Book of Esther书以斯帖记

General Information一般资料

Esther is a book in the Old Testament of the Bible.埃斯特是在圣经旧约书。It recounts the deliverance of the Jews from persecution in the Persian Empire, a deliverance accomplished by the timely actions of two Jewish members of the foreign court: Queen Esther and her cousin and foster father, Mordecai.它叙述了从波斯帝国,由两名犹太成员的外国法院及时完成了解救行动迫害犹太人的拯救:王后以斯帖和她的表哥和养父,末底改。 Popular tales from Persian times about a recalcitrant native queen, a Jewess who became queen of a foreign nation, and deadly rivalry among courtiers were worked into the account.从有关顽抗本地女王,一个Jewess谁成为外国国家王后,和波斯之间的臣子致命的竞争时代流行的故事是工作到帐户。 The book was intended to strengthen Jews under persecution during the Maccabean wars and, in particular, to authorize celebration in Palestine of the Feast of Purim, otherwise unknown in the Old Testament.这本书的目的是加强在迫害犹太人在马加比战争,特别是,授权庆祝在巴勒斯坦的普珥节,否则在旧约不明。 Jews in the Diaspora may earlier have observed this festival of deliverance from foreign persecutors.在散居的犹太人可能早已经观察这种解脱外国迫害者的节日。

The anti - Semitic temper, the murder of many Gentiles, and the apparently forced conversion of others described in the book indicate that it was written during the reign of John Hyrcanus, the Hasmonean Jewish king (c.135 - 105 BC; see Maccabees).反 - 犹太人的脾气,许多外邦人谋杀,以及在书中描述的人显然是被迫的转换表明,它是在对约翰Hyrcanus,犹太国王统治的哈斯蒙尼书面(c.135 - 105 BC,见马加比) 。The absence of the name of God, which led to religiously motivated additions of 107 verses to the Greek version of the book (forming a separate book in the Apocrypha), may be the result of wisdom influence or of a secularizing trend in the Hasmonean circles that introduced the Feast of Purim to Palestine.而以上帝的名义,而导致107节的书(形成一个单独的伪经书),希腊的宗教动机的版本增加的情况下可能是智慧的影响或在哈斯蒙尼界世俗化趋势的结果该介绍了普珥节巴勒斯坦。

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Book of Esther以斯帖记

Brief Outline简述

  1. Esther becomes queen (1-2:17)以斯帖成为王后(1-2:17)
  2. Jewish danger (2:18-3:15)犹太人的危险(2:18-3:15)
  3. Jews saved (4-10)犹太人保存(4-10)

The Apocrypha includes several insertions into this Book.伪经包括将此书几个插入。


Esther以斯帖

Advanced Information先进的信息

Esther was the queen of Ahasuerus, and heroine of the book that bears her name.以斯帖是亚哈随鲁王后,以及书,蕴藏着她的名字的女主角。She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when she entered the royal harem she received the name by which she henceforth became known (Esther 2: 7).她被评为Hadas'sah(番石榴)的Jewess,但是当她进入皇室后宫,她收到了她的名字从此出名(以斯帖记2:7)。 It is a Syro-Arabian modification of the Persian word satarah, which means a star.这是一个波斯词satarah,这意味着一个明星Syro -阿拉伯修改。She was the daughter of Abihail, a Benjamite.她是Abihail女儿,便雅悯。Her family did not avail themselves of the permission granted by Cyrus to the exiles to return to Jerusalem; and she resided with her cousin Mordecai, who held some office in the household of the Persian king at "Shushan in the palace."她的家人没有利用授予赛勒斯的流亡者返回耶路撒冷自己的权限,以及她与她的表哥末底改,谁举行了波斯国王居住在家庭中的某些办公室“在宫中蜀山。” Ahasuerus having divorced Vashti, chose Esther to be his wife.亚哈随鲁瓦实提离婚后,选择了做他的妻子埃丝特。Soon after this he gave Haman the Agagite, his prime minister, power and authority to kill and extirpate all the Jews throughout the Persian empire.此后不久,他给了哈曼的Agagite,他的总理权力和权威,以杀死和消灭整个波斯帝国的所有犹太人。

By the interposition of Esther this terrible catastrophe was averted.到以斯帖干预才避免这一可怕的灾难。Haman was hanged on the gallows he had intended for Mordecai (Esther 7); and the Jews established an annual feast, the feast of Purim (qv), in memory of their wonderful deliverance.哈曼被挂在他为末底改(以斯帖7)拟绞刑架;和犹太人建立了自己的美好记忆解救每年盛宴,在普珥节(QV)盛宴。 This took place about fifty-two years after the Return, the year of the great battles of Plataea and Mycale (BC 479).这花了大约回归后,对Plataea和Mycale的(公元前479)伟大的战役今年52年地方。Esther appears in the Bible as a "woman of deep piety, faith, courage, patriotism, and caution, combined with resolution; a dutiful daughter to her adopted father, docile and obedient to his counsels, and anxious to share the king's favour with him for the good of the Jewish people. There must have been a singular grace and charm in her aspect and manners, since 'she obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her' (Esther 2:15). That she was raised up as an instrument in the hand of God to avert the destruction of the Jewish people, and to afford them protection and forward their wealth and peace in their captivity, is also manifest from the Scripture account."以斯帖显示为深虔诚“的女人,信念,勇气,爱国主义和谨慎分辨率相结合,在圣经中,一个孝顺的女儿给她的养父,百依百顺他的律师,并渴望与他分享国王的青睐为犹太人民的好,有一定是一个奇异的恩典在她方面,举止和魅力,因为“她获得了所有他们在她看着眼前蒙恩”(以斯帖记2:15),这是她提出最多是在上帝之手工具,以避免对犹太人民的破坏,以及向他们提供保护,并提出自己的财富和他们饲养的和平,也从圣经的帐户清单。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Esther以斯帖记

Advanced Information先进的信息

The authorship of this book is unknown.本书的作者是未知的。It must have been obviously written after the death of Ahasuerus (the Xerxes of the Greeks), which took place BC 465.它必须有明显的书面后,亚哈随鲁(希腊人的薛西斯),从而发生公元前465死亡。The minute and particular account also given of many historical details makes it probable that the writer was contemporary with Mordecai and Esther.以分,还特别考虑到许多历史细节使得它可能给作家是与末底改和以斯帖当代。Hence we may conclude that the book was written probably about BC 444-434, and that the author was one of the Jews of the dispersion.因此,我们可以得出这样的结论书是写大概约公元前444-434,而作者是分散的犹太人之一。This book is more purely historical than any other book of Scripture; and it has this remarkable peculiarity that the name of God does not occur in it from first to last in any form.这本书是更纯粹的圣经比任何其他书的历史,以及它有这样显着的特点,上帝的名字并不在它从第一个到最后发生任何形式的。 It has, however, been well observed that "though the name of God be not in it, his finger is."它的出现却得到了很好的指出,“虽然上帝的名义在它没有,他的手指。”The book wonderfully exhibits the providential government of God.书中展示了神奇妙的天赐政府。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Esther以斯帖

Catholic Information天主教信息

(From the Hebrew meaning star, happiness); Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 BC). (从希伯来文的意思明星,幸福);波斯女王和妻子Assuerus,谁是薛西斯(公元前485-465)确定。She was a Jewess of the tribe of Benjamin, daughter of Abihail, and bore before her accession to the throne the name of Edissa (Hádássah, myrtle).她是在本杰明,女儿的Abihail部落Jewess,和她之前加入孔继位的Edissa名称(哈达萨,番石榴)。 Her family had been deported from Jerusalem to Babylon in the time of Jechonias (599 BC).她的家人被驱逐出耶路撒冷巴比伦的Jechonias(599年)的时间。On the death of her parents she was adopted by her father's brother, Mardochai, who then dwelt in Susan, the capital of Persia.在她父母的死亡,她通过她的父亲的弟弟,Mardochai,谁再在苏珊的波斯首都住。King Assuerus being angered at the refusal of his wife Vasthi to respond to his invitation to attend a banquet that he gave in the third year of his reign, divorced her and ordered the most attractive maidens of the kingdom brought before him that he might select her successor from among them.王Assuerus被激怒在他的妻子Vasthi拒绝响应他的邀请出席了宴会,他在他在位的第三年,她离婚,并下令王国最有吸引力的姑娘带来了他面前,他可能会选择她继任者从他们中间。 Among these was Esther, whose rare beauty captivated the king and moved him to place her on the throne.在这些被埃斯特,其罕见的美丽迷住了国王和他感动的地方她的宝座上。Her uncle Mardochai remained constantly near the palace so that he might advise and counsel her.她的叔叔Mardochai保持在接近宫殿不断,使他可能建议和忠告她。While at the gate of the palace he discovered a plot of two of the king's eunuchs to kill their royal master.而在宫殿的大门,他发现了王的太监two阴谋杀死王室的主人。This plot he revealed to Esther, who in turn informed the king.他透露,这个情节以斯帖,谁又将告诉王。The plotters were executed, and a record of the services of Mardochai was entered in the chronicles of the kingdom.策划者被处决,以及对Mardochai服务纪录是在王国编年史输入。Not long thereafter, Aman, a royal favourite before whom the king had ordered all to bow, having frequently observed Mardochai at the gate of the palace and noticed that he refused to prostrate himself before him, cunningly obtained the king's consent for a general massacre in one day of all the Jews in the kingdom.不久,阿曼,皇室最喜爱的前为之国王已下令所有的弓,有经常观察到的宫殿大门Mardochai,发现他拒绝匍匐自己在他面前,狡猾地获得了普遍的大屠杀在国王的同意有一天,所有在英国的犹太人。 Following a Persian custom, Aman determined by lot (pûr, pl. pûrîm), that the massacre should take place a twelvemonth hence.经过波斯的习俗,阿曼通过抽签(PUR,PL。普珥节)确定,即大屠杀应采取放置twelvemonth因此。A royal decree was thereupon sent throughout the Kingdom of Persia.一个皇家法令,于是整个波斯王国发送。Mardochai informed Esther of this and begged her to use her influence with the king and thus avert the threatening danger.Mardochai告知这个以斯帖,恳求她使用她的影响与国王的威胁,从而避免危险。At first she feared to enter the presence of the king unsummoned, for to do so was a capital offence.起初她担心进入的unsummoned王的存在,对于这样做是死罪。But, on the earnest entreaty of her uncle, she consented to approach after three days, which with her maids she would pass in fasting and prayer, and during which she requested her uncle to have all the Jews in the city fast and pray.但是,在她的叔叔认真恳求,她同意三天后的方法,这与她的女仆,她将通过在禁食和祈祷,并在此期间,她要求她的叔叔都在城市快速犹太人和祈祷。

On the third day Esther appeared before the king, who received her graciously and promised to grant her request whatever it might be.第三天以斯帖出现在国王,谁收到她的慷慨,答应她的要求给予任何它可能是。She then asked him and Aman to dine with her.然后,她问他,阿曼与她吃饭。At the banquet they accepted her invitation to dine with her again on the following day.在宴会上,他们接受了邀请她一起吃饭,翌日再。Aman, carried away by the joy that this honour gave him, issued orders for the erection of a gallows on which he purposed to hang the hated Mardochai.阿曼,飘飘欲仙的喜悦,这个荣誉给了他,发出了一个绞刑架上,他purposed挂恨Mardochai勃起订单。 But that night the king, being sleepless, ordered the chronicles of the nation to be read to him.但是那天晚上,王,被失眠,下令全国的编年史要读给他。Learning that Mardochai had never been rewarded for his service in revealing the plot of the eunuchs, he asked Aman, the next day, to suggest a suitable reward for one "whom the king desired to honour".得知Mardochai从来没有为他揭示了宦官阴谋服务的回报,他问阿曼,第二天,提出了一个“谁想要兑现王”适当的奖励。 Thinking it was himself that the king had in mind, Aman suggested the use of the king's apparel and insignia.以为是自己的王的想法,阿曼建议国王的服装和徽章的使用。These the king ordered to be bestowed on Mardochai.这些国王下令在Mardochai赐予的。At the second banquet, when the king repeated to Esther his offer to grant her whatever she might ask, she informed him of the plot of Aman which involved the destruction of the whole Jewish people to which she belonged, and pleaded that they should be spared.在第二次宴会上,当国王反复以斯帖他的提议给予她的一切,她也许会问,她告诉阿曼的情节,涉及的整体,她是属于犹太人的毁灭他,恳求他们应该不遗余力。 The king ordered that Aman should be hanged on the gibbet prepared for Mardochai, and, confiscating his property, bestowed it upon the intended victim.国王下令,阿曼,应挂在桅杆的Mardochai编写的,并没收其财产,赐予它预定的受害者。He charged Mardochai to address to all the governors of Persia letters authorizing the Jews to defend themselves and to kill all those who, by virtue of the previous decree, should attack them.他指责Mardochai解决所有授权的波斯犹太人为自己辩护,并杀死所有那些谁,由以前的法令的规定,应该攻击他们的信件州长。 During two days the Jews took a bloody revenge on their enemies in Susan and other cities.在两天的犹太人参加了苏珊和其他城市对他们的敌人的血腥报复。Mardochai then instituted the feast of Purim (lots) which he exhorted the Jews to celebrate in memory of the day which Aman had determined for their destruction, but which had been turned by Esther into a day of triumph. Mardochai然后提起的普珥节(手),他告诫犹太人庆祝在其中阿曼已决定将其销毁一天记忆的盛宴,但已被埃斯特变成了胜利的一天。The foregoing story of Esther is taken from the Book of Esther as found in the Vulgate.上述故事的埃丝特是取自以斯帖记在武加大发现。Jewish traditions place the tomb of Esther at Hamadân (Ecbatana).犹太传统放置在哈马丹以斯帖墓(埃克巴塔那)。The Fathers of the Church considered Esther as a type of the Blessed Virgin Mary.教会的视为一种类型的圣母玛利亚以斯帖的父亲。 In her poets have found a favourite subject.在她的诗人已经找到了喜欢的话题。

BOOK OF ESTHER书ESTHER

In the Hebrew Bible and the Septuagint the Book of Esther bears only the word "Esther" as title.在希伯来文圣经和七十的以斯帖记也只字“以斯帖”的称​​号。But the Jewish rabbis called it also the "volume of Esther", or simply "the volume" (megillah) to distinguish it from the other four volumes (megilloth), written on separate rolls, which were read in the synagogues on certain feast days.但是,犹太拉比称它也把“以斯帖量”,或者干脆“卷”(megillah),以区别于其他四卷(megilloth)写在单独的卷,这些在犹太教堂读它在某些节日。

