Esdras埃斯德拉斯

A book in the Old Testament Apocrypha一个在旧约伪经书

General Information一般资料

Esdras is the first two books of the Old Testament Apocrypha.埃斯德拉斯是前两个旧约伪经的书籍。 Although the books are not included in the canon of the Bible, they are intimately connected with the Old Testament.虽然书是不是在圣经佳能在内,他们是密切联系在一起的旧约。

Except for one section (1 Esdras 3:1-5:6), which is not found elsewhere in the Old Testament, 1 Esdras is a Greek paraphrase of a Hebrew text containing the canonical Book of Ezra, part of chapters 7 and 8 of the canonical Book of Nehemiah, and 2 Chronicles 35:1-36:21.除了一节(1埃斯德拉斯3:1-5:6),这是没有发现在旧约其他地方,1埃斯德拉斯是一个希伯来文载有以斯拉规范书文字希腊意译,章7和第8部分尼希米书的规范,以及历代35:1-36:21。 Starting abruptly with an account of the Passover of the Judean king Josiah, 1 Esdras tells of the subsequent decline of Judah; of the Babylonian exile, or Babylonian Captivity, from the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC to the reconstruction in Palestine of a new Jewish state after 538 BC; and of events in Jerusalem during the immediate postexilic period.开始用的犹大王约西亚的逾越节帐户突然,1埃斯德拉斯诉说着犹大随后下降;的巴比伦流亡,或巴比伦圈养,从耶路撒冷在公元前586年秋天,在巴勒斯坦重建一个新的犹太公元前538状态后,并在耶路撒冷的事件在眼前postexilic时期。 It ends abruptly with a description of the Hebrew priest and reformer Ezra, reading "the book of the law" (1 Esdras 9:45).它突然结束了在希伯来文牧师和改革者以斯拉的描述,读“书的法律”(1埃斯德拉斯9:45)。The section that is independent of other Old Testament sources (1 Esdras 3:1-5:6) describes a competition between three Jewish youths at the Persian court.本节是旧约的其他独立来源(1埃斯德拉斯3:1-5:6)描述了一个在三个犹太青年在波斯法庭的竞争。Each youth speaks in favor of what he believes to be the strongest thing.每个青年在讲什么,他认为是最强的东西青睐。The victor, who argues in favor of truth, gains the king's permission for the Jews to return to Jerusalem.的胜利者,谁赞成真理认为,收益国王的许可为犹太人返回耶路撒冷。First Esdras is thought by most scholars to be the work of a single, unknown translator who produced it sometime between 150 and 50BC.首先埃斯德拉斯是大多数学者认为是单一的,未知的翻译工作,谁生产的150至50BC它的某个时候。

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Second Esdras is an apocalypse.二埃斯德拉斯是一个启示。The main part of the book (chapters 3-14) records Ezra's lamentations over the fall of Jerusalem and the visions that appear to him in seven dreams.该书的主要部分(3-14章)记录以斯拉的悲叹在耶路撒冷的下降和视野出现在七个梦给他。These visions, interpreted by the archangel Uriel, reveal that the evil existing in this world despite God's omnipotence is to end with the coming of the Messiah, who will restore the just and destroy the ungodly.这些愿景,由天使长乌列解释,显示,尽管上帝的无所不能的邪恶在这个世界上现有的是结束与弥赛亚,谁恢复公正和破坏不敬虔的未来。 The author of this main section is not known; nor is it known whether the original was written in Aramaic, Greek, or Hebrew.这一节的主要作者是不知道,也不知道是否是它原来是在阿拉姆语,希腊语,希伯来语或书面。It is thought by most scholars to have been composed toward the end of the 1st century AD.它被认为是大多数已朝公元1世纪结束的学者组成。

