Book of Ezekiel以西结书 书

General Information一般资料

The Book of Ezekiel in the Old Testament of the Bible is one of the books of the Major Prophets.在以西结在圣经旧约书是对大先知书之一。Its name is drawn from Ezekiel, a priest - prophet who lived in Jerusalem and was one of the Jews deported by Nebuchadnezzar II to Babylon at the beginning of the 6th century BC.它的名字取自以西结,一个牧师 - 先知谁住在耶路撒冷和被驱逐的犹太人之一由尼布甲尼撒二世在公元前6世纪开始到巴比伦。 The book is divided into three parts: (1) the threats against Judah and Jerusalem before the fall of Jerusalem (chaps. 1 - 24); the threats against foreign nations (chaps. 25 - 32); and (3) promises for the future restoration of Israel and the Temple (chaps. 33 - 48).全书分为三个部分:(1)前耶路撒冷(chaps. 1 - 24)秋天的威胁攻击犹大和耶路撒冷,对外国的威胁(chaps. 25 - 32)和(3)承诺为未来恢复以色列和寺(chaps. 33 - 48)。

The Book of Ezekiel describes the prophet's many visions and symbolic actions with vivid literary imagery.在以西结书描述了先知的许多构想和生动的文学形象的象征行动。The following well - known passages demonstrate the author's extraordinary imagination and gift for allegory: the vision of Yahweh's chariot (chap. 1); Ezekiel's symbolic acts of eating the scroll (2:1 - 3:15) and shaving his hair and beard (5:1 - 4); the sword of God's wrath (21); the allegory of the rusty pot (24:1 - 14); the lament over Egypt (31 - 32); and the vision of the dry bones (37:1 - 14).下面还有 - 著名的段落展示了作者的非凡想象力的寓言和礼物:耶和华的战车(第一章)视力;以西结的象征性的吃滚动行为(2:1 - 3:15)和他的头发和胡子剃(五时01分 - 4);神的愤怒(21)剑,生锈的锅(24:1寓言 - 14);过埃及悲叹(31 - 32),以及干骨视觉(37: 1 - 14)。

Written during the Babylonian Captivity (586 - 38 BC), the book links preexilic Israel and the Judaism of the restoration.写在巴比伦圈养(586 - 38年),该书的链接preexilic以色列和犹太教的恢复。Ezekiel stressed the interior qualities of religion, as the earlier prophets had, but in the manner of later writers he looked to the Temple and to cultic observances.以西结强调宗教的内部素质,作为较早先知了,但在后来的作家,他期待的方式向寺和邪教纪念活动。He described life in exile and preached a message of hope, striving to sustain his fellow deportees in their faith and traditions.他描述了流亡生活,宣扬了希望的信息,努力维持他们的信仰和传统,他的同胞被驱逐出境。This message culminates in the final vision of the temple in the new Jerusalem and the restoration of Israel.此消息处处表现出了在新耶路撒冷和以色列恢复寺庙最终目标。

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Bibliography 参考书目
W Eichrodt, Ezekiel: A Commentary (1970); P Fairbain, Ezekiel (1988); H Jacobson, The Exagogue of Ezekiel (1983); RW Klein, Ezekiel (1988). W艾希罗特,以西结:评注(1970年),P Fairbain,以西结书(1988年),H雅各布森,而以西结Exagogue(1983年); RW克莱因,以西结书(1988年)。


Book of Ezekiel以西结书

Brief Outline简述

  1. Denunciation of Judah and Israel (1-24)犹大和以色列退出(1-24)
  2. Oracles against foreign nations (25-32)对外国神谕(25-32)
  3. The future restoration of Israel (33-48)以色列未来的恢复(33-48)


Ezekiel以西结书

Advanced Information先进的信息

Ezekiel, God will strengthen.以西结书,上帝会加强。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Ezekiel以西结书

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Book of Ezewkiel consists mainly of three groups of prophecies.该Ezewkiel书主要包括三个预言群体。After an account of his call to the prophetical office (1-3:21), Ezekiel (1) utters words of denunciation against the Jews (3:22-24), warning them of the certain destruction of Jerusalem, in opposition to the words of the false prophets (4:1-3).经过他的呼吁预言办公室(1-3:21),以西结书(1)说出对犹太人(3:22-24)退出的话,警告,耶路撒冷一定的破坏他们的帐户,在反对字的(4:1-3)假先知。 The symbolical acts, by which the extremities to which Jerusalem would be reduced are described in ch.在象征性的行为,其中哪个耶路撒冷将减少四肢都在CH描述。4,5, show his intimate acquaintance with the Levitical legislation.4,5,显示他与利未立法亲密相识。(See Ex. 22:30; Deut. 14:21; Lev. 5:2; 7:18,24; 17:15; 19:7; 22:8, etc.) (2.) Prophecies against various surrounding nations: against the Ammonites (Ezek. 25:1-7), the Moabites (8-11), the Edomites (12-14), the Philistines (15-17), Tyre and Sidon (26-28), and against Egypt (29-32).(参阅22:30;。申命记14时21分,利5:2;。7:18,24; 17时15分,19点07分,22时08分,等)(2)对各种预言周边国家:对亚扪人(结25:1-7),摩押人(8-11),以东人(12-14),非利士人(15-17),提尔和西顿(26-28),以及对埃及(29-32)。 (3.)(3)

Prophecies delivered after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar: the triumphs of Israel and of the kingdom of God on earth (Ezek. 33-39); Messianic times, and the establishment and prosperity of the kingdom of God (40;48).预言交付后,由尼布甲尼撒毁灭耶路撒冷:以色列的胜利和在地球上的神(结33-39)王国;救世主的时代,并建立和神的国(40 48)繁荣。The closing visions of this book are referred to in the book of Revelation (Ezek. 38=Rev. 20:8; Ezek. 47:1-8=Rev. 22: 1,2).这本书的最后愿景是指在启示录(结38 =启示录二十时08;以西结书47:1-8 =启示录22:1,2)。Other references to this book are also found in the New Testament.这本书的其他引用也发现,在新约。 (Comp. Rom. 2:24 with Ezek. 36:2; Rom. 10:5, Gal. 3:12 with Ezek. 20:11; 2 Pet. 3:4 with Ezek. 12:22.) It may be noted that Daniel, fourteen years after his deportation from Jerusalem, is mentioned by Ezekiel (14:14) along with Noah and Job as distinguished for his righteousness, and some five years later he is spoken of as pre-eminent for his wisdom (28:3). (以西结书36:2与Comp.罗2:24;。罗马书十点05,加尔3时12分与以西结书20时11分;。。。。。。2宠物与以西结书12时22分3:4)这可能是指出,丹尼尔,14年后他从耶路撒冷驱逐出境,是所提到的以西结(14:14)随着诺亚和他的义工作作为杰出的,约500年后,他是为他的智慧卓越口语(28 :3)。

Ezekiel's prophecies are characterized by symbolical and allegorical representations, "unfolding a rich series of majestic visions and of colossal symbols."以西结的预言的特征是象征性和寓意表示,“展现了雄伟的视野和丰富的一系列巨大的符号。”There are a great many also of "symbolcal actions embodying vivid conceptions on the part of the prophet" (4:1-4; 5:1-4; 12:3-6; 24:3-5; 37:16, etc.) "The mode of representation, in which symbols and allegories occupy a prominent place, gives a dark, mysterious character to the prophecies of Ezekiel. They are obscure and enigmatical. A cloudy mystery overhangs them which it is almost impossible to penetrate. Jerome calls the book 'a labyrith of the mysteries of God.'这里有很多也是“symbolcal体现对先知的一部分生动的观念行动”(4:1-4; 5:1-4; 12:3-6; 24:3-5; 37:16等。)“的表示方式,其中的符号和寓言中占有突出的地位,给人以黑暗,神秘的字符以西结的预言,他们是晦涩和阴阳怪气。阴天神秘悬哪,几乎是不可能的渗透。杰罗姆呼吁书“是神的奥秘labyrith。” It was because of this obscurity that the Jews forbade any one to read it till he had attained the age of thirty."正是因为这个默默无闻的犹太人禁止任何人以读它,直到他已经达到了三十岁。“Ezekiel is singular in the frequency with which he refers to the Pentateuch (eg, Ezek. 27; 28:13; 31:8; 36:11, 34; 47:13, etc.).以西结是在频率,他指的是摩西五(例如,以西结书27; 28:13,31:8,36:11,34; 47:13等)单数。He shows also an acquaintance with the writings of Hosea (Ezek. 37:22), Isaiah (Ezek. 8:12; 29:6), and especially with those of Jeremiah, his older contemporary (Jer. 24:7, 9; 48:37).他表示还与何西阿(结37:22),以赛亚(以西结书8:12; 29:6)的著作熟人,特别是与耶利米,他的年龄较大的当代(耶24:7,9人; 48:37)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Ezekiel以西结书

