If you apply my words as fraternal medicine, I shall set the words of the holy fathers before you and shall free them from the slander against them and through them against the holy scriptures.如果您申请成为兄弟医药我的话,我将你之前设置的圣洁父亲的话,并应摆脱对他们的诽谤,并通过他们对圣经​​的。

    "I believe", they say, "also in our Lord Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son". “我相信”,他们说,“还我们的主耶稣基督,他唯一的独生子”。See how they first lay as foundations "Lord" and "Jesus" and "Christ" and "only begotten" and "Son", the names which belong jointly to the divinity and humanity.看他们如何打好基础,首先作为“主”和“耶稣”和“基督”和“独生”和“儿子”,这些名称属于共同的神性和人性。 Then they build on that foundation the tradition of the incarnation and resurrection and passion.然后,他们建立在这个基础的化身和复活和激情的传统。In this way, by prefixing the names which are common to each nature, they intend to avoid separating expressions applicable to sonship and lordship and at the same time escape the danger of destroying the distinctive character of the natures by absorbing them into the one title of "Son".这样,由前缀的名称是常见到每个自然,他们打算以避免分离表达式适用于sonship和贵族身份,并在同一时间逃跑吸收到一个标题,他们摧毁了危险的性质鲜明的时代特色“儿子”。

    In this Paul was their teacher who, when he remembers the divine becoming man and then wishes to introduce the suffering, first mentions "Christ", which, as I have just said, is the common name of both natures and then adds an expression which is appropriate to both of the natures.在此保罗是他们的老师谁,当他记得神成为人,然后希望引进的痛苦,首先提到“基督”,这正如我刚才所说,是两个性质的通用名称,然后添加一个表达式适宜的性质两者。 For what does he say ?对于他说什么?"Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus who though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped", and so on until, "he became obedient unto death, even death on a cross". “有间自己这个主意,这是你的谁在基督耶稣虽然他在上帝的形式,不计与神应把握的事情,以平等的”,并到如此,“他变得听话,以至于死,甚至死亡在十字架上“。 For when he was about to mention the death, to prevent anyone supposing that God the Word suffered, he says "Christ", which is a title that expresses in one person both the impassible and the passible natures, in order that Christ might be called without impropriety both impassible and passible impassible in godhead, passible in the nature of his body.因为当他正要提死亡,以防止任何人假设上帝的Word遭遇,他说:“基督”,这是一个称号,表达了一个人既恝和passible性质,为了使基督可以被称为既没有不当恝和passible恝在神格,在他的身体自然passible。

    I could say much on this subject and first of all that those holy fathers, when they discuss the economy, speak not of the generation but of the Son becoming man.我可以说对这个问题,并首先,那些神圣的父亲,当他们讨论经济,讲的一代人的儿子,但越来越多的人。But I recall the promise of brevity that I made at the beginning and that both restrains my discourse and moves me on to the second subject of your reverence.但我记得简洁承诺,我是在开始和这两个制约我的话语和动作我就到你崇敬的第二个主题。In that I applaud your division of natures into manhood and godhead and their conjunction in one person.在进入成年,我赞赏和一个人神格和你一起性质划分。I also applaud your statement that God the Word needed no second generation from a woman, and your confession that the godhead is incapable of suffering.我也赞赏你的声明,上帝的Word不需要从一个女人的第二代,和你表白的神格是痛苦的能力。Such statements are truly orthodox and equally opposed to the evil opinions of all heretics about the Lord's natures.这些陈述是真正的正统,同样反对关于主的天性所有异教徒的邪恶意见。If the remainder was an attempt to introduce some hidden and incomprehensible wisdom to the ears of the readers, it is for your sharpness to decide.如果余数是尝试引入一些隐蔽和不可理解的智慧,对读者的耳朵,这是您的清晰度来决定。In my view these subsequent views seemed to subvert what came first.我认为这些意见后似乎颠覆了后来第一。They suggested that he who had at the beginning been proclaimed as impassible and incapable of a second generation had somehow become capable of suffering and freshly created, as though what belonged to God the Word by nature had been destroyed by his conjunction with his temple or as though people considered it not enough that the sinless temple, which is inseparable from the divine nature, should have endured birth and death for sinners, or finally as though the Lord's voice was not deserving of credence when it cried out to the Jews: "Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.'' He did not say, "Destroy my godhead and in three days it will be raised up."他们建议,他谁曾在年初被宣布为恝和第二代无能力在某种程度上成为痛苦的能力和新创建的,好像什么本质上属于神的字是由他和他的太阳穴结合或销毁尽管人们认为并不足够,无罪的寺庙,这是从神性分不开的,应该有忍受罪人出生和死亡,或最终好像主的声音不信任值得时,哭了出来向犹太人:“消灭这个寺庙和在三天内我会提出来了。'他没有说,“破坏我的神格和在三天内便提了起来。”

    Again I should like to expand on this but am restrained by the memory of my promise.我再次要扩大这一点,但我由我的诺言内存限制。I must speak therefore but with brevity.因此我必须说,但与简洁。Holy scripture, wherever it recalls the Lord's economy, speaks of the birth and suffering not of the godhead but of the humanity of Christ, so that the holy virgin is more accurately termed mother of Christ than mother of God .圣经,无论它回顾了主的经济,讲的诞生,而不是在神格,但基督的人类苦难,让神圣的处女更准确地称为基督的母亲不是神的母亲Hear these words that the gospels proclaim: "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, son of David, son of Abraham."听到这些话的福音宣布道:“耶稣基督的,大卫,亚伯拉罕的儿子的儿子代的书。”It is clear that God the Word was not the son of David.很显然,道就是上帝不是大卫的儿子。Listen to another witness if you will: "Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called the Christ. " Consider a further piece of evidence: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, she was found to be with child of the holy Spirit."听另一名目击者,如果你将:“雅各生约瑟,就是马利亚的丈夫,一位是耶稣诞生,谁被称为基督。”考虑进一步的证据一块:“现在的耶稣基督诞生发生在这样的地方当他的母亲马利亚已经许配给约瑟,她被认为是与圣灵的孩子。“ But who would ever consider that the godhead of the only begotten was a creature of the Spirit?但是,谁就会永远考虑的是,独生子神格是圣灵的生物?Why do we need to mention: "the mother of Jesus was there"?为什么我们要提:“耶稣的母亲在那里”?And again what of: "with Mary the mother of Jesus"; or "that which is conceived in her is of the holy Spirit"; and "Take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt"; and "concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh"?而再次什么样的:“与耶稣的母亲马利亚”,或“这是在她的设想是神圣的精神”和“带着孩子和他的母亲和逃往埃及”,以及“关于他的儿子,谁出生的大卫的后裔根据肉“? Again, scripture says when speaking of his passion: "God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh"; and again "Christ died for our sins" and "Christ having suffered in the flesh"; and "This is", not "my godhead", but "my body, broken for you".同样,圣经说,当他的激情说:“上帝派遣了罪身的形状自己的儿子和罪恶,他谴责肉体的罪”,并再次“基督为我们的罪死了”和“基督已在遭受肉“和”这“,而不是”我的神格“,而是”我对你的身体,断“。

    Ten thousand other expressions witness to the human race that they should not think that it was the godhead of the Son that was recently killed but the flesh which was joined to the nature of the godhead.近万其他表达式见证了人类,他们不应该认为它是认为是最近死亡的儿子,但它被加入到了神格性质肉神格。(Hence also Christ calls himself the lord and son of David: " 'What do you think of the Christ ? Whose son is he ?' They said to him, 'The son of David.' Jesus answered and said to them, 'How is it then that David inspired by the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, "The Lord said to my Lord, sit at my right hand"?'". He said this as being indeed son of David according to the flesh, but his Lord according to his godhead.) The body therefore is the temple of the deity of the Son, a temple which is united to it in a high and divine conjunction, so that the divine nature accepts what belongs to the body as its own.(因此也称自己是基督的主,大卫的儿子:“'?你认为基督是他的儿子”,他们对他说,“ 大卫的儿子”耶稣回答他们说:“如何然后是它的精神的启发,通过大卫,称他的主,他说:“耶和华对我主说,坐在我的右手"?'".他说,这确实为大卫的儿子被按肉体,但他上帝根据他的神格。)身体因此是对儿子,这是统一在一个高和神圣的结合使用,它庙庙神,让神性接受什么属于自己的身体作为。 Such a confession is noble and worthy of the gospel traditions.这样的表白是高尚的和值得的福音传统。But to use the expression "accept as its own" as a way of diminishing the properties of the conjoined flesh, birth, suffering and entombment, is a mark of those whose minds are led astray, my brother, by Greek thinking or are sick with the lunacy of Apollinarius and Arius or the other heresies or rather something more serious than these.但是,为了用“接受自己”作为一个递减的联体肉性能的方法,出生,痛苦和冢,是那些被带坏头脑标志,我的兄弟希腊思想,或生病的在Apollinarius和阿里乌斯异端邪说或其他东西或以上,而这些严重的精神错乱。