Chapters 1-2, written in Greek, were added soon after, either by an unknown Greek or by an unknown Jewish Christian. 1-2章,在希腊书面,分别加入后不久,无论是由一个未知的希腊或由一个未知的犹太基督徒。The apocalyptic passages of these chapters show a Christian bias (particularly 2 Esdras 1:24-40).这些章节的启示通道显示基督教偏见(尤其是2埃斯德拉斯1:24-40)。Chapters 15-16, also written in Greek, were appended, perhaps as late as 270, by another unknown Christian. 15-16章,也写在希腊,有追加,也许迟至270,另一个未知的基督徒。They are considerably less important than the earlier portion, valued for its similarity in parts to certain possibly contemporaneous books of the New Testament, such as Revelation.他们大大低于同期部分其在某些可能当时的新约,如启示录,书籍部分相似重视,很重要。Second Esdras became particularly popular with the Christian church, as evidenced by the many versions in which it was rendered (Latin, Syriac, and Coptic); by its frequent quotation by the Fathers of the Church; and by the fact that several phrases - including lux perpetua (Latin, "perpetual light") - were drawn from its text into the Christian liturgy.二埃斯德拉斯变得特别流行的基督教教堂,由在其被渲染(拉丁文,叙利亚和科普特)许多版本证明,其由教会的父亲经常带,以及由几个词组的事实 - 包括勒克斯perpetua(拉丁语,“永恒之光”) - 都来自它的文本到基督教礼拜仪式。


Books of Esdras书籍埃斯德拉斯

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

I Esdras:我埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名称和版本。

Contents.内容。

Purpose and Origin.目的和起源。

Date and Value.日期和价值。

II Esdras:二埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名称和版本。

Contents.内容。

Purpose and Origin.目的和起源。

Date and Value.日期和价值。

Apocryphal writings ascribed to Ezra.未经著作冲高以斯拉。

I Esdras:我埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名称和版本。

The apocryphal Book of Ezra, or, better, the "Greek Ezra" (Esdræ Græcus), is called Εσδρας in the Greek Bible, where it precedes the canonical books of Ezra and Nehemiah, counted there as one book, Εσδρας β'.以斯拉杜撰的书,或者更好,“希腊以斯拉”(Esdræ Græcus),被称为在希腊圣经,它先于以斯拉和尼希米的典型的书籍Εσδρας,计有作为一书中,Εσδραςβ'。In the old Latin Bible it was I Esdras; but after Jerome, with his strong preference for the books preserved in Hebrew, had rejected it from the canon, it was usually counted as III Esdras: then either Ezra was I Esdras, and Nehemiah was II Esdras; or Ezra-Nehemiah was I Esdras, and ch.在旧拉丁语圣经是我埃斯德拉斯,但杰罗姆后,他在希伯来书保存非常偏爱,拒绝从佳能它,它通常是作为第三埃斯德拉斯计算:然后或者是我埃斯德拉斯以斯拉和尼希米是二埃斯德拉斯;或以斯拉 - 尼希米是我埃斯德拉斯,和CH。1, 2 of the Apocalypse of Esdras was II Esdras.1,对2埃斯德拉斯启示是二埃斯德拉斯。Sometimes, however, the Greek Ezra is called II Esdras: then Ezra-Nehemiah is I Esdras, and the Apocalypse is III Esdras; or, as in the Ethiopic Bible, the latter is I Esdras, and Ezra-Nehemiah follows as III Esdras or as III and IVEsdras.但是,有时被称为希腊以斯拉二埃斯德拉斯:然后以斯拉 - 尼希米是我埃斯德拉斯,和启示是第三埃斯德拉斯,或如在埃塞俄比亚圣经,后者是我埃斯德拉斯,和以斯拉 - 尼希米或之后的第三埃斯德拉斯如三和IVEsdras。In the English Bible it is again entitled I Esdras; here the canonical book retained the Hebrew form of its name, that is, "Ezra," whereas the two apocryphal books, ascribed to the same author, received the title in its Græco-Latin form-"Esdras."在英文圣经,再一次题为我埃斯德拉斯,这里的规范书中保留了它的名字希伯来文的形式,即“以斯拉记”,而这两个猜测书籍,归因于作者,在收到其希腊拉丁标题形式 - “埃斯德拉斯。”In the ancient Latin version I Esdras has the subscription "De Templi Restitutione."在古拉丁语版本我埃斯德拉斯有订阅“德Templi Restitutione。”Two Latin translations were made: the "Vetus Latina" (Itala) and the "Vulgate."两个拉丁译本作了了:“Vetus拉丁”(伊泰莱)和“武加大。”In Syriac the book is found only in the Syro-Hexaplar of Paul, Bishop of Tella (616-617), not in the older Peshiṭta.在叙利亚的书是发现,只有在Syro - Hexaplar保罗主教TELLA(616-617),而不是在旧培熹托。 There are also an Ethiopic and an Armenian version.有也是埃塞俄比亚和亚美尼亚的版本。