Catholic Information天主教信息

Ezekiel, whose name, Yehézq'el signifies "strong is God", or "whom God makes strong" (Ezek. i, 3; iii, 8), was the son of Buzi, and was one of the priests who, in the year 598 BC, had been deported together with Joachim as prisoners from Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:12-16; cf. Ezekiel 33:21, 40:1).以西结,他的名字,Yehézq'el表示“强烈的是上帝”,或“上帝让谁强”(结我,3;三,8),是家堡子的儿子,是谁,在的祭司公元前598年,被驱逐与约阿希姆一起从耶路撒冷(王下24:12-16;比照以西结书33:21,40:1)的囚犯。 With the other exiles he settled in Tell-Abib near the Chobar (Ezek. i,1; iii, 15) in Babylonia, and seems to have spent the rest of his life there.In the fifth year after the captivity of Joachim, and according to some, the thirtieth year of his life, Ezekiel received his call as a prophet (Ezek. i, 2, 4 etc) in the vision which he describes in the beginning of his prophecy (Ezek. i,4; iii, 15).与其他流亡者,他定居在告诉-亚笔近Chobar(结我,1;三,15)在巴比伦,似乎花后,约阿希姆囚禁他的生活there.In其余的第五个年头,和根据一些,他的生活三十一年,收到先知以西结(结一,二,四等),他的电话中,他的眼光在他的预言开始介绍(结我,4;三,15 )。From Ezek.从以西结书。xxix, 17 it appears that he prophesied during at least twenty-two years.二十九,17看来,他在至少22年预言。Ezekiel was called to foretell God's faithfulness in the midst of trials, as well as in the fulfilment of His promises.以西结被称为预言神的审判之中,以及在其履行承诺的忠诚。During the first period of his career, he foretold the complete destruction of the kingdom of Juda, and the annihilation of the city and temple.在他职业生涯第一个时期,他预言了犹大王国完全破坏,城市和寺庙湮没。After the fulfilment of these predictions, he was commanded to announce the future return from exile, the re-establishment of the people in their own country and, especially, the triumph of the Kingdom of the Messiah, the second David, so that the people would not abandon themselves to despair and perish as a nation, through contact with the Gentiles, whose gods had apparently triumphed over the God of Israel.之后,这些预言实现,他命令,宣布从流放未来回报,在自己国家的人,特别是对弥赛亚的,第二个胜利大卫王国重新建立,使人民不会放弃自己的绝望和灭亡作为一个国家通过与外邦人,其神显然对以色列的神胜利了接触。 This is the principal burden of Ezekiel's prophecy, which is divided into three parts.这是以西结的预言,这是分为三个部分的主要负担。After the introduction, the vision of the calling of the prophet (Ezek. i-iii, 21), the first part contains the prophecies against Juda before the fall of Jerusalem (Ezek. iii, 22-xxiv).入门后的先知呼叫(结I - III,21)视力,第一部分包含前的耶路撒冷(结三,22 - XXIV)下降对犹大的预言。In this part the prophet declares the hope of saving the city, the kingdom, and the temple to be vain, and announces the approaching judgment of God upon Juda.在这部分的先知宣告拯救城市的希望,英国和寺庙被白白,并宣布在犹大神接近的判断。This part may be subdivided into five groups of prophecies.这部分可分为五个预言群体。

After a second revelation, in which God discloses to the prophet His course of action (iii, 22-27), the prophet foretells by symbolic acts (iv, v) and in words (vi-vii), the siege and capture of Jerusalem, and the banishment of Juda.经过第二个启示,就是神的先知,他披露过程中的作用(三,22-27),由(四,五)象征性的行为,并在口头上的先知预言(VI - VII),耶路撒冷的围攻和捕捉和驱逐的犹大。

In a prophetic vision, in the presence of the elders of Israel, God reveals to him the cause of these punishments.在先知先觉,在以色列的长老的存在,上帝向他揭示了这些惩罚的原因。In spirit he witnesses the idolatry practiced in and near the temple (viii); God commands that the guilty be punished and the faithful be spared (ix); God's majesty departs from the temple (x), and also, after the announcement of guilt and punishment, from the city.在精神上,他证人和附近的寺庙(八)实行的偶像崇拜,神的威严背离庙(X),以及之后的内疚公告;上帝有罪予以处罚,并忠实幸免(九)命令和惩罚,从城市。 With this the judgment which the prophet communicates to the exiles ends (xi).有了这个判断,先知传达给流亡结束(十一)。

In the third group (xii-xix) many different prophecies are brought together, whose sole connection is the relation they bear to the guilt and punishment of Jerusalem and Juda.在第三组(十二,十九)许多不同的预言都汇集,其唯一的连接关系,他们承担的罪责和耶路撒冷和犹大的惩罚。Ezekiel prophesies by symbolic actions the exile of the people, the flight of Sedecias, and the devastation of the land (xii, 1-20).以西结预言的象征性行动的人流放,对Sedecias飞行,以及土地(第十二1-20)破坏。Then follow Divine revelations regarding belief in false prophecies, and disbelief in the very presence of true prophecy.然后,按照有关的信念,虚假的预言,而在真正的预言的存在怀疑神的启示。This was one of the causes of the horrors (xiii, 21-xiv, 11), to be visited upon the remnant of the inhabitants of Jerusalem (xiv, 12-23).这是对恐怖的原因之一(十三,21十四,11),待后,耶路撒冷的居民残(十四,12月23日)参观。The prophet likens Jerusalem to the dead wood of the vine, which is destined for the fire (xv); in an elaborate denunciation he represents Juda as a shameless harlot, who surpasses Samaria and Sodom in malice (xvi), and in a new simile, he condemns King Sedecias (xvii).先知比喻耶路撒冷的藤,这是火(十五)注定枯木,在一个精心制作的谴责,他表示作为一个无耻妓女,谁超过撒马利亚和恶意所多玛(十六)犹大,并在新的比喻他谴责国王Sedecias(十七)。 After a discourse on the justice of God (xviii), there follows a further lamentation over the princes and the people of Juda (xix).经过对神公义的话语(十八),有如下比王子和犹大(十九)人民进一步哀悼。

In the presence of the elders the prophet denounces the whole people of Israel for the abominations they practiced in Egypt, in the Wilderness, and in Canaan (xx).在长辈在场的先知谴责的可憎,他们实行的埃及在旷野,以色列全体人民,而在迦南(XX)。For these Juda shall be consumed by fire, and Jerusalem shall be exterminated by the sword (xxi).对于这些犹大应消耗的火,和耶路撒冷须由剑(XXI)灭绝。Abominable is the immorality of Jerusalem (xxii), but Juda is more guilty than Israel has ever been (xxiii).可恶的是耶路撒冷(二十二)不道德,但犹大更有罪比以色列从未(二十三)。

On the day on which the siege of Jerusalem began, the prophet represents, under the figure of the rusty pot, what was to befall the inhabitants of the city.在该日开始围困耶路撒冷,先知表示,在数字的生锈的锅,什么将降临这个城市的居民。On the occasion of the death of his wife, God forbids him to mourn openly, in order to teach the exiles that they should be willing to lose that which is dearest to them without grieving over it (xxiv).关于他的妻子去世之际,上帝禁止他公开悼念,以教导流亡者,他们应该愿意失去的是最亲爱的没有了它(二十四)悲痛给他们。