    For it is necessary for such as are attracted by the name "propriety" to make God the Word share, because of this same propriety, in being fed on milk, in gradual growth, in terror at the time of his passion and in need of angelical assistance.它是必要的,因为这样的名称所吸引,“礼”字,使神的份额,因为同样的礼,对正在使用牛奶喂养,在逐步增长,在他的激情时的恐怖和需要,天使的援助。 I make no mention of circumcision and sacrifice and sweat and hunger, which all belong to the flesh and are adorable as having taken place for our sake.我没有做割礼和牺牲,汗水和饥饿,这都属于肉体和被视为具有为我们着想采取可爱的地方提。But it would be false to apply such ideas to the deity and would involve us in just accusation because of our calumny.但是,如果是虚假申请向神这样的想法,并会参与只是因为我们的诽谤指控我们。

    These are the traditions of the holy fathers .这些都是神圣的父亲传统These are the precepts of the holy scriptures .是圣经戒律 In this way does someone write in a godly way about the divine mercy and power, "Practise these duties, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress''. This is what Paul says to all. The care you take in labouring for those who have been scandalised is well taken and we are grateful to you both for the thought you devote to things divine and for the concern you have even for those who live here. But you should realise that you have been misled either by some here who have been deposed by the holy synod for Manichaeism or by clergy of your own persuasion. In fact the church daily progresses here and through the grace of Christ there is such an increase among the people that those who behold it cry out with the words of the prophet, "The earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the water covers the sea". As for our sovereigns, they are in great joy as the light of doctrine is spread abroad and, to be brief, because of the state of all the heresies that fight against God and of the orthodoxy of the church, one might find that verse fulfilled "The house of Saul grew weaker and weaker and the house of David grew stronger and stronger".这样做的人写一个关于神的怜悯和力量敬虔的方式,“练习这些职责,全身心投入到其中,让所有人都看到你的进步',这是保罗说,所有的关心你参加对于那些谁一直是反感劳动以及采取和我们都是你的思想投入到神圣的东西的关心你,甚至为那些谁住在这里,并感谢你,但你应该意识到你已经被误导一些要么在这里谁被废黜由摩尼教主教或神职人员说服自己,其实这里的教堂日常的进展,并通过基督的恩典有这样的增幅,在人民群众中的谁谁知它哭出来的话的先知,“地球将充满主的作为水涵盖知识的海洋”,至于我们的主权国家,他们在巨大的喜悦作为学说光传播国外,简短,因为所有的异端邪说,对上帝和教会的正统的斗争,人们可能会发现,诗履行他说:“扫罗家越来越淡和大卫家成长壮大,做强”的状态。

    This is our advice from a brother to a brother.这是我们的建议从一个哥哥一个弟弟。"If anyone is disposed to be contentious", Paul will cry out through us to such a one, "we recognize no other practice, neither do the churches of God". “如果有人要处理争议”,保罗就会哭出来,通过我们这样的人,“我们承认没有其他的做法,既不做神的教会”。I and those with me greet all the brotherhood with you in Christ.我和我的问候所有在基督与你的兄弟。May you remain strong and continue praying for us, most honoured and reverent lord.愿你依然强劲,继续为我们祈祷,非常荣幸和虔诚的主。


    Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius第三个字母的西里尔到涅斯

    [Read at the council of Ephesus and included in the proceedings . [阅读更多的以弗所议会和在诉讼中。We omit the preface of the letter]我们省略信前言]

    We believe in one God .我们相信一个上帝。..[Nicene Creed][尼西亚信条]

    Following in all points the confessions of the holy fathers, which they made with the holy Spirit speaking in them , and following the direction of their opinions and going as it were in the royal way, we say that the only-begotten Word of God, who was begotten from the very essence of the Father, true God from true God, the light from the light and the one through whom all things in heaven and earth were made, for our salvation came down and emptying himself he became incarnate and was made man. This means that在所有点以下的神圣的父亲,他们与圣灵在他们发言 ,并按照他们的意见和方向,因为它会在皇家的方式作了供述,我们神的独生子字,谁是从父,从真神真神,从光灯和经手的天地万物是一个非常本质独生子,来到我们的拯救下来,放空自己,他成为肉身,并提出人, 这意味着

  • he took flesh from the holy virgin and made it his own, undergoing a birth like ours from her womb and coming forth a man from a woman.他从圣处女肉,并使其自己,经历着从她的子宫像我们这样的诞生和未来提出了从一个女人的男人。
  • He did not cast aside what he was, but although he assumed flesh and blood, he remained what he was, God in nature and truth.他没有抛弃他了,但他虽然承担的血肉,他依然是他,在自然和真理的神。
  • We do not say that his flesh was turned into the nature of the godhead or that the unspeakable Word of God was changed into the nature of the flesh.我们不说他的肉被纳入了神格性质或神的道就是到不可告人的肉体性质改变转向。For he (the Word) is unalterable and absolutely unchangeable and remains always the same as the scriptures say.对于他(字)是天经地义的绝对不变,仍然始终是相同的经文说。For although visible as a child and in swaddling cloths, even while he was in the bosom of the virgin that bore him, as God he filled the whole of creation and was fellow ruler with him who begot him.可见,虽然对于作为一个孩子,在襁褓布,即使他在他的处女的孔,因为他填补了上帝创造整体和与他同谁生了他的同胞统治者怀抱了。 For the divine is without quantity and dimension and cannot be subject to circumscription.对于神圣的,是没有数量和尺寸,可以不受界限。

    We confess the Word to have been made one with the flesh hypostatically , and we adore one Son and Lord, Jesus Christ.我们要承认已与肉体one hypostatically字,我们崇拜一个儿子和主,耶稣基督。We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God in him, as though the two natures were mutually united only through a unity of dignity and authority ; that would be an empty expression and nothing more.我们分成部分和独立的人与他神他,好像是两个性质只有通过相互的尊严和权威的统一团结,这将是一个空洞的表情,仅此而已。 Nor do we give the name Christ in one sense to the Word of God and in another to him who was born of woman, but we know only one Christ, the Word from God the Father with his own flesh. As man he was anointed with us, even though he himself gives the Spirit to those who are worthy to receive it and not in measure, as the blessed evangelist John says.我们也不给基督的名字在某种意义上,以神的话语和他在另一个女人天生是谁,但我们知道只有一个基督,从神的话语与他自己的肉体的父亲, 作为男人,他 ​​用膏我们,尽管他本人给人的精神是值得那些谁得到它,而不是在测量的祝福传播者,约翰说。

    But we do not say that the Word of God dwelt as in an ordinary man born of the holy virgin, in order that Christ may not be thought of as a God-bearing man.但是,我们不说神的话住在一个普通的人出生的圣母,基督为了不被认为是上帝轴承男子。For even though "the Word dwelt among us", and it is also said that in Christ dwelt "all the fullness of the godhead bodily", we understand that, having become flesh, the manner of his indwelling is not defined in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints , he was united by nature and not turned into flesh and he made his indwelling in such a way as we may say that the soul of man does in his own body.因为尽管“道住在我们中间”,这也是说,住在基督里“所有的丰满身体的神格”,我们明白,已成为肉身, 他的留置方式是不以同样的方式定义他说纠缠之中的圣人 ,他 ​​是团结的性质,不进肉转身,他在他的留置的方式,因为我们可以说,人的灵魂在他自己的身体一样。

    There is therefore one Christ and Son and Lord, but not with the sort of conjunction that a man might have with God as unity of dignity or authority .因此,我们认为一个基督和圣子,主,但不符合共同那种一个人与神有可能为尊严或权威的统一Equality of honour by itself is unable to unite natures.荣誉本身是无法平等团结性质。For Peter and John were equal in honour to each other, being both of them apostles and holy disciples, but they were two, not one.对于彼得和约翰是在相互平等的荣誉,是他们两个使徒和圣弟子,但他们两个,一个也没有。Neither do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition for this is not enough for natural union.我们也不理解结合的方式并列成为这不是一个自然的工会不够。Nor yet is it a question of relative participation , as we ourselves, being united to the Lord, are as it is written in the words of scripture "one spirit with him".但它也不是一个相对的参与问题,因为我们自己,团结的主,是因为它是在圣经的话“之一,他的精神”写的。 Rather do we deprecate the term "conjunction" as being inadequate to express the idea of union.而我们贬低术语“结合”为不足,以表达工会的想法。

    Nor do we call the Word from God the Father, the God or Lord of Christ.我们也不调用父神,神或上帝基督这个字To speak in that way would appear to split into two the one Christ and Son and Lord and we might in this way fall under the charge of blasphemy, making him the God and Lord of himself.发言的方式似乎分成两个儿子和一个基督和上帝,我们可能在这下的亵渎收费方式下降,使他成为神和主的自己。For, as we have already said, the Word of God was united hypostatically with the flesh and is God of all and Lord of the universe, but is neither his own slave or master.因为,正如我们已经说过,神的话语是团结hypostatically的肉,是所有和宇宙主神,但既不是自己的奴隶或主人。 For it is foolish or rather impious to think or to speak in this way.它是愚蠢的或者说不虔诚思考或发言这种方式。It is true that he called the Father "God" even though he was himself God by nature and of his being, we are not ignorant of the fact that at the same time as he was God he also became man, and so was subject to God according to the law that is suitable to the nature of manhood .诚然,他所谓的父亲“神”,即使本人和他的本质是神,我们是不是事实,即在同一时间,因为他是神,他也成为人,等于是受到无知神依法是适合的男子汉气概的性质But how should he become God or Lord of himself?但他应该怎样成为神或上帝的自己?Consequently as man and as far as it was fitting for him within the limits of his self-emptying it is said that he was subject to God like ourselves.因此作为人与尽可能为他装修在他的自我排空的限度是说,他想自己是受上帝。So he came to be under the law while at the same time himself speaking the law and being a lawgiver like God.于是,他来到法是根据在同一时间,而他自己讲的法律并成为一个像上帝立法者。