I Esdras may be divided into ten sections, eight of which are only excerpts from certain parts of II Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah:我埃斯德拉斯可分为十个部分,其中八个是从历代志,以斯拉和尼希米的某些部分只摘录:

Contents.内容。

Ch. CH。i. = II Chronicles xxxv.= II编年史三十五。1-xxxvi. 1,三十六。21: Josiah's Passover; his death; the history of Judah until the destruction of Jerusalem.21:约西亚的逾越节,他的死亡,在犹大的耶路撒冷,直至毁灭的历史。Verses 21-22, however, are not found elsewhere, and are probably an addition of the compiler.诗篇21-22,但是,都没有发现其他地方,都可能是另外的编译器。Ch.CH。ii.II。1-14 = Ezra i.1-14 =以斯拉岛 1-11: The edict of Cyrus. 1-11:在居鲁士诏书。Ch. CH。ii. II。15-26 = Ezra iv.15-26 =以斯拉四。7-24: First attempt to rebuild the Temple; intervention of the Samaritans.7-24:第一次尝试重建圣殿;的撒马利亚人的干预。 Ch.CH。iii.三。1-v.1 - V。3 =-: Dispute of the three courtiers of Darius; the victory of the Jewish youth; decree of Darius that the Jews might return and that the Temple and the cult be restored.3 =-:对大流士的三个臣子争议;的犹太青年的胜利;大流士法令,犹太人可能会返回,而寺和邪教的恢复。Ch.CH。v. 4-6 =-: Beginning of a list of exiles who returned with Zerubbabel.五4-6 =-:年初的流亡者谁与所罗巴伯返回的列表。 Ch.CH。v. 7-73 = Ezra ii: 1-iv.诉7-73 =以斯拉二:1 - IV。5: List of exiles who returned with Zerubbabel; work on the Temple; its interruption until the time of Darius.5:流亡者名单谁与所罗巴伯返回;月神殿的工作,其直到大流士时间中断。Ch.CH。vi.-vii.VI. - VII。9 = Ezra v. 1-vi.9 =以斯拉诉1 - VI。18: Correspondence between Sisinnes and Darius concerning the building of the Temple; completion of the Temple. 18:Sisinnes之间的对应关系和有关的寺庙建筑大流士;的圣殿完成。Ch.CH。vii.七。10-15 = Ezra vi.10-15 =以斯拉六。19-22: Celebration of the Passover by the Jews "of the Captivity" and those who had stayed in the land.19-22日:在由犹太人逾越节“的圈养”和那些谁曾在下榻的土地庆祝。Ch.CH。viii.八。1-ix.1 - IX。36 = Ezra vii.36 =以斯拉七。 1-x.1 - X。44: Return of exiles under Ezra; abolishment of mixed marriages.44:返回下以斯拉流亡者;混合婚姻废止。Ch.CH。ix.九。37-55 = Nehemiah vii.37-55 =尼希米七。73-viii. 73 - VIII。12: The reading of the Law.12:该法阅读。