In the second part (xxv-xxxii), are gathered together the prophecies concerning the Gentiles.在第二部分(二十五 - 三十二),都聚集在一起的预言有关外邦人。He takes, first of all, the neighbouring peoples who had been exalted through the downfall of Juda, and who had humiliated Israel.他注意到,首先,邻近谁已捧得通过犹大灭亡,谁侮辱了以色列人民。The fate of four of these, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Edomites, and the Philistines, is condensed in chapter xxv.而这四个命运,亚扪人,摩押人,以东人,和非利士人,是浓缩在一章二十五。He treats more at length of Tyre and its king (xxxvi-xxviii,19), after which he casts a glance at Sidon (xxviii, 20-26).他待人在轮胎和国王(三十六,二十八,19)长以上,之后他蒙上了在西顿一览(二十八,20-26)。Six prophecies against Egypt follow, dating from different years (xxix-xxxii. The third part (xxxiii-xlviii), is occupied with the Divine utterances on the subject of Israel's restoration. As introduction, we have a dissertation from the prophet, in his capacity of authorized champion of the mercy and justice of God, after which he addresses himself to those remaining in Juda, and to the perverse exiles (xxxiii). The manner in which God will restore His people is only indicated in a general way. The Lord will cause the evil shepherds to perish; He will gather in, guide, and feed the sheep by means of the second David, the Messiah (xxxiv). 6人反对埃及的预言跟随,从不同年份的约会(xxix-xxxii.第三部分(三十三,XLVIII),是对以色列的恢复受到神圣的话语占据,作为引进,我们在他的博士论文从先知,授权的怜悯和公义的神冠军的能力,之后他自己的地址,在剩下的犹大,并以(三十三)不正当流亡者的方式,上帝将恢复他的人,只是在一般的方式表示的主会导致邪恶的牧羊人灭亡,他将云集,指导和饲料第二大卫,弥赛亚(三十四)指羊。

Though Mount Seir shall remain a waste, Israel shall return unto its own.虽然西珥山应保持一种浪费,以色列应返回祂自己。There God will purify His people, animate the nation with a new spirit, and re-establish it in its former splendour for the glory of His name (xxxv-xxxvii).有上帝会净化他的人,动画与新的民族精神,并重新建立其对他的名字的荣耀(三十五,三十七)前的辉煌了。 Israel, though dead, shall rise again, and the dry bones shall be covered with flesh and endowed with life before the eyes of the prophet.以色列虽然死了,应再次上升,而干燥的骨头应覆盖前的肉和先知的眼睛赋予生命。Ephraim and Juda shall, under the second David, be united into one kingdom, and the Lord shall dwell in their midst (xxxvii).以法莲和犹大须根据第二大卫,团结成一个王国,主应在他们中间停留(三十七)。The invincibleness and indestructibility of the restored kingdom are then symbolically presented in the war upon Gog, his inglorious defeat, and the annihilation of his armies (xxxviii-xxxix).该invincibleness和恢复王国不灭,然后象征性地提出了在歌革后,他的不光彩的失败,他的军队歼灭(三十八,三十九)战争。 In the last prophetic vision, God shows the new temple (xl-xliii), the new worship (xliii-xlvi), the return to their own land, and the new division thereof among the twelve tribes (xlvii-xlviii), as a figure of His foundation of a kingdom where He shall dwell among His people, and where He shall be served in His tabernacle according to strict rules, by priests of His choice, and by the prince of the house of David.在过去的先知先觉,神展示了新庙(XL - XLIII),作为一个新的崇拜(XLIII - XLVI),对自己的土地收益,而新成立的部门之间的十二个支派(XLVII - XLVIII)条,他的一个王国的基础图的地方,他必住他的人之间,并在他须送达在他的帐幕按照严格的规则,由他所选择的祭司,和由大卫家王子。

From this review of the contents of the prophecy, it is evident that the prophetic vision, the symbolic actions and examples, comprise a considerable portion of the book.从这种对预言的内容进行审查,这是显而易见的先知先觉,象征性的行动和例子,包括一书​​的相当一部分。The completeness of the description of the vision, action and similes, is one of the many causes of the obscurity of the book of Ezekiel.本的眼光,行动和明喻描述的完整性,是该对以西结书默默无闻的众多原因之一。It is often difficult to distinguish between what is essential to the matter represented, and what serves merely to make the image more vivid.它往往是很难区分哪些是必不可少的事代表,以及服务仅仅是为了使图像更加生动。 On this account it happens that, in the circumstantial descriptions, words are used, the meaning of which, inasmuch as they occur in Ezekiel only, is not determined.在此帐户中发生的是,在间接描述,用字,其中,因为它们只发生在以西结书,是没有确定的意义。Because of this obscurity, a number of copyist mistakes have crept into the text, and that at an early date, since the Septuagint has some of them in common with the earliest Hebrew text we have.正因为如此默默无闻,抄写错误的数量已经悄悄进入了文本,并尽早,因为有共同的译本与最早的希伯来文,其中一些我们。The Greek version, however, includes several readings which help to fix the meaning.希腊的版本,然而,包括几个读​​数,帮助修复的意义。The genuineness of the book of Ezekiel is generally conceded.在以西结书的真实性普遍承认。Some few consider chapters xl-xlviii to be apocryphal, because the plan there described in the building of the temple was not followed, but they overlook the fact that Ezekiel here gives a symbolic representation of the temple, that was to find spiritual realization in God's new kingdom.一些很少考虑章节XL - XLVIII是杜撰的,因为在寺庙建筑中描述的计划没有得到遵守,但他们忽视的是,以西结在这里给出了一个寺庙象征性的表示,这是找​​到上帝的精神实现新的王国。 The Divine character of the prophecies was recognized as early as the time of Jesus the son of Sirach (Eccles. xlix, 10, 11).该预言神字符确认为对耶稣的儿子西拉奇(传道书XLIX,10,11)时间早。In the New Testament, there are no verbatim references, but allusions to the prophecy and figures taken from it are prominent.在新约中,有没有逐字引用,而是从它的预言和采取数字典故突出。Compare St. John x etc. with Ezek.比较以西结书圣约翰X等。xxxiv, 11 etc.; St. Matthew xxii, 32, with Ezek.三十四,11等;圣马太二十二,32点,以西结书。xvii, 23.十七,23。In particular St. John, in the Apocalypse, has often followed Ezekiel.特别是圣约翰,在启示录,常常跟着以西结。Compare Apoc.比较载脂蛋白C。 xviii-xxi with Ezek.XVIII - XXI与以西结书。xxvii, xxxviii etc., xlvii etc.二十七,三十八等,四十七等。

Publication information Written by Jos. Schets.出版信息圣何塞Schets写。Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五,1909年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Book of Ezekiel以西结书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

"Dooms" of the Nations.“注定”的国家。

The Composition.组成。

Style.风格。

Ezekiel's book is one of the most original in the sacred literature of Israel.以西结书是最神圣的以色列文学原之一。Its principal features are its systematic arrangement and homogeneity.其主要特点是其系统的安排和同质性。The book falls into two principal parts, i.-xxiv.全书分为两个主要部分,一,二十四。and xxv.-xlviii., corresponding to the two principal themes of Ezekiel's prophetic preaching-repentance and salvation, judgment and restoration.和xxv. - 48。,对应的两个以西结的预言说教,忏悔和救赎,判断和恢复的主要主题。It is introduced by a vision, i.据介绍由视觉岛1-iii.1 - III。15.15。At the River Chebar the glory of the Lord appears to Ezekiel on the chariot of the cherubim and consecrates him a prophet, sent to a "rebellious house" to preach only wailing, sighing, and misery.在河Chebar主的荣耀似乎以西结对基路伯战车和供奉他的先知,发送到“叛逆的房子”,鼓吹只哭,叹了口气,和痛苦。 Chaps.章。iii.三。16-xxiv.16二十四。27 show the prophet fulfilling this mission.27显示先知履行这一使命。Here Ezekiel is merely a "reprover" (iii. 26); he confronts the people as if he were not one of them; he shows no emotion, not a suggestion of pity, throughout the delivery of his dreadful tidings.以西结在这里只是一个“reprover”(III. 26),他面对的人,犹如他是不是其中之一,他表示没有情感,而不是怜悯建议贯穿于他的可怕的福音交付。He symbolizes the siege and conquest of Jerusalem, the leading of the people into exile (iv.-v.); on all the hills of Israel idolatry is practised (vi.), and therefore "the end" will come (vii.).他象征着耶路撒冷包围和征服,人民的流亡(iv.-v.)领导,在所有的偶像崇拜山是以色列实行(VI.),因此“最终”会(vii.) 。The Temple is defiled with abominations of every description; therefore the glory of the Lord departs from it and from the city, and dedicates them to flames (viii-xi.).该庙是玷污与形形色色的可憎,因此耶和华的荣耀偏离,并从城市,并致力于他们的火焰(viii-xi.)。 Ezekiel represents the final catastrophe symbolically; judgment will not tarry, but approaches to immediate fulfilment (xii.).以西结是最后的灾难象征;判断不会柏油,而是直接的方法来实现(xii.)。No one will mount into the breach.没有人会安装到违规行为。On the contrary, prophets and prophetesses will lead the people completely astray (xiii.); even a true prophet could not avail now, as God will not be questioned by idolaters.相反,先知和prophetesses将带领人民完全误入歧途(xiii.),甚至一个真正的先知不能利用现在,作为上帝不会被拜偶像的质疑。