    When speaking of Christ we avoid the expression: "I worship him who is carried because of the one who carries him; because of him who is unseen, I worship the one who is seen."当基督说,我们避免的表情:“我崇拜他是谁,因为他携带的一个谁进行,因为他谁是看不见的,我崇拜的是谁见过一个。” It is shocking to say in this connexion: "The assumed shares the name of God with him who assumes."这是令人震惊的说,在此联接道:“假设股神与他的名字谁承担。”To speak in this way once again divides into two Christs and puts the man separately by himself and God likewise by himself.以这种方式说话,再次分为两个基督并把该名男子分别由他本人和上帝同样由他本人。This saying denies openly the union, according to which one is not worshipped alongside the other, nor do both share in the title "God", but Jesus Christ is considered as one, the only begotten Son, honoured with one worship, together with his own flesh.这种公然否​​认说,工会,根据哪一次不是旁边的其他崇拜,也不在标题“神”既份额,但耶稣基督是为一体,独生子与一个崇拜的荣幸,认为,连同他的割肉。

    We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all".我们也承认, 只有上帝的独生子父亲出生的,虽然根据他自己的本性,他没有受到痛苦,遭受了肉体,我们根据圣经,并在他的尸体被钉在十字架上,并没有提出自己的痛苦他自己的痛苦,他自己的肉 ,为“由上帝的恩典,他尝到了所有死亡”。For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep".为此他给自己的身体死虽然他自然生命和复活,为的是,有他自己不可告人的权力践踏了死亡,他可能首先在自己的肉体成为了从死和“长子其中第一个水果,睡眠“。 And that he might make a way for human nature to return to incorruption by the grace of God, as we have just said, "he tasted death for all" and on the third day he returned to life, having robbed the underworld.而且他可能使一个人的本性,回归清廉由上帝的恩典,因为我们刚才说的方式,“他尝到​​了所有死亡”,并在第三天他回到生活中,有抢了黑社会。 Accordingly, even though it is said that "through man came the resurrection of the dead", yet we understand that man to have been the Word which came from God, through whom the power of death was overcome.因此,尽管有人说,“通过人来了,死人复活”,但我们明白,男人一直是来自上帝的词语,通过他们的权力是克服死亡。 At the right time he will come as one Son and Lord in the glory of the Father, to judge the world in justice, as it is written.在适当的时候,他会作为一个儿子,在父亲的荣耀主,来判断正义的世界,因为它是书面。

    We will necessarily add this also.我们这也必然会增加。Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all.宣告死亡根据唯一的独生子的上帝,那是耶稣基督的肉,自称他的回归从死者和他的升天到天堂的生活,我们提供unbloody 崇拜 [sacrificii servitutem]在教堂等进行以神秘的感恩节,是具有神圣的圣 partaken [文集]和基督的宝血,我们所有人的救世主。This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .].这是我们作为普通的肉没有收到,但愿,也作为一个谁已经取得了神圣和光荣加入了工会的字,或谁了神圣的留置,但作为真正的赋予生命和肉体的男人, 真正的字 [UT维尔vivificatricem等ipsius Verbi propriam factam。] For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" .对于被作为神的本性,生命,当他成为他自己的肉之一,他还提出要赋予生命,也为他对我们说:“阿门,我告诉你,除非你吃了儿子的肉人与喝他的血“。 For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so.因为我们不能认为它是一个人跟我们一样的肉(如何才能使男人的肉被它自己的性质赋予生命的?),但正在取得真正 [维尔proprium eius factam]在一个谁成为为我们着想的人的儿子,被称为等。

    For we do not divide up the words of our Saviour in the gospels among two hypostases or persons .因为我们不瓜分的福音,或在两个本质的人 ,我们的救主的话。For the one and only Christ is not dual, even though he be considered to be from two distinct realities, brought together into an unbreakable union.对于一个只有基督是不是双,尽管他被认为是从两个不同的带成一个牢不可破的联盟共同现实。In the same sort of way a human being, though he be composed of soul and body, is considered to be not dual, but rather one out of two.在同类型的方式一个人,虽然他是灵魂和身体组成,被认为是不双,而是一个两头在外。Therefore, in thinking rightly, we refer both the human and divine expressions to the same person.因此,思想正确,我们既指人类和神圣表达的是同一个人。For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory".因为当他对自己的说话方式在一个神圣的“,他说看见我看见父”和“我与父原为一”,我们对他的神圣和无法形容的性质认为,根据他与自己的父亲one通过对自然的身份,是“形象和打动他的荣耀和亮度”。 But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity.但是,当不dishonouring他的人道标准,他说,向犹太人:“但现在你想要杀我,谁也给你讲真话的人”,又没有比以前少,我们认识到他谁,因为他的肖像,以平等和父神是上帝的话语,也是他在人类的极限。 For if it is necessary to believe that being God by nature he became flesh, that is man ensouled with a rational soul, whatever reason should anyone have for being ashamed at the expressions uttered by him should they happen to be suitable to him as man ?对于是否有必要相信,被大自然的神,他成了肉身,即用一种理性的灵魂,无论什么原因应该有任何人正在通过他的表达惭愧人应了一声ensouled他们正好是适合的人呢? For if he should reject words suitable to him as man, who was it that forced him to become a man like us?因为如果拒绝的话,他应该适合作为男人他是谁,迫使他成为一个像我们这样的人?Why should he who submitted himself to voluntary self-emptying for our sake, reject expressions that are suitable for such self-emptying?他为什么要为了谁提交给我们自己自愿的自我排空,拒绝表达式是这种自我排空合适?All the expressions, therefore, that occur in the gospels are to be referred to one person, the one enfleshed hypostasis of the Word .所有的表现形式,因此,发生在福音要提到一个人,一个在Word enfleshed原质For there is one Lord Jesus Christ, according to the scriptures.因为只有一位主耶稣基督,根据经文。

    Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood.尽管他被称为“使徒和大祭司我们交代”,作为提供给上帝和父亲的信仰告白,我们给他做,并通过他向上帝和父亲的同时也给圣灵,我们再次说他是上帝的自然和独生子,我们不得转让给另一名男子从他与众不同的名称和祭司的现实。 For he became the "mediator between God and humanity" and the establisher of peace between them, offering himself for an odour of sweetness to the God and Father .因为他成了“上帝与人类之间的调解员”和它们之间的和平创办人,提供了一个甜蜜气味的上帝和父亲本人Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book".也因此,他说:“牺牲,并提供你不会,但你必须为我准备的身体; [在燔祭和赎罪牺牲你有没有快感]然后我说:'看哪,我来办你的意志,O。上帝“,因为它是我写的书”卷。For our sake and not for his own he brought forward his own body in the odour of sweetness.为我们着想,而不是为自己,他提出的甜头气味自己的身体。Indeed, of what offering or sacrifice for himself would he have been in need, being as God superior to all manner of sin?事实上,提供或什么会为自己牺牲,他一直需要的,因为上帝是高于一切的罪恶的方式?For though "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God", and so we are prone to disorder and human nature has fallen into the weakness of sin, he is not so and consequently we are behind him in glory.因为虽然“都犯了罪,下降了神的荣耀”,所以我们很容易出现混乱和人性的罪恶已进入下降的弱点,他也不是那么落后,因此我们在他的荣耀。 How then can there be any further doubt that the true lamb was sacrificed for us and on our behalf? The suggestion that he offered himself for himself as well as for us is impossible to separate from the charge of impiety .又怎能有任何进一步的疑问,真正的羊肉是为我们和我们的代表牺牲? 他提出的建议,为自己也为我们自己是不可能分开的不虔诚负责For he never committed a fault at all, nor did he sin in any way.因为他从来没有犯过错误可言,也没有以任何方式罪过。What sort of offering would he need then since there was no sin for which offering might rightly be made?提供什么样的排序,然后将他需要,因为没有为它提供可能作出正确的罪?

