Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, Esdras I and II以斯拉和尼希米的书籍,第一和第二埃斯德拉斯

General Information一般资料

Ezra and Nehemiah are two books of the Old Testament of the Bible, originally one work in the Hebrew canon.以斯拉和尼希米两种圣经旧约,原本一个在希伯来语佳能工作的书籍。Written between 450 and 250 BC and named for two political and religious reformers in the postexilic Jewish community, they relate aspects of Jewish history from 538 BC to about 420 BC.450至公元前250年和两个政治和宗教的postexilic犹太社区改革者命名写的,他们与犹太人的历史方面,从公元前约420 538 BC。Because of the confused organization of the books, the chronology of the two reformers and their work is uncertain.由于组织混乱的书籍,这两个改革年代,他们的工作是不确定的。

With some rearrangement of contents, the purposes of scribe Ezra's mission to Jerusalem from the Persian court in 458 BC may be seen to have been to introduce stricter observance of the Law and to dissolve marriages with foreigners; the purposes of Governor Nehemiah's two missions to Jerusalem in 445 BC and 432 BC may be seen to have been to fortify and resettle the city, reform temple organization, oppose mixed marriages, and secure loyalty to these reforms by a covenant.对于某些内容重排,对隶以斯拉的使命从458年波斯法院耶路撒冷的目的可能会看到已引进更严格地遵守法律和解散与外国人通婚;总督尼希米的两项任务的目的耶路撒冷在公元前445年和432可视为已经巩固和重新安置的城市,改革的寺庙组织,反对异族通婚,安全的忠诚度由契诺这些改革。 To many scholars, however, the accounts of the reforms seem intelligible only on the assumption that Nehemiah preceded Ezra, whose arrival they date 428 or 397 BC.许多学者,但是,改革的帐户似乎只有在理解的前提是以斯拉尼希米之前,他们的抵达日期公元前428或397。Some scholars believe Ezra and Nehemiah were prepared as a supplement to 1 and 2 Chronicles and written by the same hand.有的学者认为以斯拉和尼希米准备作为补充,以1和2记载并且由同一手写。This view is challenged by others.这种观点是挑战他人。

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Bibliography 参考书目
J Blenkensop, Ezra - Nehemia: A Commentary (1988); JM Myers, ed., The Anchor Bible: Ezra and Nehemiah (1965).J Blenkensop,以斯拉 - Nehemia:评注(1988年); JM迈尔斯,教育署,锚圣经:以斯拉和尼希米记(1965)。


Books of Ezra and Nehemiah以斯拉和尼希米的书籍

Brief Outline简述

Book of Ezra以斯拉记

  1. Narrative of the return of the Jews from Babylonia under Zerubbabel and the restoration of worship in the rebuilt temple (1-6)叙事的犹太人从巴比伦返回根据所罗巴伯和崇拜,在恢复重建圣殿(1-6)
  2. Second group of exiles return with Ezra, and Ezra's religious reforms.第二组的流亡者返回以斯拉,和以斯拉的宗教的改革。(7-10)(7-10)

Book of Nehemiah尼希米记

  1. Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem (1-2)尼希米返回耶路撒冷(1-2)
  2. Building despite opposition (3:1-7:4)尽管反对派大厦(3:1-7:4)
  3. Genealogy of the first returning exiles (7:5-73)第一个流亡者回国家谱(7:5-73)
  4. Revival and Covenant sealing (8:1-10:39)复兴和公约密封(8:1-10:39)
  5. Dwellers at Jerusalem and genealogies (11:1-12:26)居民在耶路撒冷和族谱(11:1-12:26)
  6. Dedication of the walls (12:27-47)墙壁的奉献(12:27-47)
  7. Final reforms (13:1-31)(13:1-31)最后的改革


Ezra以斯拉

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Ezra, help.以斯拉,帮助。(1.) A priest among those that returned to Jerusalem under Zerubabel (Neh. 12:1). (1)一个牧师在那些返回下Zerubabel(尼12:1)耶路撒冷。(2.) The "scribe" who led the second body of exiles that returned from Babylon to Jerusalem BC 459, and author of the book of Scripture which bears his name. (2)在“隶”谁领导的流亡中返回从巴比伦到耶路撒冷公元前459,和圣经的书,他的名字命名的第二作者身上。He was the son, or perhaps grandson, of Seraiah (2 Kings 25:18-21), and a lineal descendant of Phinehas, the son of Aaron (Ezra 7:1-5).他是儿子,或者孙子,对西莱雅(2国王25:18-21),以及非尼哈直系后裔,亚伦的儿子(拉7:1-5)。All we know of his personal history is contained in the last four chapters of his book, and in Neh.我们所知道的他的个人历史是包含在他的书中最后四个章节,并在尼。8 and 12:26.8和12:26。 In the seventh year of the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus (see DARIUS), he obtained leave to go up to Jerusalem and to take with him a company of Israelites (Ezra 8).在亚达薛西Longimanus(见大流士)在位第七年,他获得许可上耶路撒冷去,并与他采取了以色列人公司(以斯拉8)。 Artaxerxes manifested great interest in Ezra's undertaking, granting him "all his request," and loading him with gifts for the house of God.亚达薛西表现在以斯拉的事业的极大兴趣,授予他“他的所有要求”,并装载与上帝的礼物他的房子。 Ezra assembled the band of exiles, probably about 5,000 in all, who were prepared to go up with him to Jerusalem, on the banks of the Ahava, where they rested for three days, and were put into order for their march across the desert, which was completed in four months.以斯拉的流亡者聚集带,大概有5000所有,谁愿意跟他一起去了耶路撒冷,对艾哈佛,他们在那里休息了三天的银行,并为理顺他们穿越沙漠进军,这是在四个月内完成。

His proceedings at Jerusalem on his arrival there are recorded in his book.他在耶路撒冷的法律程序对他的到来有记录在他的书。He was "a ready scribe in the law of Moses," who "had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments."他是“在摩西的法律准备隶,”谁“已经准备他的心,寻求主的法律,这样做,并教导以色列法规和判断。”"He is," says Professor Binnie, "the first well-defined example of an order of men who have never since ceased in the church; men of sacred erudition, who devote their lives to the study of the Holy Scriptures, in order that they may be in a condition to interpret them for the instruction and edification of the church. It is significant that the earliest mention of the pulpit occurs in the history of Ezra's ministry (Neh. 8:4). “他是,”宾尼教授说,“第一次明确的是谁从来没有停止,因为在男人为了教会的例子,神圣的博学的男子,谁献身的圣经研究,以便他们可能会在一个条件来解释的指导和教会的熏陶他们,这是重要的,该讲坛最早提到的以斯拉的事工(尼希米记8:4)历史上发生。

He was much more of a teacher than a priest.他太大的老师多牧师。We learn from the account of his labours in the book of Nehemiah that he was careful to have the whole people instructed in the law of Moses; and there is no reason to reject the constant tradition of the Jews which connects his name with the collecting and editing of the Old Testament canon.我们借鉴的尼希米书,他小心翼翼地在摩西的​​律法指示他的劳动力占全国人民和我们没有理由拒绝犹太人的传统,是连接不断的收集他的名字和编辑旧约佳能。 The final completion of the canon may have been, and probably was, the work of a later generation; but Ezra seems to have put it much into the shape in which it is still found in the Hebrew Bible.而佳能的最终完成可能已经,而且可能是,一个后人的工作,但以斯拉似乎已经投入了它仍然是在希伯来文圣经中找到它的形状了。 When it is added that the complete organization of the synagogue dates from this period, it will be seen that the age was emphatically one of Biblical study" (The Psalms: their History, etc.). For about fourteen years, ie, till BC 445, we have no record of what went on in Jerusalem after Ezra had set in order the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the nation. In that year another distinguished personage, Nehemiah, appears on the scene.当它补充说,犹太教堂完整的组织在这期间,日期,我们将看到的年龄是重点之一,圣经研究“(诗篇:他们的历史,等等)。有关十四年,即到公元前445,我们没有什么地方后在耶路撒冷以斯拉曾为了民族的宗教和民间事务集记录在这一年另一杰出人物,尼希米,在现场出现。

After the ruined wall of the city had been built by Nehemiah, there was a great gathering of the people at Jerusalem preparatory to the dedication of the wall.后城毁壁已被尼希米建成,有在耶路撒冷的人民大聚会筹备墙的奉献精神。On the appointed day the whole population assembled, and the law was read aloud to them by Ezra and his assistants (Neh. 8:3).在指定日期当日整个人口聚集,而法律是朗读由以斯拉和他的助手(尼希米记8:3)给他们。 The remarkable scene is described in detail.卓越的现场进行了详细说明。There was a great religious awakening.有一个伟大的宗教觉醒。For successive days they held solemn assemblies, confessing their sins and offering up solemn sacrifices.连续几天,他们举行隆重集会,承认他们的罪,并提供了庄严的牺牲。They kept also the feast of Tabernacles with great solemnity and joyous enthusiasm, and then renewed their national covenant to be the Lord's.他们不停地也以极大的热情和快乐的庄严住棚节,然后再起本国契约成为主的。 Abuses were rectified, and arrangements for the temple service completed, and now nothing remained but the dedication of the walls of the city (Neh. 12).滥用职权被纠正,并为寺院服务安排完成,现在没有,但仍对城墙奉献(尼12)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


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Book of Ezra以斯拉记

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This book is the record of events occurring at the close of the Babylonian exile.这本书是在巴比伦流亡近发生的事件记录。It was at one time included in Nehemiah, the Jews regarding them as one volume.这是一次包括在尼希米,犹太人视为一个卷的。The two are still distinguished in the Vulgate version as I.这两个杰出的仍然在与武加大版本and II.和二。 Esdras. It consists of two principal divisions: (1.) The history of the first return of exiles, in the first year of Cyrus (BC 536), till the completion and dedication of the new temple, in the sixth year of Darius Hystapes (BC 515), ch. 埃斯德拉斯这两个主要部门组成:(1)在第一次返回的流亡历史的居鲁士(公元前536)的第一年,直到完成和奉献精神的新庙,在第六年大流士Hystapes (公元前515),甲烷。1-6. 1-6。From the close of the sixth to the opening of the seventh chapter there is a blank in the history of about sixty years.从第六届接近第七章中有一个开放的大约六十多年的历史空白。(2.) The history of the second return under Ezra, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and of the events that took place at Jerusalem after Ezra's arrival there (7-10). (2)在第二次返回下以斯拉在亚达薛西Longimanus第七个年头,并在事件发生在耶路撒冷后以斯拉到达那里(7-10)地方的历史。The book thus contains memorabilia connected with the Jews, from the decree of Cyrus (BC 536) to the reformation by Ezra (BC 456), extending over a period of about eighty years.该书因此包含与犹太人有关的纪念品,从赛勒斯法令(公元前536)到由以斯拉(公元前456)改造,过了年约八十延伸。 There is no quotation from this book in the New Testament, but there never has been any doubt about its being canonical.有没有从这个新约书的报价,但从来没有过任何怀疑其被规范。Ezra was probably the author of this book, at least of the greater part of it (comp. 7:27, 28; 8:1, etc.), as he was also of the Books of Chronicles, the close of which forms the opening passage of Ezra.以斯拉可能是这本书的作者至少是它的大部份(comp. 7时27分,28; 8:1,等等),因为他对历代的书籍也,近而形成的开放以斯拉通过。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Nehemiah尼希米