That the judgment is fully merited will be demonstrated by the godliness of the few who survive the catastrophe (xiv.).这是完全值得的判决将由少数谁生存的灾难(xiv.)敬虔证明。Jerusalem is a useless vine, good only to be burned (xv.).耶路撒冷是一个无用的葡萄树,好只被烧毁(xv.)。And thus it has ever been: Jerusalem has ever requited the mercies and benefits of the Lord with blackest ingratitude and shameless infidelity (xvi.).因而过去任何时候都:耶路撒冷曾经requited的怜悯和与黑的忘恩负义和无耻的不忠(xvi.)主的利益。The ruling king, Zedekiah, particularly, has incurred the judgment through his perjury (xvii.).执政的国王,西底家,特别是通过他的公司承担伪证罪(xvii.)的判断。God rewards each one according to his deeds, and He will visit upon the heads of the present generation, not the sins of the fathers, but their own sins (xviii.).每一个神的奖励根据他的事迹,他将访问后,本代元首,不是父亲的罪过,但他们(xviii.)自己的罪。Therefore the prophet is to sound a dirge over the downfall of royalty and the people (xix.).因此,先知是健全对使用费的倒台和人民(xix.)的挽歌。In an oration he once more brings before the people all the sins committed by them from the Exodus to the present time (xx.).在一个致辞,他再一次摆在人们面前带来他们所犯下的所有从到现在的时间(xx.)出埃及记罪。Nebuchadnezzar approaches to execute the divine judgment (xxi.).尼布甲尼撒的方法来执行神圣的判决(xxi.)。Jerusalem is a city full of blood-guiltiness and impurity, all classes being equally debased (xxii.), and far lower than Samaria's (xxiii.).耶路撒冷是一个城市的血液guiltiness和杂质充分,所有的类具有同等贬值(xxii.),并远远超过撒马利亚的(xxiii.)为低。 The city is a rusty kettle the impurities of which can be removed only by fire.城市是一个生锈的水壶中的杂质,其中只能用火清除。The exiles, who still boast of the sanctity and inviolability of Jerusalem, will be amazed by the news of its fall (xxiv.).流亡者,谁仍然夸耀耶路撒冷的神圣和不可侵犯,将惊讶于它的下降(xxiv.)的消息。

"Dooms" of the Nations.“注定”的国家。

Then follows (xxv.-xxxii.) a group of threatening prophecies against seven foreign nations: the Ammonites (xxv. 1-7), Moabites (xxv. 8-11), Edomites (xxv. 12-14), Philistines (xxv. 15-17), Tyrenes (xxvi.-xxviii. 19), Zidonians (xxviii. 20-23), andEgyptians (xxix.-xxxii.).然后如下(xxv. - XXXII)对七名外籍国家威胁的预言组:亚扪人(xxv. 1-7),摩押(xxv. 8-11),以东(xxv. 12-14),非利士人(XXV 15-17),Tyrenes(xxvi. -二十八19),Zidonians(xxviii. 20-23),andEgyptians(xxix. - XXXII)。This division belongs to the promise of salvation as detailed in xxviii.该部门属于救恩在XXVIII详细的承诺。24-26; for it refers to the punishment visited on the neighboring nations because of their aggressions against Judah.24-26日,它是指对周边国家的访问,因为他们的侵略对犹大的惩罚。It also indicates that Israel may yet be restored to fulfil its sacred mission, a mission which can be accomplished only when the nation lives in security.报告还指出,以色列还可能恢复履行其神圣的使命,它可以完成,只有当国家安全的生活使命。Ch.CH。xxxiii.三十三。announces the downfall of Jerusalem, and the prophet now freely speaks words of consolation and promise to the people.宣布耶路撒冷倒台,和先知现在自由发言的安慰,并承诺于民的话。The shepherds hitherto placed over Israel have thriven, but have neglected their flock, which God will now take under His protection, appointing a new David as a shepherd over it (xxxiv.).迄今以色列的牧人放有thriven,但忽略了他们的羊群,上帝现在在他的保护,任命比它(xxxiv.)一个新的牧羊人大卫。 The Edomites, who have seized certain portions of the Holy Land, will be annihilated (xxxv.); Israel will be restored (xxxvi.); that is, Judah and Joseph will be merged into one (xxxvii.).以东人,谁抢占了圣地的某些部分,将被歼灭(xxxv.),以色列将恢复(xxxvi.),也就是说,犹大和约瑟将进入一个(xxxvii.)合并。 The last on-slaught of the pagan world against the newly established kingdom of God will be victoriously repelled by the Almighty Himself, who will manifest His sanctity among the nations (xxxviii.-xxxix.).上屠宰的异教世界对神新成立的王国最后会胜利击退由全能自己,谁表现他的国家之间的神圣(xxxviii. - XXXIX)。The final division, xl.-xlviii., embodying the celebrated vision of the new Temple and the new Jerusalem, contains a description of the future era of salvation with its ordinances and conditions, which are epitomized in the final sentence: "And the name of the city from that day shall be, The Lord is there" (xlviii. 35). ,最后分裂,xl. - XLVIII,体现了新庙和新耶路撒冷庆祝视野,包含了拯救其条例和条件,这是在最后一句概括未来的时代描述:“和名称从那天城市应,主是有“(xlviii. 35)。

The Composition.组成。

The evident unity of the whole work leaves only one question open in regard to its authorship: Did Ezekiel, as some maintain, write the whole book at one time, or is it a homogeneous compilation of separate parts written at different times?整个工作明显统一只剩下一个问题,关于它的作者打开:难道以西结,一些维护,写一次整本书,或者是它在不同时期写的独立的部分均匀编译? A number of pieces were dated by the prophet himself, in accordance with the number of years after the abduction of Jehoiachin: i.一个件数的日期是由先知自己,按照年数后约雅斤绑架:一,1, in the fifth; viii. 1,在第五位;八。1, in the sixth; xx.1,在第六; XX。1, in the seventh; xxiv.1,在第七; XXIV。1, in the ninth; xxix.1,在第九;二十九。1, in the tenth; xxvi. 1,在十分之一;二十六。1, xxx. 1,XXX。20, xxxi. 20,三十一。1, xxxiii. 1,三十三。21 (LXX.), in the eleventh; xxxii.21(LXX.),在第十一届,三十二。1, 19 and xxxiii. 1,19及三十三。21 (Hebr.), in the twelfth; xl.21(Hebr.),在第十二次; XL。1, in the twenty-fifth; and xxix.1,在第二十五届和二十九。17, in the twenty-seventh year. 17日,在第二十七届一年。The last-mentioned passage (xxix. 17-21) is evidently an appendix to the already completed book; and the twenty-fifth year (572), the date of the important division xl.-xlviii., is probably the date when the work was completed.最后提到的通过(xxix. 17-21)显然对已经完成的书附录;和二十五年(572),对重要部门xl. - XLVIII日期,日期可能是当工作已经完成。If it were true, however, that the whole book was written at that time all previous dates would be merely literary embellishments, and this view is difficult because of the importance of the dating in several instances where the prophet claims to transcend ordinary human knowledge.如果这是真的,但是,整本书是写在当时所有以前的日期将仅仅是文学修饰,这看法是困难的,因为在那里的约会先知声称超越常人的几个实例知识的重要性。 Examples of such instances are: xi.这样的事例是:十一。13, where Ezekiel at the Chebar is cognizant of the death of Pelatiah, the idolater, in Jerusalem; xxiv. 13,凡在Chebar以西结是在耶路撒冷死亡Pelatiah的崇拜者,认识到; XXIV。2, where he knows the exact day on which the siege of Jerusalem will begin; and xxxiii. 2,在那里他知道确切的日子其中将开始围攻耶路撒冷,以及三十三。21, where he predicts to a day the arrival of the messenger bearing tidings of the capture of Jerusalem. 21,他预测到一天的轴承在耶路撒冷捕捉福音使者的到来。