    When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him.当他的灵说,“他要荣耀我”,这种认识是正确地说,一个基督和儿子在从另一个辉煌的需要,这是他从圣灵荣耀为他的精神,是他也并不比他更好的上面。 But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him.但由于他用自己的精神,以显示其强大的作品,通过他的神格,他说他已经被他赞美,就像我们任何一个人也许应该说,例如他的内在力量或他的任何东西,他们荣耀的知识他。 For even though the Spirit exists in his own hypostasis and is thought of on his own, as being Spirit and not as Son, even so he is not alien to the Son.对于精神的存在即使在他自己的原质 ,被认为对他自己,作为是精神而不是儿子,即使如此,他并不陌生的儿子。He has been called "the Spirit of truth", and Christ is the truth, and the Spirit was poured forth by the Son, as indeed the Son was poured forth from the God and Father.他被称为“真理的圣灵”,而基督是真理,圣灵是喷涌而出的儿子,事实上,儿子倒在上帝和父亲等等。Accordingly the Spirit worked many strange things through the hand of the holy apostles and so glorified him after the ascension of our lord Jesus Christ into heaven.因此工作的精神,通过手的圣使徒许多稀奇古怪的东西,所以我们的荣耀后,主耶稣升天他进入天堂。For it was believed that he is God by nature and works through his own Spirit.对于有人认为他是上帝的本质和精神,通过自己的作品。 For this reason also he said: "He (the Spirit) will take what is mine and declare it to you".出于这个原因,他也说:“他(圣灵)将采取什么是我的,并宣布它为你”。But we do not say that the Spirit is wise and powerful through some sharing with another, for he is all perfect and in need of no good thing.但我们不说,精神是明智的,并通过与其他一些共享功能强大,因为他是所有完善的需要,没有好东西。Since he is the Spirit of the power and wisdom of the Father, that is the Son, he is himself, evidently, wisdom and power.由于他是力量和父亲,也就是智慧的灵子,他是自己,显然,智慧和力量。

    Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb.因此,由于圣母孔在肉体神谁是团结的肉, 为此,我们叫她妈妈的神 ,并不是说的Word性质有其存在的肉开始hypostatically(为“字是在开始和道就是神,道与上帝“,而他提出的年龄,并与父亲和所有的东西工匠coeternal),而是因为,我们已经说过,他对自己hypostatically的团结人类和经历了从诞生根据她的子宫肉。 This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face".这并不是说他需要一定或为自己的本性,在时间和这个时代的最后一个时代的诞生, 但为了他可能保佑我们的存在开始,为了使看到这是一个女人,民政事务总署孕育了他的肉体团结,反对整场比赛之后应该停止诅咒这是我们所有的托运土机构死亡,为了的是,通过去除诅咒他,“你要在悲伤带来的孩子”,应表现出对真理的先知的话:“死亡吞噬他们强起来”,并再次,“上帝擦了擦脸上的每一滴眼泪都走”。 It is for this cause that we say that in his economy he blessed marriage and, when invited, went down to Cana in Galilee with his holy apostles.正是由于这个原因 ,我们说,在他的经济,他祝福的婚姻,当邀请,在加利利下降到迦拿他的圣使徒。

    We have been taught to hold these things by我们被教导要保持​​这些东西的

  • the holy apostles and evangelists and by使徒和传道和
  • all the divinely inspired scriptures and by the true confession of所有神圣的经文和真实的表白
  • the blessed fathers .父亲的祝福。

    To all these your reverence ought to agree and subscribe without any deceit.所有这些你的崇敬之情应该同意,没有任何欺骗订阅。What is required for your reverence to anathematise we subjoin to this epistle.什么是需要你的崇敬到anathematise我们添这个书信。

    Twelve Anathemas Proposed by Cyril and accepted by the Council of Ephesus建议由西里尔和安理会的以弗所接受十二Anathemas

    1. 1。If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is God in truth, and therefore that the holy virgin is the mother of God (for she bore in a fleshly way the Word of God become flesh, let him be anathema .如果有人不承认,灵光是在真理的神,因此,圣母是神的母亲(因为她在肉体的方式对神的话语成为肉孔,让他被诅咒

    2. 2。If anyone does not confess that the Word from God the Father has been united by hypostasis with the flesh and is one Christ with his own flesh, and is therefore God and man together, let him be anathema .如果有人不承认,从父神字已与肉体原质团结,并与他自己的肉体一个基督,因此神和人在一起,让他被诅咒

    3. 3。If anyone divides in the one Christ the hypostases after the union, joining them only by a conjunction of dignity or authority or power, and not rather by a coming together in a union by nature, let him be anathema .如果有人在一个基督分后联盟的本质的,只有加入了尊严或权威或权力结合他们,而不是由未来在本质工会一起,让他被诅咒

    4. 4。If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema .如果任何人或两个人之间的本质的分配或使用的福音在使徒的著作,无论是使用基督的神圣作家或由他关于自己,他为一些归咎到一个人无论是表情,想到了分别从从神的话语,和其他人,如合适的神,他为神,以从爸爸的一句话,让他被诅咒

    5. 5。If anyone dares to say that Christ was a God-bearing man and not rather God in truth, being by nature one Son, even as "the Word became flesh", and is made partaker of blood and flesh precisely like us, let him be anathema .如果有人胆敢说,基督是神人,而不是轴​​承,而在真理的神,自然是一个儿子,尽管“道成了肉身”,是由血和肉有分正是我们一样,让他诅咒

    6. 6。If anyone says that the Word from God the Father was the God or master of Christ, and does not rather confess the same both God and man, the Word having become flesh, according to the scriptures, let him be anathema .如果有人说,从父神字是神或主耶稣,不承认,而同样的神和人,字已成为肉体,根据经文,让他被诅咒

    7. 7。If anyone says that as man Jesus was activated by the Word of God and was clothed with the glory of the Only-begotten, as a being separate from him, let him be anathema .如果有人说,由于人耶稣被激活了神的话语,并与该的独生子的荣耀穿,作为一个正在从他分开,让他被诅咒

    8. 8。If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema .如果有人胆敢说,谁是假设应该被崇拜和荣耀与神字在一起,与他一起被称为上帝,而他是从不同的人,(为“与”除了必须迫使我们去思考以这种方式),并不会与一个相当崇拜崇拜灵光,发送到他一个doxology,甚至“道成了肉身”,让他被诅咒

    9. 9。If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema .如果有人说,一个荣耀的主耶稣基督的精神,使得外来的力量,通过他和已收到他的权力掌握不洁的精神和神圣的工作,人与人之间的奇观工作使用,不相当说这是他自己的精神,通过适当的人,他 ​​曾在神圣的奇迹,让他被诅咒

    10. 10。The divine scripture says Christ became "the high priest and apostle of our confession"; he offered himself to God the Father in an odour of sweetness for our sake.神圣的经文说,基督成了“大祭司,我们的忏悔使徒”,他提出自己的神在为我们着想的甜头气味的父亲。If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema .如果有人因此说,这不是从神这个词谁成为我们的大祭司和使徒,当他成为肉身和我们一样的人,但因为它是另一个谁是独立的,特别是从他从一个人,女人,或者如果有人说,他所提供的牺牲也为自己而不是为我们而独自(因为他知道谁没有罪不需要提供),让他被诅咒

    11. 11。If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema .如果有人不承认主的肉是赋予生命的,属于从父神词,但认为它属于另一个除了他,与他团结尊严或享受单纯的神圣留置,是而没有赋予生命,正如我们所说的,因为它成了肉身属于谁有权字把所有的东西生活,让他被诅咒

    12. 12。If anyone does not confess that the Word of God suffered in the flesh and was crucified in the flesh and tasted death in the flesh and became the first born of the dead, although as God he is life and life-giving, let him be anathema .如果有人不承认神的话语在遭受肉体和在肉体钉在十字架上,并尝到了在肉体死亡,成为第一个出生的死,虽然他是神是生命,生命的给予,让他被诅咒


    The judgment against Nestorius 反对涅斯判决

    The holy synod said: As, in addition to all else, the excellent Nestorius has declined to obey our summons and has not received the holy and God-fearing bishops we sent to him, we have of necessity started upon an investigation of his impieties.该主教说,随着中,除了一切,优秀涅斯下降服从我们的传票,并没有收到神圣和敬畏上帝的主教我们寄给他,我们对他的不敬虔后的调查已经开始的必要性。 We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by我们发现了他的思想和speaking在不虔诚的方式,以字从他已经读出,并从他最近表示,在这个大都市已经目睹了别人的东西的著作,以及作为结果我们一直都被迫通过的必要性

  • the canons and by大炮和
  • the letter of our most holy father and fellow servant Celestine, bishop of the church of the Romans , to issue this sad condemnation against him, though we do so with many tears.我们最神圣的父亲和同伴仆人圣境,对罗马教会的主教 ,这对他发出悲哀的谴责,尽管我们做了许多眼泪的。

    Our lord Jesus Christ, who has been blasphemed by him, has determined through this most holy synod that the same Nestorius should be stripped of his episcopal dignity and removed from the college of priests.我们的主耶稣基督,谁被他亵渎,已经确定通过这个最神圣的主教,同样的涅斯应被剥夺他的主教的尊严和从牧师学院删除。


    Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.)关于东部主教驱逐Synodical信(等)

    The holy and ecumenical synod, gathered together in Ephesus at the behest of the most pious princes, [sends greeting] to the bishops, priests, deacons and the whole people in every province and city.主教和基督教的圣地,聚集在最虔诚的诸侯遗志以弗所在一起,[发送问候语]的主教,司铎,执事,在每一个省,市的全体人民。

    When we had gathered together in accordance with the pious decree in the metropolis of Ephesus, some separated themselves from us, a little more than thirty in number.当我们聚集在随着大都市的以弗所一起虔诚的法令规定,一些脱离我们自己,多一点数量三十The leader of this apostasy was John, bishop of Antioch, and their names are as follows: First the same John, bishop of Antioch in Syria, [the names of 33 other eastern bishops follow]这个叛教领袖约翰,安提阿主教,他们的名字如下:首先,同约翰,安提阿主教在叙利亚,[东部的其他33名主教遵循]