As this one was read on the feast of Purim and consisted largely of epistles (cf. Esther 9:20, 29), it was called by the Jews of Alexandria the "Epistle of Purim".由于这一个是阅读的普珥节盛宴和包括主要的书信(参以斯帖记9:20,29),它被称为亚历山大的犹太人通过了“普珥节书信”。 In the Hebrew canon the book was among the Hagiographa and placed after Ecclesiastes.在希伯来文佳能书是其中的Hagiographa后传道书上。In the Latin Vulgate it has always been classed with Tobias and Judith, after which it is placed.在拉丁武加大它一直与托比亚斯和Judith归类后,它被放置。The Hebrew text that has come down to us varies considerably from those of the Septuagint and the Vulgate.希伯来文的文字已下降到我们的差距很大的译本和武加大的。The Septuagint, besides showing many unimportant divergencies, contains several additions in the body of the book or at the end.七十,除了展示许多不重要的分歧,包括在书体或在最后几个补充。The additions are the portion of the Vulgate text after ch.该补充的是CH武加大后的文本部分。x, 3.X,3。Although no trace of these fragments is found in the Hebrew Bible, they are most probably translations from an original Hebrew or Chaldaic text.虽然没有跟踪这些碎片是在希伯来文圣经中,他们最可能从原来的希伯来文或Chaldaic文字的翻译。Origen tells us that they existed in Theodotion's version, and that they were used by Josephus in his "Antiquities" (XVI).奥利告诉我们,他们存在于Theodotion的版本,他们是在他的“古物”(十六)约瑟夫使用。St. Jerome, finding them in the Septuagint and the Old Latin version, placed them at the end of his almost literal translation of the existing Hebrew text, and indicated the place they occupied in the Septuagint.圣杰罗姆,发现在七十和他们的旧拉丁美洲版,放置在他几乎字面现有的希伯来文翻译结束他们,并表示地方,他们在被占领的译本。 The chapters being thus rearranged, the book may be divided into two parts: the first relating the events which preceded and led up to the decree authorizing the extermination of the Jews (i-iii, 15; xi, 2; xiii,7); the second showing how the Jews escaped from their enemies and avenged themselves (iv-v, 8; xiii-xv).正因此,重新安排了章节,全书可分为两部分:第一部分是有关的事件之前,并导致了该法令授权的犹太人灭绝(I - III,15;十一,2;十三,7);第二展示如何逃脱的犹太人从他们的敌人和报复本身(IV - V,8;十三 - 十五)。

The Book of Esther, thus taken in part from the Hebrew Canon and in part from the Septuagint, found a place in the Christian Canon of the Old Testament.以斯帖记,从而从希伯来语佳能的一部分,从七十部分采取,发现在基督教的旧约佳能的地方。The chapters taken from the Septuagint were considered deuterocanonical, and, after St. Jerome, were separated from the ten chapters taken from the Hebrew which were called protocanonical.从七十采取的章节被认为是次经,并且,在圣杰罗姆,分别来自哪些被称为protocanonical希伯来语采取的十章分开。 A great many of the early Fathers clearly considered the entire work as inspired, although no one among them found it to his purpose to write a commentary on it.一个明确考虑了整个工作,激发了很多早期的教父,虽然没有人发现其中有他的目的是写一本关于它的评论。Its omission in some of the early catalogues of the Scriptures was accidental or unimportant.它在早期的圣经目录遗漏了一些意外的或不重要的。The first to reject the book was Luther, who declared that he so hated it that he wished that it did not exist (Table Talk, 59).第一个拒绝书路德,谁宣称他这么恨它,他希望它不存在(表谈话,59)。His first followers wished only to reject the deuterocanonical parts, whereupon these, as well as other deuterocanonical parts of the Scriptures, were declared by the Council of Trent (Sess. IV, de Can. Scripturæ) to be canonical and inspired.他的第一个追随者只希望拒绝次经地区,届时这些,以及其他次经的经文部分,是由安理会的遄达(Sess.四,德能。Scripturæ)宣布为规范和启发。 With the rise of rationalism the opinion of Luther found many supporters.随着理性主义兴起的路德认为发现了许多支持者。 When modern rationalists argue that the Book of Esther is irreligious in character, unlike the other books of the Old Testament, and therefore to be rejected, they have in mind only the first or protocanonical part, not the entire book, which is manifestly religious.当现代的理性主义者认为,在以斯帖记是不同性质的非宗教的旧约的其他书籍,并因此被拒绝,他们心中只有第一或protocanonical的一部分,而不是整本书,这是明显的宗教。 But, although the first part is not explicitly religious, it contains nothing unworthy of a place in the Sacred Scriptures.不过,虽然没有明确的第一部分是宗教,它不包含任何一个地方在神圣的圣经不配。And any way, as Driver points out (Introduc. to the Lit. of the Testament), there is no reason why every part of the Biblical record should show the "same degree of subordination of human interests to the spirit of God".以任何方式,如驱动指出(Introduc.的点燃。的约),没有理由的每一个圣经记录的一部分应显示“人类利益服从相同程度的神精神”。

As to the authorship of the Book of Esther there is nothing but conjecture.至于以斯帖记作者没有什么,但猜想。The Talmud (Baba Bathra 15a) assigns it to the Great Synagogue; St. Clement of Alexandria ascribes it to Mardochai; St. Augustine suggests Esdras as the author.塔木德(巴巴Bathra 15A)分配给伟大的犹太教堂,圣克莱门特的亚历山德里亚归咎到Mardochai;圣奥古斯丁建议作为作者埃斯德拉斯。Many, noting the writer's familiarity with Persian customs and institutions and with the character of Assuerus, hold that he was a contemporary of Mardochai, whose memoirs he used.许多注意到与波斯的习俗和机构以及与Assuerus字符作家的熟悉,认为他是Mardochai当代,他的回忆录中。 But such memoirs and other contemporary documents showing this familiar knowledge could have been used by a writer at a later period.但是这样的回忆录和其他显示这个熟悉的知识当代的文件可能已被用于一个作家在以后的时期。And, although the absence in the text of allusion to Jerusalem seems to lead to the conclusion that the book was written and published in Persia at the end of the reign of Xerxes I (485-465 BC) or during the reign of his son Artaxerxes I (465-425 BC), the text seems to offer several facts which may be adduced with some show of reason in favour of a later date.而且,虽然在文字的典故耶路撒冷的情况下,似乎导致的结论,这本书是写,并在对薛西斯一世(485-465年)统治结束或在他的儿子亚达薛西王朝在波斯出版I(465-425年),文似乎提供了可能与一些在日后的青睐的原因显示举出几个事实。 They are:它们是:

an implied statement that Susan had ceased to be the capital of Persia, and a vague description of the extent of the kingdom (i, 1);一个隐含的声明,苏珊已不再是波斯首都,一个王国(I,1)范围模糊的描述;

an explanation of Persian usages that implies unfamiliarity with them on the part of the readers (i, 13, 19; iv, 11; viii, 8);波斯用法的解释,意味着对读者的一部分,他们不熟悉(我,13,19;四,11;八,8);

the revengeful attitude of the Jews towards the Gentiles, by whom they felt they had been wronged, and with whom they wished to have little to do (iii, 8 sqq.);犹太人的报复对外邦人的态度,他们认为他们是谁受了委屈,并希望与他们关系不大(三,8 SQQ);

a diction showing many late words and a deterioration in syntax;a文辞显示许多晚期单词和语法在恶化;

references to "the Macedonians" and to the plot of Aman as an attempt to transfer "the kingdom of the Persians to the Macedonians" (xvi, 10, 14).以“马其顿”和对阿曼是企图转移“的波斯王国的马其顿人”(十六,10,14)图的参考。

On the strength of these passages various modern critics have assigned late dates for the authorship of the book, as, 135 BC, 167 BC, 238 BC, the beginning of the third century BC, or the early years of the Greek period which began 332 BC The majority accept the last opinion.在这些段落各种现代批评实力分配给书的作者最晚日期,因为,公元前135年,167年,238年,在公元前三世纪开始,或希腊时期的最初几年始于332公元前多数接受的最后意见。

Some of the modern critics who have fixed upon late dates for the composition of the book deny that it has any historical value whatever, and declare it to be a work of the imagination, written for the purpose of popularizing the feast of Purim.谁拥有了固定的日期后,后期的书构成现代一些批评否认它有任何历史价值什么的,并宣布它是一个想象的工作,为普及的普珥节盛宴的目的编写的。 In support of their contention they point out in the text what appear to be historical improbabilities, and attempt to show that the narrative has all the characteristics of a romance, the various incidents being artfully arranged so as to form a series of contrasts and to develop into a climax.在他们的争点,他们在文中什么似乎是历史的不可能性出来,并试图表明,叙述了所有的浪漫特色的支持,被巧妙地安排了各种事件,从而形成了对比,并制定一系列到了高潮。 But what seem to be historical improbabilities are in many cases trivial.但似乎历史不可能性是微不足道的许多案件。 Even advanced critics do not agree as to those which seem quite serious.即使是先进的批评不同意以那些看起来相当严重。While some, for instance, consider it wholly improbable that Assuerus and Aman should have been ignorant of the nationality of Esther, who was in frequent communication with Mardochai, a well-known Jew, others maintain that it was quite possible and probable that a young woman, known to be a Jewess, should be taken into the harem of a Persian king, and that with the assistance of a relative she should avert the ruin of her people, which a high official had endeavoured to effect.虽然一些,例如,认为这是完全不可能的Assuerus和阿曼应该已经对以斯帖,谁在频繁的沟通与Mardochai,一个著名的犹太人国籍的无知,别人认为这是很可能的,可能是一个年轻的女人,已知的Jewess,应该考虑到一个波斯王后宫,这与她的亲戚援助应避免毁了她的人,其中高级官员一直努力的效果。 The seeming improbability of other passages, if not entirely explained, can be sufficiently explained to destroy the conclusion, on this ground, that the book is not historical.其他段落似乎不大可能,如果不是完全解释,可以充分的解释摧毁这个理由的结论,这本书是不是历史。As to artful contrasts and climax to which appeal is made as evidences that the book is the work of a mere romancer, it may be said with Driver (op. cit.) that fact is stranger than fiction, and that a conclusion based upon such appearances is precarious.至于巧妙的对比和高潮的吸引力是作为证据,这本书是一个单纯的romancer工作取得,可以说与驱动(同前)这一事实比小说陌生,而在这样的一个结论出场是岌岌可危。 There is undoubtedly an exercise of art in the composition of the work, but no more than any historian may use in accumulating and arranging the incidents of his history.目前无疑是在工作的组成运动的艺术,但并不比任何历史学家可用于积累和安排他的历史事件。A more generally accepted opinion among contemporary critics is that the work is substantially historical.当代评论家之间更普遍接受的观点是,这项工作是大幅度的历史。Recognizing the author's close acquaintance with Persian customs and institutions, they hold that the main elements of the work were supplied to him by tradition, but that, to satisfy his taste for dramatic effect, he introduced details which were not strictly historical.认识到与波斯的习俗和机构作者的熟人,他们认为工作的主要内容是提供给他的传统,但是,戏剧性的效果,满足他的口味,他介绍了其中的细节没有严格的历史。 But the opinion held by most Catholics and by some Protestants is, that the work is historical in substance and in detail.但大多数天主教徒和新教徒举行的一些看法是,这项工作是在物质和详细的历史。They base their conclusions especially on the following:他们基础,尤其是在以下的结论:

the vivacity and simplicity of the narrative;的活泼和简洁的叙述;

the precise and circumstantial details, as, particularly, the naming of unimportant personages, the noting of dates and events;精确的和间接的细节,如,特别是不重要的人物命名的日期和事件指出;

the references to the annals of the Persians;到了波斯人史册引用;

the absence of anachronisms;的时代错误的情况下;

the agreement of proper names with the time in which the story is placed;与在其中放置时间的故事协议专有名称;

the confirmation of details by history and arheology;由历史和arheology细节的确认;

the celebration of the feast of Purim in commemoration of the deliverance of the Jews by Esther and Mardochai at the time of the Machabees (2 Maccabees 15:37), at the time of Josephus (Antiq of the Jews, XI, vi, 13), and since.在普珥节的在对犹太人以斯帖和Mardochai解救在Machabees(2马加比15:37)的时间纪念节日庆祝活动,在时间的约瑟夫(Antiq的犹太人,十一,六,13) ,并自。

The explanation of some that the story of Esther was engrafted on a Jewish feast already existing and probably connected with a Persian festival, is only a surmise.对一些解释,以斯帖的故事是在一个犹太人的盛宴已经存在和可能与波斯节日连接嫁接,只是一种猜测。Nor has any one else succeeded better in offering an explanation of the feast than that it had its origin as stated in the Book of Esther.也没有任何其他人提供了一个成功的,它比其原产地在以斯帖记表示节日的解释更好。(See also HERODOTUS, History, VII, 8, 24, 35, 37-39; IX, 108)(参见希罗多德,历史,七,八,24,35,37-39; IX,108)

Publication information Written by AL McMahon.出版信息AL麦克马洪写。For Esther Woodall The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.对于以斯帖伍德尔天主教百科全书,体积五发布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Apocryphal Book of Esther杜撰以斯帖记