Moreover, it can be shown from the contradictions which the various divisions of the Book of Ezekiel contain that they were written at different periods.此外,它可以显示从其中的矛盾以西结书包含的各个部门,他们在不同时期写的。This is particularly true of the Messianic prophecy, which, although kept somewhat in the background in Ezekiel, is nevertheless directly expressed in xvii.这是特别的救世主的预言,其中,虽然保持在以西结书背景有点,不过是直接在十七表示真实。22-24, xxi.22-24,21。 32, xxxiv.32,三十四。23-24, xxxvii. 23-24日,三十七。22-24, and xxv.22-24日和二十五。14 (where Edom is referred to: "And I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel"). 14(其中以东被称为:“我会躺在以东由我的人我的手以色列复仇”)。In xl.-xlviii.-that grand panorama of the future-this feature has entirely disappeared.在xl. - xlviii. - 即未来的宏伟全景,这一功能已完全消失。There is still some reference to a prince, but his sole function is to defray from the people's taxes the expenses of worship; there is no longer room for a Messianic king.还有一些王子的参考,但他唯一的功能是从人支付的税收崇拜的费用,而没有一个救世主国王的余地。Nevertheless, Ezekiel permitted the earlier passages to remain.不过,以西结允许较早通道保持。Even more significant is xxix.更重要的是二十九。17-21, which can be understood only as an appendix to the already complete book.17-21日,它只能作为对已经完成的书附录理解。 In xxvi.-xxviii.在xxvi.,二十八。Ezekiel had positively prophesied the capture and destruction of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar, but after thirteen years of fruitless labor the latter had to raise the siege and to arrange terms of peace with the city.以西结预言了积极捕捉和轮胎破坏尼布甲尼撒,但无果而终后,十三年后的劳动,提高了围攻,并安排与城市的和平条件。Thereupon, in the above-mentioned passage, Ezekiel promises Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar as an indemnity.于是,在上面提到的通过,以西结承诺埃及尼布甲尼撒作为赔偿。Here, then, is an oracle the non-fulfilment, of which the prophet himself is destined to see.在这里,那么,是Oracle的不履行,其本人也是注定要看到先知。Yet he does not venture to change or to expunge it.然而,他并没有大胆地改变或勾销。Incidentally it may be stated that the transmission of oracles of which the prophets themselves were doomed to see the non-fulfilment is the strongest proof that they regarded these as messages for which they were not personally responsible, and which, consequently, they did not venture to change; they regarded them as God's word, the responsibility for the non-fulfilment of which rested with God, not with themselves.顺便说一句,可能指出,其中先知本身是注定要看到不履行神谕传输是最强的证据,他们认为这些作为信息的,它们并没有亲自负责,其中,因此,他们没有风险改变,他们视为神的话,对于不履行其中休息与神不与自己,他们的责任。 In view of these facts it must be assumed that although Ezekiel completed his book in 572, he availed himself of earlier writings, which he allowed to remain practically unchanged.鉴于这些事实必须假定,虽然完成了572以西结书中,他利用了早期著作中,他几乎可以保持不变自己。

Style.风格。

Not only is the whole artistically arranged, but the separate parts are also distinguished by careful finish.不仅是艺术上的整体安排,但独立的部分也通过认真完成区分开来。The well-defined and deliberate separation of prose and poetry is particularly conspicuous.散文和诗歌的定义良好的和蓄意的分离尤为突出。The poetic passages are strictly rhythmical in form, while the didactic parts are written in pure, elegant prose.诗意的段落都严格形式节奏,而在纯说教的部分,优雅的散文写的。The author prefers parables, and his use of them is always lucid.笔者更喜欢用比喻,他使用它们总是清醒。In xx.在XX。49 he even makes his audience say: "Doth he not speak parables?"49他甚至让他的听众说:“他不说话Doth寓言”Very striking are the numerous symbolical actions by which the prophet illustrates his discourse.非常引人注目的是其中的许多先知说明了他的话语象征性的行动。Nine unique examples may be distinguished; indeed at the very beginning of his prophetic activity there are not fewer than four by which he describes the siege, capture, and destruction of Jerusalem and the banishment of the people (iv. and v.).九独特的例子可能是杰出的,事实上在他的预言活动一开始有不超过四个,其中他描述了围攻,捕捉和摧毁耶路撒冷和人民的驱逐(iv.和诉)少。 The two in xii.在十二两个。 and the two in xxiv.并在二十四两个。refer to the same subject, while that in xxxvii.指的是同一主题,而在三十七了。refers to the future redemption.指的是未来的赎回。Here, also, there is no question of mere literary embellishment, for Ezekiel undoubtedly actually performed the symbolic actions; indeed, he was the first to introduce symbolism into Hebrew literature, and therefore has been called the "father of apocalypse."在这里,也没有纯粹的文学点缀问题,无疑为以西结实际执行的象征性的行动,事实上,他是第一个引入希伯来文学的象征意义,也因此被称为“天启的父亲。” The picture of the chariot ("merkabah") in i., and the concluding division of xl.-xlviii., are full of deep symbolism; and, according to the Rabbis, neither should be read by any one younger than thirty.,而在一战车(“merkabah”),以及xl. - XLVIII结束分裂的画面,充满象征意义是深刻的,并且,根据拉比,也不应该由任何一个年轻的三十阅读。The celebrated vision of Gog, the Prince of Rosh Meshech (AV "the chief princeof Meshech") and Tubal (xxxviii. and xxxix.), is also symbolical.著名的歌革的视野,对犹太Meshech王子(AV“行政princeof Meshech”)和输卵管(xxxviii.和三十九),也是象征性的。The Book of Ezekiel shows throughout the touch of the scholar.在以西结书显示整个学者接触。

The Talmud (Ḥag. 13a) relates that in consequence of the contradictions to the Torah contained in xl.-xlviii.塔木德(Ḥag.13A)在涉及到xl. - XLVIII中的托拉矛盾的后果了。Ezekiel's book would have remained unknown had not Hananiah b.以西结书将仍然不明没有哈拿尼雅湾Hezekiah come to expound it.希西家来阐述它。Nevertheless it has never been appreciated as it deserves; and it is probably due to this fact that the text of the work has been transmitted in a particularly poor and neglected form.但是它从来没有被赞赏,因为它值得,以及它可能是由于这一事实,即文本的工作一直处于被忽视,特别是穷人和形式传送。The Septuagint, however, affords an opportunity to correct many of the errors in the Hebrew text.七十,但是,提供了一个机会,以纠正在希伯来文中的错误很多。

The statement of Josephus ("Ant." x. 5, § 1) that Ezekiel wrote two books is entirely enigmatical.约瑟夫的声明(“蚂蚁。”X 5,§ 1),以西结写了两本书完全是阴阳怪气。The doubt cast upon the authenticity of the book by Zunz, Seinecke, and Vernes has rightly never been taken seriously; but the authorship of several parts, such as iii.经书的真实性施放聪茨,Seinecke和Vernes怀疑正确地从来没有认真对待,但在一些地区,如三,著作权。16b-21, x.16B - 21,X。 8-17, xxiv.8-17,二十四。 22-23, and xxvii. 22-23,和二十七。9b-25a, has, with more or less justification, sometimes been questioned.9B - 25A,已或多或少的理由,有时会受到质疑。That the book consists of two divergent versions compiled by an editor, a hypothesis recently advanced by Kraetzschmar, has yet to be demonstrated.这本书由一个编辑器编译的两个不同版本组成,最近Kraetzschmar先进的一种假说,还有待证实。

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Heinrich Cornill埃米尔赫斯基G.卡尔海因里希Cornill

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography:参考书目:

H. Ewald, Die Propheten des Alten Bundes, 1841; F. Hitzig, Der Prophet Ezechiel, 1847; SD Luzzatto, Perush 'al Yirmeyah we-Yehezeḳel, 1876; R. Smend, Der Prophet Ezechiel, 1880; Cornill, Das Buch des Propheten Ezechiel, 1886; DH Müller, Ezechielstudien, 1895; AB Davidson, The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel, Cambridge, 1896; A. Bertholet, Das Buch Hezekiel, 1897; CH Toy, The Book of Ezekiel in Hebrew, 1899; idem, The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel, new Eng. H.埃瓦尔德,模具Propheten DES Alten Bundes,1841年,F.希齐格,明镜先知Ezechiel,1847; SD卢扎托,Perush“基地Yirmeyah WE -Yehezeḳel,1876年,R. Smend,明镜先知Ezechiel,1880年,Cornill,布赫DES达斯Propheten Ezechiel,1886年,卫生署米勒,Ezechielstudien,1895年,AB戴维森,先知以西结,剑桥,1896年图书; A.贝尔托莱,达斯布赫Hezekiel,1897年,CH玩具,以西结在希伯来文图书,1899年,同上,先知以西结书,新的工程。transl.译。with notes, 1899; R. Kraetzschmar, Das Buch Ezechiel, 1900.EGHKHC用笔记,1899年; R. Kraetzschmar,达斯布赫Ezechiel,1900.EGHKHC


Ezekiel以西结书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

His Influence.他的影响力。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The Prophet's Spiritual Mission.先知的精神使命。

His Individualistic Tendency.他的个人主义倾向。

His Description 以西结书 书几篇文章。信息来源,以便更深入地了解宗教科目。"> of God's Throne.他的描述上帝的宝座。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

The Dead Revived by Ezekiel.死者复活的以西结。

The Book of Ezekiel.在以西结书。

His Influence.他的影响力。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Concerning the life of Ezekiel there are but a few scattered references contained in the book bearing his name.关于以西结生活中有一些零星的引用,但在他的名字命名的书所载。He was the son of Buzi, a priest of Jerusalem (Ezek. i. 3), and consequently a member of the Zadok family, As such he was among the aristocracy whom Nebuchadnezzar (597 BC), after the first capture of Jerusalem, carried off to be exiles in Babylonia (II Kings xxiv. 14).他是堡子儿子,耶路撒冷(结一3)牧师,因此在撒督的家庭成员,因此他跻身贵族人尼布甲尼撒(公元前597)后,耶路撒冷第一次捕捉,进行了关将在巴比伦流亡(II国王二十四14)。 Ezekiel therefore reckons the years from the abduction of Jehoiachin (Ezek. i. 2, xxxiii. 21, xl. 1).以西结因此估计这些年来从约雅斤(结一,二,三十三21,XL 1)绑架。He lived among a colony of fellow sufferers in or near Tel-abib on the River Chebar (not the River Chaboras), which probably formed an arm of the extensive Babylonian network of canals (iii. 15).他住在附近或电话,亚笔上河Chebar(不是河Chaboras),这可能是形成了一个广泛的巴比伦的运河网络(III. 15)ARM的难兄难弟之间的殖民地。Ezekiel was married (xxiv. 16-18), and lived in his own house (iii. 24, viii. 1).以西结结婚(xxiv. 16-18),并在自己的房子(III. 24,八1)生活。On the fifth day of the fourth month in the fifth year of his exile (Tammuz, 592 BC), he beheld on the banks of the Chebar the glory of the Lord, who consecrated him as His prophet (i. 1-iii. 13).关于在第五个年头,他流亡第四个月(塔穆兹,592 BC)第五天,他就看见了Chebar银行的主,谁奉献作为他的先知(一1 - III 13。荣耀)。The latest date in his book is the first day of the first month in the twenty-seventh year of his exile (Nisan, 570); consequently, his prophecies extended over twenty-twoyears.在他的书的最后日期是在他流亡第二十七届今年第一个月的第一天(尼散月,570),因此,他的预言在22年延长。 The elders of the exiles repeatedly visited him to obtain a divine oracle (viii., xiv., xx.).流亡者的长辈多次走访他获得神圣甲骨文(viii.,第十四,XX)。He exerted no permanent influence upon his contemporaries, however, whom he repeatedly calls the "rebellious house" (ii. 5, 6, 8; iii. 9, 26, 27; and elsewhere), complaining that although they flock in great numbers to hear him they regard his discourse as a sort of esthetic amusement, and fail to act in accordance with his words (xxxiii. 30-33).他施加在他的同时代人没有永久的影响,然而,其中他多次所谓的“叛逆的房子”(白介素5,6,8,三9,26,27;和其他地方),抱怨说,虽然他们在大批涌向听到他他们认为这是他的审美娱乐类的话语,和不采取行动与按照他的话(xxxiii. 30-33)。If the enigmatical date, "the thirtieth year" (i. 1), be understood to apply to the age of the prophet-and this view still has the appearance of probability-Ezekiel must have been born exactly at the time of the reform in the ritual introduced by Josiah.如果阴阳怪气的日期,“今年的第三十届”(一1),被理解为适用于时代的先知和这种观点仍然具有概率以西结的外观必须是出生在改革的时候正好在由约西亚推出了仪式。 Concerning his death nothing is known.关于他的死没有什么是已知的。

Ezekiel occupies a distinct and unique position among the Hebrew Prophets.以西结占有之间的希伯来先知鲜明而独特的地位。He stands midway between two epochs, drawing his conclusions from the one and pointing out the path toward the other.他站在两个时代中间,画一个从他的结论,并指出对其他的路径。Through the destruction of the city and the Temple, the downfall of the state, and the banishment of the people the natural development of Israel was forcibly interrupted.通过对城市的破坏和寺,国家灭亡,和人民驱逐了以色列的自然发展被强行中断。Prior to these events Israel was a united and homogeneous nation.在此之前,以色列是一个团结的事件和单一的国家;True, it was characterized by a spirit totally unlike that of any other people; and the consciousness of this difference had ever been present in the best and noblest spirits of Israel.的确,它的特点是一个完全不同于任何其他人的精神,以及这种差异的意识曾经被以色列最好的和最崇高的精神存在。The demands of state and people, however, had to be fulfilled, and to this end the monarchical principle was established.对国家和人民的要求,但是,必须兑现,并为此建立了君主制的原则。There is undoubtedly an element of truth in the opinion that the human monarchy was antagonistic to the dominion of God, and that the political life of Israel would tend to estrange the nation from its eternal spiritual mission.有无疑是真理认为元素,人类君主制对立的神的统治,并认为以色列的政治生活中往往会疏远其永恒的精神使命的国家。 The prophecy of the pre-exilic period was compelled to take these factors into account, and ever addressed itself either to the people as a nation or to its leaders-king, princes, priests-and sometimes to a distinguished individual, such as Shebna, the minister of the royal house mentioned in Isa xxii.会前放逐时期的预言才不得不考虑到这些因素,不断解决自身既可以作为一个国家的人或它的领导人,国王,王子,有时到一个杰出的个体和牧师等Shebna,对王室大臣提到在伊萨二十二。 15-25; so that the opinion arose that the Prophets themselves were merely a sort of statesmen. 15-25;这样认为出现的先知本身也仅仅是政治家的排序。

The Prophet's Spiritual Mission.先知的精神使命。

With the Exile, monarchy and state were annihilated, and a political and national life was no longer possible.随着流放,君主和国家被消灭,而政治和国家生活中已不再可能。In the absence of a worldly foundation it became necessary to build upon a spiritual one.在一个世俗基础的情况下成为必要建立在一种精神。This mission Ezekiel performed by observing the signs of the time and by deducing his doctrines from them.以西结执行这项任务的时间观察和推断的迹象,从他们自己的学说。In conformity with the two parts of his book his personality and his preaching are alike twofold.按照他的书他的个性和他的传两部分符合两方面是相同的。The events of the past must be explained.过去的事件必须加以解释。If God has permitted His city and His Temple to be destroyed and His people to be led into exile, He has thereby betrayed no sign of impotency or weakness.如果上帝允许他的城市和他的寺庙被摧毁和他的人民被流放主导,从而背叛他的阳痿或不示弱。He Himself has done it, and was compelled to do it, because of the sins of the people of Israel, who misunderstood His nature and His will.他自己也做到了,并被迫做了,因为以色列的人,谁误解了他的性质和他的旨意的罪。Nevertheless, there is no reason to despair; for God does not desire the death of the sinner, but his reformation.然而,没有理由绝望,因为神不渴望死亡的罪人,但他的改革。The Lord will remain the God of Israel, and Israel will remain His people.主仍将是以色列的神,以色列将继续他的人。As soon as Israel recognizes the sovereignty of the Lord and acts accordingly, He will restore the people, in order that they may fulfil their eternal mission and that He may truly dwell in the midst of them.只要以色列承认主的主权和采取相应的行动,他将恢复市民,使他们可以履行其永恒的使命,而且他可能真正住在他们中间。This, however, can not be accomplished until every individual reforms and makes the will of the Lord his law.然而,这不可能一蹴而就,直至每一个人的改革,使主的他律的意志。