    These men, despite the fact that they were members of the ecclesiastical community, had no licence either to do harm through their priestly dignity or to do good, because some among their number had already been deposed.这些人,尽管他们是教会的社区成员,没有牌照或通过他们做祭司的尊严受到伤害或做的好,因为在他们的人数有些已经被废黜。 Their support of the views of Nestorius and Celestius was clearly shown by their refusal to condemn Nestorius together with us.他们对涅斯Celestius支持的意见清楚地表明了他们拒绝谴责与我们涅斯在一起。By a common decree the sacred synod has expelled them from ecclesiastical communion and deprived them of the exercise of their priestly office, through which they have been able to harm some and help others.通过一个共同的法令的神圣主教逐出教会的共融他们剥夺了他们的司铎的办公室,通过他们已经能够伤害一些和帮助他人行使这些权利。

    Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province.既然是必要的,那些谁是从主教缺席,留在该国或该城市对自己的宗教事务的帐户,或者因为他们的健康,不应该制定有关这些问题的决定一无所知,我们做它称为您holinesses若发现任何从神圣和基督教主教省异议大都市和重视自己的revolters组装,或者应该这样做之后,还是应该采取的Celestius他的意见,还是在将来,这样的人被剥夺了一切权力采取行动对付他省的主教步骤。 He is thereby cast out by the synod from all ecclesiastical communion and is deprived of all ecclesiastical authority.他从而施展出所有的主教教会的共融,是所有教会的权威被剥夺。Instead he is to be subjected to the bishops of his own province and the surrounding metropolitans, provided they be orthodox, even to the extent of being completely deposed from the rank of bishop.相反,他是受到他自己的省及周边大都市的主教,只要有正统的,甚至到了被完全从废黜主教级的程度。

    If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod, are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank.如果任何省主教缺席主教从自己和自己有任何附加或试图附着在叛教,或以后签署的涅斯沉积已回到了变节者大会,其中,根据圣主教会议的决定,都被剥夺了祭司和他们的排名废黜。

    If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it.如果任何一个城市或国家的任何神职人员已暂停涅斯和他那些从他们因为他们的正统的祭司,我们认为是正确的,这些应该恢复其应有的职级和一般我们的法令,这些神职人员谁是一致的与东正教和基督教主教会议应以任何方式受到那些主教谁拥有或可能起兵反抗。 If any clerics should apostatise and in private or in public dare to hold the views of Nestorius or Celestius, it is thought right that such should stand deposed by the holy synod.如果任何神职人员应该apostatise在公开或私下敢于持有涅斯或Celestius的意见,它被认为正确的,应该站在这样的主教废黜。

    Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before. 有不当行为受到谴责的主教或由他们自己的主教,并已uncanonically恢复交流与排名由涅斯或他的支持者,他们的习惯性缺乏的歧视,我们颁布获得本不信邪,是这样的人像以前一样保持废黜。

    Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated.同样,如果任何人以任何方式扰乱希望在以弗所主教采取的每一个点的决定,主教决定,如果他们是主教神职人员 ,他们应该完全属于自己的排名,如果他们被剥夺了他们应该俗人被逐出教会。


    Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431]定义的信念在尼西亚[第6次会议7月22日431]

    The synod of Nicaea produced this creed: We believe 的尼西亚宗教会议产生这种信条:我们相信 [the Nicene Creed follows] [尼西亚信条如下]

    It seems fitting that all should assent to this holy creed.看来恰当的都应该同意这个神圣的信条。It is pious and sufficiently helpful for the whole world.这是足够的虔诚和整个世界有益。But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it.但由于一些假装承认和接受,而在同一时间扭曲其表达自己的意见力量等回避真相,被破坏的错误和儿童的儿子,它已证明需要添加从圣证词和正统的父亲 ,可以填写他们所给予的话,在宣布它自己的勇气的意义All those who have a clear and blameless faith will understand, interpret and proclaim it in this way.所有这些谁都有明确的和无可指责的信心会理解,解释和宣扬这种方式了。

    When these documents had been read out, the holy synod decreed the following.当这些文件被读出,神圣的主教下令以下。

    1. It is not permitted to produce or write or compose any other creed except the one which was defined by the holy fathers who were gathered together in the holy Spirit at Nicaea.这是不允许生产或除了是由聚集在谁是在尼西亚圣灵神圣的父亲一起定义一个写或撰写任何其他的信条。
    2. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised.任何谁还敢撰写或带来或产生另一种为那些谁希望从希腊或犹太教或其他一些异端转向对真理的认识受益的信条,如果他们是主教神职人员 ,他们应该被剥夺其各自收费如果他们是普通人 ,他 ​​们将被anathematised。
    3. In the same way if any should be discovered, whether bishops, clergy or laity, thinking or teaching the views expressed in his statement by the priest Charisius about the incarnation of the only-begotten Son of God or the disgusting, perverted views of Nestorius, which underlie them, these should be subject to the condemnation of this holy and ecumenical synod.以同样的方式如有应发现,无论是主教,神职人员或俗人,思想或教学在发言中表达了对上帝的独生子化身或恶心,变态的涅斯意见牧师Charisius的意见他们的背后,这些都是应该受这个神圣的基督教主教和谴责。 A bishop clearly is to be stripped of his bishopric and deposed, a cleric to be deposed from the clergy, and a lay person is to be anathematised, as was said before.一位主教显然是要推翻他的主教和剥离,一个被废黜的神职人员神职人员非法律专业人士要anathematised,正如前说。


    Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites定义对不虔诚Messalians或Euchites

    The most pious and religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius came together to us and made a joint enquiry about the so called Messalians or Euchites or Enthusiasts, or whatever name this appalling heresy goes under, who dwell in the region of Pamphylia.最虔诚和宗教主教缬草Amphilochius我们走到了一起,并提出了有关所谓MessaliansEuchites爱好者联合调查或任何名义去下这个骇人听闻的邪教,谁在潘菲利亚地区停留。 We made investigation and the god-fearing and reverent Valerian produced a synodical document concerning these people, which had been drawn up in great Constantinople in the time of Sisinnius of blessed memory.我们做了调查和敬畏上帝的虔诚和缬草产生了synodical文件,涉及这些人,已被绘制在君士坦丁堡伟大的祝福内存Sisinnius时间。 When this had been read out in the presence of all, it was agreed that it had been well made and was correct.当这个已被阅读了所有在场,大家一致认为它已得到了很好的取得,是正确的。We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria .我们都同意,象大多数宗教主教缬草和Amphilochius和所有的潘菲利亚Lycaonia各省虔诚的主教是什么一直在synodical文件落款应该确认没有办法不服从,并明确不妨碍行为亚历山大Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion.因此在这些地方,谁订阅的Messalians或爱好者异端,或谁是怀疑的疾病,无论是文员或躺着,全省都走到一起,如果他们签署anathemas根据什么在上述主教会议颁布他们应该是神职人员,他们应该保持这样的俗人,如果他们留在共融。 But if they decline and do not anathematise, if they are presbyters or deacons or hold any other rank in the church, they are to forfeit their clerical status and grade and communion, and if they are laity let them be anathematised.但如果他们拒绝,不anathematise,如果他们是长老或执事在教会或持有任何其他级别,他们放弃他们的文书的地位和档次与共融,如果他们是俗人让他们anathematised。

    In addition, those who have been condemned are not to be permitted to govern monasteries, lest tares be sown and increase.此外,那些谁被谴责是不被准许执政寺院,以免稗子播种和提高。The vigorous and zealous execution of all these decrees is enjoined upon the reverent bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops throughout the whole province.所有这些积极和热心的执行法令是受命后,虔诚的主教和Amphilochius缬草和其他虔诚的主教贯穿全省。 Furthermore it seemed good that the filthy book of this heresy, which has been published and is called by them Asceticon, should be anathematised, as being composed by heretics, a copy of which the most pious and religious Valerian brought with him.此外,它似乎很好,这种异端,它已经出版,是他们所谓的Asceticon,肮脏的书应该anathematised为受异端,副本其中最虔诚和宗教缬草与他带来的组成。 Any other production savouring of the like impiety which is found anywhere is to be treated similarly.任何像不虔诚这是其他任何地方发现生产品味要同样对待。

    In addition, when they come together, they should commit clearly to writing whatever conduces to the creation of concord, communion and order.此外,当他们走到了一起,他们应承诺清楚地写什么conduces的和谐,共融和秩序。But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out.但是,如果出现任何讨论应与联接是最虔诚的主教缬草,Amphilochius和在省内其他虔诚的主教目前的业务,如果有什么困难或模棱两可的作物,那么在这种情况下,它似乎很好,敬虔的主教在Lycia和Lycaonia应提请,以及在这些省的任何选择,不应被排除在外大都市。 In this way the disputed questions should through their means be brought to an appropriate solution.这样有争议的问题应通过自己的经济能力带到一个合适的解决方案。


    Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations.决议:即塞浦路斯进行祝圣主教本身可能。

    The holy synod declared:该主教宣布:

    The most reverent bishop Rheginus and with him Zenon and Evagrius, revered bishops of the province of Cyprus, have brought forward what is both an innovation against the ecclesiastical customs and the canons of the holy fathers and concerns the freedom of all.最虔诚的主教Rheginus和他泽农Evagrius, 塞浦路斯省尊敬的主教有提出什么既是创新对教会的习俗和神圣的父亲和关切的所有自由的大炮。Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- t he prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom.因此,由于常见疾病的治疗,因为他们需要更多的与他们带来更大的伤害,如果它没有被用于安提阿主教祝在塞浦路斯举行连续古老的习俗 - 因为它是断言在纪念馆,由宗教男性口服谁来到前主教- T 他对塞浦路斯应圣教会,免受骚扰和暴力的主教,利用自己的权利,履行自己对他们的岛屿虔诚的主教任命的,按照父亲的神圣大炮和古老的习俗。

    The same principle will be observed for other dioceses and provinces everywhere .同样的原则将是观察其他教区和省随处可见None of the reverent bishops is to take possession of another province which has not been under his authority from the first or under that of his predecessors.在虔诚的主教没有被利用另一项不属于他的权力已经从他的前辈在第一或省占有。Any one who has thus seized upon and subjected a province is to restore it, lest the canons of the fathers be transgressed and the arrogance of secular power effect an entry through the cover of priestly office .任何谁也因此抓住,受到省之一是恢复它,以免对父亲的大炮被逾越和世俗权力的傲慢效果透过办公室的祭司覆盖条目We must avoid bit by bit destroying the freedom which our lord Jesus Christ the liberator of all people, gave us through his own blood.我们必须避免的点点摧毁自由,我们的主耶稣基督全体人民的解放者,他通过自己的血给了我们一点。It is therefore the pleasure of the holy and ecumenical synod to secure intact and inviolate the rights belonging to each province from the first, according to the custom which has been in force from of old.因此,罗马教廷和基督教主教会议,以确保完整和不可侵犯的权利属于每个从第一个省的快感,根据已实施了从旧的习俗。 Each metropolitan has the right to take a copy of the proceedings for his own security.每个城市都有权采取自己的安全的程序副本。If any one produces a version which is at variance with what is here decided, the holy and ecumenical synod unanimously decrees it to be of no avail.如果任何一个产生一个版本,在方差是​​用什么在这里决定,神圣的主教和普世一致法令它是无济于事的。


    Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch工会公式和约翰之间Cyrill安提

    We will state briefly what we are convinced of and profess about我们将简短地我们确信和信奉约

  • the God-bearing virgin and神息处女和
  • the manner of the incarnation of the only begotten Son of God --是的唯一的神独生子化身的方式 - For, as we have just said, that creed is sufficient both for the knowledge of godliness and for the repudiation of all heretical false teaching.因为,正如我们刚才所说,这信条是既为神圣的知识和所有邪教虚假教学抵赖足够了。 We shall speak not presuming to approach the unapproachable; but we confess our own weakness and so shut out those who would reproach us for investigating things beyond the human mind.我们会说话不假定接近难以接近,但我们承认自己的弱点,所以关闭了那些谁就会责备调查超出了我们人类心灵的东西。

    We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place.我们承认,那么,对于我们我们的主耶稣基督,上帝的独生子完美的上帝和理性的灵魂和身体完美的人,造物主从父亲在他之前,所有年龄的神格,在最后的日子一样,我们的拯救,出生玛丽的处女,根据他的人性,一个与同质同父与我们同质神格在人类的两个性质的工会,发生了。Therefore we confess one Christ, one Son, one Lord.因此,我们承认一个基督,一个儿子,一主。According to this understanding of the unconfused union, we confess the holy virgin to be the mother of God because God the Word took flesh and became man and from his very conception united to himself the temple he took from her.根据这一unconfused工会的了解,我们承认圣母是天主之母 ,因为神的字了肉体,成为人与他的构想非常团结,以自己的寺庙,他从她 ​​了。As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity.至于对主的福音和使徒的表达,我们知道,神学家把一些共同的作为一个人,并区分他人作为两个性质,并解释与基督的神格与卑微的在Connexion的神合适的他的人性。


    Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace信西里尔约翰约和平安提阿

    Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers.看完这些圣洁的短语和寻找自己的协议(意为“有一主,一信,一洗”),我们给予荣耀神谁是一切的救世主和一同快乐,我们和你在一个教堂中自称为灵感经文和我们神圣的父亲相同的传统信仰。 But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin, I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you.但因为我发现有一些总是急于寻找故障,谁嗡嗡周围像黄蜂和愤怒的对我吐来回邪恶的话,大意是说,我的基督圣体从天上下来,从圣母不,我以为是在回答他们说你这个问题有点必要的。

    O fools, whose only competence is in slander!Ø傻子,他们唯一的能力是在污蔑!How did you become so perverted in thought and fall into such a sickness of idiocy?你怎么变得这么变态的思想和陷入这样的白痴病?For you must surely know that almost all our fight for the faith arose in connexion with our insistence that the holy virgin is the mother of God .因为你肯定知道, 几乎所有我们的信念战斗在Connexion出现与我们坚持认为圣母是神的母亲But if we claim that the holy body of our common saviour Christ is born from heaven and was not of her, why should she still be considered God-bearer?但是,如果我们宣称,我们共同的救世主基督圣体是从天上出生,是她的不是,为什么她仍然被视为神的旗手?For whom indeed did she bear, if it is untrue that she bore Emmanuel according to the flesh?对于他们确实没有她承担,如果是不真实的,她灵光孔按肉体?It is rather they who speak such nonsense against me who deserve to be ridiculed.这是谁说话,而他们对我这样的废话谁应该受到嘲笑。For the holy prophet Isaiah does not lie when he says, "Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which is interpreted God with us".对于神圣先知以赛亚不在时,他说:“看哪童女怀孕,并承担了一个儿子,他们会呼唤他的名字灵光,这是解释与我们的上帝”。 Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins".同样的圣盖博总讲道理时,他说,向圣母:“不要怕,你已经发现玛丽与神的青睐,谁知你会在你的子宫内怀孕,并承担了一个儿子,你会叫他的名字耶稣为。他将救他的人从他们的罪孽“。

    But when we say that our lord Jesus Christ came from heaven and above, we do not apply such expressions as "from above" and "from heaven" to his holy flesh.但是,当我们说我们的主耶稣基督从天上以上,我们不适用,“从上面”这样的表情和“从天上”到他的圣肉。Rather do we follow the divine Paul who clearly proclaimed: "The first man was of the earth, earthly, the second man is the Lord from heaven".而是我们按照神的保罗谁明确宣称:“第一人的大地,地上的是,第二个男人是从天上的主”。

    We also recall our Saviour who said: "No one has gone up into heaven except him who came down from heaven, the son of man".我们还记得我们的救主谁说:“没有人已经进入天堂了,除了他谁从天​​上降下来,人的儿子”。Yet he was born, as I have just said, from the holy virgin according to the flesh.然而,他出生在圣母,正如我刚才所说,根据肉。

    But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person.但由于神的话语,谁来自上面,从天上降下来,“掏空自己,取了奴仆的形式”,被称为人的儿子虽然所有的同时,他仍然是他,那是上帝(他是不变和性质不变的),据说他已经从天上降下来,因为他现在被理解为用自己的肉之一,他也因此被指定从天上来的人,既是完善神格与人性的完美并认为是在一个人身上。 For there is one lord Jesus Christ, even though we do not ignore the difference of natures, out of which we say that the ineffable union was effected.因为只有一位主耶稣基督,即使我们不能忽视的性质差异,其中我们说,工会是不可言喻的影响。As for those who say that there was a mixture or confusion or blending of God the Word with the flesh, let your holiness see fit to stop their mouths.至于那些谁认为有一种混合物或混合混乱或神与肉身字,让你的圣洁认为合适的停止他们的嘴。For it is quite likely that some should spread it abroad that I have thought or said such things.因为它很可能是一些应传播它在国外,我还以为或者说这样的事情。But I am so far from thinking anything of the kind that I think that those are quite mad who suppose that "a shadow of change" is conceivable in connexion with the divine nature of the Word.但我很远的那种思想,我认为这些都是很疯狂谁假设“的改变影子”是与神性的Word联接可以想象任何事情。For he remains what he is always and never changes, nor could he ever change or be susceptible of it.因为他仍然什么他永远是永不改变,他永远也无法改变或它容易受到影响。Furthermore we all confess that the Word of God is impassible though in his all-wise economy of the mystery he is seen to attribute to himself the sufferings undergone by his own flesh.此外,我们都承认神的话语是恝在他的全智的,他被看作是对自己的属性由他自己的肉体的痛苦经历经济虽然神秘。So the all-wise Peter speaks of "Christ suffering for us in the flesh" and not in the nature of his unspeakable godhead.因此全智彼得说的是“我们的痛苦,在肉体的基督”,而不是在他的不可告人的神格的性质。For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" .对于以他可能会认为是所有的救世主,与我们的经济拨款的规定,正如我所说,他提到自己在大致相同的方式对自己的肉体的痛苦,因为是通过声音的建议先知未来,因为它是从他提前:“我给我回smiters和我的面颊,以打击,我躲在不随地吐痰的耻辱,我的脸”。