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

Editions and Critical Helps.版本和重要帮助。

The Dream of Mordecai.末底改的梦。

The Destruction of the Jews Decreed.犹太人的毁灭颁布。

Mordecai's Prayer.末底改祷文。

The Prayer of Esther.而以斯帖祷告。

Esther Before the King.以斯帖在王面前。

The New Edict.新法令。

Interpretation of Mordecai's Dream.解读末底改的梦想。

The canonical Book of Esther undoubtedly presents the oldest extant form of the Esther story.毫无疑问,规范的埃丝特本书介绍了以斯帖的故事现存最古老的形式。In times of oppression the Jews found comfort in this narrative, for it presented an example of sudden divine salvation in the days of distress (Esth. ix. 22, 28), and it strengthened their hope of being liberated from their desperate condition, especially in the days of the Maccabees.在时代的压迫犹太人发现了这种叙事舒适,因为它提出了一个突然在危难的日子神圣救赎(Esth.九,22,28)的例子,它增强了他们的绝望状况正在从解放的希望,尤其是在马加的日子。 Naturally, the Jews' well-known skill in transforming and enriching traditional narratives was applied especially to those incidents which were touched but lightly in the Biblical Book of Esther.当然,犹太人“的著名改造和丰富传统的叙事技巧的应用,特别是对那些被感动圣经中的以斯帖书,但轻轻事件。Such variations and additions have been preserved in Greek, but the assumption that they were based on a Hebrew original has been proved erroneous (comp. Scholz, "Kommentar über das Buch Esther mit Seinen Zusätzen," 1892, pp. 21 et seq.), the difficulty of translating many of these additions into Hebrew being especially significant (Fritzsche, "Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apokryphen des Alten Testaments," 1851, p. 71; Wace, "The Apocrypha," in "The Speaker's Commentary," i. 361-365).这种变化和补充已被保存在希腊,但他们是在希伯来文原来的基础假设已被证明错误的(comp.肖尔茨,“Kommentar黚DAS布赫以斯帖麻省理工学院Seinen Zusätzen,”1892年,第21起。)中,被翻译成希伯来语特别重要的意义(弗里切这些新增的许多困难,“Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载祖书房Apokryphen DES Alten圣经”,1851年,第71页; WACE,“伪经”,在“扬声器的评论,”我,361-365)。The additions were probably made in the time of the Maccabees, when the people were hoping for another sudden liberation by divine intervention.提出的增加很可能在马加的时候,当人们再由神助突然解放希望。They aimed chiefly to supply the religious element signally lacking in the canonical book (comp. Reuss, "Geschichte der Heiligen Schriften des Alten Testaments," 2d ed., §§ 470 et seq.; Bleek-Wellhausen, "Einleitung in das Alte Testament," 5th ed., § 120; JS Bloch, "Hellenistische Bestandtheile im Bibl. Schriftum," 2d ed., p. 8; Ryssel, in Kautzsch, "Die Apocryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments," i. 197).他们的目的主要是提供宗教元素signally在规范书(comp.罗伊斯,“历史馆DER Heiligen Schriften DES Alten圣经”,2版,§ § 470及以下缺乏;。Bleek -豪森,“旧约导论在DAS阿尔特“第5版,§ 120; JS布洛赫”。Hellenistische Bestandtheile IM Bibl Schriftum,“2版,第8页; Ryssel在Kautzsch,”模具Apocryphen UND Pseudepigraphen DES Alten圣经,“一197)。 Fritzsche (lcp 73) has pointed out linguistic similarities between the additions and the second Book of the Maccabees.弗里切(LCP 73)所指出的补充和之间的马加比书第二语言的相似性。

Editions and Critical Helps.版本和重要帮助。

The latest date that can be given to the additions is the year 30 BC, when the Ptolemaic rule came to an end (comp. B. Jacob in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1890, p. 290).最新的日期,可给予补充,是公元前30年,当托勒密统治宣告结束(comp. B.雅各布在体育场的“(杂志),”1890年,第290页)。These additions are contained in the uncial manuscript of the Codex Sinaiticus (Sin.), Codex Vaticanus (B), and Codex Alexandrinus (A).这些新增载于法典西奈抄本(Sin.),食品Vaticanus(B),和法典Alexandrinus(A)安色尔字体的手稿。 Among the printed editions may be mentioned those of R. Holmes and J. Parsons, Oxford, 1798-1827; E. Nestle, "Vet. Test. Græce Juxta LXX. Interpretum," Leipsic, 1850; HB, Swete, "The Old Testament in Greek," 2d ed., Cambridge, 1895-99; OF Fritzsche, "Libr. Apoc. VT Græce," 1871.在印刷版本可能会提到的J. R. Holmes和帕森斯,牛津,1798年至1827年的;“。兽医试验Græce JUXTA LXX Interpretum, ”E.雀巢,Leipsic,1850; HB,Swete,“老约在希腊,“2D版,剑桥,1895年至1899年;的弗里切”。溴化锂载脂蛋白C VT Græce,“1871。The text of the additions has been preserved in two forms, namely, that of the Septuagint, and that revised by Lucian, the martyr of Antioch (comp. B. Jacob, lc pp. 258-262).该新增的文字一直保存在两种形式,即七十的,和卢西安,在安提阿(comp. B.雅各布,信用证页258-262)烈士经修订。Lagarde has published both texts with complete critical annotations in his "Librorum Veteris Testamenti Canonicorum," 1883, i.拉加德发表在他的“Librorum Veteris Testamenti Canonicorum,”1883年,一完整的关键注解两种文本504-541; and later on A. Scholz ("Kommentar über das Buch Esther," pp. 2-99, Würzburg and Vienna, 1892) published a small edition in four parallel columns, showing side by side the Hebrew text of the canonical book, the two Greek texts, and Josephus' text (comp. Ryssel in Kautzsch, lc pp. 198, 199). 504-541;后来就A.肖尔茨(“Kommentar黚DAS布赫以斯帖”,页2-99,维尔茨堡和维也纳,1892年)出版了四个平行列小版,显示出并排的规范希伯来文书,这两个希腊文,和约瑟夫“文本(comp. Ryssel在Kautzsch,立法会第198,199)。

For textual criticism there are, also, the two Latin translations; not so much the Vulgate-in which Jerome translated very freely, and in part arbitrarily-as the Old Latin, which, in spite of its arbitrariness and incompleteness, and its additions, probably made in part by Christians, has preserved a few good readings of the Codex Vaticanus (comp. Fritzsche, lc pp. 74 et seq.; Ryssel, in Kautzsch, lcp 199; B. Jacob, lc pp. 249-258).对于考证有,另外,两个拉丁译文;与其说是武加大,其中杰罗姆翻译的非常自如,任意部分,作为旧拉丁美洲,其中,在它的随意性和不完备的,其增加尽管如此,可能部分由基督徒,至今保存了食品Vaticanus(comp.弗里切,立法会第74页起; Ryssel,在Kautzsch,LCP的199; B.雅各布,信用证页249-258)少有的好读物。On the forthcoming new edition of pre-Jerome texts of Esther, comp.在即将召开的以斯帖,比赛前的杰罗姆文本的新版本。Ph. Thielmann, "Bericht über das Gesammelte Handschriftliche Material zu einer Kritischen Ausgabe der Lateinischen Uebersetzung Biblischer Bücher des AT" Munich, 1900; "Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Bayerischen Academie der Wissenschaften," ii.博士Thielmann,“Bericht黚DAS Gesammelte Handschriftliche材料组einer Kritischen Ausgabe DER Lateinischen Uebersetzung Biblischer AT书刊DES”慕尼黑,1900年,“Sitzungsberichte DER Königlichen巴伐利亚琪DER学问,”二。205-247.205-247。For an explanation of the Greek additions to the Book of Esther see Fritzsche, lc (the older interpreters, p. 76; the later, pp. 69-108); FO Bissel, "The Apocrypha of Old Testament," New York, 1880; Fuller-Wace, lci 361-402; O. Zöckler, "Die Apocryphen des Alten Testaments," Munich, 1891; Ball, "The Ecclesiastical, or Deuterocanonical, Books of the Old Testament," London, 1892; V. Ryssel, in Kautzsch, lci 193-212.对于一个给以斯帖看弗里切,LC(旧口译,第76页;后来,页69-108);预订希腊补充解释为比塞尔,他说:“旧约伪经,”纽约,1880 ;富勒- WACE,LCI 361-402; O. Zöckler,“模具Apocryphen DES Alten圣经”,慕尼黑,1891年;球,“教会,或次经,旧约的书籍,”伦敦,1892年,五Ryssel,在Kautzsch,LCI 193-21​​2。

The Dream of Mordecai.末底改的梦。

The dream of Mordecai precedes in the Septuagint, as i.末底改的梦想之前的译本,作为一11-17, the canonical story of Esther, and corresponds in the Vulgate to xi.11-17,在以斯帖典型故事,并在席武加大对应。 2-12 and xii.2-12和第十二。 (Swete, "The Old Testament in Greek," ii. 755 et seq.).(Swete,二,755页起“在希腊文,旧约”)。This version contradicts the account in the canonical book, for, according to the apocryphal version (i. 2), Mordecai is already in the service of King Artaxerxes, and has this dream in the second year of that king's reign, whereas in the canonical version (ii. 16) Esther was not taken into the royal house until the seventh year of his reign, and Mordecai did not sit "in the king's gate"-that is, enter the king's service-until after that event (ii. 19-20).这个版本相矛盾的规范书的帐户,因为,根据未经证实的版本(一2),末底改已经在亚达薛西王的服务,并已在该国王在位第二年这个梦想,而在规范版本(白介素16)以斯帖没有考虑到王室统治,直到他的第七个年头,而末底改不坐“在国王之门”,也就是说,进入国王的服务,直到该事件(白介素19 -20)。The author of the apocryphal Esther speaks of two conspiracies against Artaxerxes, and says that Mordecai preceded Esther in coming to court.以斯帖的猜测作者谈到了两名反对亚达薛西的阴谋,并说在来之前末底改法院以斯帖。His account is as follows: Mordecai as a servant in the palace sleeps with the courtiers Gabatha and Tharra (Esth. ii. 21, "Bigthan" and "Teresh"; Vulg. "Bagatha" [whence "Gabatha"] and "Thara"), and overhears their plot against the king.他的帐户如下:末底改作为宫殿仆人与群臣Gabatha和Tharra(Esth. II 21,“Bigthan”和“Teresh”睡; Vulg“Bagatha”[何处“Gabatha”]和“他拉”。 ),并偷听他们对国王的阴谋。He denounces the conspirators, who are arrested and confess.他谴责阴谋家,谁被逮捕和招供。The king and Mordecai write down the occurrence, and Mordecai is rewarded.国王和末底改写下的发生,末底改是奖励。As the conspirators are condemned to death (according to B. Jacob in Stade's "Zeitschrift," x. 298, the words of Codex B, διότι ἀνέρήθησαν, are to be added here; comp. Jerome: "qui fuerant interfecti"), Haman, who evidently was in league with them, plans to take vengeance on Mordecai (Apocr. Esth. ii. 12-17).由于共谋人被判处死刑(据B.雅各布在体育场的“(杂志),”X 298,法典的话B,διότιἀνέρήθησαν,是无以复加在这里,比赛杰罗姆:“魁fuerant interfecti”),哈曼,谁显然与他们联赛,计划采取的末底改(Apocr. Esth二12-17)复仇。

There is a second conspiracy after Esther has been made queen, in the seventh year of the king's reign (Esth. ii. 21 et seq.).还有第二个阴谋后以斯帖已在国王统治时期(Esth.二21起。)第七年女王。 Mordecai in his dream (Apocr. Esth. i. 4-11) sees two dragons coming to fight each other (representing Mordecai and Haman, ib. vi. 4); the nations make ready to destroy the "people of the righteous," but the tears of the righteous well up in a little spring that grows into a mighty stream (comp. Ezek. xlvii. 3-12; according to Apocr. Esth. vi. 3, the spring symbolizes Esther, who rose from a poor Jewess to be a Persian queen).在他的梦想末底改(。Apocr. Esth一4-11)看到两条龙来打对方(代表末底改和哈曼,IB六4);各国作出准备摧毁了“义人”但在一个小春天,成为强大的流(comp.以西结书四十七3-12增长的正义涌上泪水;。。根据Apocr Esth VI 3,春天象征着以斯帖,谁从一个贫穷的Je​​wess上涨成为波斯王后)。The sun now rises, and those who had hitherto been suppressed "devoured those who till then had been honored" (comp. Esth. ix. 1-17).现在的太阳升起,和那些谁被压抑了迄今为止“吞噬那些谁至此已荣获”(comp. Esth。九1-17)。

The Destruction of the Jews Decreed.犹太人的毁灭颁布。

The second addition contains an edict of Artaxerxes for the destruction of all the Jews, to be carried out by Haman (Apocr. Esth. ii. 1-7; it follows Esth. iii. 13; comp. Swete, lc pp. 762 et seq.).第二除了包含了所有的犹太人破坏亚达薛西法令,必须由哈曼(Apocr. Esth II 1-7出来;,它遵循Esth三13;。排版Swete,信用证页762等以下各段)。The mere mention of the fact that an edict for the destruction of the Jews had gone forth, was a temptation to enlarge upon it.而认为一个犹太人的毁灭诏书走后提出的事实色变,是放大后,它的诱惑。The "great king" (verse 1), as in Esth.“伟大的王”(一节),如Esth。i.1, sends a letter to the governors of the one hundred and twenty-seven provinces of his kingdom-that extends from India even unto Ethiopia-saying that although personally he is inclined toward clemency, he is bound to look to the security of his kingdom.1,发送到了他的王国 - 这是127个省的省长信范围从印度甚至所不欲,埃塞俄比亚,他说,虽然是对个人倾向于宽大处理,他必然要看看他的王国的安全。In a conference on the matter, he said, Haman, the councilor ranking next to him in the kingdom, had pointed out that there was one evilly disposed class of people in his realm, which, by its laws, placed itself in opposition to all the other classes, persisted in disregarding the royal ordinances, and made a unified government impossible.在发布会上就此事,他说,哈曼,在他旁边的委员排名在英国,曾指出,有一类人邪恶处置在他的领域,其中,由它的法律,摆在所有反对自己其他班级,坚持不顾王室条例,并提出了统一的政府是不可能的。 Under these circumstances, he said, nothing remained but to adopt the suggestion of Haman, who, having been placed in charge of the affairs of the state, could in a sense be called the second father of the king; this suggestion was to destroy by the sword of the other nations, on the fourteenth day of Adar (thirteenth of Adar in Esth. iii. 13, viii. 12, ix, 1), all those designated as Jews, together with their wives and children.在这种情况下,他说,没有什么,但仍采取了哈曼,谁,虽然已经在国家事务负责安置,建议可以在某种意义上被称为国王的第二个父亲,这个建议被摧毁其他国家的剑上的阿达尔(第十三阿达尔在Esth三13,八12,九,1)第十四天,所有这些指定为犹太人,连同他们的妻子和孩子。 After these disturbers of the peace had been put out of the way, the king believed the business of the realm could again be conducted in peace.经过这些干扰源的和平已经把出路,国王相信的境界业务可能再次在和平进行。