Purpose and Origin.目的和起源。

It is evident that the compiler of I Esdras chose as a center the tale, commonly called the "Dispute of the Courtiers," of the contest among the three pages in waiting, and that he grouped around this tale several extracts from other writings with the intention of giving it its historical environment.很明显的是,我埃斯德拉斯编译器选择为中心的故事,俗称“的臣子争议,”在等待中的三个网页比赛,他从分组围绕这与其他一些著作中提取的故事意图给它的历史环境。 The results of the contest were the restoration of the Temple and of the Jewish cult and community; and this is, indeed, the leading thought of the entire work.在比赛的结果分别是圣殿和犹太邪教和群落的恢复,这就是,事实上,整个工作的领导思想。The events that led to the destruction of the Temple are therefore given as an introduction, and after the restoration the doings of Ezra, of vital importance in the development of Judaism, are related.该事件导致了圣殿被毁,因此给出的介绍,并经过修复的行为,以斯拉在犹太教的发展至关重要,是相关的。There are several discrepancies to be noted in the different parts of the book, first of all in the central episode.还有要注意在本书的不同部分,在中央情节首先几个差异。The story is that three pages of King Darius each agree to write "one thing that shall be strongest," and to let King Darius bestow great honor on him whose answer is the wisest.这个故事是三页,每页国王大流士同意写“一件事情应最强的”,并让国王大流士赐给他莫大的荣誉,其答案是最明智的。 The first writes "Wine"; the second, "The king"; the third, "Women, but above all things truth."第一个写“酒”,第二,“国王”;第三,“妇女,但最重要的事物的真相。”Then they explain their answers.然后,他们解释他们的答案。The third, the victor, asks as reward the return of the Jews.第三,胜者,要求作为奖励的犹太人返回。His name is given as "Zerubbabel" in iv.他的名字是给出“所罗巴伯”在四。13 and as "Joakim the son of Zerubbabel" in v. 5.13,是“乔金姆的所罗巴伯的儿子”在5节。The latter seems to be the original; at the same time the second part of his answer, "truth," seems to be an addition to the original story.后者似乎是原件;在同一时间,他的答案的第二部分,“真理”,似乎是一个原始的故事增加。 Other discrepancies are found in the style of the different pieces and in their relative value for the textual criticism of the originals.其他的差异是发现在不同的作品风格,他们对原件的考据学的相对价值。These facts indicate that several individuals must have worked over the book before it received its final shape.这些事实表明,一些人必须对书的工作才获得最终的形状。

Date and Value.日期和价值。

Since Josephus (c. 100 CE) made use of I Esdras, and since it is very likely that I Esdras iii.由于约瑟夫(约100 CE)由我埃斯德拉斯使用,因为它很可能是我第三埃斯德拉斯。1-2 was influenced by Esth. 1-2是受Esth。i. 1-4, the book was probably compiled in the last century before, or the first century of, the common era. 1-4,可能是编书在上个世纪前,或,共同的时代一世纪。It has no historical value, because it bears every mark of a true midrash, in which the facts are warped to suit the purpose of the writer.它有没有历史价值,因为它蕴藏着每一个真正的米德拉士,在这种扭曲的事实,以适应目的的作家马克。The extracts from other Old Testament writings, however, are valuable as witnesses of an old Greek translation of the Hebrew text, made probably before the Septuagint (see Guthe in Kautzsch, "Die Apokryphen," i. 1 et seq., and P. Volz in Cheyne and Black, "Encyc. Bibl." ii. 1488-94).从旧约其他著作的精华,但是,作为一个老的希伯来文希腊文翻译证人有价值的,可能在七十(见Kautzsch Guthe,“模具Apokryphen,”岛1起。和P.了在进益和黑色Volz,“百科全书。Bibl。”二,1488年至1494年)。

II Esdras:二埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名称和版本。

One of the most interesting and the profoundest of all Jewish and Christian apocalypses is known in the Latin Bible as "Esdræ Quartus."其中最有趣的和所有犹太和基督教启示深刻的是被称为“Esdræ的Quartus ”在拉丁语圣经 The number, which usually is a part of the name, depends upon the method of counting the canonical Ezra-Nehemiah and the Greek Ezra: the book is called "I Esdras" in the Ethiopic, "II Esdras" in late Latin manuscripts and in the English Bible, "III Esdras" in other Latin manuscripts.这个数字,这通常是名称的一部分,取决于计算规范以斯拉 - 尼希米和希腊以斯拉方法:书在埃塞俄比亚被称为“第二埃斯德拉斯”后期拉丁语手稿,并在“我埃斯德拉斯”英文圣经,“三埃斯德拉斯”在其他拉美手稿。 There is another division in Latin Bibles, separating II Esdras into three parts, each with a separate number, of which the main part is "Esdræ Quartus."还有一个在拉丁美洲圣经分工,分成三部分,每二埃斯德拉斯一个单独的号码,其中主要部分是“Esdræ的Quartus。” Greek Fathers quote it as Ἔσδρας Προφήτης or Αποκάλυψις Ἔαδρα.希腊教父引述ἜσδραςΠροφήτης或ΑποκάλυψιςἜαδρα它。The most common modern name is "IV Esdras."最常见的现代名称是“四埃斯德拉斯。”Only ch.只有通道。iii.-xiv., the original apocalypse, will be discussed here.III. -十四,原启示,将在这里讨论。The original was written in Hebrew, and then translated into Greek, as has been proved by Wellhausen, Charles, and finally by Gunkel; but neither the Hebrew nor the Greek text is extant.原来是希伯来文写的,然后翻译成希腊文,作为已被豪森,查尔斯证明,最后由贡克尔,但无论是希伯来文或希腊文是现存。