    Let your holiness be persuaded and let no one else cherish any doubt, that we everywhere follow the opinions of the holy fathers especially those of our blessed and glorious father Athanasius, with whose opinions we differ not in the slightest.让你的圣洁被说服,让没有人珍惜任何疑问, 我们处处遵循的神圣父亲的意见 ,尤其是我们的幸运和光荣的父亲亚他那修那些与我们不同的意见,在丝毫没有I would have added many of their testimonies, proving my opinions from theirs, had I not feared that the length of the letter would be made tedious thereby.我会加入很多自己的证词,证明我从他们的意见,如果我不担心,信长将作出繁琐从而。We do not permit anyone in any way to upset the defined faith or the creed drawn up by the holy fathers who assembled at Nicaea as the times demanded.我们不容许任何人以任何方式扰乱定义信仰或拟定的谁在尼西亚组装随着时代的要求神圣的父亲了信条。 We give neither ourselves nor them the licence to alter any expression there or to change a single syllable, remembering the words: "Remove not the ancient landmarks which your fathers have set".我们给自己,也没有他们的许可,任何改变或表达有改变单一的音节,记住的话:“删除不是您的父亲已经设置古老地标”。

    For it was not they that spoke, but the Spirit of God the Father, who proceeds from him and who is not distinct from the Son in essence .因为它是不是他们的发言,但上帝圣灵的父亲,谁收益,谁是从他不是从本质上不同的儿子We are further confirmed in our view by the words of our holy spiritual teachers.我们进一步证实了我们认为通过我们的神圣精神的教师的话。For in the Acts of the Apostles it is written: "When they came to Mysia, they tried to go to Bithynia and the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them".对于在它被写使徒行传:“当他们来到Mysia,他们试图去庇推尼和耶稣的灵却不允许他们”。And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him".而神圣的保罗写道如下:“谁在肉体都不能取悦神,但你是不是在肉体,你的精神,如果神的灵真正你dwells和任何人谁不有。基督的灵不属于他。“ When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame.因此,当那些谁爱心烦的声音主义妨碍我的话他们的思维方式的任何,你的圣洁不应该感到惊讶这一点,但应该记住, 从经文启发了他们的错误之际,每个异端提取的追随者 ,和所有的异教徒腐败与自己挖空心思的圣灵的真实表现,他们利用自己头上下来an不能消灭的火焰。

    Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have.因此,既然我们已经知道,即使是我们光荣的父亲亚他那修爱比克泰德的祝福,这是完全正统的,已损坏,并分发给一些,结果,许多人受伤,因此,认为它既有用和必要的弟兄们,我们已经寄发到您的圣洁原来,这是我们有十足的作品准确的副本。


    Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon摘录从Chalcedon委员会

    The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals , as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.".在Chalcedon委员会“已接受了祝福利禄的亚历山大教会牧师synodical字母, 以涅斯对东方人 ,作为是非常适合驳斥涅斯的疯狂愚蠢,并为那些谁在他们的宗教解释热情可能希望了解的节能信条。“


    Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed.介绍和翻译取自法令的基督教议会 ,版。Norman P. Tanner诺曼P.坦纳

    Ephesus以弗所

    Catholic Information天主教信息

    A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century BC by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists.阿名义archiespiscopal看到在小亚细亚,说已经成立了安德奇士,在雅典国王Codrus儿子,在公元前十一世纪与殖民者的爱奥尼亚援助。 Its coinage dates back to 700 BC, the period when the first money was struck.它的造词可以追溯到公元前700年,当第一期的钱感到震惊。After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC).属于后先后到莉迪亚,波斯人和亚历山大大帝的继任叙利亚国王,它通过之后,镁(199年)战役,到帕加马国王,其中,Attalus III最后,留给他的王国的(133年)罗马人。It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100,000 persons.正是在以弗所的Mithradates(88年)签署法令,命令所有在亚洲罗马人被处死,其中有大屠杀遇难10​​0000人。 Four years later Sulla, again master of the territory, slaughtered at Ephesus all the leaders of the rebellion.四年后的苏拉,再度领土的主人,在以弗所屠宰所有的叛乱领导人。From 27 BC till a little after AD 297, Ephesus was the capital of the proconsular province of Asia, a direct dependency of the Roman Senate.从公元前27年至公元297后一点,以弗所是亚洲地方总督省,罗马参议院直接依赖的资本。

    Though unimportant politically, it was noted for its extensive commerce.虽然不重要的政治,有人指出其广泛的贸易。Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon.许多杰出的人出生在以弗所,例如在第二个世纪的哲学家赫拉克利特和Hermodorus,诗人Hipponax,画家Parrhasius(在公元前五世纪六或全部),地理学家Artemidorus,另一个Artemidorus,占星家和江湖骗子,都基督教时代,史学家和散文家,色诺芬。 Ephesus owed its chief renown to its temple of Artemis (Diana), which attracted multitudes of visitors.以弗所欠它的主要著名的寺庙,以它的阿蒂米斯(戴安娜),吸引了许许多多的游客。Its first architect was the Cretan Chersiphron (seventh to sixth century BC) but it was afterwards enlarged.它的第一个设计师是克里特Chersiphron(第七至公元前六世纪),但后来被扩大。It was situated on the bank of the River Selinus and its precincts had the right of asylum.这是坐落在河Selinus银行及其专用区,有庇护的权利。This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates.这个大厦,这是看在古代时,作为世界的奇迹之一,被烧毁的Herostratus(356 BC)的亚历山大大帝诞生的夜晚,并于事后重建,几乎在相同的比例由建筑师, Dinocrates。Its construction is said to have lasted 120 years, according to some historians 220.它的建设是说,有历时120年,根据一些历史学家220。It was over 400 feet in length and 200 in breadth, and rested upon 128 pillars of about sixty feet in height.这是超过400长度和宽度200英尺,并在128左右60英尺支柱休息的高度。It was stripped of its riches by Nero and was finally destroyed by the Goths (AD 262).它是由Nero剥去其财富,并终于由哥特(公元262)销毁。

    It was through the Jews that Christianity was first introduced into Ephesus.它是通过犹太人,基督教最早引入到以弗所。The original community was under the leadership of Apollo (1 Corinthians 1:12).原来的社区是在阿波罗(林前1:12)领导。 They were disciples of St. John the Baptist, and were converted by Aquila and Priscilla.他们是圣施洗约翰的门徒,并分别由阿奎拉和梁美芬转换。Then came St. Paul, who lived three years at Ephesus to establish and organize the new church; he was wont to teach in the schola or lecture-hall of the rhetorician Tyrannus (Acts 19:9) and performed there many miracles.然后来到圣保罗,谁住在以弗所三年建立和组织新的教会,他是惯于就教于schola或讲座,大厅的修辞学家Tyrannus(徒19:9),并进行有许多奇迹。 Eventually he was obliged to depart, in consequence of a sedition stirred up by the goldsmith Demetrius and other makers of ex-votoes for the temple of Diana (Acts 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.).最后他不得不离开,在一个煽动的结果激起了金匠德米特里和为戴安娜神庙(使徒18时24 SQQ。。19点01 SQQ)前votoes其他厂商了。A little later, on his way to Jerusalem, he sent for the elders of the community of Ephesus to come to Miletus and bade them there a touching farewell (Acts 20:17-35).过了一会儿,在他的途中到耶路撒冷,他派出的以弗所来米利都社区长辈和吩咐他们有一个动人的告别(徒20:17-35)。 The Church of Ephesus was committed to his disciple, St. Timothy, a native of the city (1 Timothy 1, 3; 2 Timothy 1, 18; 4:12).对以弗所教会致力于他的弟子,圣提摩太,一个城市(提摩太前书1,3;提摩太后书1,18; 4:12)人。 The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians was not perhaps addressed directly to them; it may be only a circular letter sent by him to several churches.在圣保禄书信的以弗所不是直接向他们或许,它可能只由他通函发送到多个教堂。

    The sojourn and death of the Apostle St. John at Ephesus are not mentioned in the New Testament, but both are attested as early as the latter part of the second century by St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, iii, 4), Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V, xxi), Clement of Alexandria, the "Acta Joannis", and a little earlier by St. Justin and the Montanists.在逗留和使徒圣约翰以弗所死亡是没有提到在新约,但两者都证明了圣irenæus(Adv. Haer,,三,三,四)早在公元二世纪后期,Polycrates主教以弗所(优西比乌,组织胺。传道书。,V,XXI),克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,在“文献Joannis”,和一点点的圣贾斯汀和Montanists更早。 Byzantine tradition has always shown at Ephesus the tomb of the Apostle.拜占庭式的传统一直显示在以弗所的使徒墓。Another tradition, which may be trustworthy, though less ancient, makes Ephesus the scene of the death of St. Mary Magdalen.另一个传统,这可能是值得信赖的,尽管不那么古老,使得以弗所的圣玛丽抹大拉的死亡场景。On the other hand the opinion that the Blessed Virgin died there rests on no ancient testimony; the often quoted but ambiguous text of the Council of Ephesus (431), means only that there was at that time at Ephesus a church of the Virgin.另一方面认为,圣母无死在那里建立在古老的证言;的以弗所(431)会经常引用,但不明确的文字,只表示在那一次是以弗所的圣母教堂。 (See Ramsay in "Expositor", June, 1905, also his "Seven Cities of Asia".) We learn, moreover, from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) that the three daughters of the Apostle St. Philip were buried at Ephesus. (见“解释者”,6月,1905年,也是他的“七亚洲城市”拉姆齐)我们学习,而且从尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书。,V,XXIV),即使徒圣菲的三个女儿葬在以弗所。