Mordecai's Prayer.末底改祷文。

The remaining additions are closely connected with this affair.其余增加是紧密联系在一起的这段恋情。The next in order is Mordecai's prayer for help (Apocr. Esth. iii. 1-11; Vulg. xiii. 8-18); in the Septuagint it is added to iv.在接下来的顺序是末底改的帮助祷告(Apocr. Esth三1-11;。Vulg十三8-18),在它被添加到七十四。17 (Swete, lc pp. 765 et seq.). 17(Swete,立法会第765页起)。It follows the story of Esth.它遵循Esth故事。iv.四。1-16, according to which Esther commanded Mordecai to assemble all the Jews for a three-days' fast before she herself interceded for them before the king. 1-16,根据该以斯帖吩咐末底改装配了三天的快速所有的犹太人之前她本人对他们交涉前国王。The prayer begins with the usual praise of divine omnipotence.祈祷开始了神圣的全能平常的赞誉。Heaven and earth are a paraphrase for the idea τὸ πᾶν(verse 2; comp. Gen. i. 1;Isa. xlv. 18).天地是为理念意译τὸπᾶν(第2节;比赛创一1;。赛第四十五18)。The plight of the Jews was occasioned by the refusal to kiss Haman's feet (comp. Esth. iii. 2-5), a refusal caused not by pride, but because honor as high as that which such an act implied belongs to God alone (comp. the refusal of the προσκύνησις of the Greek ambassadors to Darius).犹太人的困境是由拒绝亲吻哈曼的脚(comp. Esth。三2-5)所引致,拒绝引起不骄傲,但由于荣誉像这里面隐含的这种行为属于只有上帝高(比赛的对大流士的希腊大使προσκύνησις拒绝)。 "This scrupulousness is characteristic of post-exilic Judaism; in ancient Israel the honor was unhesitatingly accorded to every nobleman (I Sam. xxv. 23 et seq.; II Sam. xviii. 21, 28): even Judith (x. 23 [21]) honored Holofernes in this way in order to allay his suspicions.“这种认真态度是后放逐犹太教的特点,在古代以色列的荣誉是毫不犹豫地给予每一个贵族(我心XXV 23页起;二21三十八,28。。。。):即使朱(X. 23 [ 21])荣幸在这样何乐弗尼,以消除他的怀疑。

But, Mordecai continues, this refusal was merely a pretext to destroy God's chosen people (κληρονομία, verse 8; comp. Apocr. Esth. iv. 20; vii. 9 = Hebr. ; Ps. xxviii. 9, xciv. 5, etc.; μερίς, verse 9; comp. LXX. on Deut. xxxii. 9; κλῆρος, verse 10 = , Deut. iv. 20), and he implores God to protect them now as He had their fathers in Egypt (comp. in Deut. ix. 26).但是,末底改下去,这种拒绝只是一个借口摧毁上帝的选民(κληρονομία,第8节;比赛Apocr Esth四20;。七,9 =黑布尔;。。诗二十八9,XCIV 5等;μερίς,第9节;比赛LXX在申命记三十二9;。κλῆρος,第10节=,申四20),他祈求神保护他们现在以他的父亲在埃及(comp.英寸。申九,26)。 The prayer closes with the supplication to save His people and turn their mourning into gladness (really "feasting"; comp. vi. 22 et seq.; see also Esth. ix. 17-19, where the prayer also ends in feasting and in the sending of gifts of food to one another).祈祷结束拯救他的人民和他们的哀悼变成欢乐(真正的“灯红酒绿”的恳求;比赛六22及以下;。又见Esth九17-19,这里的祈祷也灯红酒绿和结束。对美食礼品发送到另一个)。 Here, as in Ps.在这里,因为在PS。 vi.六。6 (AV 5), xxx.6(AV 5),XXX。10 [9], cxv.10 [9],第一百一十五。17; and Ecclus. 17;和Ecclus。(Sirach) xvii.(西拉奇)十七。25, the reason for harkening to the prayer is the desire ascribed to Yhwh of hearing songs of praise and thanks, which only the living can offer (verse 10, where the reading στόμα is preferable to αιμα; Swete, lcp 765). 25日,为harkening的祷告耶和华的原因是归因于听觉的赞扬和感谢,歌曲,只能够提供的生活(第10节,其中阅读στόμα是最好αιμα; Swete,LCP 765)的欲望。Finally, emphasis is laid on the people's loud calling and crying to God (ἐξ ἰσχύος αὐτῶν . . . ἐκήκραξεν; comp. Dan. iii. 4, ; Isa. lviii. 1, ) when they stood face to face with death (ἐν ὀφϑαλμοῖς αὐτῶν).最后,强调的是对人的大声呼叫,哭神下岗(ἐξἰσχύοςαὐτῶνἐκήκραξεν;。。赛丹三4;。赛LVIII 1),当他们面对面站着死亡(ἐνὀφθαλμοῖς αὐτῶν)。

The Prayer of Esther.而以斯帖祷告。

Closely connected with this is the prayer of Esther (Apocr. Esth. iii. 12-30; Septuagint, xiii. 8-18, xiv. 1-19; Swete, lc pp. 766 et seq.; Vulg. xiv. 1-19): she takes off her royal garments (τὰ ἱμάτια τῆς δόξης αὐτῆς [in Esth. i. 11, ii. 17 only the royal crown is mentioned]), and, putting on mourning-robes (, Judges viii. 5 [6]; Neh. ix. 1), strews ashes on her head (comp. Isa. iii. 24; Mal. ii. 3; II Sam. xiii. 19, commonly ; Job ii. 9).这是紧密联系在一起的埃丝特(Apocr. Esth III 12-30祈祷;七十,十三8-18,十四1-19; Swete,立法会第766页起;。。。。。Vulg十四1 - 19):她脱掉公主服装(τὰἱμάτιατῆςδόξηςαὐτῆς[中Esth一11,二17只皇冠提到]),并于哀悼,长袍把(,法官八5 [6 ];尼九1),在她的头(comp.伊萨三strews骨灰24;。玛二3;。二,三十三19,常用;作业二9)。She winds her hair about her (verse 13) and takes off all adornments (ἐ;ταπείνωσεν comp. , Lev. xvi. 29, 31; Isa. lviii. 3).她吹她对她(13节),并采取了所有的头发装饰品(ἐ;。ταπείνωσεν比赛,利十六29,31;。赛LVIII 3)。 In this way the pity of God would be aroused and His anger allayed (I Kings xxi. 21-29).这样,上帝的怜悯会引起和他的愤怒平息(王二十一21-29)。The prayer refers to the threatening danger (comp. iii. 11): as God once released Israel's ancestors from the Egyptian yoke (verse 16), so Esther beseeches him now to save the Jews from their impending fate, though they deserve it for having participated in Persian idolatry (verses 17, 18 refer to this, and not to the preexilic idolatry; comp. II Kings xvii. 29-33, 41).祈祷是指威胁危险(comp.三11):作为神曾经释放出埃及轭(16节)以色列的祖先,所以他现在以斯帖beseeches挽救他们即将到来的命运的犹太人,但他们应得因它参加波斯偶像崇拜(诗句17日,18指这一点,而不是向preexilic偶像崇拜;。排版II国王十七29-33,41)。 Following Lagarde and Ryssel, the reading in verse 19 is ἔθηκαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν επῖ τὰς χεῖρας τῶν εὶδώλων ("they put their hands in the hands of the idols"; on , to confirm an agreement by clasping of hands, see Ezra x. 19).继拉加德和Ryssel,在19节阅读是ἔθηκαντὰςχεῖραςαὐτῶνεπῖτὰςχεῖραςτῶνεὶδώλων(“他们把手中的偶像他们的手”;上,要确定一个由手紧紧抱住协议,见以斯拉X. 19 )。This means: "The Persian oppressors have vowed to their gods [verse 19] to make vain the divine promise, to destroy Israel [ie, the divine heritage], to close the mouths of those that praise God, and to extinguish the glory of the house and the altar of God [verse 20]. Furthermore, they swear that the mouth of the heathen will be opened in praise of their impotent [gods], and their mortal king [the Persian] will be for ever admired" (verse 21).这意味着:“波斯压迫者发誓要他们的神[19节]进行徒劳的神圣承诺,摧毁以色列[即神圣的遗产],关闭那些招招赞美上帝,并熄灭的荣耀房子和神[诗歌20]祭坛。此外,他们发誓说,异教徒口将在他们的无能[神]赞开了,他们的凡人王[波斯]将永远崇拜“(诗21)。 Hence God is besought not to give His scepter into the hands of the "non-existing" (τοῖς μὴ οὖσιν; comp. I Cor. viii. 4), and not to make the Jews a laughing-stock to the heathen, but to let the plans of the latter turn against themselves.因此,神恳求不给进的“不存在”的手里权杖(τοῖςμὴοὖσιν;。排版林前八4),而不是让犹太人为笑柄的异教徒,而是让后者反过来对自己的计划。 "Mark him [παρλδιγμάτισον; comp. Heb. vi. 6] who began [to act] against us." “马克他[παρλδιγμάτισον;。排版希伯来书六6]。谁开始[行动]反对我们”

In verse 24 Esther adds a prayer for the success of the petition which, according to Esth.在24节以斯帖增加了对信访,而根据Esth成功祈祷。iv.四。16, she intends to make to the king.16日,她打算对国王。"Put orderly speech into my mouth in face of the lion" (the Persian king is thus called also in the Aramaic version of Mordecai's dream; see Merx, "Chrestomathia Targumica," p. 164, 3; comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] xxv. 16, 19). “放入我的嘴有序讲话的狮子脸”(波斯王因此也称为在末底改的梦想阿拉姆语版本,见MERX,“Chrestomathia Targumica,”第164页,3;。排版Ecclus [西拉奇]二十五,16,19)。The object of her petition-to turn the anger of the king against Israel's persecutors-anticipates the events of Esth.她的请愿书,打开了国王对以色列的愤怒迫害的对象,预期的Esth的事件。vii.七。9.9。She prays God to help her, the desolate one (τῇ μόνῃ; corresponding to in Ps. xxv. 17 [AV 16], where it occurs next to , "lonely and deserted," differing from verse 14, σὺ εἶ μόνος, referring to the singleness of Yhwh), who has no one else to turn to (verse 25).她祈祷上帝帮助她,​​荒凉的一个(τῇμόνῃ;。对应于诗二十五17 [AV 16],在那里发生的旁边,“寂寞和冷清,”从14节不同,σὺεἶμόνος,指耶和华专一的),谁也旁若无人地转(25节)。She refers to the fact that Yhwh knows the splendor of her royal position did not tempt her to yield to the king (in Esth. ii. 7-20 this is not mentioned), but that she submitted to the force of circumstances (verse 25).她提到一个事实,即耶和华知道她的王室地位的辉煌并没有引诱她屈服于国王(在Esth二。7-20这是没有提及),但她提交的情况下力(25节)。 She continues by affirming that she hates the glitter of the lawless ones (δόξαν ἀνόμων the ἀνόμων here are the heathen; their δόξα is their power), and abhors the bed of the uncircumcised (verse 26).她继续申明,她讨厌了(δόξανἀνόμων的ἀνόμων这里是异教徒,他们的δόξα是他们的权力)不法的闪光,并痛恨的割包皮(26节)床。 Yhwh, she says, knows her distress in being forced to be the king's wife.耶和华,她说,知道在被迫成为国王的妻子她的苦恼。She abhors the symbol of pride on her head (ie, the royal crown she wears in public); she abhors it like a filthy rag (ὡς ῥάκος κλταμηνίων= ; Isa. lxiv. 5 [AV 6]), and does not wear it when sitting quietly at home (verse 17).她憎恶她的头(即,她的皇冠戴在公众)的骄傲的象征,她痛恨它像一个肮脏的破布(ὡςῥάκοςκλταμηνίων=;赛LXIV 5 [AV 6]),不穿它当静静地坐在家中(17节)。Finally, she has not sat at table in Haman's house, nor graced by her presence the banquet of the king (according to the canonical version [ii. 18], Esther kept her own feast); nor did she drink any of the sacrificial wine of the heathen gods (οῦνον σπονδῶν; comp. LXX. Deut. xxxii. 38; Fuller, in Wace, lcp 390, verse 28).最后,她并没有坐在桌子哈曼的房子,也没有见到她的身影了王宴(根据规范版本[II 18],以斯帖保持自己的盛宴);她也没有喝的祭祀酒的任何神的异教徒(οῦνονσπονδῶν;。排版LXX申三十二38;富勒,在WACE,LCP 390,诗28)。Since her arrival there, God, she says, has been her sole joy.由于她的到来在那里,神,她说,她一直唯一的喜悦。The phrase ἀφ' ἡμήρας μεταβολῆς refers to the change in her dwellingplace (comp. Merx, "Chrestomathia Targumica," p. 163, 11 [Ryssel]), not to the day of her reception into the royal palace (Esth. ii. 16), as Zöckler and Fuller (in Wace, lcp 390) have it.这句话ἀφ“ἡμήραςμεταβολῆς指的是在她的dwellingplace变化(comp. MERX,”Chrestomathia Targumica“,第163页,11 [Ryssel]),不给她接收到王宫(Esth. II。16天),作为Zöckler和富勒(在WACE,LCP 390)中。The prayer closes with a petition for a confirmation of faith and a release from all fear (comp. Judith ix. 11).祈祷结束了对信仰的确认和所有的恐惧释放请愿书(comp.朱九11)。