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Nehemiah, comforted by Jehovah.尼希米,安慰耶和华。(1.) Ezra 2:2; Neh. (1)以斯拉2:2;尼。7:7. 7:7。(2.) Neh. (2)尼。3:16. 3:16。(3.) The son of Hachaliah (Neh. 1:1), and probably of the tribe of Judah. (3)本Hachaliah儿子(尼希米记1:1),并可能对犹大支派。His family must have belonged to Jerusalem (Neh. 2:3).他的家人必须有属于耶路撒冷(尼希米记2:3)。He was one of the "Jews of the dispersion," and in his youth was appointed to the important office of royal cup-bearer at the palace of Shushan.他是一个“犹太人的分散性”,并在他的青年被任命为皇家杯旗手在蜀山宫殿重要职务。The king, Artaxerxes Longimanus, seems to have been on terms of friendly familiarity with his attendant.国王,亚达薛西Longimanus,似乎已经对他熟悉的条款被服务员友好。Through his brother Hanani, and perhaps from other sources (Neh. 1:2; 2:3), he heard of the mournful and desolate condition of the Holy City, and was filled with sadness of heart.通过他的兄弟哈拿尼,也许是从(尼1:2; 2:3)其他来源,他听取了圣城的悲哀和凄凉的状况,并与心悲哀。For many days he fasted and mourned and prayed for the place of his fathers' sepulchres.对于许多日子里,他禁食和哀悼,并为他的父亲坟墓的地方祈祷。At length the king observed his sadness of countenance and asked the reason of it.在长王观察他的面容悲伤,并要求它的原因。 Nehemiah explained it all to the king, and obtained his permission to go up to Jerusalem and there to act as tirshatha, or governor of Judea.尼希米解释这一切的国王,并获得他的允许去到耶路撒冷,有作为tirshatha,或犹太总督。

He went up in the spring of BC 446 (eleven years after Ezra), with a strong escort supplied by the king, and with letters to all the pashas of the provinces through which he had to pass, as also to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, directing him to assist Nehemiah.他接着在公元前446的春天(11年之后以斯拉),由王提供强大的护航,并与所有的省份pashas通过,他必须通过,因为还亚萨,面对门将的信件皇家森林,指示他协助尼希米。 On his arrival he set himself to survey the city, and to form a plan for its restoration; a plan which he carried out with great skill and energy, so that the whole was completed in about six months.在他的到来,他给自己调查的城市,并形成了恢复计划,一个计划,与他进行了高超的技巧和能量,使整个是在大约六个月内完成。 He remained in Judea for thirteen years as governor, carrying out many reforms, notwithstanding much opposition that he encountered (Neh. 13:11).他仍然在朱迪亚,作为州长十三年,进行了许多改革,尽管很多人反对,他遇到(尼13:11)。He built up the state on the old lines, "supplementing and completing the work of Ezra," and making all arrangements for the safety and good government of the city.他建立起来的老线的国家“,补充和完善以斯拉工作”,做好安全和城市的好政府的各项安排。At the close of this important period of his public life, he returned to Persia to the service of his royal master at Shushan or Ecbatana.在此对他的公共生活的重要时期结束时,他回到波斯到他在蜀山或埃克巴塔那皇室主服务。

Very soon after this the old corrupt state of things returned, showing the worthlessness to a large extent of the professions that had been made at the feast of the dedication of the walls of the city (Neh. 12. See EZRA).不久后,这个老东西腐败的国家返回,显示了无价值到认为已经在对城墙奉献(尼12见以斯拉)盛宴了行业大的程度。Malachi now appeared among the people with words of stern reproof and solemn warning; and Nehemiah again returned from Persia (after an absence of some two years), and was grieved to see the widespread moral degeneracy that had taken place during his absence.玛拉基现在出现了与严厉谴责之中,并严正警告词的人;和尼希米再从波斯(之后的两年多的情况下)返回,并痛心地看到广​​泛的道德堕落是采取了在他缺席的地方。 He set himself with vigour to rectify the flagrant abuses that had sprung up, and restored the orderly administration of public worship and the outward observance of the law of Moses.他自己设置的活力,纠正这个已经如雨后春笋般出现的公然侵犯,并恢复了公众崇拜和遵守摩西的律法向外有序的管理。Of his subsequent history we know nothing.他后来的历史中,我们什么都不知道。Probably he remained at his post as governor till his death (about BC 413) in a good old age.也许他仍然在他的岗位作为直到他的死亡在一个良好的晚年(约公元前413)的州长。

The place of his death and burial is, however, unknown.他的死亡和埋葬的地方,不过,未知。"He resembled Ezra in his fiery zeal, in his active spirit of enterprise, and in the piety of his life: but he was of a bluffer and a fiercer mood; he had less patience with transgressors; he was a man of action rather than a man of thought, and more inclined to use force than persuasion. His practical sagacity and high courage were very markedly shown in the arrangement with which he carried through the rebuilding of the wall and balked the cunning plans of the 'adversaries.' “他在他的火热的热情相似以斯拉,在他的企业的积极精神,在他生命的虔诚,但是他的bluffer和激烈的情绪,他曾与违规者少耐心,他是一个实干家,而不是一个思想的人,更倾向于使用比说服力量,他的睿智和实践勇气是非常高的显着的安排与他进行通过壁重建和犹豫的狡猾的计划表明“敌人”。 The piety of his heart, his deeply religious spirit and constant sense of communion with and absolute dependence upon God, are strikingly exhibited, first in the long prayer recorded in ch. 1:5-11, and secondly and most remarkably in what have been called his 'interjectional prayers', those short but moving addresses to Almighty God which occur so frequently in his writings, the instinctive outpouring of a heart deeply moved, but ever resting itself upon God, and looking to God alone for aid in trouble, for the frustration of evil designs, and for final reward and acceptance" (Rawlinson).他的心虔诚,他深深的宗教精神和意识的不断交流,并呼吁上帝的绝对依赖,惊人地表现,首先在CH记录的长的祷告。1:5-11,其次,最显着的有哪些叫他“感叹祈祷”,这些简短而动人地址万能的神的出现在他的著作中如此频繁,一个本能的流露内心深受感动,但永远安息在神的本身,并希望上帝帮助陷入困境,仅用于邪恶的设计,并进行最后的奖励和接受挫折“(罗林森)。

Nehemiah was the last of the governors sent from the Persian court.尼希米是从波斯法院发出的州长最后。Judea after this was annexed to the satrapy of Coele-Syria, and was governed by the high priest under the jurisdiction of the governor of Syria, and the internal government of the country became more and more a hierarchy.这是犹太后所附的Coele叙satrapy,和由大祭司管辖下的叙利亚总督管辖,该国政府内部越来越层次结构。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Nehemiah尼希米记

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The author of this book was no doubt Nehemiah himself.本书的作者是毫无疑问尼希米自己。There are portions of the book written in the first person (ch. 1-7; 12:27-47, and 13).有许多以第一人称(章1-7; 12:27-47,13)写的书的部分。But there are also portions of it in which Nehemiah is spoken of in the third person (ch. 8; 9; 10).但也有它的发言中,尼希米是在第三人(章8,9,10)的部分。It is supposed that these portions may have been written by Ezra; of this, however, there is no distinct evidence.据推测,这些部分可能是由以斯拉写,这一点,然而,没有明显的证据。These portions had their place assigned them in the book, there can be no doubt, by Nehemiah.这些部分分配给了他们的地方他们在书中,就不可能有疑问的尼希米。He was the responsible author of the whole book, with the exception of ch.他是负责整个书的作者,随着CH例外。12:11, 22, 23. 12点11,22,23。The date at which the book was written was probably about BC 431-430, when Nehemiah had returned the second time to Jerusalem after his visit to Persia.在这书是写的日期可能是约公元前431-430,当尼希米已返回后,他的访问波斯第二次到耶路撒冷。

The book, which may historically be regarded as a continuation of the book of Ezra, consists of four parts.这本书,这可能是作为一种历史的延续以斯拉书认为,由四部分组成。(1.) An account of the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, and of the register Nehemiah had found of those who had returned from Babylon (ch. 1-7). (1)要对耶路撒冷的城墙重建帐户,以及注册尼希米发现那些谁已经从巴比伦(章1-​​7)返回。(2.) An account of the state of religion among the Jews during this time (8-10). (2)一个帐号在此期间(8-10)的宗教之间的犹太人国家。(3.) Increase of the inhabitants of Jerusalem; the census of the adult male population, and names of the chiefs, together with lists of priests and Levites (11-12:1-26). (3)加大对耶路撒冷的居民,对成年男性人口的普查和酋长的名字,连同祭司和利未人(11-12:1-26)名单。(4.) Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, the arrangement of the temple officers, and the reforms carried out by Nehemiah (12:27-ch. 13).(4)奉献了耶路撒冷,圣殿人员安排墙,由尼希米记(12时27分- CH 13)进行的改革。This book closes the history of the Old Testament.这本书结束了旧约的历史。Malachi the prophet was contemporary with Nehemiah.玛拉基先知是当代与尼希米记。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Ezra and His Reforms以斯拉和他的改革

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯M灰色

Ezra Chapters 7-10以斯拉章7-10

The Commission and Its Execution该委员会及其执行

cc.CC。7, 8 The first of these chapters tells who Ezra was (vv. 1-6), the date and object of his journey to Jerusalem (vv. 7-10), the nature and extent of his commission from the king (vv. 11-26), and his feelings in the premises (vv. 27, 28).7,8,这些章节是第一个告诉谁以斯拉(vv. 1-6),日期和对象,他的旅程到耶路撒冷(vv. 7-10),其性质和程度,从他的委员会的王(vv. 11月26日),并在该处他的感受(vv. 27,28)。The second, gives the number and genealogic record of the Jews who accompanied him (vv. 1-20), the spirit in which they entered upon the pilgrimage (vv. 21-23), the arrangements for guarding and delivering the treasurer in their keeping (vv. 24-30), their arrival and the fulfilment of their commission (vv. 31-36).第二,给出了谁陪同他的犹太人数量和系谱记录(vv. 1-20),他们的精神后,朝圣(vv. 21-23),负责守卫和提供他们的掌柜的安排进入保持(vv. 24-30),他们的到来,以及他们委托履行(vv. 31-36)。