Contents.内容。

From the Greek were made the following versions: (1) Latin, which is the basis of the English version; (2) Syriac; (3) Ethiopic; (4) and (5) two independent Arabic versions; (6) Georgian.从希腊作了以下版本:(1)拉丁字母,这是英文版本的基础;(2)叙利亚(3)埃塞俄比亚(4)及(5)两个独立的阿拉伯文版;(6)格鲁吉亚。 The Armenian version differs from the others; whether it was made from the Syriac or from a separate Greek version has not yet been decided.亚美尼亚版本不同于别人,无论它是从叙利亚或从一个单独的希腊版本尚未作出决定。The book consists of seven sections, called "visions" since Volkmar (1863): 1-3 treat chiefly of religious problems; 4-6 consist mainly of eschatological visions; 7 tells of Ezra's literary activity and death.该书由所谓的“愿景”,因为福尔克马尔(1863)七个部分:主要由1-3对待宗教问题; 4-6包括末世异象为主; 7以斯拉的文学活动和死亡通知。

First Vision (iii.-v. 19): "In the thirtieth year of the ruin of the city, I, Salathiel (the same is Esdras), was in Babylon, and lay troubled upon my bed."第一视觉(iii.-v. ​​19):“在这个城市,我Salathiel(同样是埃斯德拉斯)废墟三十一年,是在巴比伦,和躺在床上的困扰。”Esdras asks God how the misery of Israel can be in keeping with divine justice.埃斯德拉斯问上帝如何能在以色列的苦难与神圣的正义一致。The answer is given by Uriel: God's ways are unsearchable and the human mind can not grasp them; everything will be clear after the end of this world, which will soon come to pass.答案是给予乌利尔:上帝的方式是unsearchable和人类思维不能把握它们,一切将明确后,这个世界的尽头,这将很快成为过去。 Then follows a description of the signs of the end.然后,遵循了最终的标志说明。

Second Vision (v. 20-vi. 34): Why is Israel delivered up to the heathen?第二视觉(第20 - VI 34):为什么以色列运送到异教徒?The answer is similar to that of the first vision: Man can not solve the problem; the end is near.答案是类似于第一愿景:人解决不了的问题;到底是近了。Its signs are again revealed.其标志是再次显现出来。

Third Vision (vi. 35-ix. 25): Why does Israel not yet possess the world?第三个愿景(VI. 35九25):以色列为什么还不具备世界?Answer: The present state is a necessary transition to the future.答:现在的状态是一个必要的过渡到未来。Then follows a detailed description of the fate of the wicked and the righteous: few will be saved; Esdras intercedes for the sinners, but he is told that nobody will escape his destiny.然后,遵循的是邪恶的命运详细描述和正义:很少将被保存,为罪人埃斯德拉斯代求,但他告诉记者,没有人会逃脱他的命运。

Fourth Vision (ix. 26-x. 59): Vision of a woman mourning for her only son.第四远景(ix. 26 × 59):一个为她唯一的儿子丧女远景。Esdras pictures to her the desolation of Zion.Suddenly instead of the woman appears a "builded city."埃斯德拉斯照片给她,而不是苍凉的女人Zion.Suddenly出现了“builded城市”。Uriel explains that the woman represents Zion.乌利尔解释说,女子代表锡安。

Fifth Vision (xi., xii.): Vision of an eagle which has three heads, twelve wings, and eight smaller wings "over against them," and which is rebuked by a lion and then burned.第五愿景(xi.,第十二章):一个老鹰有三个头,十二翼,小翼和八个视野“在对他们”,并指责这是一个狮子,然后烧毁。 The eagle is the fourth kingdom seen by Daniel; the lion is the Messiah.鹰是第四个王国,丹尼尔认为,狮子是弥赛亚。