Esther Before the King.以斯帖在王面前。

Esther's reception by the king (iv. 1-15; Swete, lc pp. 767 et seq.) follows in the Septuagint immediately upon the prayer (xv. 4-19; Vulg. xv. 1-19).以斯帖的由国王(。iv. 1-15; Swete,立法会第767页起)接收遵循的译本后,立即祈祷(xv. 4-19;。Vulg十五1-19)。Here the events told in Esth.这里的事件告诉Esth。v. 1, 2 are amplified.五,1,2个被放大。In xv.在十五。1 (Septuagint) the "third day" corresponds to Esth.1(译本)“第三日”对应Esth。v. 1.五,1。According to Septuagint v. 1 she took off the garments she had worn at divine service; in the apocryphal version (iii. 13) she had put them on.据七十诉1她脱掉了她在神圣的服务所穿服装,在未经证实的版本(III. 13)她穿上。 Divine service consistedin fasting, according to Esth.神州服务consistedin禁食,根据Esth。iv.四。16; in praying, according to Apocryphal Esther iii.16,在祈祷,根据未经证实的以斯帖三。12.12。In iv.在IV。1 (Apocr. Esth.) she puts on her royal apparel, to which the crown probably belongs, according to ii.1(Apocr. Esth)她把她的皇室服装,以官方可能属于根据第二。17.17。After a supplication to God, she appears (iv. 1) accompanied by two handmaidens (ἅβραι= "favorite slaves"; comp. Judith viii. 33); according to Esth.经过向上帝祈求,她出现(iv. 1)由两个侍女陪同(ἅβραι=“最喜欢的奴隶”;比赛朱八33);根据Esth。ii.II。9, she had seven handmaids. 9,她有七个使女。In Apocryphal Esther iv.在杜撰以斯帖四。2 it is said she was escorted to the king by two maidens, "and upon the one she leaned, as carrying herself daintily" (verse 3: ῶς τρυφευομήνη); "and the other followed, bearing up her train."二是说,她在陪同王两位姑娘“,并在一个她俯下身,为贯彻自己讲究”(3节:ῶςτρυφευομήνη);“和其他其次,轴承她的车” In the canonical Book of Esther no mention is made of this escort.在规范的埃丝特书没有提到这个保驾护航。

iv.四。(Apocr. Esth.) describes the impression her beauty produced: she was ruddy through the perfection of her beauty, and her countenance was cheerful and love-kindling; but her heart was heavy with fear of the danger of appearing uncalled before the king (comp. Esth. iv. 11). (。Apocr. Esth)描述她的美丽产生的印象:她是通过她的美丽完美红润,她的面容是快乐和爱的火种,但她的心是与前国王的出现不必要的危险恐惧重(比赛Esth四11)。 Having passed through all the doors, she stood before the king, who sat upon his throne clothed in the robes of majesty (see Fuller in Wace, lc; compare the representation of the king on his throne in the picture of Persepolis according to Rawlinson).在经历所有的门通过,她站在王面前,谁后,在威严的宝座坐穿长袍(见WACE,LC富勒;比较对他在波斯波利斯图片王位的国王表示根据罗林森) 。Verse 7: Then, lifting up his countenance (that shone with majesty), he looked very fiercely upon her; and the queen fell down, and was pale, and fainted; after she had regained consciousness she bowed herself upon the head of the maid that went before her.第7节:那么,解除了他的面容(即与威严照),他显得很激烈后,她和女王掉了下来,并于苍白,昏了过去,她苏醒后,她鞠躬后,自己的女佣头这又在她面前。 Verse 8: Then God changed the spirit of the king into mildness.第8节:那么神改变了王进温和的精神。In concern he leaped from his throne, and took her in his arms till she recovered her composure, comforting her with loving words.在关注他一跃从他的宝座,并参加了他的怀里,直到她恢复了镇静,安慰与爱她的话。In Verse 9 he asks: "Esther, what is the matter? I am thy brother," thereby placing her on the same level with him.在第9节,他问:“以斯帖,是什么问题,我是你的兄弟?”,从而放置在与他同级她。In verses 10 et seq.在诗句10起。he assures her that the death penalty is meant to apply only to the unauthorized entrance of the king's subjects (comp. Esth. iv. 11), and that it does not apply to her: "Thou shalt not die. . . ."他保证她的死刑是为了只适用于国王的科目(comp. Esth四11。)未经授权的入口,而且它并不适用于她:“你不能死。” Touching her neck with his golden scepter, he embraced her, and said, "Speak unto me."谈到与他的黄金权杖她的脖子,他拥抱她,说:“对我说话。”Then said she unto him, "I saw thee, my lord, as an angel of God [comp. Ezek. viii. 2], and my heart was troubled for fear of thy majesty."然后,她对他说,“我看到你,我的主,作为神的使者[比赛。以西结书。八,2],我的心是为你的威严恐惧不安。” And as she was speaking, she fell down for faintness.正如她说,她倒下的模糊。Verse 16: Then the king was troubled, and all his servants comforted her.第16节:那么国王的困扰,和他的仆人安慰她。

The New Edict.新法令。

The king now issues an edict canceling the former edict, and decreeing protection to the Jews (Apocr. Esth. v. 1-24; Vulg. xvi. 1-24; Septuagint addition to viii. 12; comp. Swete, lc pp. 773-775, the amplification of the edict mentioned in Esth. viii. 13).国王现在的问题一项法令取消前诏书,并下令保护犹太人(Apocr. Esth诉1-24;。Vulg十六1-24;译本除了八12;。排版Swete,信用证页773-775,该法令放大提到Esth八13)。The first edict against the Jews is revoked; its instigator, Haman, is accused of conspiracy against the king; and every aid is ordered to be given to the Jews.反对犹太人的第一个法令被撤销,其始作俑者,哈曼,是对国王的阴谋指控,以及每一个援助下令给犹太人。Verses 2-4: "Many, the more often they are honored with the great bounty of their gracious princes, the more proud they are waxen, and endeavor to hurt not our subjects only, but, not being able to bear abundance, do take in hand to practise also against those that do them good, and take not only thankfulness away from among men, but also, lifted up with the glorious words of lewd persons that were never good, they think to escape the justice of God, that seeth all things, and hateth evil."诗篇2-4:“很多,更多的时候他们都与他们亲切王子大奖金兑现,更骄傲,他们是waxen,努力不伤害我们的科目而已,但是,不能够承受丰富,确有在手的实践也对那些做他们好,并采取不仅感恩远离男性,而且,解除与该从来没有好淫荡的人的光荣的话了,他们认为逃避上帝的正义,seeth所有的东西,恨恶“。 Verses 5-6: "Oftentimes, also, fair speech of those that are put in trust to manage their friends' affairs [comp. Jacob in Stade, lcx 283, note 2] hath caused many that are in authority to be partakers of innocent blood, and hath enwrapped them in remediless calamities [comp. I Sam. xxv. 26; II Sam. xvi. 4], beguiling with the falsehood and deceit of their lewd disposition the innocency and goodness of princes."诗篇5-6:“通常情况下,也公平讲话那些在信任把他们的朋友来管理”事务[COMP雅各布在体育场,LCX 283注2]祂所造成了许多在机关要对无辜有分血,祂所他们包裹在不治的灾难[比赛我心二十五26;。。二,三十六4],用谎言和其淫荡处置innocency和欺骗善良的王子欺骗性“ Verse 7: "Now ye may see this, as we have declared, not so much by ancient histories, as by observing what hath wickedly been done of late through the pestilent behavior of them that are unworthily placed in authority."第7节:“现在你们可以看到这一点,因为我们已经宣布,由古老的历史没有那么多的观察什么祂所恶已完成后期通过对他们pestilent行为是混迹于权力置于”。 Verses 8-9: "We must take care for the time to come that our kingdom may be quiet and peaceable for all men, by changing our purposes and always judging things that are evident with more equal proceeding." 8-9诗篇:“我们必须对今后一个时期,我们的王国可能对所有的人安静,和平的关怀通过改变我们的宗旨,始终看的东西都是平等的诉讼更明显。”Verses 10-14: The king had accorded this gentle treatment to Haman, but had been bitterly deceived by him, and was therefore compelled to revoke his former edict.诗篇10-14:王曾给予这温柔的对待哈曼,但他已经痛苦地欺骗,因此不得不取消他的前诏书。(According to Dan. vi. 9, 13 this was inadmissible, but Fuller, lc pp. 397 et seq., cites a number of cases in which it was done. Verse 10 is about Haman, called in i. 17 "the Agagite," here "the Macedonian"; in verse 14 he is accused of having betrayed the Persian empire to the Macedonians.) "For Aman, a Macedonian, the son of Amadatha, being indeed a stranger to the Persian blood [comp. Vulg. "et animo et gente Macedo"], and far distant from our goodness, and a stranger received of us, had so far obtained the favor that we show toward every nation that he was called our 'father,' and was continually honored of all men, as the next person unto the king. He had also been bowed down to [comp. Esth. iii. 2-6]. But he, not bearing his great dignity, went about to deprive us of our kingdom and life; having, by manifold and cunning deceits, sought of us the destruction, as well of Mordecai, who saved our life, and continually procured our good, as of blameless Esther, partaker of our kingdom with the whole nation. For by these means he thought, finding us destitute of friends, to have translated the kingdom of the Persians to the Macedonians." (据丹。六,9,13,这是不可接受的,但富勒,立法会第397页起,列举了在它做的个案。第10节是关于哈曼,堪称一17“的Agagite “这里的”马其顿“,在14节他是有背叛了波斯帝国的马其顿被告)。”对于阿曼,一个马其顿,在Amadatha儿子,确实是一个波斯血[COMP Vulg陌生人。 “等ANIMO等gente马塞”],并从遥远的善良,我们收到一个陌生人,迄今获得的青睐,我们对每一个国家表明,他被称为我们的“父亲”,并不断地对所有荣幸,作为献给​​国王下一个人男人,他也被降至但他鞠躬,不影响他的伟大的尊严,又即将剥夺我们的王国,我们的生活[比赛Esth III 2-6。];有通过多方面的,狡猾的欺骗伎俩,征求我们的破坏,以及对末底改,谁救了我们的生活,并不断与全国采购我们的好,作为无辜以斯帖,我们的王国有分,对于通过这些手段,他认为,寻找我们的朋友穷困潦倒,有翻译了波斯人的马其顿王国。“ According to these verses Haman was guilty of a threefold sin, since he tried to wrest from the king wife, kingdom, and life.根据这些经文哈曼是一个三重有罪,因为他试图夺取国王的妻子,英国和生活。

v. 15-16, 18-19: "But we find that the Jews, whom this wicked wretch hath delivered to utter destruction, are no evil-doers, but live by most just laws; and that they are children of the Most High and Most Mighty God, who hath ordered the kingdom both unto us and to our progenitors in the most excellent manner. Therefore, ye shall do well not to put in execution the letters sent unto you by Aman, the son of Amadatha; for he that was the worker of these things is hanged [ήσταυρωσθσι = "impaled"] at the gates of Susa with all his family [according to Esth. vii. 10, viii. 7, Haman alone was hanged; according to Esth. ix. 10, the Jews killed his ten sons; in Dan. vi. 25 the wives and children were thrown into the lions' den], God, who ruleth all things, speedily rendering vengeance to him according to deserts. Therefore he shall publish the copy of this letter in all places [ἐκτιθήναι; Stade, lcx 282, a phrase used in the promulgation of royal commands], that the Jews may live after their own laws" (comp. Ezra vii. 25 et seq.; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 3, § 3, xvi. 6, § 2).五,15-16,18-19日:“但我们发现,犹太人,他们这个邪恶的坏蛋祂所交付给彻底毁灭,没有恶人,但生活的最公正的法律,并认为他们是最高级的孩子,和最全能的神,无论谁下令祂所赐给我们,并以最出色的方式我们祖先的国度,因此,你们应当做好对执行不把你们派来阿曼,对Amadatha儿子的信,因为他认为是这些东西工人被绞死[ήσταυρωσθσι=“刺穿”]在与他的家人都在苏萨门[根据Esth七10,八7,哈曼单独被绞死;。根据Esth IX 10。犹太人杀害了他的十个儿子,在丹六25的妻子和孩子们进入狮子洞穴],神,谁ruleth所有的事情,迅速呈现报复他根据沙漠抛出因此,他应当公布本副本。在所有地方函[ἐκτιθήναι;体育场,LCX 282,在皇家颁布命令使用的短语],即犹太人可能生活在他们自己的法律“(comp.以斯拉七25及以下;。约瑟夫,”蚂蚁“十二,3,§ 3,十六6,§ 2)。

v. 20-24: "Ye shall aid them, that even the same day, being the l3th day of the 12th month Adar, they may be avenged on them who in the time of their affliction shall set upon them [comp. Esth. ix. 1; but see above Apocr. Esth. ii. 6, where the 14th day is fixed upon; according to Esth. iii. 13, Haman had appointed the thirteenth day for exterminating the Jews]. For Almighty hath turned to joy unto them the day wherein the chosen people should have perished. Ye shall therefore, among your solemn feasts, keep it an high day with all feasting [following Grotius, Fritzsche, and Ryssel κλήρων (sc. ὴμιν) is to be added after; according to this the Persian king instituted the Jewish Feast of Purim, as a day to be celebrated also by the Persians], that both now and hereafter there may be safety to us [the reading here should be ὑμιν instead of ἡμιν] and the well-affected Persians, and that it may be, to those which do conspire against us, a memorial of destruction. Therefore every city and country whatsoever which shall not do according to these things, shall be destroyed without mercy with fire and sword, and shall be made not only impassable for men, but also most hateful for wild beasts and fowls forever."五20-24:“叶应帮助他们,即使在同一天,即第12亚达月l3th一天,他们可能会在他们谁在他们的痛苦时应当建立在他们[COMP Esth报了仇。九1;但看到上面Apocr Esth二第6,其中14天是固定时;。。根据Esth三13,哈曼已经任命了第十三天的灭绝犹太人]对于全能祂所喜悦转向祂。他们白天其中所选择的人应该会因此丧生叶,其中的庄严节日,保持与所有灯红酒绿[以下格劳秀斯,弗里切和Rysselκλήρων(sc.ὴμιν)是无以复加后,一个高天;根据这是波斯国王所建立的犹太人的普珥节,因为每天要庆祝波斯人也],即无论是现在和此后有可能对我们的安全[阅读这里应该是ὑμιν的ἡμιν]和良好的影响,而不是波斯人,而且它可能是,向那些做对我们来说,纪念合谋破坏,因此每一个城市和国家的,不得做任何根据这些东西,应当予以销毁不符合消防和剑怜悯,并应提出不仅不可逾越的男性,但也最适合野兽和飞鸟永远可恶。“