To consider chapter seven in detail, the Artaxerxes of verse one is considered as identical with the Ahasuerus of Esther's time, and Anstey regards him as identical also with the Darius Hystaspes named above.要详细考虑章七,诗之一,被认为是亚达薛西与以斯帖的时间亚哈随鲁雷同,安斯蒂关于他的相同与上列大流士Hystaspes也。 Ezra was a priest as well as a scribe (vv. 1-5).以斯拉是一个牧师以及隶(vv. 1-5)。The "Seraiah" whose son (great grandson perhaps) he was, was the high priest slain by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 25:18).而“西莱雅”他的儿子(大孙子也许)他,是大祭司的尼布甲尼撒(2国王25:18)杀害。Jeshua, with whom we got acquainted in the last lesson, was also his grandson, but probably in another branch of the family.耶书亚,与我们得到的最后一课结识,也是他的孙子,但可能在另一家分行。"Scribe" is the same as doctor, teacher, or rabbi, one learned in the law of Moses and Jewish traditions and customs (v. 10).“抄写员”是作为医生,教师,或法师相同,一个学在摩西和犹太人的传统和习俗(10节)的法律。 How this Persian king came to be so interested is not known, unless, as some think, Esther had already become his queen, which would explain it.如何来到这个波斯王如此感兴趣的是不知道,除非像有些人认为,以斯帖已经成为他的皇后,这可以解释它。Others believe that after the death of the leaders of the earlier company, Zerubbabel and his associates, matters became so disordered in the province that leading Jews in Persia pleaded with the king to appoint this reform commission.还有人认为,后较早的公司,所罗巴伯和他的同事领导人死亡,事情变得如此在全省无序,领导与犹太人在波斯国王任命承认这项改革委员会。

Observe the power granted Ezra to study conditions, as we now say (v. 14), to collect funds (vv. 15, 16), levy tribute (vv. 21, 22), appoint magistrates and judges (v. 25), and execute penalties (v. 26).观察给予以斯拉学习条件,我们现在说(14节)的力量,筹集资金(vv. 15,16),征贡(vv. 21,22),任命法官和法官(25节),并执行处罚(第26)。As to chapter 8, the number of male adults accompanying Ezra was but 1,754, but there should be added women, children and servants, making perhaps three or four times that number.至于第8章的陪同以斯拉但成年男性人数为1754,但应增加妇女,儿童和仆人,使三四次也许这个数字。Attention is called to verses 21 and 23.要注意的是所谓的21和23节。The danger of such caravans from the marauding Arabs was so great as to make a military escort necessary.从阿拉伯人的掠夺等大篷车危险是如此之大,以使军事护送必要的。But Ezra's sensitive regard for God's honor before the heathen would not permit his asking for one.但以斯拉对神的异教徒荣誉面前敏感方面将不允许他的一个要求。It was a strong test of faith to which he and his companions were equal, and which God honored.这是一个强烈的信念考验,他和他的同伴都是平等的,和神荣幸。May the principle of its lesson not to be lost upon the reader.5月的教训后,原则不被读者丢失。

Internal Conditions and How They Were Changed内部条件,以及他们如何被改变

cc.CC。9, 10 This moral corruption (9:1, 2) is not inconceivable to those who know their own hearts and the nature of sin, but its effect on Ezra was what might have been expected under the circumstances (v. 3).9,10这种道德腐败(9:1,2)不想像那些谁知道自己的心灵和罪恶的性质,但其对以斯拉的影响可能是什么的情况下预期(3节)。 His outward signs of grief were oriental.悲痛的他向外体征东方。There is contagion in such grief which communicates itself to others animated by a like spirit (v. 4).还有就是在这样悲伤蔓延的通信本身由一个像精神(4节)动画等。It is thus a revival spreads.因此,这是复苏价差。One soul is awakened, and he awakens another.一个灵魂被唤醒了,他唤醒另一个。And if he be a pastor or leader of the Lord's hosts, like Ezra, the people gather round him, and results follow (9:4; 10:1-44.)如果他是一个牧师或主的主机像以斯拉,领导者,人们聚集在他周围,结果如下(9时04分; 10:1-44)

Study the prayer carefully (vv. 5-15).仔细研究的祈祷(vv. 5-15)。The suppliant's attitude (v. 5), his sense of shame (v. 6), his unqualified confession (v. 7), his gratitude (vv. 8, 9), his deep conviction of sin (vv. 10-14), and his dependency only on divine mercy (v. 15).该suppliant的态度(5节),他的羞耻感(6节),他供认不合格(7节),他的感激之情(vv. 8,9),他的罪定罪深(vv. 10-14) ,他只在神恩的依赖(15节)。Observe how God answered the prayer by graciously working on the people's hearts, the leaders first, and then the people generally.观察神如何回答了宽宏大量的人的心,领导人的第一次,然后在一般人的工作祷告。Shecanaiah (10:2), was a brave man in the attitude he took, for while his name does not appear in the subsequent list of offenders, yet those of his near relatives do (v. 26). Shecanaiah(10:2),是在他的态度发生了,而他的名字没有出现在随后的罪犯名单,勇敢的人,但他的近亲属的活动(26节)。

Note the phrase (v. 2): "There is hope in Israel concerning this thing."请注意短语(2节):“以色列希望有关于这件事情”Hope only, however, along the line of thorough repentance.只希望,然而,沿彻底悔改线。Here is a text and subject-matter for a revival sermon.这里是一个文本,一个复兴布道题材。Note the radical step taken by the leaders (v. 6-8), and its prompt result (v. 9).注意激进一步的领导人(五6-8),其结果提示(9节)采取行动。Also the judicious method of procedure as necessitated by the circumstances (vv. 10-17).也是明智的方法,程序必要的情况下(vv. 10-17)。This justifies the belief that provision was made for the unlawful wives and children that were put away.这证明了该条款是为不合法的妻子和孩子都收起了信念。

Questions 1.问题 1。Have you familiarized yourself with the Persian kings of this period?你熟悉了这一时期的波斯国王自己吗?2.2。Who was Ezra?以斯拉是谁?3.3。What is a "scribe"?什么是“隶”?4.4。How many were in Ezra's company of returning exiles?有多少人在以斯拉的流亡者返回公司?5.5。How was their strong faith shown?如何证明是他们的坚定信念?6.6。What illustration of the progress of a revival is found in this lesson?什么样的一个复兴的进展说明中发现这一课?7.7。What feature of Ezra's prayer most impresses you?什么样的以斯拉的祷告功能最令人印象深刻吗?


Esdras (Or EZRA.)埃斯德拉斯(或以斯拉)。

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. ESDRAS THE MAN一,埃斯德拉斯MAN

Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's restoration after the Exile.埃斯德拉斯是著名的牧师和文士与以色列恢复连接后,流亡国外。The chief sources of information touching his life are the canonical books of Esdras and Nehemias.他的感人生活信息的主要来源是埃斯德拉斯和Nehemias规范的书籍。A group of apocryphal writings is also much concerned with him, but they can hardly be relied upon, as they relate rather the legendary tales of a later age.一组未经证实的著作也多与他有关,但他们难以依靠,因为这涉及而是一个时代的传奇故事以后。Esdras was of priestly descent and belonged to the line of Sardoc (Ezra 7:1-5).埃斯德拉斯是祭司的后裔,属于对Sardoc(拉7:1-5)线。He styles himself "son of Saraias" (vii, 1), an expression which is by many understood in a broad sense, as purporting that Saraias, the chief priest, spoken of in 2 Kings 25:18-21, was one of Esdras's ancestors.他自己的风格“儿子Saraias”(七,1),一个表达式在广泛的意义上理解很多是声称这Saraias,首席牧师,在2国王25:18-21讲的,是埃斯德拉斯的之一,祖先。 Nevertheless he is known rather as "the scribe" than as "priest": he was "a ready scribe [a scribe skilled] in the law of Moses", and therefore especially qualified for the task to which he was destined among his people.但他也知道,而作为比作为“祭司”,“文士”:他是“一个现成隶[抄写员熟练]在摩西的法律”,因此,特别是对哪个人,他是在他注定任务的资格。

The chronological relation of Esdras's work with that of Nehemias is, among the questions connected with the history of the Jewish Restoration, one of the most mooted.该埃斯德拉斯的工作与内赫米亚斯的时间顺序关系,其中与犹太恢复历史上最酝酿一个连接的问题。Many Biblical scholars still cling to the view suggested by the traditional order of the sacred text (due allowance being made for the break in the narrative -- Ezra 4:6-23), and place the mission of Esdras before that of Nehemias.许多圣经学者仍坚持由传统秩序的神圣文本(由于津贴正在为在叙事打破了 - 以斯拉记4:6-23)提出的意见,并将其放置在埃斯德拉斯前内赫米亚斯这一使命。Others, among whom we may mention Professor Van Hoonacker of Louvain, Dr. TK Cheyne in England, and Professor CF Kent in America, to do away with the numberless difficulties arising from the interpretation of the main sources of this history, maintain that Nehemias's mission preceded that of Esdras.其他人,其中教授,我们可能提凡Hoonacker鲁汶,传统知识进益博士在英国,CF肯特教授在美国,要做到与从这段历史的主要来源的解​​释所引起的无数困难而去,认为内赫米亚斯的使命前面的埃斯德拉斯的。 The former view holds that Esdras came to Jerusalem about 458 BC, and Nehemias first in 444 and the second time about 430 BC; whereas, according to the opposite opinion, Esdras's mission might have taken place as late as 397 BC However this may be, since we are here only concerned with Esdras, we will limit ourselves to summarizing the principal features of his life and work, without regard to the problems involved, which it suffices to have mentioned.前一种观点认为,埃斯德拉斯来到约458年耶路撒冷,和Nehemias在444第一次和关于公元前430年第二次,而,根据相反的意见,埃斯德拉斯的使命有可能作为后期发生的397 BC但是这可能是,因为我们在这里只埃斯德拉斯方面,我们会限制自己,总结了他的生活和工作的主要特点,不考虑所涉及的问题,它足以解决问题。