His Individualistic Tendency.他的个人主义倾向。

Herein lies that peculiar individualistic tendency of Ezekiel which distinguishes him from all his predecessors.这才是奇特的个人主义倾向以西结有别于所有前任他。He conceives it as his prophetic mission to strive to reach his brethren and compatriots individually, to follow them, and to win them back to God; and he considers himself personally responsible for every individual soul.他设想作为他的预言它的使命,努力达到他的兄弟和同胞个别地跟着他们,赢得他们回神,他认为自己亲自为每一个人的灵魂负责。 Those redeemed were to form the congregation of the new Temple, and to exemplify by their lives the truth of the word that Israel was destined to become a "kingdom of priests" (Ex. xix. 6).这些赎回要形成新的寺众,并举例说明了他们的生活的,以色列是注定要成为“祭司的国度”(出十九6)字的真相。Law and worship-these are the two focal points of Ezekiel's hope for the future.法律和崇拜,这是两个以西结对未来的希望焦点。 The people become a congregation; the nation, a religious fraternity.人民成为众,民族,宗教联谊会。Political aims and tasks no longer exist; and monarchy and state have become absorbed in the pure dominion of God.政治目的和任务不再存在;和君主制和国家已成为纯粹的神统治吸收。Thus Ezekiel has stamped upon post-exilic Judaism its peculiar character; and herein lies his unique religio-historical importance.因此,以西结书已盖章后放逐犹太教其特有的性质,以及本在于他独特的religio历史的重要性。Another feature of Ezekiel's personality is the pathological.另一个以西结的个性特征是病态的。With no other prophet are vision and ecstasy so prominent; and he repeatedly refers to symptoms of severe maladies, such as paralysis of the limbs and of the tongue (iii. 25 et seq.), from which infirmities he is relieved only upon the announcement of the downfall of Jerusalem (xxiv. 27, xxxiii. 22).由于没有其他先知的眼光和摇头丸那么突出,他多次提到的严重弊端的症状,如四肢麻痹和舌头(III. 25起。)从其中的软弱,他被解除后,才公布,耶路撒冷的灭亡(xxiv. 27,三十三22)。These statements are to be taken not figuratively, but literally; for God had here purposely ordained that a man subject to physical infirmities should become the pliant instrument of His will.EGHKHC His Description of God's 以西结书 书几篇文章。信息来源,以便更深入地了解宗教科目。"> Throne.这些声明将采取不比喻,但字面上,这里特意为神命定,一个人受到身体的软弱应该成为他的will.EGHKHC他对上帝的宝座描述顺从的工具。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Ezekiel, like Jeremiah, is said to have been a descendant of Joshua by his marriage with the proselyte Rahab (Meg. 14b; Sifre, Num. 78).以西结书,像耶利米,据说是被他的婚姻与proselyte拉哈伯(Meg. 14B。Sifre,序号78)的约书亚的后代。 Some even say that he was the son of Jeremiah, who was also called "Buzi" because he was despised-"buz"-by the Jews (Targ. Yer., quoted by Ḳimḥi on Ezek. i. 3).甚至有人说他是耶利米的儿子,谁也被称为“堡子”,因为他被藐视,“BUZ”由这犹太人(Targ.也门里亚尔。通过Ḳimḥi所报以西结书,一3)。 He was already active as a prophet while in Palestine, and he retained this gift when he was exiled with Jehoiachin and the nobles of the country to Babylon (Josephus, "Ant." x. 6, § 3: "while he was still a boy"; comp. Rashi on Sanh. 92b, above).他已经为先知活跃,而在巴勒斯坦,他保留这份礼物时,他与约雅斤和巴比伦国(约瑟夫,贵族流亡十6,§ 3“蚂蚁。”:“当他还是一个男孩“;比赛Rashi上Sanh 92B段)。Had he not begun his career as a prophet in the Holy Land, the spirit of prophecy would not have come upon him in a foreign land (Mek., Bo, i. ; Targ. Ezek. i. 3; comp. M. Ḳ. 25a).如果他没有开始他作为先知的圣地职业生涯中,预言的精神就不会临到他在异乡(Mek.,博岛;。塔尔格以西结书一3;比赛M.Ḳ 。25A)。Therefore the prophet's first prophecy does not form the initial chapter in the Book of Ezekiel, but the second: according to some, it is the third (Mek., Shirah, 7).因此,先知的第一个预言并不构成在以西结书最初章节,但第二:根据一些,这是第三个(Mek.,Shirah,7)。Although in the beginning of the book he very clearly describes the throne of God, this is not due to the fact that he had seen more than Isaiah, but because the latter was more accustomed to such visions; for the relation of the two prophets is that of a courtier to a peasant, the latter of whom would always describe a royal court more floridly than the former, to whom such thingswould be familiar (Ḥag. 13b).虽然在书的开头,他很清楚地描述了神的宝座,这并非由于他看见以赛亚以上的事实,但是因为后者更习惯了这样的看法,为两位先知的关系一到农民朝臣如此,其中后者总是描述宫廷更floridly比前,向谁这样thingswould熟悉(Ḥag.13B)。 Ezekiel, like all the other prophets, has beheld only a blurred reflection of the divine majesty, just as a poor mirror reflects objects only imperfectly (Lev. R. i. 14, toward the end).以西结书,像所有其他先知,已经看见只有一个模糊的神圣威严的反映,就像一个贫穷的一面镜子,反映的对象只有不完全(利未记河一14,朝年底)。 God allowed Ezekiel to behold the throne in order to demonstrate to him that Israel had no reason to be proud of the Temple; for God, who is praised day and night by the hosts of the angels, does not need human offerings and worship (Lev. R. ii. 8; Tanna debe Eliyahu R. vi.).上帝允许以西结书,以脱俗的宝座,以证明他说,以色列没有理由成为骄傲的圣殿;为上帝,谁是称赞一天,由天使主机的夜晚,并不需要人类的产品和崇拜(列弗。R.二8;塔纳debe埃利亚胡河六)。

Three occurrences in the course of Ezekiel's prophetic activity deserve especial mention.三是在以西结的预言活动过程中出现的值得ESPECIAL提及。It was he whom the three pious men, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, asked for advice as to whether they should resist Nebuchadnezzar's command and choose death by fire rather than worship his idol.这是他为之虔诚的三个男人,哈拿尼雅,米沙利,亚撒利雅,征求意见问到他们是否应该抵制尼布甲尼撒的命令,并选择由火而不是他的偶像崇拜死亡。 At first God revealed to the prophet that they could not hope for a miraculous rescue; whereupon the prophet was greatly grieved, since these three men constituted, the remnant of Judah.起初上帝启示的先知,他们不能希望有一个神奇的抢救;于是先知是非常痛心,因为这三个人构成的,犹大的残余。But after they had left the house of the prophet, fully determined to sacrifice their lives to God, Ezekiel received this revelation: "Thou dost believe indeed that I will abandon them. That shall not happen; but do thou let them carry out their intention according to their pious dictates, and tell them nothing" (Cant. R. vii. 8; comp. Azariah in Rabbinical Literature).但在他们离开的充分决心牺牲自己的生命神的先知,房子,以西结收到此启示:“你多斯特相信确实,我会放弃他们,应不会发生,但你让他们做他们的意图进行根据他们的虔诚使然,并告诉他们什么“(Cant. R.七8;。排版亚撒利雅在犹太教文学)。