Interpretation of Mordecai's Dream.解读末底改的梦想。

In the Septuagint the interpretation of Mordecai's dream is separated from the dream itself, which forms the beginning of the additions, and constitutes the end of the whole apocryphon (vi. 1-10), with verse 11 as subscription (Swete, lc pp. 779 et seq.).在七十的末底改的梦的解释是分开的梦想本身,它构成了新增的开始,构成了整个apocryphon(VI. 1-10)结束诗句作为订阅11,(Swete,信用证页779及以下)。In the Vulgate the passage stands at the end of the canonical Book of Ezra (x. 4-11), preceding all other apocryphal additions as well as the dream itself, which here occupies xi.在武加大看台的通道在以斯拉(十4-11)规范书的最后,前面的所有其他未经证实的增加以及自身的梦想,在这里占据十一。2-11.2-11。Neither dream nor interpretation is found in Josephus.无论是梦想,也不解释被发现在约瑟夫。The expression "God hath done these things" (comp. Matt. xxi. 42) refers to the whole story of the Book of Esther.表达“神已经做了这些事”(comp.马特。XXI 42)是指在以斯帖记始末。Verse 2 refers to the dream told in the beginning of the book, which has been fulfilled in every respect.诗二是指在书,已开始在各方面履行告知的梦想。"The little fountain that became a river" (vi. 3) signifies the elevation of Esther (see i. 9), who became a stream when the king married her and made her queen.“小喷泉,成为一条河”(VI. 3)标志着以斯帖高程(见一,9),谁成为流当国王娶了她,使她的女王。The light and the sun (see i. 10) signify the salvation and joy that Esther brought to the Jews (comp. Esth. viii. 16).光线和太阳(见一10)表示的救亡和喜悦以斯帖带到犹太人(comp. Esth八16)。The two dragons are Mordecai and Haman.两龙是末底改和哈曼。The nations that assembled to destroy the name of the Jews (see i. 6) are theheathen (comp. Esth. iii. 6-8).在国家的集会,破坏犹太人的名称(见一6)theheathen(comp. Esth三6-8)。"And my nation is this Israel, which cried to God and were saved" (vi. 6; comp. iii. 11). “这是我的国家和以色列,哭着向上帝和得救”(VI. 6;。排版三11)。"Therefore hath he made two lots, one for the people of God, and another for all the Gentiles" (vi. 7; comp. Esth. iii. 7).“因此祂所他做了两幅土地,一个神的人,和所有其他的外邦人”(VI. 7;。排版Esth三7)。"And the two lots were drawn [ἦλϑον; lit. "they came, sprang out at the right time"]: one for his people [Fritzsche and Ryssel add τῷ λαῶ αὐτοῦ], the other for all the other peoples." “而且,这两个抽签[ἦλθον;点燃。”他们来了,窜出在合适的时间去“]:为他的人之一[弗里切和Ryssel添加τῷλαῶαὐτοῦ],为所有其他民族其他。” "So God remembered his people and justified [decided in its favor; compare Deut. xxv. 1; I Kings viii. 32; Ecclus. (Sirach) xiii. 22; Vulg. freely rendered, "misertus est"; compare old Latin "salvavit"] his inheritance" (vi.9).“所以上帝想起他的人并说明理由[对它有利的决定;比较申命记二十五1; 我国王八32; Ecclus(西拉奇)十三22;。Vulg自由地呈现,”misertus EST“,比较旧的拉丁语” salvavit“]他的继承”(六.9)。"Therefore those days shall be unto them in the month of Adar, the fourteenth and fifteenth day of the same month, with an assembly, and joy, and with gladness before God, according to the generations forever among his people" (vi. 10; comp. Esth. ix. 18, 21). “因此,那些日子,应在对他们的阿达尔,同一正月十四和十五天的月份,与程序集,和喜悦,并在神面前欢乐,永远在他根据人民的世代”(VI. 10 ;。排版Esth IX 18,​​21)。In II Macc.在二排雷。xv.十五。36 the fourteenth day is called ἥ Μαρδοχαικὴ ἡμέρα.36第14天称为ἥΜαρδοχαικὴἡμέρα。The subscription, verse 11 (in Swete, ii. 780, inserted in the German Bible between Esther's reception by the king and Ahasuerus' second edict), refers to the whole Book of Esther together with the apocryphal additions, as does also the expression τὴυ προκειμέυηυ ἐπιστολὴυ τῶυ φρουραί (Swete), meaning "the above letter on Purim" (compare Esth. ix. 20, 29).认购,11节(在Swete,二780,插在以斯帖的酒会在德国圣经由国王和亚哈随鲁“第二诏书),是指以斯帖全书与杜撰加在一起,一样也是表达τὴυ προκειμέυηυἐπιστολὴυτῶυφρουραί(Swete),意为“普珥节上的上述函件”(比较Esth。九,20,29)。

This letter was taken to Egypt by Dositheus-who called himself a priest and Levite (?)-and his son Ptolemy, who maintained that it was the original (Apocr. Esther).这封信被送到埃及的Dositheus,谁自称是祭司和利未人(?)和他的儿子托勒密,谁认为这是原始(Apocr.以斯帖)。 Lysimachus, Ptolemy's son, an inhabitant of Jerusalem, translated the letter in the fourth year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra (according to some in 455; see Fritzsche, lc pp. 72 et seq.). Lysimachus,托勒密的儿子,为耶路撒冷居民,翻译在托勒密王朝和埃及艳后第四年的信(按照455一些,见弗里切,立法会第72页起)。 Four Ptolemies had wives by the name of Cleopatra (Epiphanes, Philometor, Physkon, and Soter).四托勒密了由埃及艳后的名称(皮法尼斯,Philometor,Physkon和梭特尔)的妻子。Soter II.SOTER II。lived about that time; but all these notices are untrustworthy; compare, on the date of the letter, Jacob in Stade's "Zeitschrift," x.大约生活在那个时候,但所有这些通知书是不可信的;比较,对信的日期,在体育场的雅各“(杂志),”X 274-290, especially p. 274-290,特别​​是第279.EGHCS 279.EGHCS

Emil G. Hirsch, Carl Siegfried埃米尔赫斯基G.卡尔齐格弗里德

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。


Esther以斯帖

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Haman and Mordecai.哈曼和末底改。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

The Rabbinic Account.在拉比帐户。

Mordecai and Esther.末底改和以斯帖。

Esther Before Ahasuerus.以斯帖在亚哈随鲁王。

-Critical View:临界查看:

Improbabilities of the Story.不可能性的故事。

Probable Date.可能的日期。

Name of the chief character in the Book of Esther, derived, according to some authorities, from the Persian "stara" (star); but regarded by others as a modification of "Ishtar," the name of the Babylonian goddess (see below).名称中派生的埃丝特,图书总字符,根据一些部门从波斯湾“斯塔拉扎戈”(明星),但被别人视为“伊什塔尔”的巴比伦女神的名字修改(见下文) 。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The story of Esther, as given in the book bearing her name, is as follows: The King of Persia, Ahasuerus, had deposed his queen Vashti because she refused, during a festival, toshow at his command her charms before the assembled princes of the realm (i. 10).以斯帖的故事,如轴承的书给她的名字,如下:在波斯,国王亚哈随鲁,废黜了他的王后瓦实提,因为她拒绝了,节日期间,在他的指挥toshow她的魅力在组装之前,诸侯境界(一10)。 Many beautiful maidens were then brought before the king in order that he might choose a successor to the unruly Vashti.许多美丽的姑娘随后带来了秩序,他可能会选择到不羁瓦实提继任者王前。He selected Esther as by far the most comely.他评选为迄今为止最漂亮以斯帖。The heroine is represented as an orphan daughter of the tribe of Benjamin, who had spent her life among the Jewish exiles in Persia (ii. 5), where she lived under the protection of her cousin Mordecai.女主角是代表作为便雅悯支派,谁花了波斯之间的犹太流亡者的一生(白介素5),在那里她在她的表哥末底改保护孤儿的女儿居住。 The grand vizier, Haman the Agagite, commanded Mordecai to do obeisance to him.盛大大臣,哈曼的Agagite,指挥末底改要拜他。Upon Mordecai's refusal to prostrate himself, Haman informed the king that the Jews were a useless and turbulent people and inclined to disloyalty, and he promised to pay 10,000 silver talents into the royal treasury for the permission to pillage and exterminate this alien race.当末底改拒绝匍匐自己,哈曼告诉国王说,犹太人是一个无用的人倾向于动荡不忠,他答应支付到皇家国库的权限,掠夺和消灭这个外来的种族万银子。 The king then issued a proclamation ordering the confiscation of Jewish property and a general extermination of all the Jews within the empire.国王于是下令发出公告,在帝国的犹太人财产没收和所有的犹太人一般灭绝。 Haman set by lot the day for this outrage (iii. 6), but Mordecai persuaded Esther to undertake the deliverance of her compatriots.哈曼以抽签的日子定为这一暴行(III. 6),但末底改以斯帖进行说服了她的同胞解脱。

Haman and Mordecai.哈曼和末底改。

After a three days' fast observed by the entire Jewish community, the queen, at great personal risk, decided to go before the king and beg him to rescind his decree (iv. 16).经过整个犹太社区,女王观察了三天快,在巨大的个人风险,决定去乞求前国王和他撤销他的法令(iv. 16)。Ahasuerus, delighted with her appearance, held out to her his scepter in token of clemency, and promised to dine with her in her own apartments on two successive nights (v. 2-8).亚哈随鲁,与她的外表很高兴,向她伸出了他的权杖在宽大的道理,并承诺在自己的寓所用餐与她的两个(五2-8)连续夜。 On the night before the second banquet, when Esther intended to make her petition, the king, being sleepless, commanded that the national records be read to, him.在宴会前的第二个晚上,当以斯帖打算让她请愿,国王,被无眠,指挥的全国纪录被理解为,他。The part which was read touched upon the valuable services of Mordecai (vi. 1 et seq.), who some time before had discovered and revealed to the queen a plot against the king's life devised by two of the chamberlains (ii. 23).这是阅读的部分触及的末底改的有价值的服务(VI. 1及以下),谁发现了前一段时间,并透露,女王对国王的生活情节由侍从两(白介素23)设计。For this, by some unexplained oversight, Mordecai had received no reward.为此,一些不明原因的监督,末底改没有收到任何报酬。In the meantime the queen had invited the grand vizier to the banquet.在此期间,女王已邀请到宴会隆重大臣。When Haman, who was much pleased at the unusual honor shown him by the queen, appeared before the king to ask permission to execute Mordecai at once, Ahasuerus asked him, "What shall be done to the man whom the king delighteth to honor?"当哈曼,谁远在他所表现出的女王不寻常的荣誉感到高兴,前国王要求立即执行的权限末底改出现,亚哈随鲁王问他:“我该做的人谁国王delighteth兑现?” Haman, thinking that the allusion was to himself, suggested a magnificent pageant, at which one of the great nobles should serve as attendant (vi. 9).哈曼,以为是自己的典故,提出了宏伟壮丽的场面,在这伟大的贵族之一应为服务员服务(VI. 9)。The king immediately adopted the suggestion, and ordered Haman to act as chief follower in a procession in honor of Mordecai (vi. 10).国王立即采取这项建议,并下令哈曼作为一个在末底改荣誉游行首席追随者(VI. 10)。

The next day at the banquet, when Esther preferred her request, both the king and the grand vizier learned for the first time that the queen was a Jewess.在宴会上的第二天,当她的要求以斯帖的首选,无论是国王和总理大臣据悉,第一次,女王是Jewess。Ahasuerus granted her petition at once and ordered that Haman be hanged on the gibbet which the latter had prepared for his adversary Mordecai (vii.).亚哈随鲁授予她的请愿书,并下令立即哈曼放在其中后者为他的对手末底改(vii.)编写的绞刑架绞死。Mordecai was then made grand vizier, and through his and Esther's intervention another edict was issued granting to the Jews the power to pillage and to slay their enemies.末底改其后盛大大臣,并通过他和Esther的干预另一个诏书发出给予犹太人的权力,掠夺和杀害他们的敌人。

Before the day set for the slaughter arrived a great number of persons, in order to avoid the impending disaster, became Jewish proselytes, and a great terror of the Jews spread all over Persia (viii. 17).在屠宰前的那天赶到了大量的人,以避免迫在眉睫的灾难,成为犹太proselytes,和对犹太人的大恐怖各地波斯(viii. 17)的蔓延。

The Jews, assisted by the royal officers, who feared the king, were eminently successful in slaying their enemies (ix. 11), but refused to avail themselves of their right to plunder (ix. 16).犹太人,由王室人员,谁害怕国王的协助下,成功地杀死了突出的敌人(ix. 11),但拒绝利用他们的权利,掠夺(ix. 16)自己。The queen, not content with a single day's slaughter, then requested the king to grant to her people a second day of vengeance, and begged that the bodies of Haman's ten sons, who had been slain in the fray, be hanged on the gibbet (ix. 13).女王,而不是与一天的屠宰内容,然后请国王授予她的人的报复第二天,求那哈曼的十个儿子,谁曾在磨损被杀的尸体,上绞刑架上吊(九,13)。 Esther and Mordecai, acting with "all authority" (ix. 29), then founded the yearly feast of Purim, held on the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar as a joyous commemoration of the deliverance of their race.EGHJDP以斯帖和末底改,以“权威”(ix. 29)采取行动,然后创立了普珥节年度盛宴,在第十四和第十五的阿达尔举行了其race.EGHJDP解脱欢乐纪念

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

The story of Esther-typical in many regards of the perennial fate of the Jews, and recalled even more vividly by their daily experience than by the annual reading of theMegillah at Purim-invited, both by the brevity of some parts of the narrative and by the associations of its events with the bitter lot of Israel, amplifications readily supplied by popular fancy and the artificial interpretation of Biblical verse.对以斯帖典型的犹太人的命运常年许多方面,并回顾了他们的故事更生动的日常经验比由theMegillah在普珥节的邀请,双方由部分地区的叙事简洁和年度阅读与以色列的苦很多的事件,协会提供的扩增容易流行花俏和人工圣经经文的解释。 The additions to Esther in the (Greek) Apocrypha have their counterparts in the post-Biblical literature of the Jews, and while it is certain that the old assumption of a Hebrew original for the additions in the Greek Book of Esther is not tenable (see Kautzsch, "Die Apocryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments," i. 194), it is not clear that the later Jewish amplifications are adaptations of Greek originals.在(希腊)伪经的补充,以斯帖在犹太人的后圣经文学的同行,虽然可以肯定的是一个希伯来文在希腊的埃丝特书的补充原来的老的假设是不能成立的(见Kautzsch,“模具Apocryphen UND Pseudepigraphen DES Alten圣经,”一194),它目前尚不清楚,后来的犹太扩增是希腊原件适应。

The following post-Biblical writings have to be considered:以下后圣经的著作,必须考虑:

(1) The first Targum.(1)第一Targum。The Antwerp and Paris polyglots give a different and longer text than the London.安特卫普和巴黎polyglots提供比在伦敦不同,较长的文本。The best edition is by De Lagarde (reprinted from the first Venice Bible) in "Hagiographa Chaldaice," Leipsic, 1873.最好的版本是由德拉加德(从第一个威尼斯圣经重印)在“Hagiographa Chaldaice,”Leipsic,1873。The date of the first Targum is about 700 (see S. Posner, "Das Targum Rishon," Breslau, 1896).第一个Targum日期(见S.波斯纳,“资本Targum里雄,”布雷斯劳,1896年)约700人。