Many years had elapsed after permission had been given to the Jews to return to Palestine; amidst difficulties and obstacles the restored community had settled down again in their ancient home and built a new temple; but their condition, both from the political and the religious point of view, was most precarious: they chafed under the oppression of the Persian satraps and had grown indifferent and unobservant of the Law.许多年过去了已获得许可后,向犹太人返回巴勒斯坦;之中的困难和障碍的恢复社会已落户的古家再建新庙,但他们的情况,无论从政治和宗教问题看,是最危险的:他们擦伤下的波斯satraps压迫并成长漠不关心和法律眛。 From Babylon, where this state of affairs was well known, Esdras longed to go to Jerusalem and use his authority as a priest and interpreter of the Law to restore things to a better condition.从巴比伦,在这种状况是众所周知的,埃斯德拉斯渴望前往耶路撒冷,并以此作为一个牧师和法律的事情,恢复到一个更好的条件解释他的权威。 He was in favour at the court of the Persian king; he not only obtained permission to visit Judea, but a royal edict clothing him with ample authority to carry out his purpose, and ample support from the royal treasury.他赞成在波斯国王法庭,他不但获准参观朱迪亚,但皇家法令服装有充分的权力来进行他的目的,从王室国库充裕的支持他。 The rescript, moreover, ordered the satraps "beyond the river" to assist Esdras liberally and enacted that all Jewish temple officials should be exempt from toll, tribute, or custom.该诏书,而且下令“在水一方”的satraps协助埃斯德拉斯宽松和制定所有犹太圣殿官员应该从收费,进贡,或自豁免。 "And thou, Esdras, appoint judges and magistrates, that they may judge all the people, that is beyond the river" (Ezra 7:25).“而你,埃斯德拉斯,任命法官和法官,他们可以判断所有的人,超出了河流”(以斯拉7:25)。Finally, the Law of God and the law of the king were alike to be enforced by severe penalties.最后,神和王律师法都受到了严厉的处罚执行。The edict left all Jews who felt so inclined free to go back to their own country.该法令的所有犹太人离开谁觉得很倾向于自由地返回自己的国家。Some 1800 men, including a certain number of priests, Levites, and Nathinites, started with Esdras from Babylon, and after five months the company safely reached Jerusalem.约1800人,包括祭司,利未人,和Nathinites一定数量,开始与埃斯德拉斯从巴比伦,经过五个月的公司安全地到达耶路撒冷。 Long-neglected abuses had taken root in the sacred city.长期被忽视的弊端已采取在神圣的城市的根。These Esdras set himself vigorously to correct, after the silver and gold he had carried from Babylon were brought into the Temple and sacrifices offered.这些埃斯德拉斯设置自己大力纠正后,银和金,他从巴比伦进行被带进寺庙和牺牲所提供。The first task which confronted him was that of dealing with mixed marriages.面临的第一个任务,他是与异族通婚的处理。Regardless of the Law of Moses, many, even the leading Jews and priests, had intermarried with the idolatrous inhabitants of the country.无论摩西法很多,甚至导致犹太人和牧师,曾通婚与国家的盲目崇拜的居民。 Horror-stricken by the discovery of this abuse -- the extent of which was very likely unknown heretofore to Esdras -- he gave utterance to his feelings in a prayer which made such an impression upon the people that Sechenias, in their names, proposed that the Israelites should put away their foreign wives and the children born of them.恐怖灾区由这种滥用的发现 - 其程度很可能是迄今未知的,以埃斯德拉斯 - 他给这使得在祈祷后,人们这样一个印象,以为Sechenias,在他们的名字,表达对他提出的感情,以色列人应该收起他们的外国妻子及他们所生的子女。 Esdras seized his opportunity, and exacted from the congregation an oath that they would comply with this proposition.埃斯德拉斯抓住他的机会,从众付出宣誓,他们将遵守这一命题。A general assembly of the people was called by the princes and the ancients; but the business could not be transacted easily at such a meeting and a special commission, with Esdras at its head, was appointed to take the matter in hand.一个人民大会是由所谓的王子和古人,但企业不能轻易交易在这样一个会议,一个特别委员会,在其头部埃斯德拉斯,被任命为拿在手上的事。 For three full months this commission held its sessions; at the end of that time the "strange wives" were dismissed.对于三全个月委员会举行了会议,在该时间结束的“怪妻子”被驳回。

What was the outcome of this drastic measure we are not told; Esdras's memoirs are interrupted here.什么是这个釜底抽薪的结果,我们没有告诉;埃斯德拉斯的回忆录被中断了。Nor do we know whether, his task accomplished, he returned to Babylon or remained in Jerusalem.我们也不知道,他的任务完成了,他回到了巴比伦或在耶路撒冷仍然存在。At any rate we find him again in the latter city at the reading of the Law which took place after the rebuilding of the walls.无论如何,我们发现,在后者的城市他再次在该法历时后的墙壁重建地方阅读。No doubt this event had rekindled the enthusiasm of the people; and to comply with the popular demand, Esdras brought the Book of the Law.毫无疑问,这个事件已经重新点燃了人们的积极性,并以符合大众需求,埃斯德拉斯带来了法律书籍。 On the first day of the seventh month (Tishri), a great meeting was held "in the street that was before the watergate", for the purpose of reading the Law.在第七个月(提斯利)的第一天,一个伟大的会议召开的“在街上,以前在水门事件是”,为读法律的目的。Standing on a platform, Esdras read the book aloud "from the morning until midday".在一个平台上站立,埃斯德拉斯大声读的书“从早晨到中午”。At hearing the words of the Law, which they had so much transgressed, the congregation broke forth into lamentations unsuited to the holiness of the day; Nehemias therefore adjourned the assembly.在听取了法,他们有那么多逾越的话,会众提出分手到不适应的一天圣洁悲叹;内赫米亚斯因此押后大会。The reading was resumed on the next day by Esdras, and they found in the Law the directions concerning the feast of the Tabernacles.该指数是通过恢复埃斯德拉斯第二天,他们在法律中找到方向有关的住棚节盛宴。Thereupon steps were at once taken for the due celebration of this feast, which was to last seven days, from the fifteenth to the twenty-second day of Tishri.于是立即采取步骤,为庆祝这个节日因,这是过去七天,从第十五到提斯利第二十二天。Esdras continued the public reading of the Law every day of the feast; and two days after its close a strict fast was held, and "they stood, and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers" (Nehemiah 9:2).埃斯德拉斯延续了公众对法律的阅读每一个节日,两天后,关闭了严格的快速隆重举行,“他们站着,并承认他们的罪,以及他们的父亲的罪孽”(尼希米记9:2)。 There was a good opportunity to renew solemnly the covenant between the people and God.有一个很好的机会再次郑重地之间的人与神立约。This covenant pledged the community to the observance of the Law, the abstention from intermarriage with heathens, the careful keeping of the Sabbath and of the feasts, and to various regulations agreed to for the care of the Temple, its services, and the payment of the tithes.这个公约承诺的社会对法律的遵守,从与异教徒通婚弃权票,对安息日小心保管和的节日,并商定了各项规章制度的庙宇照顾,它的服务,以及支付什一税。 It was formally recited by the princes, the Levites, and the priests, and signed by Nehemias and chosen representatives of the priests, the Levites, and the people (strange as it may appear, Esdras's name is not to be found in the list of the subscribers -- Nehemiah 10:1-27).这是正式背诵的诸侯,利未人,祭司,和内赫米亚斯和祭司,利未人,和人(奇怪,因为它可能会出现选择的代表签署,埃斯德拉斯的名字是不是要在列表中找到订户 - 尼希米记10:1-27)。Henceforth no mention whatever is made of Esdras in the canonical literature.今后没有什么是埃斯德拉斯在规范文学提及。He is not spoken of in connection with the second mission of Nehemias to Jerusalem, and this has led many to suppose that he was dead at the time.他不是说在同内赫米亚斯第二次访问耶路撒冷连接,这导致许多的假设,他当时死了。In fact both the time and place of his death are unknown, although there is on the banks of the Tigris, near the place where this river joins the Euphrates, a monument purporting to be Esdras's tomb, and which, for centuries, has been a place of pilgrimage for the Jews.其实无论是时间和他的死亡地点是未知的,虽然有对底格里斯河银行附近的地方,这条河连接的幼发拉底河,纪念碑看来是埃斯德拉斯的坟墓,其中,几个世纪以来,一直是地点为犹太人朝圣。

Esdras's role in the restoration of the Jews after the exile left a lasting impression upon the minds of the people.埃斯德拉斯在犹太人的流亡后恢复的作用后留下的人的头脑中留下深刻印象。This is due mostly to the fact that henceforth Jewish life was shaped on the lines laid down by him, and in a way from which, in the main, it never departed.这是因为,今后主要的犹太人的生活是他所塑造的规定下来的线,并从其中的方式,在主,它永远不会离去的事实。There is probably a great deal of truth in the tradition which attributes to him the organization of the synagogues and the determination of the books hallowed as canonical among the Jews.有可能是真理,在传统的属性,以他的组织和犹太教堂的书籍作为典型的犹太人神圣的决心很大。Esdras's activity seems to have extended still further.埃斯德拉斯的活动似乎也进一步扩大。He is credited by the Talmud with having compiled "his own book" (that is to say Esd.-Nehem.), "and the genealogies of the book of Chronicles as far as himself" (Treat. "Baba bathra", 15a).他相信在塔木德与有编制的“他自己的书”(即Esd. - Nehem),“和编年史书的族谱,据他自己”(Treat.“巴巴bathra”,15A) 。Modern scholars, however, differ widely as to the extent of his literary work: some regard him as the last editor of the Hexateuch, whereas, on the other hand, his part in the composition of Esdras-Nehemias and Paralipomenon is doubted.现代学者,然而,大相径庭,以他的文学作品的程度:有的作为最后的编辑方面的Hexateuch他,但,另一方面,他在埃斯德拉斯-内赫米亚斯和Paralipomenon组成部分,是毋庸置疑的。 At any rate, it is certain that he had nothing to do with the composition of the so-called Third and Fourth books of Esdras.无论如何,可以肯定的是,他没有任何关系的所谓的第三和第四埃斯德拉斯书籍组成。As is the case with many men who played an important part at momentous epochs in history, in the course of time Esdras's personality and activity assumed, in the minds of the people, gigantic proportions; legend blended with history and supplied the scantiness of information concerning his life; he was looked upon as a second Moses to whom were attributed all institutions which could not possibly be ascribed to the former.由于是与谁发挥在历史的重大时代的重要组成部分许多男人而言,在时间埃斯德拉斯的个性和活动过程假设,在人民群众,巨大比例的头脑;传说与历史融合和提供的信息scantiness有关他的一生,他被看作第二个摩西是由于所有的人不可能归因于前者机构。 According to Jewish traditions, he restored from memory -- an achievement little short of miraculous -- all the books of the Old Testament, which were believed to have perished during the Exile; he likewise replaced, in the copying of Holy Writ, the old Phoenician writing by the alphabet still in use.根据犹太人的传统,从他恢复记忆 - 成就小的奇迹 - 所有的旧约,这被认为有流亡期间死亡的书籍,他也取代,在圣经复制,老腓尼基书面仍在使用字母。Until the Middle Ages, and even the Renaissance, the crop of legendary achievements attributed to him grew up; it was then that Esdras was hailed as the organizer of the famous Great Synagogue -- the very existence of which seems to be a myth -- and the inventor of the Hebrew vocal signs.直到中世纪,甚至文艺复兴时期,作物的传奇成就归因于他成长起来的,它在那时,埃斯德拉斯作为著名的大犹太教堂组织者誉为 - 非常存在,这似乎是一个神话 - 和希伯来文声乐标志的发明者。