The Dead Revived by Ezekiel.死者复活的以西结。

Ezekiel's greatest miracle consisted in his resuscitation of the dead, which is recounted in Ezek.以西结的最伟大的奇迹包括在他的死,这是在以西结书讲述复苏。xxxvii.三十七。There are different traditions as to the fate of these men, both before and after their resurrection, and as to the time at which it happened.有不同的传统,以对这些人的命运,之前和之后的复活,并作为它的时间发生。 Some say that they were godless people, who in their lifetime had denied the resurrection, and committed other sins; others think they were those Ephraimites who tried to escape from Egypt before Moses and perished in the attempt (comp. Ephraim in Rabbinical Literature).有人说,他们是不信神的人​​,谁在他们的一生都否认复活,并犯有其他罪,其他人认为他们是那些以法莲谁试图逃跑之前,摩西从埃及在尝试(comp.在犹太教文学莲)灭亡了。 There are still others who maintain that after Nebuchadnezzar had carried the beautiful youths of Judah to Babylon, he had them executed and their bodies mutilated, because their beauty had entranced the Babylonian women, and that it was these youths whom Ezekiel called back to life.还有人认为,谁尼布甲尼撒后进行了犹大的巴比伦美丽的青年,他有他们自己的身体肢解和执行,因为它们的美迷住了巴比伦妇女,这是这些年轻人为之以西结称为起死回生。 The miracle was performed on the same day on which the three men were cast into the fiery furnace; namely, on the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement (Cant. R. vii. 9).这个奇迹是在同一天进行的该三名男子扔在火窑:即在安息日和赎罪日(Cant. R.七9)。Nebuchadnezzar, who had made a drinking-cup from the skull of a murdered Jew, was greatly astonished when, at the moment that the three men were cast into the furnace, the bodies of the dead boys moved, and, striking him in the face, cried out: "The companion of these three men revives the dead!"尼布甲尼撒,谁作出了从一个被谋杀的犹太人头骨饮用水杯,感到十分惊讶,当在这三个男子入炉铸造的时刻,死者的尸体男孩感动了,,他的脸引人注目,哭了出来:“这三个男子的同伴复活死人!” (see a Karaite distortion of this episode in Judah Hadasi's "Eshkol ha-Kofer," 45b, at foot; 134a, end of the section).(看到这个犹大Hadasi的“埃什科尔公顷Kofer,”45B,在脚下情节Karaite失真; 134A,该节结束)。When the boys awakened from death, they rose up and joined in a song of praise to God for the miracle vouchsafed to them; later, they went to Palestine, where they married and reared children.当男孩从死亡惊醒,他们站起来,并加入了赞美的歌为赐予给他们的奇迹上帝,后来,他们到巴勒斯坦,在那里结婚,抚养孩子。 As early as the second century, however, some authorities declared this resurrection of the dead was a prophetic vision: an opinion regarded by Maimonides ("Moreh Nebukim," ii. 46; Arabic text, 98a) and his followers as the only rational explanation of the Biblical passage (comp. Abravanel's commentary on the passage).早在公元二世纪,然而,一些当局宣布这个死人复活是一个先知先觉:由迈蒙尼德(“Moreh Nebukim,”二46;阿拉伯文文本,98A)把意见和他的追随者作为唯一合理的解释圣经的通道(comp.阿布拉瓦内尔关于通过评注)。An account of the varying from these stories of the Talmud (Sanh. 92b), found in Pirḳe R. El.一个是从塔木德(Sanh. 92B)在PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多发现,这些故事不同的帐户。xxxiii., runs as follows: "When the three men had been rescued by God from the fiery furnace, Nebuchadnezzar, turning to the other Jews who had obeyed his commands and worshiped the idol, said: 'You knew that you had a helping and saving God, yet you deserted Him in order to worship an idol that is nothing. This shows that, just as you destroyed your own country through your evil deeds, you now attempt to destroy my country'; and at his command they were all killed, to the number of 600,000." 。三十三,运行如下:“当三名男子已被救出神从火热的熔炉,尼布甲尼撒,转向其他犹太人谁服从他的命令和崇拜的偶像,说:”你知道你有帮助,节约上帝,但你抛弃了他,以崇拜的偶像是什么这说明,就像你通过你的恶行摧毁你自己的国家,你现在企图摧毁我的国家“;并在他的命令,他们全部遇难,以60万的数量。“ Twenty years later God took the prophet to the place where the dead boys were buried, and asked him whether he believed that He could awaken them.二十年后上帝给了先知所在的地方埋葬死者的男孩,问他是否相信他能唤醒他们。 Instead of answering with a decisive "Yes," the prophet replied evasively, and as a punishment he was doomed to die "on foreign soil."而不是一个决定性的“是的,”先知回答闪烁其词,并以此作为惩罚,他注定要死亡的“土洋”。回答 Again, when God asked him to prophesy the awakening of these dead, he replied: "Will my prophecy be able to awaken them and those dead ones also which have been torn and devoured by wild beasts?"同样,当上帝问他预言,这些死亡的觉醒,他回答说:“将我的预言能够唤醒他们和那些死去的也已被撕裂,被野兽吃掉?” His doubts were unfounded, for the earth shook and brought the scattered bones together; a heavenly voice revived them; four winds flew to the four corners of the heavens, opened the treasure-house of the souls, and brought each soul to its body.他的怀疑是毫无根据的,为地球带来的震撼和散骨头一起,一个天堂般的声音恢复他们;四风飞到天上的四角,拉开了灵魂宝库,并带来了每一个灵魂,以它的身体。 One only among all the thousands remained dead, and he, as it was revealed to the prophet, had been a usurer, who by his actions had shown himself unworthy of resurrection.只有在所有的上千个仍死了,而他,因为它透露给先知,当过高利贷者,谁是他的行动表明自己的复活因噎废食。 The resurrected ones at first wept because they thought that they would now have no part in the final resurrection, but God said to Ezekiel: "Go and tell them that I will awakenthem at the time of the resurrection and will lead them with the rest of Israel to Palestine" (comp. Tanna debe Eliyahu R. v.).在第一次复活的哭了,因为他们认为他们现在有没有在决赛中复活的一部分,但上帝对以西结说:“去告诉他们,我将awakenthem在复活时间,并会导致他们与休息以色列向巴勒斯坦“(comp.塔纳岛debe埃利亚胡R.诉)。

The Book of Ezekiel.在以西结书。

Among the doctrines that Ezekiel set down in his book, the Rabbis noted the following as especially important: He taught "the soul that sinneth, it [alone] shall die" (Ezek. xviii. 4), although Moses had said (Ex. xxxiv. 7) that God would visit "the iniquity of the fathers upon the children."在以西结设定的学说在他的书下来,认为特别重要的拉比指出以下几点:他教“的灵魂sinneth,它[单]应死”(结十八4),虽然摩西说:(出埃及记三十四7),神将访问“后,孩子的父亲的罪孽”。 Another important teaching of Ezekiel is his warning not to lay hands on the property of one's neighbor, which he considers the greatest sin among the twenty-four that he enumerates (Ezek. xxii. 2 et seq.), and therefore repeats (Eccl. R. i. 13) at the end of his index of sins (Ezek. xxii. 12).以西结的另一个重要的教学是他警告不要躺在一个人的邻居,他认为其中的24最大的罪恶,他列举属性手(结二十二(2)及以下),因此重复(传道书R.一13)在他的罪孽指数(结二十二12)结束。 In ritual questions the Book of Ezekiel contains much that contradicts the teachings of the Pentateuch, and therefore it narrowly escaped being declared as "apocryphal" by the scholars shortly before the destruction of the Temple (Shab. 13b; Men. 45a).在仪式问题的以西结书包含许多相矛盾的pentateuch的教诲,因此它险遭被视为“未经证实”宣布学者前不久圣殿被毁(Shab. 13B;男子45A)。No one was allowed to read and explain publicly the first chapter of the book (Ḥag. ii. 1; ib. Gem. 13a), because it dealt with the secrets of God's throne (comp. Ma'aseh Merkabah).SSLG没有人被允许读取和公开解释书(Ḥag.二1。; IB宝石13A)第一章,因为它与神的宝座(comp. Ma'aseh Merkabah)的秘密处理SSLG。

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Heinrich Cornill, Solomon Schechter, Louis Ginzberg埃米尔赫斯基G.卡尔海因里希Cornill,索罗门谢克特,路易金兹伯格

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。



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