    About 110 St. Ignatius of Antioch, having been greeted at Smyrna by messengers of the Church of Ephesus, sent to it one of his seven famous epistles.约110圣依纳爵的安提阿,被迎接士麦那由以弗所教会的使者,发送给它的他的七个著名的书信之一。During the first three centuries, Ephesus was, next to Antioch, the chief centre of Christianity in Asia Minor.在最初的三个世纪,艾菲索斯是,旁边的安提阿,基督教在小亚细亚的主要中心。In the year 190 its bishop, St. Polycrates, held a council to consider the paschal controversy and declared himself in favour of the Quartodeciman practice; nevertheless the Ephesian Church soon conformed in this particular to the practice of all the other Churches.在今年190的主教,圣Polycrates,举行了议会考虑逾越节的争议,并宣布在Quartodeciman做法有利于自己,然而在以弗所Church很快就在这个特殊的符合所有其他教会的做法。 It seems certain that the sixth canon of the Council of Nicaea (325), confirmed for Ephesus its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the whole "diocese" or civil territory of Asia Minor, ie over the eleven ecclesiastical provinces; at all events, the second canon of the Council of Constantinople (381) formally recognized this authority.似乎可以肯定的是,理事会的尼西亚(325)第六届佳能,为以弗所证实其对整个“教区”或民间小亚细亚,即全港超过十教会各省教会管辖;在所有的事件,第二个佳能安理会的君士坦丁堡(381)正式承认这种权力。 But Constantinople was already claiming the first rank among the Churches of the East and was trying to annex the Churches of Thrace, Asia, and Pontus.但君士坦丁堡已经声称之间的东方教会的第一级,并试图吞并教会的色雷斯,亚洲和庞。To resist these encroachments, Ephesus made common cause with Alexandria.为了抵制这些侵犯,以弗所了与亚历山大的常见原因。

    We therefore find Bishop Memnon of Ephesus siding with St. Cyril at the Third Ecumenical Council, held at Ephesus in 431 in condemnation of Nestorianism, and another bishop, Stephen, supporting Dioscorus at the so-called Robber Council (Latrocinium Ephesinum) of 449, which approved the heresy of Eutyches.因此,我们发现在第三次大公会议在谴责景教在431以弗所举行,另有主教,斯蒂芬,支持在所谓的强盗会(Latrocinium Ephesinum)449 Dioscorus主教与圣西里尔以弗所壁板门农,其中批准Eutyches异端。But the resistance of Ephesus was overcome at the Council of Chalcedon (451), whose famous twenty-eighth canon placed the twenty-eight ecclesiastical provinces of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople.但以弗所克服阻力在Chalcedon委员会(451),其著名的第二十八届佳能划归了君士坦丁堡牧首管辖的庞,亚洲和色雷斯28教会省份。 Henceforth Ephesus was but the second metropolis of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, nor did it ever recover its former standing, despite a council of 474 in which Paul, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria restored its ancient rights.从此以弗所是但在君士坦丁堡牧首的第二大城市,也没有永远恢复了往日的地位,尽管议会中的474保罗,基督一性的亚历山大主教恢复了古老的权利。 Egyptian influence was responsible for the hold which Monophysitism gained at Ephesus during the sixth century; the famous ecclesiastical historian, John of Asia, was then one of its bishops.埃及的影响是为保持其在以弗所基督一期间获得的第六个世纪负责;著名的教会历史学家,亚洲的约翰,当时的主教之一。 The metropolis of Ephesus in those days ruled over thirty-six suffragan sees.而在那些日子里以弗所大都市统治36副主教看到。Justinian, who imitated Constantine in stripping the city of many works of art to adorn Constantinople, built there a magnificent church consecrated to St. John; this was soon a famous place of pilgrimage.查士丁尼,谁模仿中剥离的艺术作品来装饰君士坦丁堡许多城市君士坦丁,建有一座宏伟的教堂奉献给圣约翰,这很快就被著名的朝圣的地方。

    Ephesus was taken in 655 and 717 by the Arabs.以弗所拍摄于655和717的阿拉伯人。Later it became the capital of the theme of the Thracesians.后来它成为了资本的Thracesians主题。During the Iconoclastic period two bishops of Ephesus suffered martyrdom, Hypatius in 735 and Theophilus in the ninth century.在反传统的时期两个以弗所主教遭受了735和西奥菲勒斯在第九世纪殉教,Hypatius。In the same city the fierce general Lachanodracon put to death thirty-eight monks from the monastery of Pelecete in Bithynia and other partisans of the holy images.在同一个城市在激烈的一般Lachanodracon处死38僧侣从Pelecete在庇推尼及其他党羽圣像寺院。 In 899 Leo the Wise transferred the relics of St. Mary Magdalen to Constantinople.在899利奥明智转让圣玛丽抹大拉的遗物君士坦丁堡。The city was captured in 1090 and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks, but the Byzantines succeeded in retaking it and rebuilt it on the neighbouring hills around the church of St. John.这个城市被抓获,并在1090年由塞尔柱土耳其人破坏,但拜占庭成功地夺回,并重建对周围的圣约翰教堂附近的山上它。Henceforth it was commonly called Hagios Theologos (the holy theologian, ie St. John the Divine), or in Turkish Aya Solouk (to the Greeks the Apostle St. John is "the Theologian"); the French called the site Altelot and the Italians Alto Luogo.从此它是俗称Hagios Theologos(神圣的神学家,即圣约翰神),或在土耳其绫Solouk(到希腊人使徒圣约翰是“神学家”);法国称为网站Altelot和意大利奥拓Luogo。 At the beginning of the thirteenth century its metropolitan, Nicholas Mesarites, had an important role at the conferences between the Greeks and the Latins.在十三世纪初的大都市,尼古拉Mesarites,曾在与希腊人和拉丁人的会议具有重要作用。

    The city was again plundered by the Turks in the first years of the fourteenth century, then by the Catalonian mercenaries in the pay of the Byzantines, and once more by the Turks.这个城市又被掠夺的土耳其人在14世纪头几年,然后通过在拜占庭支付加泰罗尼亚雇佣军,并再次由土耳其人。The church of St. John was transformed into a mosque, and the city was ruled by a Turkish ameer, who carried on a little trade with the West, but it could no longer maintain its Greek bishop.在圣约翰教堂改为清真寺,城市是由土耳其阿米尔,谁在与西方进行小贸易统治,但它再也不能维持其希腊主教。A series of Latin bishops governed the see from 1318 to 1411.一系列的拉丁主教管辖的看到1318年至1411年。The ruin of Ephesus was completed by Timur-Leng in 1403 and by nearly a half-century of civil wars among its Turkish masters.废墟的以弗所完成由帖木儿楞于1403年和近一个土耳其在其主人的内战半世纪。When at the council of Florence in 1439 Mark of Ephesus (Marcus Eugenicus) showed himself so haughty toward the Latins, he was the pastor of a miserable village, all that remained of the great city which Pliny once called alterum lumen Asiae, or the second eye of Asia (Hist. nat., V, xxix; also Apoc., ii, 5; cf. W. Brockhoff, "Ephesus vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. bis seinem Untergang:, Jena, 1906).当他在佛罗伦萨在1439年的以弗所(马库斯Eugenicus)标志局发现自己这么对拉丁人傲慢,他是一个可怜的乡村牧师,所有伟大的城市,普利尼一度被称为alterum流明Asiae依然存在,或第二亚洲眼(Hist. NAT,V,二十九;还载脂蛋白​​C,二,五;比照W. Brockhoff,“以弗所VOM vierten christlich Jhdt二seinem Untergang: ,耶拿,1906年)。

    Today Aya Solouk has 3000 inhabitants, all Greeks.今天绫Solouk有3000居民,所有的希腊人。It is situated in the caza of Koush Adassi, in the vilayet of Aiden or Smyrna, about fifty miles from Smyrna, on the Smyrna-Aidin railway.它坐落在Koush Adassi卡扎,在艾登或士麦那,约五十公里vilayet从士麦那,在士麦那,Aidin铁路。The ruins of Ephesus stand in the marshy and unhealthy plain below the village.以弗所遗址站在下面的村庄和不健康的沼泽平原。There are the remains of the temple of Diana, the theatre, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, the stadium, the great gymnasium, and the "Double Church", probably the ancient cathedral, one aisle of which was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the other to St. John, where the councils of 431 and 449 were held.还有的戴安娜,剧院寺庙的遗迹,具有25000观众,体育场,大体育馆,和“双堂”,大概是古教堂,一个走道的是奉献给圣母的能力,另圣约翰,其中431和449两个市政局举行。 The Greek metropolitan resides at Manissa, the ancient Magnesia.希腊首都驻留在Manissa,古氧化镁。

    Publication information Written by S. Vailhé.出版信息S. Vailhé写。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五,1909年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

    Bibliography参考书目

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