II. II。THE BOOKS OF ESDRAS的书埃斯德拉斯

Not a little confusion arises from the titles of these books.没有一点混乱来自这些书籍的标题。 Esdras A of the Septuagint is III Esdras of St. Jerome, whereas the Greek Esdras B corresponds to I and II Esdras of the Vulgate, which were originally united into one book.埃斯德拉斯的septuagint A是第三圣杰罗姆埃斯德拉斯,而希腊埃斯德拉斯B对应到I和II埃斯德拉斯的武加大,这原本是为一个统一的书。Protestant writers, after the Geneva Bible, call I and II Esdras of the Vulgate respectively Ezra and Nehemiah, and III and IV Esdras of the Vulgate respectively I and II Esdras.新教作家,在日内瓦圣经,叫我和第二埃斯德拉斯的武加大以斯拉和尼希米分别,以及第三和第四埃斯德拉斯的武加大,分别第一和第二埃斯德拉斯。 It would be desirable to have uniformity of titles.这将是可取的有职称的均匀性。We shall follow here the terminology of St. Jerome.在这里,我们应当遵循的圣杰罗姆术语。

I Esdras我埃斯德拉斯

(Gr. Esdras B, first part; AV Ezra).(希腊语埃斯德拉斯,第一部分B; AV以斯拉)。As remarked above, this book formed in the Jewish canon, together with II Esdras, a single volume.正如上面所说,在犹太佳能形成了这本书,连同第二埃斯德拉斯,一个卷。But Christian writers of the fourth century adopted the custom -- the origin of which is not easy to assign -- of considering them as two distinct works.但第四世纪基督教作家通过自定义 - 考虑它们作为两个不同的作品 - 它的起源是不容易分配。This custom prevailed to such an extent that it found its way even into the Hebrew Bible, where it has remained in use.这种风俗到这样的程度,才发现连成希伯来文圣经,它仍然在使用它的方式。 On the other hand, the many and close resemblances undeniably existing between Esd.-Neh.在另一方面,许多相似之处无可否认,并关闭现有之间Esd.,尼。and Par., and usually accounted for by unity of authorship, have suggested that possibly all these books formed, in the beginning, one single volume, for which the title of "Ecclesiastical Chronicle of Jerusalem" has been proposed as fairly expressing its contents.和参数,通常占了统一的作者,有建议,有可能所有这些书组成,在开始的时候,一个单一的量,对于其中的“耶路撒冷教会纪事报”的标题已经是相当表达的内容提出的。 Should these books be regarded as independent, or as parts of a larger work?如果这些书籍被视为独立,或作为一个更大的部分工作?There is little discussion as to the union of I and II Esdras, which may well be considered as a single book.有作为的第一和第二埃斯德拉斯,这可能是作为一个单一的书认为工会很少讨论。As to the opinion holding Esd.-Neh.至于舆论控股Esd.,尼。and Par.和Par。to be only one work, although it seems gaining ground among Biblical students, yet it is still strongly opposed by many who deem its arguments unable to outweigh the evidence in the opposite direction.对只有一个工作,虽然表面之间的圣经学生获得地面,但它仍然是许多强烈反对谁认为它的参数不能大于相反方向的证据。 We should not expect to find in I Esdras, any more than in II Esdras, a complete account of the events connected with the Restoration, even a complete record of the lives of Esdras and Nehemias.我们不应该期望找到在我埃斯德拉斯,任何比第二埃斯德拉斯,一个与恢复有关的活动,甚至对埃斯德拉斯和Nehemias的生命更完整的记录完整的叙述。 The reason for this lies in the author's purpose of simply narrating the principal steps taken in the re-establishment of the theocracy in Jerusalem.其原因在于作者的简单叙述在耶路撒冷的神权政治重建所采取的主要步骤的目的。Thus, in two parallel parts, our book deals因此,在两个平行的部分,我们的书交易

with the return of the Jews under the leadership of Zorobabel;与犹太人的领导下,Zorobabel回报;

with the return of another band commanded by Esdras.与另一乐队指挥埃斯德拉斯回报。

In the former, with the decree of Cyrus (i, 1-4) and the enumeration of the most prominent members of the caravan (ii), we read a detailed account of the rebuilding of the Temple and its successful completion, in spite of bitter opposition (iii-iv).在与居鲁士法令(I,1-4)和商队(二)最突出的成员枚举前,我们读了该庙和其成功完成重建的详细说明,尽管激烈反对(III - IV)。The events therein contained cover twenty-one years (536-515).其中包含的事件包括21年(536-515)。The latter part deals with facts belonging to a much later date (458 or 397).与属于更晚的日期(458或397)事实后期处理。Opening with the decree of Artaxerxes (vii) and the census of the members of the party, it briefly relates the journey across the desert (viii), and gives all the facts connected with the enforcement of the law concerning marriages with foreign women (ix-x).随着亚达薛西(七)法令和党的成员普查开幕,它简要地涉及穿越沙漠(八)行程,并提供所有与执法有关的事实方面与外国妇女结婚(九- X)。

I Esd.我ESD。is a compilation the various parts of which differ in nature, in origin, and even in language.这是一个编制的各个部分的不同性质,在原产地,甚至语言。At least three of the parts may be recognized:至少有可能三部分予以确认:

the personal memoirs of Esdras (vii, 27-ix, 15);的埃斯德拉斯(七,27九,15)个人回忆录;

lists very likely taken from public documents (ii, 1-70; vii, 1-5);名单很可能采取从公开文件(二,1-70;七,1-5);

Aramaic writings (iv, 7-vi, 18; vii, 12-26), supposed with some probability to be a portion of "a more comprehensive history of the restored community" (Stade).阿拉姆著作(四,7 - VI,18;七,12月26日),具有一定的概率应该是一种“还原一个更全面的社会史”(体育场)的一部分。

These the compiler put together into the present shape, adding, of course, now and then some remarks of his own, or some facts borrowed from sources otherwise unknown to us.这些编译器拼凑成现在的形状,添加,当然,现在再有他自己的言论,或从其他来源不明我们借用一些事实。This compilatory character does not, as some might believe, lessen in any way the high historical value of the work.这种编纂的性格并不像有些人可能认为,以任何方式减少的工作具有很高的历史价值。True, the compiler was very likely not endowed with a keen sense of criticism, and he has indiscriminatingly transcribed side by side all his sources "as if all were alike trustworthy" (LW Batten); but we should not forget that he has preserved for us pages of the highest value; even those that might be deemed of inferior trustworthiness are the only documents available with which to reconstruct the history of those times; and the compiler, even from the standpoint of modern scientific research, could hardly do anything more praiseworthy than place within our reach, as he did, the sources of information at his disposal.诚然,编译器很可能不赋予了敏锐的批判意识,他indiscriminatingly转录并排所有他的消息来源方“,仿佛一切都值得信赖的人”(LW支架),但我们不应该忘记,他已经保存了我们网页的最高值;甚至那些可能是劣质守信视为是唯一可用的文件,用以重建那些时代的历史,以及编译器,即使从现代科学的研究的角度来看,很难做任何事情更值得称道比在我们到达的地方,像他那样,在他掌握的信息来源。 The composition of the work has long been attributed without discussion to Esdras himself.这项工作的组成一直归咎于自己没有讨论埃斯德拉斯。This view, taught by the Talmud, and still admitted by scholars of good standing, is, however, abandoned by several modern Biblical students, who, although their opinions are widely at variance on the question of the date, fairly agree, nevertheless, that the book is later than 330 BC该观点认为,由犹太法典教导,仍然承认由良好声誉的学者,但是,几个现代圣经的学生,谁,但他们的意见有出入上广泛的日期问题,相当同意,但放弃了,那书晚于公元前330年

II Esdras二埃斯德拉斯

See the Book of Nehemiah.见尼希米书。

III Esdras第三埃斯德拉斯

(Gr. Esdras A; Protestant writers, I Esdras) Although not belonging to the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures, this book is usually found, ne prorsus intereat, in an appendix to the editions of the Vulgate. (希腊语埃斯德拉斯A;新教作家,我埃斯德拉斯)虽然不属于神圣的圣经佳能,这本书通常发现,NE prorsus intereat中的武加大的版本附录。It is made up almost entirely from materials existing in canonical books.它是由几乎全部来自于现有材料典型的书籍。The following scheme will show sufficiently the contents and point out the canonical parallels:下面的计划将充分展示的内容,并指出规范的相似之处:

III Esdras, i and II Par., xxxv, xxxvi -- History of the Kingdom of Juda from the great Passover of Josias to the Captivity.第三埃斯德拉斯,我和二杆,三十五,三十六 - 的犹大王国​​从Josias巨大逾越节到圈养的历史。

III Esdras, ii, 1-15 (Greek text, 14) and I Esdras, i -- Cyrus's decree.第三埃斯德拉斯,二,1-15(希腊文,14)和我埃斯德拉斯,我 - 赛勒斯的法令。Return of Sassabasar.返回的Sassabasar。

III Esdras, ii, 16 (Gr. 15)-31 (Gr. 25) and I Esdras, iv, 6-24 -- Opposition to the rebuilding of the Temple.第三埃斯德拉斯,二,16(希腊语15)-31(希腊语25)和我埃斯德拉斯,四,6-24 - 反对圣殿的重建工作。

III Esdras, iii, 1-v, 6 -- Original portion.第三埃斯德拉斯,三,1 - V,6 - 原始的部分。Story of the three pages.故事的三页。Return of Zorobabel.返回的Zorobabel。

III Esdras, v, 7-46 (Gr. 45) and I Esdras, ii -- List of those returning with Zorobabel.第三埃斯德拉斯,V,7-46(希腊语45)和我埃斯德拉斯,II - 与Zorobabel返回的列表。