Sixth Vision (xiii.): Vision of a man who burns the multitude assaulting him, and then calls to himself another but peaceable multitude.第六视觉(xiii.):一个人谁烧伤众人殴打他的理想,然后再调用自己,但和平的众多。The man is the Messiah; the first multitude are the sinners; the second are the Lost Tribes of Israel.该名男子是弥赛亚,第一是众多罪人,第二个是以色列失去的部落。

Seventh Vision (xiv.): The restoration of the Scripture.第七视觉(xiv.):圣经的恢复。Esdras, sitting under an oak, is addressed by God from a bush and told that he will soon be translated; he asks for the restoration of the Law; God commands him to procure many tablets and five scribes and to tell the people to stay away for forty days.埃斯德拉斯,坐在橡树下,地址,由神从布什和告诉记者,他将很快被翻译,他的律师要求恢复;上帝命令他购买许多片和五文士,并告诉人们要远离四十天。 Esdras does so, and, after having received a wondrous drink, begins to dictate.埃斯德拉斯这样做,而且,在收到一个奇妙的饮料,开始主宰。Within forty days are written ninety-four books, of which twenty-four, that is, the Hebrew canon, are to be published and seventy to be kept secret.在40日​​内将写入94的书籍,其中24,也就是说,希伯来语佳能,要公布七是保密的。Esdras' translation is found only in the Oriental versions; in the Latin it has been omitted, because ch.埃斯德拉斯“翻译是发现,只有在东方的版本,在拉丁美洲已经被省略了,因为通道。xv.十五。and xvi.和十六。were added.增加了。

Purpose and Origin.目的和起源。

The author wishes to console himself and his people in a time of great distress.笔者希望在控制台的伟大危难之时自己和他的人民。He struggles with the deepest religious problems: What is the origin of suffering and evil in the world?他最深的宗教问题与斗争:什么是痛苦和在世界上邪恶的起源?Why does the All-Righteous create men, who He knows will suffer, or will do wrong and therefore perish?为什么全正义创造的男子,谁知道他会受苦,还是会犯错,因此灭亡?Why does man possess the mind or reason which makes him conscious of these things?为什么男人具备的心态或理由,使他意识到这些东西? Throughout these struggles the writer strives for assurance of salvation.纵观这些斗争的作家努力拯救保证。Since this is reserved for some future era, he lays much stress on eschatology.由于这是今后一段时期保留,奠定了他在末世大的压力。 Confidence in God's justice underlies all his thoughts.信心在上帝的公义的基础他所有的想法。

It has been questioned whether this apocalypse was written by one author.它一直受到质疑,这是否启示是由一个作者写的。Kalisch ("Das 4te Buch Esra," Göttingen, 1889) tried to prove that it had five different sources; his views were largely adopted by De Faye and by Charles. Kalisch(“资本4te布赫ESRA,”哥廷根,1889)试图证明它有五个不同的来源,他的意见主要是由德王菲和查尔斯通过。But Gunkel rightly calls attention to the fact that the uniform character of the book forbids its reduction to several independent documents, and that its repetitions and slight discrepancies are a peculiarity of the author in dealing with his complicated problems.但贡克尔正确地提醒人们注意这一事实,即书的统一字符禁止其减少到几个独立的文件,它的重复和轻微的差异是一个复杂的问题与他打交道作者特点。 Closely akin to this book is the Apocalypse of Baruch; it has therefore been suggested that both might have been written by the same author.密切类似于这本书是巴鲁克启示,它也因此被认为既可能是由同一作者写的。 Although this can not be proved, it is at least certain that both books were composed at about the same time, and that one of them was the prototype of the other.虽然这不能证明,它至少可以肯定,双方组成的书籍几乎在同一时间,其中一人是其他的原型。

Date and Value.日期和价值。

Since the eagle in the fifth vision undoubtedly represents the Roman empire, most critics agreeing that the three heads are Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, and since the destruction of Jerusalem so often referred to must be that by Titus in 70 CE, the book must date from the last quarter of the first century-probably between 90 and 96.由于在第五视力鹰无疑代表了罗马帝国,多数评论家一致认为,三个头的维斯帕先,提图斯和图密善,并自耶路撒冷经常提到的破坏必须由提图斯在公元70年,书必须日期从上季度的第一个世纪可能在90和96。