(2) Targum Sheni (the second; date about 800), containing material not germane to the Esther story.(2)Targum Sheni(第二个,约800日),含材料没有密切关系的以斯帖的故事。This may be characterized as a genuine and exuberant midrash.这可能被定性为一个真正的和旺盛的米德拉士。Edited by De Lagarde (in "Hagiographa Chaldaice," Berlin, 1873) and by P. Cassel ("Aus Literatur und Geschichte," Berlin and Leipsic, 1885, and "Das Buch Esther," Berlin, 1891, Ger. transl.).万方德拉加德(在“Hagiographa Chaldaice,”柏林,1873年)和P.卡塞尔(“澳大利亚Literatur UND历史馆,”柏林和Leipsic,1885年,和“资本布赫以斯帖,”柏林,1891年,GER。译。) 。

(3) Babylonian Talmud, Meg.(3)巴比伦犹太法典,梅格。10b-14a.10B - 14A。

(4) Pirḳe R. El.(4)PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多。49a, 50 (8th cent.). 49A,50(8美分)。

(5) Yosippon (beginning of 10th cent.; see Zunz, "GV" pp. 264 et seq.). (5)Yosippon(初的百分之十;见Zunz,“颗粒”第264页起)。

(6) Midr. (6)Midr。R. to Esther (probably 11th cent.).R.以斯帖(大概11美分)。

(7) Midr. (7)Midr。Leḳaḥ Ṭob (Buber, "Sifre di-Agadta," Wilna, 1880).Leḳaḥ尖(布伯“Sifre DI - Agadta,”维尔纳,1880年)。

(8) Midr. (8)Midr。Abba Gorion (Buber, lc; Jellinek, "BH" i. 1-18).阿巴Gorion(布伯,立法会;耶利内克,“波黑”一1-18)。

(9) Midr. (9)Midr。Teh.的。to Ps.的PS。xxii.二十二。

(10) Midr. (10)Midr。Megillat Esther (ed. by Horwitz in his "Sammlung Kleiner Midrashim," Berlin, 1881). Megillat以斯帖(由霍维茨编在他的“Sammlung克莱纳米大示,”柏林,1881年)。

(11) Ḥelma de Mordekai (Aramaic: Jellinek, "BH" v. 1-8; De Lagarde, lc pp. 362-365; Ad. Merx, "Chrestomathia Targumica," 1888, pp. 154 et seq.).(11)ḤelmaDE Mordekai(阿拉姆:耶利内克,“波黑”五1-8;,信用证页362-365德拉加德;广告MERX,“Chrestomathia Targumica,”1888年,第154页起)。

(12) Yalḳ. (12)Yalḳ。Shim'oni to Esther.Shim'oni以斯帖。

The Rabbinic Account.在拉比帐户。

With the omission of what more properly belongs under Ahasuerus, Haman, and Mordecai, the following is briefly the story of Esther's life as elaborated by these various midrashim: A foundling or an orphan, her father dying before her birth, her mother at her birth, Esther was reared in the house of Mordecai, her cousin, to whom, according to some accounts, she was even married (the word , Esth. ii. 7, being equal to = "house," which is frequently used for "wife" in rabbinic literature).随着什么更恰当下亚哈随鲁,哈曼和末底改属于遗漏,以下是简要地由这些不同的米大示阐述以斯帖的生活故事:一个弃婴或孤儿,她的父亲临终前,她出生,她的出生她的母亲,以斯帖被饲养在末底改,她的表哥,房子给谁,根据一些帐户,她甚至结婚(这个词,Esth二7,正在等于=“房子”,这是经常的“妻子用“在拉比文献)。 Her original name was "Hadassah" (myrtle), that of "Esther" being given her by the star-worshipers, as reflecting her sweet character and the comeliness of her person.她的原名叫“哈达萨”(番石榴)条,“以斯帖”被赋予的明星崇拜者她作为反映她甜美的性格和她的人合宜,即。When the edict of the king was promulgated, and his eunuchs scoured the country in search of a new wife for the monarch, Esther, acting on her own judgment or upon the order of Mordecai, hid herself so as not to be seen of men, and remained in seclusion for four years, until even God's voice urged her to repair to the king's palace, where her absence had been noticed.当国王颁布法令,并在他的太监冲刷为君主,以斯帖该国寻找新的妻子,在她自己的判断,或根据末底改秩序行事,躲在自己,以免被男人看到,和留在隐居了四年,直到连上帝的声音鼓励她修到国王的宫殿,她的缺席已经注意到了。 Her appearance among the candidates for the queen's vacant place causes a commotion, all feeling that with her charms none can compete; her rivals even make haste to adorn her.她为王后之间的空缺位置的人选出现会导致混乱,所有的感觉与她的魅力无人能抗衡,她的对手,甚至赶快来装饰自己。She spurns the usual resources for enhancing her beauty, so that the keeper of the harem becomes alarmed lest he be accused of neglect.她摈弃加强平时的她的美丽资源,使门将后宫变得惊慌,以免他被指控的忽视。He therefore showers attentions upon her, and places at her disposal riches never given to others.因此,他在淋浴关注她,在她的处置财富的地方从来没有给别人。But she will not be tempted to use the king's goods, nor will she eat of the king's food, being a faithful Jewess; together with her maids (seven, according to the number of the week-days and of the planets) she continues her modest mode of living.但她会不动心使用国王的货物,也将她吃了国王的食品,作为一个忠实的Jewess,连同她的女佣(七,根据一周的天数和行星),她继续她的温和的方式生活。 When her turn comes to be ushered into the royal presence, Median and Persian women flank her on both sides, but her beauty is such that the decision in her favor is at once assured.当轮到她被纳入皇室的存在,正中及两侧波斯妇女迎来了她的侧面,但她的美就是这样,有利于她的决定是在一次放心。 The king has been in the habit of comparing the charms of the applicants with a picture of Vashti suspended over his couch, and up to the time when Esther approaches him none has eclipsed the beauty of his beheaded spouse.国王一直在比较了瓦实提在他的沙发暂停图片申请人的魅力习惯,到时候他都没有办法以斯帖黯然失色,他斩杀配偶之美。 But at the sight of Esther he at once removes the picture.但在看到他的埃丝特立即删除该图片。Esther, true to Mordecai's injunction, conceals her birth from her royal consort.以斯帖,末底改忠于的禁令,从她的王室配偶隐瞒她的诞生。Mordecai was prompted to give her this command by the desire not to win favors as Esther's cousin.末底改是提示给她的愿望不是夺冠,因为以斯帖的堂兄赞成此命令。The king, of course, is very desirous of learning all about her antecedents, but Esther, after vouchsafing him the information that she, too, is of princely blood, turns the conversation, by a few happy counter-questions regarding Vashti, in a way to leave the king's curiosity unsatisfied.国王,当然是非常的所有关于她的来路渴望学习,但以斯帖后vouchsafing他的资料,她也一样,王侯血,轮番谈话,由几家欢喜几家关于瓦实提反问题中,方式离开国王的好奇心不满意。

Mordecai and Esther.末底改和以斯帖。

Still Ahasuerus will not be baffled.然而亚哈随鲁王不会莫名其妙。Consulting Mordecai, he endeavors to arouse Esther's jealousy-thinking that this will loosen her tongue-by again gathering maidens in his courtyard, as though he is ready to mete out to her the fate of her unfortunate predecessor.咨询末底改,他的努力唤起以斯帖的嫉妒,认为这将松开她的舌头,通过再次聚集在他的院子里的姑娘,仿佛他是准备mete向她的前任对她的不幸命运。 But even under this provocation Esther preserves her silence.但即使在这种挑衅埃斯特保留她的沉默。Mordecai's daily visits to the courtyard are for the purpose of ascertaining whether Esther has remained true to the precepts of her religion.到院子里末底改的日常访问是为确定是否以斯帖一直忠于她的宗教戒律的目的。She had not eaten forbidden food, preferring a diet of vegetables, and had otherwise scrupulously observed the Law.她没有吃禁食品,更喜欢的蔬菜饮食,并严格遵守,否则法律。When the crisis came Mordecai-who had, by his refusal to bow to Haman or, rather, to the image of an idol ostentatiously displayed on his breast (Pirḳe R. El. lxix.), brought calamity upon the Jews-appeared in his mourning garments, and Esther, frightened, gave birth to a still-born child.当危机来临末底改,谁过,他拒绝低头哈曼,或者说,对夸耀他的乳房(Pirḳe河萨尔瓦多。lxix)显示一个偶像的形象,带来了灾难后,犹太人,出现在他的哀悼服装,和Esther,吓坏了,还生下了一个出生的孩子。 To avoid gossip she sent Hatach instead of going herself to ascertain the cause of the trouble.为了避免闲话,她送Hatach而不是去自己,以确定问题的原因。This Hatach was afterward met by Haman and slain.这是后来Hatach满足哈曼和杀害。Still Mordecai had been able to tell Hatach his dream, that Esther would be the little rill of water separating the two fighting monsters, and that the rill would grow to be a large stream flooding the earth-a dream he had often related to her in her youth.不过末底改已经能够告诉Hatach他的梦想,那将是以斯帖小细沟水分离的两个怪物战斗,而细沟将发展成为一个大型流泛滥的地球一个他经常与她的梦想她的青春。

Esther Before Ahasuerus.以斯帖在亚哈随鲁王。

Mordecai called upon her to pray for her people and then intercede with the king.末底改她呼吁人们为她祈祷,然后与王说情。Though Pesaḥ was near, and the provision of Megillat Ta'anit forbidding fasting during this time could not be observed without disregarding Mordecai's plea, she overcame her cousin's scruples by a very apt counter-question, and at her request all the Jews "that had on that day already partaken of food" observed a rigid fast, in spite of (Esth. iv. 17) the feast-day (Pesaḥ), while Mordecai prayed and summoned the children and obliged even them to abstain from food, so that they cried out with loud voices.虽然Pesaḥ附近,而Megillat Ta'anit禁止在此期间禁食规定不能无视不末底改的呼吁观察,她克服了一个非常贴切的反问题,她表弟的顾忌,她要求所有的犹太人“,民政事务总署这一天已经partaken食品“观察到一个刚性快,在(Esth.四17)的盛宴天(Pesaḥ)尽管如此,而末底改祈祷和传唤的儿童和他们甚至不得不放弃的食物,让他们叫了出来,大声的声音。 Esther in the meantime put aside her jewels and rich dresses, loosenedher hair, fasted, and prayed that she might be successful in her dangerous errand.在此期间以斯帖放下她的珠宝和丰富的礼服,loosenedher头发,禁食,祷告,她可能是危险的差事,她的成功。 On the third day, with serene mien she passed on to the inner court, arraying herself (or arrayed by the "Holy Ghost," Esth. Rabbah) in her best, and taking her two maids, upon one of whom, according to court etiquette, she leaned, while the other carried her train.第三天,她用平静的风采传递到内院,自己组阵(或由“圣灵”,Esth。拉巴排列)在她的最好的,其中一人服用后,她的两个女佣,根据法院礼仪,她俯下身,而其他进行了训练。 As soon as she came abreast with the idols (perhaps an anti-Christian insinuation) the "Holy Ghost" departed from her, so that she exclaimed, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"当她来到与偶像(或许是反基督教影射)的“圣灵”,从她的离去,使她感叹道,掌握“我的上帝,我的神,为什么离弃我?”(Ps. xxii. 1); thereupon, repenting having called the enemy "dog," she now named him "lion," and was accompanied by three angels to the king. (诗二十二1);于是,所谓的敌人有悔改“狗”,她现在给他取名“狮子”,是由三个天使陪同国王。Ahasuerus attempted to ignore her, and turned his face away, but an angel forced him to look at her.亚哈随鲁试图不理她,转身背对他,而是一个天使强迫他看她。She, however, fainted at the sight of his flushed face and burning eyes, and leaned her head on her handmaid, expecting to hear her doom pronounced; but God increased her beauty to such an extent that Ahasuerus could not resist.不过,她晕倒在他通红的脸和眼睛灼热的视线,并俯身在她的婢女她的头,希望听到她的厄运突出,但她的美神上升到这样的程度,亚哈随鲁王无法抗拒。 An angel lengthened the scepter so that Esther might touch it: she invited the king to her banquet.天使延长了权杖,使以斯帖可能去碰它,她邀请了她的国王宴会。Why Haman was invited the Rabbis explain in various ways.为什么哈曼被邀请的拉比解释的各种方式。She desired to make the king jealous by playing the lover to Haman, which she did at the feast, planning to have him killed even though she should share his fate.她喜爱的,能使被打情人哈曼,而她的盛宴,准备让他杀死,即使她要分享他的命运王嫉妒。At the supreme moment, when she denounced Haman, it was an angel that threw Haman on the couch, though he intended to kneel before the queen; so that the king, suspecting an attempt upon the virtue and life of his queen, forthwith ordered him to be hanged.在至高无上的时刻,她痛斥哈曼,这是一个天使扔在沙发上哈曼,虽然他打算跪在女王之前,因此,国王,怀疑须遵照的美德和他的王后生命的企图,立即命令他绞刑。

To the Rabbis Esther is one of the four most beautiful women ever created.为了拉比以斯帖是四大有史以来最美丽的女性之一。She remained eternally young; when she married Ahasuerus she was at least forty years of age, or even, according to some, eighty years (她保持永远年轻,当她嫁给亚哈随鲁,她至少四十周岁,甚至,根据一些,八十岁(= 5,= 5,= 60,= 60,= 4,= 4,= 5 = 74 years; hence her name "Hadassah").= 5 = 74岁,因此她的名字“哈达萨”)。She is also counted among the prophetesses of Israel.她也算在以色列人中prophetesses。

Critical View:批评的看法:

As to the historical value of the foregoing data, opinions differ.至于上述数据的历史价值,见仁见智。Comparatively few modern scholars of note consider the narrative of Esther to rest on an historical foundation.值得注意的相对数现代学者认为以斯帖叙事休息历史基础上的。The most important names among the more recent defenders of the historicity of the book are perhaps Hävernick, Keil, Oppert, and Orelli.之间的历史性的书更近的捍卫者,最重要的名字也许Hävernick,KEIL,奥佩特和Orelli。The vast majority of modern expositors have reached the conclusionthat the book is a piece of pure fiction, although some writers qualify their criticism by an attempt to treat it as a historical romance.现代解释者绝大多数都达到了conclusionthat书是一种纯粹的小说作品,虽然有些作家有资格由一个试图把它当作一个历史的浪漫是他们的批评。 The following are the chief arguments showing the impossibility of the story of Esther:以下是显示了以斯帖的故事不可能首席参数:

Improbabilities of the Story.不可能性的故事。

1. 1。It is now generally recognized that the Ahasuerus (), mentioned in Esther, in Ezra iv.现在人们普遍认识到,亚哈随鲁(),在以斯帖提到,在以斯拉四。6, and in Dan.6,在丹。 ix.九。1, is identical with the Persian king known as Xerxes (Ξέρζης, "Khshayarha"), who reigned from 485 to 464 BC; but it is impossible to find any historical parallel for a Jewish consort to this king. 1,作为薛西斯(Ξέρζης,“Khshayarha”),谁统治了从公元前485到464称为波斯王相同,但它是不可能找到任何一个犹太驸这个国王的历史平行。 Some critics formerly identified Esther with Amastris (Ionic, "Amestris"), who is mentioned by Herodotus (viii. 114, ix. 110; compare Ctesias, 20) as the queen of Xerxes at the time when Esther, according to Esth.一些批评以前确定了Amastris(离子,“Amestris”),谁是所提到的希罗多德(viii. 114,IX 110;比较Ctesias,20)为薛西斯以斯帖王后以斯帖的时候,根据Esth。ii.II。6, became the wife of Ahasuerus. 6,成为亚哈随鲁的妻子。Amastris, however, was the daughter of a Persian general and, therefore, not a Jewess.Amastris,然而,是一个波斯一般的女儿,因此,不是Jewess。Furthermore, the facts of Amastris' reign do not agree with the Biblical story of Esther.此外,Amastris“统治的事实并不同意以斯帖圣经故事。Besides all this, it is impossible to connect the two names etymologically.除了这一切,这是不可能的连接这两个名字词源。M'Clymont (Hastings, "Dict. Bible," i. 772) thinks it possible that Esther and Vashti may have been merely the chief favorites of the harem, and are consequently not mentioned in parallel historical accounts. M'Clymont(黑斯廷斯,“快译通。圣经,”一772),认为它可能是以斯帖和瓦实提可能已经仅仅是后宫的主要收藏,并因此不平行历史记载提及。

It is very doubtful whether the haughty Persian aristocracy, always highly influential with the monarch, would have tolerated the choice of a Jewish queen and a Jewish prime minister (Mordecai), to the exclusion of their own class-not to speak of the improbability of the prime ministry of Haman the Agagite, who preceded Mordecai.这是非常令人怀疑傲慢的波斯贵族,始终高度与君主影响力,将有容忍一个犹太王后和一个犹太总理(末底改)的选择,对自己的排斥类不说话的不可能性哈曼的Agagite的总理府,谁之前末底改。 "Agagite" can only be interpreted here as synonymous with "Amalekite" (compare "Agag," king of the Amalekites, the foe of Saul, I Sam. xv. 8, 20, 32; Num. xxiv. 7; see Agag). “Agagite”只能在这里被解释为与“亚玛力人”(比较“亚甲,”王亚玛力人,在扫罗,我三十五敌人8,20,32。;数XXIV 7,见亚甲)的代名词。Oppert's attempt to connect the term "Agagite" with "Agaz," a Median tribe mentioned by Sargon, can not be taken seriously.奥佩特试图连接“Agaz,”部落中位数由萨尔贡所提到的,所谓“Agagite”不能当真。The term, as applied to Haman, is a gross anachronism; and the author of Esther no doubt used it intentionally as a fitting name for an enemy of Israel.术语,适用于哈曼,是毛时代错误和毫无疑问的埃丝特作者用来作为一个合适的名字是以色列的敌人故意。In the Greek version of Esther, Haman is called a Macedonian.在以斯帖希腊的版本,哈曼被称为马其顿。

2. 2。Perhaps the most striking point against the historical value of the Book of Esther is the remarkable decree permitting the Jews to massacre their enemies and fellow subjects during a period of two days.也许是对的以斯帖记的历史价值最突出的一点是显着的法令允许在一个为期两天的犹太人大屠杀他们的敌人和同伴科目。If such an extraordinary event had actually taken place, should not some confirmation of the Biblical account have been found in other records?如果这样的非常事件已实际发生,不应一些圣经帐户确认已发现的其他的记录? Again, could the king have withstood the attitude of the native nobles, who would hardly have looked upon such an occurrence without offering armed resistance to their feeble and capricious sovereign?再次,可王经受住了本土贵族,谁也难有这种情况发生后,看着没有提供给他们的武装抵抗软弱和反复无常主权的态度呢? A similar objection may be made against the probability of the first edict permitting Haman the Amalekite to massacre all the Jews.类似的异议可提出第一个允许哈曼的亚玛力人屠杀所有犹太人法令的可能性。Would there not be some confirmation of it in parallel records?会不会有一些它确认并行的记录?This whole section bears the stamp of free invention.这整段承担着自由发明邮票。

3. 3。Extraordinary also is the statement that Esther did not reveal her Jewish origin when she was chosen queen (ii. 10), although it was known that she came from the house of Mordecai, who was a professing Jew (iii. 4), and that she maintained a constant communication with him from the harem (iv. 4-17).特别声明,也是以斯帖没有透露她的犹太血统,当她被选为王后(白介素10),虽然它知道她从末底改,谁是信奉犹太人(III. 4)房子来了,而且她保持着从后宫(iv.​​ 4-17)与他不断的沟通。

4. 4。Hardly less striking is the description of the Jews by Haman as being "dispersed among the people in all provinces of thy kingdom" and as disobedient "to the king's laws" (iii. 8).几乎不太引人注目的是犹太人的哈曼描述为“分散在你的王国中的所有省份的人”,是不听话“地王的法律”(III. 8)。 This certainly applies more to the Greek than to the Persian period, in which the Diaspora had not yet begun and during which there is no record of rebellious tendencies on the part of the Jews against the royal authority.这当然也适用于多以波斯时期,其中散居尚未开始,在此期间,没有对犹太人的一部分叛逆倾向反对王权记录到希腊。

5. 5。Finally, in this connection, the author's knowledge of Persian customs is not in keeping with contemporary records.最后,在这方面,作者的波斯风情的认识是不符合当代的记录保存。The chief conflicting points are as follows:首席冲突的要点如下:

(a) Mordecai was permitted free access to his cousin in the harem, a state of affairs wholly at variance with Oriental usage, both ancient and modern. (一)末底改在后宫被允许自由进入他的表妹,一个事务完全在使用差异与东方国家,既古老又现代。

(b) The queen could not send a message to her own husband (!). (二)女王无法将消息发送给自己的丈夫(!)。

(c) The division of the empire into 127 provinces contrasts strangely with the twenty historical Persian satrapies.(三)帝国分裂成127个省和21对比奇怪的历史波斯satrapies。

(d) The fact that Haman tolerated for a long time Mordecai's refusal to do obeisance is hardly in accordance with the customs of the East. (四)认为哈曼很长一段时间末底改拒绝拜难以容忍的事实是在与东关规定。Any native venturing to stand in the presence of a Turkish grand vizier would certainly be severely dealt with without delay.任何本地冒险站在了土耳其总理大臣的存在一定会严肃处理,不得延误。

(e) This very refusal of Mordecai to prostrate himself belongs rather to the Greek than to the earlier Oriental period, when such an act would have involved no personal degradation (compare Gen. xxiii. 7, xxxiii. 3; Herodotus, vii. 136). (五)本末底改非常拒绝匍匐属于自己的,而不是早期的东方希腊时期,当这种行为将不涉及个人退化(比较创二十三7,三十三3;。希罗多德,七136。 )。

(f) Most of the proper names in Esther which are given as Persian appear to be rather of Semitic than of Iranian origin, in spite of Oppert's attempt to explain many of them from the Persian (compare, however, Scheftelowitz, "Arisches im Alten Testament," 1901, i.). (六)在以斯帖的是作为波斯给予适当的名称的出现是相当比原籍伊朗犹太人在奥佩特试图解释,从波斯(比较有很多虽然,但是,Scheftelowitz,“Arisches IM Alten约“,1901年,岛)。

Probable Date.可能的日期。

In view of all the evidence the authority of the Book of Esther as a historical record must be definitely rejected.在所有证据查看以斯帖记作为历史记录的权威必须明确拒绝。Its position in the canon among the Hagiographa or "Ketubim" is the only thing which has induced Orthodox scholars to defend its historical character at all.它在各Hagiographa或“Ketubim”佳能的位置是唯一由此引发捍卫正统学者在其所有的历史人物。Even the Jews of the first and second centuries of the common era questioned its right to be included among the canonical books of the Bible (compare Meg. 7a).即使是在共同的时代的第一和第二世纪犹太人质疑其权利,其中圣经的典型的书籍包括(比较梅格。7A)。The author makes no mention whatever of God, to whom, in all the other books of the Old Testament, the deliverance of Israel is ascribed.笔者不作任何提及上帝,向谁,在所有的旧约,以色列拯救其他书籍是冲高。The only allusion in Esther to religion is the mention of fasting (iv. 16, ix. 31).在以斯帖只暗示宗教是空腹提(iv. 16,九31)。All this agrees with the theory of a late origin for the book, as it is known, for example, from Ecclesiastes, that the religious spirit had degenerated even in Judea in the Greek period, to which Esther, like Daniel, in all probability belongs.这一切都同意了的书末起源的理论,因为它是已知的,例如,从传道书,认为宗教精神堕落甚至在朱迪亚在希腊时期,而以斯帖一样,丹尼尔在所有的可能性,属于。

Esther could hardly have been written by a contemporary of the Persian empire, because (1) of the exaggerated way in which not only the splendor of the court, but all the events described, are treated (compare the twelve months spent by the maidens in adorning themselves for the king; the feasts of 187 days, etc., all of which point rather to the past than to a contemporary state of affairs); (2) the uncomplimentary details given about a great Persian king, who is mentioned by name, would not have appeared during his dynasty.以斯帖很难被写入由波斯帝国的当代,因为(1)夸张的方式,不仅是辉煌的法庭,但所有的事件描述,被视为(比较十二个姑娘的花了几个月adorning为王自己; 187天,等​​节日,所有这些问题,而过去的事务,而不是当代的状态),(2)uncomplimentary详细了解一个伟大的波斯国王,谁给的名字提到,就不会出现在他的王朝。

It is difficult to go so far as Grätz, who assignsEsther to an adherent of the Maccabean party in the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes.这是很难走那么远的格拉茨,谁assignsEsther到一个在马加比王朝的安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯党的追随者。 The vast difference in religious and moral tone between Esther and Daniel-the latter a true product of Antiochus' reign-seems to make such a theory impossible.在宗教和道德之间以斯帖和丹尼尔,后者的安提阿哥伊“真品色调的巨大差异统治,似乎让这样的理论是不可能的。 Nor is the view of Jensen, followed by Nöldeke, more convincing to the unprejudiced mind.也不是詹森认为,通过Nöldeke,更有说服力的没有偏见的心跟着。He endeavors to prove that the origin of the whole story lies in a Babylonian-Elamitic myth.他的努力,证明了整个故事的起源在巴比伦,Elamitic神话谎言。He identifies Esther with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar (Aphrodite); Mordecai with Marduk, the tutelary deity of Babylon; and Haman with Hamman or Humman, the chief god of the Elamites, in whose capital, Susa, the scene is laid; while Vashti is also supposed to be an Elamite deity.他认同巴比伦的女神伊什塔尔(阿芙罗狄蒂)以斯帖;与马尔杜克,巴比伦的守护神神末底改,以及与土耳其浴室或Humman,对埃兰人的首席神哈曼,在其首都苏萨,现场的布局,而瓦实提是也应该是埃兰神。 Jensen considers that the Feast of Purim, which is the climax of the book, may have been adapted from a similar Babylonian festival by the Jews, who Hebraized the original Babylonian legend regarding the origin of the ceremonies.詹森认为,普珥节,这是书的高潮盛宴,可能是从一个类似巴比伦节改编的犹太人,谁Hebraized原巴比伦的传说有关的仪式的由来。 The great objection to such a theory is that no Babylonian festival corresponding with the full moon of the twelfth month is known.伟大的反对这样一种理论是,没有巴比伦艺术节与第十二个月满月相应的是已知的。

The object of Esther is undoubtedly to give an explanation of and to exalt the Feast of Purim, of whose real origin little or nothing is known.而以斯帖对象无疑是给了解释,并发扬普珥节的真正起源的很少或没有什么是已知的。See Megillah; Purim.见Megillah;普珥节。

Emil G. Hirsch, John Dyneley Prince, Solomon Schechter埃米尔赫斯基G.,约翰Dyneley王子,所罗门谢克特

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the OT pp. 449 et seq.; Cheyne, Esther, in Encyc.驱动程序,介绍了OT第449页起文学;进益,以斯帖,在百科全书。Brit.英国人。1878; Founders of Old Testament Criticism, pp. 359 et seq.; Kuenen, Onderzoek, iii.1878; Kuenen,Onderzoe​​k,三;旧约批评,第359页起创办人。551 et seq.; Lagarde, Purim, in Abhandlungen, der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Göttingen, 1887; Wildeboer, Esther, in Nowack's Handkommentar zum Alten Testament; Toy, Esther as a Babylonian Goddess, in New World, vi. 551及以下;拉加德,普珥节,在Abhandlungen,DER Königlichen GESELLSCHAFT DER学问祖哥廷根,哥廷根,1887年; Wildeboer的,以斯帖,在Nowack的Handkommentar ZUM Alten约;玩具,作为一个巴比伦女神以斯帖,新世界,六。 130-145; Nöldeke, Esther, in Cheyne and Black, Encyc.130-145; Nöldeke,以斯帖,在进益和黑色,百科全书。Bibl.Bibl。ii.II。1400-1407; M'Clymont, in Hastings, Dict.1400年至1407年; M'Clymont,在黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible, pp. 772-776; Frazer, Golden Bough, 2d ed., iii.圣经,页772-776;弗雷泽,金枝,2版,三。153, 157, 158.EGHJDP 153,157,158.EGHJDP



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