III Esdras, v, 47 (Gr. 46)-73 (Gr. 70) and I Esdras, iii, 1-iv, 5 -- Altar of holocausts.第三埃斯德拉斯,V,47(希腊语46)-73(希腊语70)和我埃斯德拉斯,三,1 - IV,5 - 坛的大屠杀。Foundation of the Temple laid.圣殿的基础奠定。Opposition.反对党。

III Esdras, vi, vii and I Esdras, v, vi -- Completion of the Temple.第三埃斯德拉斯,六,七,我埃斯德拉斯,五,六 - 圣殿的完成。

III Esdras, viii, 1-ix, 36 and I Esdras, vii-x -- Return of Esdras.第三埃斯德拉斯,八,1至第九,36和我埃斯德拉斯,VII - X - 埃斯德拉斯返回。

III Esdras, ix, 37-56 (Gr. 55) and II Esdras, vii, 73-viii, 12 -- Reading of the Law by Esdras.第三埃斯德拉斯,九,37-56(希腊语55)和第二埃斯德拉斯,七,73八,12 - 读法律的埃斯德拉斯。

The book is incomplete, and breaks off in the middle of a sentence.这本书是不完整的,并打破在一个句子中间了。True, the Latin version completes the broken phrase of the Greek; but the book in its entirety probably contained also the narrative of the feast of Tabernacles (Nehemiah 8).诚然,拉丁美洲版本完成了希腊断语,但在其全部的书也可能包含的住棚节(尼希米记8)叙述。A very strange feature in the work is its absolute disregard of chronological order; the history, indeed, runs directly backwards, mentioning first Artaxerxes (ii, 16-31), then Darius (iii-v, 6), finally Cyrus (v, 7-73).工作中的一个非常奇怪的特点是它的时间顺序绝对漠视的历史,确实,直接运行向后,提的第一个亚达薛西(二,16-31),然后大流士(III - V,6),最后赛勒斯(V, 7-73)。All this makes it difficult to detect the real object of the book and the purpose of the compiler.这一切使得它难以察觉的书和编译器的目的,真正的对象。It has been suggested that we possess here a history of the Temple from the time of Josias down to Nehemias, and this view is well supported by the subscription of the old Latin version.有人建议,我们在这里拥有从Josias到内赫米亚斯时间的庙的历史,这种观点是深受旧拉丁美洲版本的订阅支持。 Others suppose that, in the main, the book is rather an early translation of the chronicler's work, made at a time when Par., Esdras, and Neh.其他假设,在主,书是一个相当的编年史的早期翻译工作,在标准杆时所作。,埃斯德拉斯和尼。still formed one continuous volume.还形成了一个连续的量。Be this as it may, there seems to have been, up to St. Jerome, some hesitation with regard to the reception of the book into the Canon; it was freely quoted by the early Fathers, and included in Origen's "Hexapla".是这样的,因为它可能,似乎已高达圣杰罗姆,一些关于佳能书进入接待犹豫,它是自由引用由早期教父,和奥利的“Hexapla”包括在内。 This might be accounted for by the fact that III Esd.这可能是占的是,三ESD。may be considered as another recension of canonical Scriptures.可视为另一种典型圣经校订。Unquestionably our book cannot claim to be Esdras's work.毫无疑问我们的书就不能说是埃斯德拉斯的工作。From certain particulars, such as the close resemblance of the Greek with that of the translation of Daniel, some details of vocabulary,etc., scholars are led to believe that III Esd.从一些资料如与丹尼尔的翻译,词汇的一些细节,等等,希腊密切相似,学者们认为,导致第三ESD。was compiled, probably in Lower Egypt, during the second century BC Of the author nothing can be said except, perhaps, that the above-noted resemblance of style to Dan.编译,可能在下埃及期间,笔者没有公元前二世纪,可除,也许,这表示,风格上面提到的相似丹。might incline one to conclude that both works are possibly from the same hand.可能倾向于一个结论,这两个作品都是从同一只手可能。

IV Esdras四埃斯德拉斯

Such is the title of the book in most Latin manuscripts; the (Protestant) English apocrypha, however, give it as II Esdras, from the opening words: "The second book of the prophet Esdras".这就是本书在大多数拉美手稿称号;(新教)英文伪经,然而,给它作为第二埃斯德拉斯,从开业的话:“先知埃斯德拉斯第二书”。 Modern authors often call it the Apocalypse of Esdras.现代作家往往把它称为埃斯德拉斯启示。This remarkable work has not been preserved in the original Greek text; but we possess translations of it in Latin, Syriac, Arabic (two independent versions), Ethiopian, and Armenian.这个了不起的工作还没有被保存在原来的希腊文,但我们拥有在拉丁美洲,叙利亚文,阿拉伯文(两个独立的版本),埃塞俄比亚,亚美尼亚和它的翻译。 The Latin text is usually printed in the appendix to the editions of the Vulgate; but these editions miss seventy verses between vii, 35, and vii, 36.拉丁文字通常是印在以武加大附录的版本,但这些版本之间的七小姐,35,七,36 seventy诗句。The missing fragment, which was read in the other versions, was discovered in a Latin manuscript by RL Bensly, in 1874, and has been since repeatedly printed.丢失的片段,这是在其他版本的阅读,发现在一个拉丁手稿由RL Bensly,于1874年,一直以来多次印刷。In the Latin the book is divided into sixteen chapters.在拉丁美洲的全书共分16章。The two opening (i, ii) and the two concluding (xv, xvi) chapters, however, which are not to be found in the Eastern translations, are unhesitatingly regarded by all as later additions, foreign to the primitive work.两个开幕式(I,II)和两个结论(十五,十六)的章节,然而,这是不被发现在东部的翻译,都是毫不犹豫地把所有的后来增加,国外对原始的工作。

The body of the Fourth Book, the unity of which appears to be unquestionable, is made up of seven visions which Esdras is supposed to have seen at Babylon, the thirtieth year after the destruction of Jerusalem (the date given is wrong by about a century).而第四册,其中的团结似乎是毋庸置疑的,身体是由七家埃斯德拉斯应该有在巴比伦,后销毁耶路撒冷三十一年(日期定是约一个世纪出现错误看法)。

In the first vision (iii, 1-v, 20), Esdras is lamenting over the affliction of his people.在第一视觉(三,1 - V,20),埃斯德拉斯是感叹过他的人痛苦。Why does not God fulfil his promises?上帝为什么不履行他的诺言?Is not Israel the elect nation, and better, despite her "evil heart", than her heathen neighbours?是不是以色列的选举的国家,更好,尽管她的“恶之心”比她的异教徒的邻居?The angel Uriel chides Esdras for inquiring into things beyond his understanding; the "prophet" is told that the time that is past exceeds the time to come, and the signs of the end are given him.天使乌利尔责骂进入超越他了解的东西询问埃斯德拉斯;的“先知”是告诉记者,过去的时间是超过了今后一个时期,并最终给他的迹象。

In another vision (v, 21-vi, 34), he learns, with new signs of the end, why God "doeth not all at once".在另一视觉(V,21 - VI,34),他获悉,同年底新的迹象,为什么神“行善不能一次全部”。

Then follows (vi, 35-ix, 25) a glowing picture of the Messianic age.然后如下(六,35九,25)对弥赛亚时代发光的图片。"My son" shall come in his glory, attended by those who did not taste death, Moses, Henoch, Elias, and Esdras himself; they shall reign 400 years, then "my son" and all the living shall die; after seven days of "the old silence", the Resurrection and the Judgment. “我的儿子”自他的荣耀,那些谁没有味道死亡,摩西,过敏,埃利亚斯和埃斯德拉斯本人出席,他们将统治400年,那么“我的儿子”,所有的生活会死;七天后对“老沉默”,复活和审判。

Next (ix, 26-x, 60) Esdras beholds, in the appearance of a woman mourning for her son who died on his wedding day, an apocalyptic description of the past and future of Jerusalem.下一步(九,26 - X,​​60)埃斯德拉斯beholds,在为她的儿子在他结婚的日子谁死了,一个过去和未来的启示说明哀悼耶路撒冷的女人出现。

This vision is followed by another (xi, 1-xii, 39) representing the Roman Empire, under the figure of an eagle, and by a third (xiii) describing the rise of the Messianic kingdom.这一构想之后是另一个(十一1至十二39),代表罗马帝国,下一个老鹰球的数字,并以三分之一(十三)描述的弥赛亚王国的崛起。

The last chapter (xiv) narrates how Esdras restored the twenty-four books of the Old Testament that were lost, and wrote seventy books of mysteries for the wise among the people.最后一章(十四)叙述如何埃斯德拉斯恢复了旧约24的丢失,并撰写书籍的奥秘seventy为民间智慧的书籍。

The Fourth Book of Esdras is reckoned among the most beautiful productions of Jewish literature.第四本书的埃斯德拉斯估计是犹太文学中最美丽的作品。Widely known in the early Christian ages and frequently quoted by the Fathers (especially St. Ambrose), it may be said to have framed the popular belief of the Middle Ages concerning the last things.众所周知,在早期基督教时代,经常由父亲(特别是圣刘汉铨)引用,它可以说是有框架的有关过去的事情了中世纪的民间信仰。 The liturgical use shows its popularity.礼仪使用表明其受欢迎程度。The second chapter has furnished the verse Requiem æternam to the Office of the Dead (24-25), the response Lux perpetua lucebit sanctis tuis of the Office of the Martyrs during Easter time (35), the introit Accipite jucunditatem for Whit-Tuesday (36-37), the words Modo coronantur of the Office of the Apostles (45); in like manner the verse Crastine die for Christmas eve, is borrowed from xvi, 53.第二章已布置在复活节的时间(35)的诗句安魂曲æternam到死(24-25),响应力士perpetua lucebit sanctis的烈士办公室tuis办公室,introit Accipite jucunditatem为圣灵降临节,星期二( 36-37),该字的使徒办公室(45)MODO coronantur,在喜欢的方式为圣诞节前夕诗句Crastine死了,是从十六,53借来的。 However beautiful and popular the book, its origin is shrouded in mystery.然而美丽和流行的书,它的起源是笼罩在神秘面纱。The introductory and concluding chapters, containing evident traces of Christianity, are assigned to the third century (about AD 201-268).介绍和总结的章节中,含有明显的基督教的痕迹,被分配到第三世纪(约公元201-268)。The main portion (iii-xiv) is undoubtedly the work of a Jew -- whether Roman, or Alexandrian, or Palestinian, no one can tell; as to its date, authors are mostly widely at variance, and all dates have been suggested, from 30 BC to AD 218; scholars, however, seem to rally more and more around the year AD 97.其主要部分(III - 14)无疑是一个犹太人的工作 - 无论是罗马,还是亚历山大,还是巴勒斯坦人,没有人可以告诉,至于它的日期,作者大多是广泛的差异,所有的日期已经提出,从公元前30年至公元218学者,但是,似乎更加团结和周围的公元97以上。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息查尔斯L Souvay书面。Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五,1909年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Book of Nehemiah尼希米记