II Esdras is a characteristic example of the growth of apocalyptic literature: the misery of the present world leads to the seeking of compensation in the happiness of the future.二埃斯德拉斯是一个成长的启示文学典型例子:在当今世界的苦难导致的赔偿寻求在未来的幸福。But besides its historical value, this book is an unusually important monument of religious literature for all times.但是,除了它的历史价值,这本书是为所有时代的宗教文献异常重要的纪念碑。

Additions: Ch.添置:CH。i.and ii.及ii。of the Latin and English versions are of Christian origin (probably second century), and describe the rejection of the Jews in favor of the Christians.在拉丁美洲和英文版本是基督教的起源(可能是公元二世纪),并叙述了在基督徒有利于犹太人的排斥反应。Ch.CH。xv.十五。and xvi., which predict wars and rebuke sinners at length, may be Jewish; they date from the middle or the second half of the third century.,和十六,其中预测战争和长度斥责罪人,可能是犹太人,他们从中间或第三世纪后半期的日期。

Richard Gottheil, Enno Littmann, Kaufmann Kohler理查德Gottheil,Enno的Littmann,考夫曼科勒

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Schürer, Gesch.Schürer,Gesch。3d ed., 1898, iii. 3D版,1898年,三。246-250 (contains a complete bibliography); Gunkel, in Kautzsch, Apokryphen, etc., ii. 246-250(包含一个完整的参考书目);贡克尔在Kautzsch,Apokryphen等,二,。331 et seq.; idem, Der Prophet Esra, Tübingen, 1900.GE Li.331及以下;同上,明镜先知ESRA,蒂宾根大学,1900.GE里。

The author of II Esdras, also called "the prophet Ezra," in all probability, as shown by Wellhausen ("Skizzen und Vorarbeiten," vi. 248 et seq.), had before him the Baruch Apocalypse, written under the impression of the destruction of the Temple by the Romans; he reasons more on the general problems of sin and death and on the design of God regarding the few that are saved than on the national problem of Israel's adversity and the prosperity of the heathen.第二埃斯德拉斯的作者,也被称为“先知以斯拉,”在所有的可能性,如豪森所示(“Skizzen UND Vorarbeiten,”六。248页起),在他之前的巴鲁克启示,在书面的印象破坏由罗马神庙,他的理由的罪恶和死亡的一般问题和上帝的设计有关的比对以色列的逆境和繁荣国家的异教徒保存几个问题。 In the controversy between the schools of Shammai and of Hillel as to whether, in view of the prevalence of sin and sorrow, "it is good for man to be born or not" (; 'Er. 13b), the author sides with the pessimistic view of the former: "It would be better if we were not born than to live in sin and suffer, not knowing why" (II Esd. iv. 12).在与沙买和希勒尔的学校,是否,在罪恶和悲伤的流行观点,“这是为人类出生或不好”的争论(;。'呃13B),作者用两侧前者的悲观看法:“这将是更好,如果我们不是天生的,而不是生活在罪恶和痛苦,不知道为什么”(二公共服务电子化四12)。 In the same light he views the final judgment of man by God.在同样的光,他的意见,由神人的最后判决。"The germ of evil sown into man by the first sin of Adam" ( ; 'Ab. Zarah 22b) results in sin and damnation for the great majority of men-indeed, there is no man who sinneth not-and makes the human destiny far inferior to that of the animal, which needs not fear the great Judgment Day (II Esd. vii. 45 [RV 115] et seq.; viii. 35).他说:“把人播种面积由亚当第一宗罪恶胚芽”(;'抗体Zarah 22B)在罪和为男性,确实绝大多数诅咒的效果,有没有人谁sinneth不和使人类的命运远不如动物,需要不怕大审判日的(二公共服务电子化七45 [RV 115]及以下;。八35)。The author recognizes God's love for all His creatures (viii. 47), in spite of the fact that greater is the number of those lost than of those that are saved (ix. 15), but for him the end must be unrelenting justice and no mercy nor any intercession of saints; truth and righteousness alone must prevail (vii. 32-38 [RV 102-115]).笔者认识到上帝对他的所有动物的爱(viii. 47),在更大的事实是比那些保存(ix. 15)失去的人数虽然如此,但他最终必须是公正和无情的没有怜悯,也没有圣人说情;真理和正义必须独自占上风(vii. 32-38 [RV 102-115])。Here, too, the author differs from the Hillelites, who teach that those souls whose merits and demerits are equal are saved by the mercy of God (who inclines the scale toward mercy), and sides with the Shammaites, who claim that these souls must go through the purgatory of the Gehenna fire before they are admitted into paradise (Sanh. xiii. 4; RH 16b).在这里,笔者与Shammaites不同,谁声称,这些灵魂必须从Hillelites,谁教这些灵魂的优点和缺点都是平等的,由神(谁倾斜朝向怜悯规模)怜悯保存,双方通过地狱火炼狱去,才进天堂(Sanh.十三4; RH 16B)承认。In another respect II Esdras (see iii. 30, ix. 22 et seq., xii. 34, xiii. 37 et seq.) manifests the spirit of the Shammaites in finding Messianic salvation granted only to the remnant of Israel, for it is Eliezer the Shammaite who, in opposition to the school of Hillel, denies all Gentiles a share in the world to come (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 2).在另一个方面II埃斯德拉斯(见三30,九22页起,十二34,十三37起。)体现了Shammaites寻找救世主拯救只授予给以色列残的精神,因为它是埃利泽的Shammaite谁,反对学校的希勒尔,拒绝所有外邦人在世界上的份额来(Tosef.,Sanh。十三2)。