Catholic Information天主教信息

Also called the second Book of Esdras (Ezra), is reckoned both in the Talmud and in the early Christian Church, at least until the time of Origen, as forming one single book with Esdras, and St. Jerome in his preface (ad Dominionem et Rogatianum), following the example of the Jews, still continues to treat it as making one with the Book of Esdras.也叫埃斯德拉斯(以斯拉)第二本书,估计是无论是在塔木德和早期基督教教会,至少直到奥利时间在他的序言中形成一个单一的预订埃斯德拉斯,和圣杰罗姆(广告Dominionem等Rogatianum),以下是犹太人的例子,仍继续视为正与埃斯德拉斯图书之一。 The union of the two in a single book doubtless has its origin in the fact that the documents of which the Books of Esdras and Nehemiah are composed, underwent compilation and redaction together at the hands probably, as most critics think, of the author of Paralipomenon about BC 300.这两个在一本书工会无疑已在事实,其中埃斯德拉斯和尼希米的书籍是由文件,进行编译和密文一起在手中可能,因为大多数评论家认为作者的Paralipomenon的,它的起源约公元前300。 The separation of the Book of Nehemiah from that of Esdras, preserved in our editions, may in its turn be justified by the consideration that the former relates in a distinct manner the work accomplished by Nehemiah, and is made up, at least in the great part, from the authentic memoirs of the principal figure.而在尼希米从保存在我们的版本埃斯德拉斯,那本书分离可能在其依次有道理的考虑,前者在一个独特的方式完成的工作由尼希米有关,而且是由至少在大,部分,从图中的真实主体回忆录。 The book comprises three sections:全书分三个部分:

Section I (Chapters 1-6);第一部分(第1-6章);

Section II (Chapters 7-13:3);第二节(章7-13:3);

Section III (Chapter 13:4 - Chapter 31).第三节(13:4章 - 第31章)。

Sections I and III will be treated first, and section II, which raises special literary problems, will be discussed at the end.第一节和第​​三节将被视为第一,第二节,这就产生特殊的文学问题,将在年底进行了讨论。

SECTION I: CHAPTERS 1-6第一部分:第1-6章

(1) comprises the account, written by Nehemiah himself, of the restoration of the walls of Jerusalem.(1)包括帐户,对耶路撒冷的城墙修复由尼希米自己写的。Already in the reign of Xerxes (BC 485-65), and especially during the first half of the reign of Artaxerxes I (BC 465-24), the Jews had attempted, but with only partial success, to rebuild the walls of their capital, a work, up to then, never sanctioned by the Persian kings (see Ezra 4:6-23).已经在薛西斯(公元前485-65)统治时期,尤其是在对我亚达薛西(公元前465-24)在位上半年,犹太人曾尝试,但只有部分成功,以重建其资本的墙壁,工作,到那时,从未被波斯国王批准(见以斯拉记4:6-23)。 In consequence of the edict of Artaxerxes, given in I Esd., iv, 18-22, the enemies of the Jews at Jerusalem forcibly stopped the work (ibid., 23) and pulled down a part of what had already been accomplished.在亚达薛西的诏书中给出,因此我ESD。,四,18-22,敌人的犹太人在耶路撒冷强行停止工作(同上,23)和拉下来的东西已经完成了一部分。

(2) With these events the beginning of the Book of Nehemiah is connected. (2)随着这些事件的尼希米书开始连接。Nehemiah, the son of Helchias, relates how, at the court of Artaxerxes at Susa where he fulfilled the office of the king's cup-bearer, he received the news of this calamity in the twentieth year of the king (Nehemiah 1), and how, thanks to his prudence, he succeeded in getting himself sent on a first mission to Jerusalem with full powers to rebuild the walls of the Jewish capital (Nehemiah 2:1-8).尼希米,对Helchias儿子,涉及如何,在亚达薛西在苏萨在那里他完成了国王杯旗手办公室法庭,他接受了国王(尼希米记1)第二十届年这一灾难的消息,以及如何,这要归功于他的谨慎,他成功地使自己的第一个任务全权重建耶路撒冷的犹太资本(尼希米记2:1-8)墙壁发送。 This first mission lasted twelve years (v, 14; xiii, 6); he had the title of Perah (v, 14; xii, 26) or Athersatha (viii, 9; x,1).这第一个任务持续了12年(V,14;十三,6);他有Perah称号(V,14;十二,26)或Athersatha(八,九,X,1)。 It had long been the opinion of most historians of Israel that the Artaxerxes of Nehemiah was certainly the first of that name, and that consequently the first mission of Nehemiah fell in the year BC 445.它长期以来一直是以色列的多数史学家认为,亚达薛西的尼希米肯定该名称的第一个,并且因此在第一次访问尼希米在公元前445年下降。 The Aramaic papyri of Elephantine, recently published by Sachau, put this date beyond the shadow of a doubt.阿拉姆的大象纸莎草纸,最近Sachau出版,把超出了怀疑的阴影这个日期。For in the letter which they wrote to Bahohim, Governor of Judea, in the seventeenth year of Darius II ( BC 408), the Jewish priests of Elephantine say that they have also made an application to the sons of Sanaballat at Samaria.对于在信中写道,他们的大流士二世(公元前408)第十七年Bahohim,犹太总督,对大象的犹太牧师说,他们也提出申请,在撒马利亚的Sanaballat儿子。 Now Sanaballat was a contemporary of Nehemiah, and the Artaxerxes of Nehemiah, therefore, was the predecessor, and not the successor, of Darius II.现在Sanaballat是当代的尼希米,尼希米和亚达薛西,因此,是前任,而不是继承大流士二世。

(3) On his arrival at Jerusalem, Nehemiah lost no time; he inspected the state of the walls, and then took measures and gave orders for taking the work in hand (ii, 9-18). (3)在他在耶路撒冷的到来,尼希米不失时机地,他考察了墙的状态,然后采取措施,并采取了在手的工作(二,9-18)的订单。Chapter iii, a document of the highest importance for determining the area of Jerusalem in the middle of the fifth century BC, contains a description of the work, carried out at all points at once under the direction of the zealous Jewish governor.第三章,一个是确定在公元前五世纪中叶,耶路撒冷地区最重要的文件,包含了对工作的描述,进行了所有的点下,热心的犹太总督的指示一次。 The high priest Eliasib is named first among the fellow workers of Nehemiah (iii, 1).大祭司Eliasib被命名为第一间尼希米(三,1)同工。To bring the undertaking to a successful termination the latter had to fight against all sorts of difficulties.为使承诺成功终止后者打击各种困难。

(4) First of all, the foreign element had great influence in Judea. (4)首先,外国元素曾在犹太很大的影响。The Jews who had returned from captivity almost a century before, had found the country partly occupied by people belonging to the neighbouring races, and being unable to organize themselves politically, had seen themselves reduced, little by little, to a humiliating position in their own land.该谁回来了,从囚禁将近一个世纪前的犹太人,发现部分由属于邻近的比赛,并无法在政治上组织起来的人占据了国家,看到自己的减少,一点一点,要在自己的屈辱地位土地。 And so, at the time of Nehemiah, we see certain foreigners taking an exceedingly arrogant attitude towards the Jewish governor and his work.因此,在尼希米的时候,我们看到正在向犹太省长和他的工作中具有极其傲慢的态度,某些外国人。 Sanaballat the Horonite, chief of the Samaritans (iv, 1, 2), Tobias the Ammonite, Gossem the Arabian, claim to exercise constant control over Jewish affairs, and try by all means in their power, by calumny (ii, 19), scoffs (iv, 1 ff), threats of violence (iv, 7 ff), and craft (vi, 1 ff), to hinder Nehemiah' work or ruin him. Sanaballat的Horonite,主要的撒马利亚人(四,1,2),托比亚斯的菊石,Gossem阿拉伯,要求行使对犹太事务恒定控制,并试图通过各种手段在他们的权力,诽谤(二,19),嘲笑(四,1 FF),以暴力相威胁(四,7 FF)和工艺(六,1 FF),阻碍尼希米的工作或毁了他。The reason of this was that the raising up again of the walls of Jerusalem was destined to bring about the overthrow of the moral domination, which for many years circumstances had secured for those foreigners.这个原因是提高了对耶路撒冷的城墙又是注定要带来的道德统治,这对于多年的情况下不得不为这些外国人担保推翻。

(5) The cause of the foreigners was upheld by a party of Jews, traitors to their own nation.(5)外国人的原因是坚持了一个犹太人,汉奸党自己的国家。The prophet Noadias and other false prophets sought to terrify Nehemiah (vi, 14); there were some who, like Samaia, allowed themselves to be hired by Tobias and Sanaballat to set snares for him (vi, 10-14).先知Noadias等假先知试图恐吓尼希米记(六,14);还有一些谁,像Samaia,让自己被托比亚斯和Sanaballat聘请为他网罗(六,10-14)。 Many Jews sided with Tobias on account of the matrimonial alliances existing between his family and certain Jewish families.许多犹太人站在托比亚斯对他的家庭之间和某些犹太家庭现有的婚姻联盟帐户。Nehemiah, however, does not speak of the mixed marriages as if they had been actually forbidden.尼希米记,但是,不说话的异族通婚,好像他们已经实际上被禁止的。The father-in-law of Tobias' son, Mosollam, the son of Barachias, on the contrary, was a fellow worker of Nehemiah (vi, 18; iii, 4).岳父岳母的托比亚斯的儿子,Mosollam,对Barachias儿子,相反,是一个尼希米记(六,18岁;三,四)工友。 The law of Deuteronomy only forbade marriages between Jews and Chanaanites (Deut. vii, 1, 3).申命记的法律只禁止犹太人和Chanaanites(申命记七,1,3)婚姻。

(6) Difficulties ofa social nature, the result of the selfish treatment of the poor by the rich, who misused the common distress for their own ends, likewise called for the energetic intervention of Nehemiah (v). (6)困难的社会性质,穷人的富人,谁滥用自己也为尼希米记(五)大力干预称为结束时,常见的困扰自私的治疗效果。On this occasion Nehemiah recalls the fact that previous governors had practised extortion, while he was the first to show himself disinterested in the discharge of his duties (v, 15 ff).在此之际尼希米回忆,以前的州长已实行敲诈,而他是第一个出现在他的职务(V,15 FF)自己无私的事实。