In regard to the return of the Lost Ten Tribes, also, the author shares the view of Eliezer, in opposition to Akiba, that they will take part in the Messianic redemption, and the very name for the land of the exile of the Ten Tribes used by him, but obviously misunderstood by the translator, rests on the same Biblical words referred to by the two tannaim-"ereẓ aḥeret" (another land; Deut. xxix. 27; II Esd. xiii. 45, comp. 40; Sanh. x. 3; see Arzareth).至于失去的十个部落的回报,同时,笔者赞同,反对秋叶查看埃利泽,他们将在弥赛亚救赎的一部分,为十大部落流放的土地非常名使用他,但明显地受到译者误解,建立在提到了相同的两个tannaim圣经的话 - “埃雷兹aḥeret”(另一种土地;申二十九27;二,防静电十三45,比赛40;。Sanh 。十,3,见Arzareth)。The length of the Messianic time is stated to be 400 years (II Esd. vii. 28: this is based upon Ps. xc. 15 and Gen. x. 13; comp. Sanh. 99a; Pesiḳ. R. 1).对弥赛亚时间的长短表示为400年(。II防静电七28:这是根据诗XC 15和创十13;比赛Sanh 99A;Pesiḳ第1条规则。。。)。Especially significant is the apocalyptic sign for the Messianic era taken from Gen. xxv.尤其重要的是从创二十五所采取的救世主的时代世界末日的迹象。26, RV ("His [Jacob's] hand had hold on Esau's heel"), which is interpreted: "The end of Esau's [Edom's] reign, willform the beginning of Jacob's-that is, the Messiah's-kingdom" (II Esd. vi. 8, exactly as in Gen. R. lxiii.; comp. Yalḳ.). 26,RV(“他的[雅各]手已举办以扫的脚跟”),这是解释道:“以扫的[以东]的统治结束,willform的Jacob's,也就是说,Me​​ssiah's -王国的开始”(II ESD。六,八,严格按照将军河LXIII;。排版Yalḳ)。For other parallels to rabbinical sayings of the first century see Rosenthal, "Vier Apocryphische Bücher aus der Zeit und Schule R. Akiba's," 1885, pp. 39-71.为了给第一世纪犹太教熟语其他相似之处见罗森塔尔,“Vier Apocryphische书刊AUS DER宰特UND学派R.秋叶的”1885年,页39-71。Rosenthal also thinks (ib. p. 40) that the five sages who during forty days put into writing the twenty-four canonical and seventy hidden (apocryphal) books dictated by Ezra under inspiration (II Esd. xiv. 23-46) reflect the work of the five disciples of Johanan ben Zakkai.K.罗森塔尔还认为(同上第40页)这五个谁在40天成书面24规范和第七隐藏(未经证实)书由以斯拉支配下的灵感把先贤(II ESD。十四。23-46)反映工作的约哈难奔Zakkai.K五个弟子。



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