(7) In spite of all these difficulties the rebuilding of the wall made rapid progress. (7)在所有这些困难,但是墙的重建取得了突飞猛进的进展。We learn from vii, 15 that the work was completely finished within fifty-one days.我们从七,15,这项工作是完全在51天完成。 Josephus (Ant., V, 7, 8) says that it lasted two years and four months, but his testimony, often far from reliable, presents no plausible reason for setting aside the text.约瑟夫(Ant.,V,7,8)表示,它历时两年零四个月,但他的证词,经常远离可靠的,这一点没有设置预留文字似是而非的理由。 The relatively short duration of the work is explained, when we consider that Nehemiah had only to repair the damage wrought after the prohibition of Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:23), and finish off the construction, which might at that moment have been already far advanced [see above (1)].这项工作的持续时间相对较短的解释,当我们认为尼希米只有修复后,亚达薛西(以斯拉4:23)禁止所造成的损害,并完成施工,可能在那一刻已经已经远远先进[见上述(1)]。

SECTION III: CHAPTER 13:4 TO CHAPTER 31)第三部分:第13时04分第31章)

After the expiration of his first mission, Nehemiah had returned to Susa in the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes (BC 433; 13:6).在他的第一个任务到期,尼希米回到了苏萨在亚达薛西(公元前433; 13:6)第三个年头。Some time after, he was charged with a fresh mission to Judea, and it is with his doings during this second mission that xiii, 4-31 is concerned.一段时间后,他被指控向一个新的使命朱迪亚,它与他的所作所为是在这第二个使命,十三,4-31关注。The account at the beginning seems mutilated.在开始的帐户似乎残缺不全。Nehemiah relates how, at the time of his second arrival at Jerusalem, he began by putting an end to the abuses which Tobias, the Ammonite, supported by the high priest Eliasib, was practising in the temple in the matter of the depository for the sacred offerings (xiii, 4-9).尼希米关系如何,在他第二次在耶路撒冷的到达时间,他通过把结束了滥用的托比亚斯的菊石,由大祭司Eliasib的支持下,实践中的存款问题在寺庙的神圣的开始产品(十三,4-9)。 He severely blames the violation of the right of the Levites in the distribution of the tithes, and takes measures to prevent its occurrence in future (xiii, 10-14); he insists on the Sabbath being strictly respected even by the foreign merchants (xiii, 15-22).他严厉地责备了在什一税的分配利权的侵犯,并采取措施,防止其在未来发生(十三,10月14日),他在安息日坚持严格甚至是由外国商人(十三尊重,15-22)。 Finally he dealt severely with the Jews who were guilty of marriages with strange wives, and banished a grandson of Eliasib who had married a daughter of Sanaballat (xiii, 23-28).最后,他严厉处理与犹太人谁是陌生的妻子结婚有罪,并驱逐了Eliasib孙子谁娶了Sanaballat女儿(十三,23-28)。 To this son-in-law of Sanaballat is generally attributed the inauguration of the worship in the temple of Garizim.对于这种Sanaballat儿子女婿一般归因于在庙供奉的Garizim就​​职。It is plain that Nehemiah' attitude during his second mission with regard to mixed marriages differs greatly from his attitude at the beginning of his first stay in Jerusalem [see section I, (5)].它是普通的尼希米“他在与异族通婚的第二个方面的任务的态度不同,他的态度大大在他第一次留在耶路撒冷开始[参见第一节(5)]。

SECTION II: CHAPTERS 7 TO 13:3第二部分:第7章至13:3

(1) contains accounts or documents relating to the work of politico-social and religious organization effected by Nehemiah, after the walls were finished. (1)包含帐目或文件,涉及到借尼希米,墙壁完成后,政治,社会和宗教组织的工作。Here we no longer have Nehemiah speaking in the first person, except in vii, 1-5, and in the account of the dedication of the walls (xii, 31, 37, 39).在这里,我们不再有尼希米发言的第一人,除了在七,1-5,并在墙壁的奉献(十二,31,37,39)的帐户。He relates how, after having rebuilt the walls, he had to proceed to erect houses, and take measures for bringing into the town a population more in proportion to its importance as the capital (vii, 1-5; cf. Ecclus., xlix, 15).他叙述如何,重建后的墙壁,他不得不继续竖立房屋,并采取使进镇按比例其作为资本的重要性人口多(七,1-5措施;比照Ecclus,XLIX。 ,15)。

(2) He gives (vii, 5 ff.) the list of the families who had returned from captivity with Zorobabel.(2)他给(七,5页)对谁囚禁了从一起返回Zorobabel家庭名单。This list is in I Esd., ii.这份名单是在我ESD。,II。It is remarkable that in the Book of Nehemiah, following on the list we find reproduced (vii, 70 ff.) with variants, the remark of I Esd., ii, 68-70 about the gifts given towards the work of the temple by Zorobabel's companions, and the settlement of these latter in the country; and again that Neh., viii, 1 resumes the narrative in the very words of I Esd., iii.值得注意的是,在尼希米书,对我们发现与再现变种(七,70页)列出以下,对我防静电,,二,约68-70句话的礼物给朝寺庙工作Zorobabel的同伴,而这些在国内后者解决;次,尼,八,1恢复在我的ESD极言的叙述,三。 This dependence is probably due to the redactor, who in this place gave a new form to the notes supplied him by the Jewish governor's memoirs which also explains the latter's being spoken of in the third person, Neh., viii, 9.这种依赖性可能是由于的redactor,谁在这个地方给了一个新的形式提供的犹太总督的回忆录这也解释了后者正在发言的第三人,尼。,八,九对他的注意事项。

(3) There is a description of a great gathering held in the seventh month under the direction of Nehemiah (viii, 9-12) at which Esdras reads the Law (viii, 13). (3)有一个在本月举行的第七次下,尼希米记(八9-12)在这埃斯德拉斯读法(八,13)方向的大聚会的描述。They then kept the Feast of Tabernacles (viii, 13-18).然后,他们一直住棚节(八,13-18)。When this feast is over, the people gather together again on the twenty-fourth day of the seventh month (ix, 1 ff.) to praise God, confess their sins, and to bind themselves by a written covenant faithfully to observe their obligations.当这场盛宴结束后,人们聚集在第七月第二十四届天(九,1页)赞美神再次,承认他们的罪,并以书面契约绑定忠实地遵守自己的义务。 Chapter X after giving the list of the subscribers to the covenant, sets forth the obligations, which the people bind themselves to fulfil; in particular the prohibition of mixed marriages (verse 30); the keeping of the Sabbath, especially in their treatment of foreign merchants (verse 31), the yearly tribute of a third part of a sicle for the Temple (verse 32), and other measures to ensure the regular celebration of sacrifices (verses 33-34), the offering of the firstfruits and of the first born (verses 35-37), and the payment and the distribution of the tithes (verses 35-39).章后,给出了该公约,以用户列表X,规定了义务,这对人约束自己履行,特别是禁止异族通婚(30节);的饲养的安息日,尤其是在他们的国外治疗商家(诗31),一为寺(诗32),及其他措施,以确保正常的牺牲庆祝活动(33-34节),对初熟提供sicle第三部分,第一年度致敬出生(35-37节),以及支付和配送的什一税(35-39节)。 After chapter x it is advisable to read xii, 43-xiii, 1-3; the appointment of a commission for the administration of things brought to the Temple, and the expulsion of foreigners from among the community.第十章后,建议阅读第十二章,43十三,1-3,一个用于寺庙的东西带到了管理委员会的任命,以及来自各社区的外国人驱逐出境。 Chapter xi, 1, 2, recalls the measures taken to people Jerusalem; verses 3-36 give the census of Jerusalem and of other towns as Nehemiah' measures left it.第十一章,1,2,回忆带到耶路撒冷人的措施;经文3-36给出了耶路撒冷和其他城镇的普查作为尼希米“措施离开它。In chapter xii, 27-43, we have the account of the solemn dedication of the walls of Jerusalem; Esdras the scribe is mentioned as being at the head of a group of singers (verse 35).第十二章,27-43,我们有对耶路撒冷的城墙庄严奉献帐户;埃斯德拉斯文士是在一个歌手(35节)组头被提及。The list in xii, 1-26, has no connexion whatever with the events of this epoch.在第十二章,1-26,列表中没有与这个时代的事件联接什么的。

(4) The proceedings set forth in viii-x are closely connected with the other parts of the history of Nehemiah.(4)设置在第八至第十提出的诉讼是紧密联系在一起的尼希米历史的其他部分。 The obligations imposed by the covenant, described in x, have to do with just the very matters with which Nehemiah concerned himself most during his second stay (see above, section III).通过在x描述的公约,规定的义务,必须做只关心与自己的尼希米留在他的第二个最(见上文第三节)很事项。The regulation concerning the providing of the wood for the altar (x, 34) is recalled by Nehemiah in xiii, 31, and the very words used in x, 39 (end of verse), we find again in xiii, 11.该规例有关的为坛木(X,34)为回顾在十三,31尼希米,并在x,39(诗末)所使用的非常的话,我们发现在十三,11了。 The covenant entered into by the people during Nehemiah' first mission was broken in his absence.该公约将进入由人民在尼希米的第一任务是在他缺席打破。At the time of his second mission he put down the abuses with severity.在他第二次访问时,他放下手中的严重性虐待。For instance, the attitude he takes towards mixed marriages is quite different from his attitude at the beginning of his first stay [see above section I (5); section III].例如,他对异族通婚的态度需要从他的态度是相当不同在开始他的第一个时间[见上文第一节(5);第三节]。This change is explained precisely by the absolute prohibition pronounced against these marriages in the assembly described in ix-x.这种变化是解释正是针对这些婚姻宣告在IX - X介绍了大会的绝对禁止。The view has been put forward that viii-x gives an account of events belonging to the period of the organization of worship under Zorobabel, the names of Nehemiah (viii, 9; x, 1) and Esdras (viii, 1 ff.) having been added later.该观点已被提出,第八至第十给出了一个属于崇拜的组织下Zorobabel期间发生的事件,尼希米记(八,九,X,1)的名称和埃斯德拉斯(第八,1 FF)有增加了后。But there was certainly sufficient reason for the reorganization of worship in the time of Nehemiah (cf. the Book of Malachi and Nehemiah 13).但是有一定的崇拜重组足够的理由在尼希米时间(参看玛拉基书和尼希米记13)。Others on the contrary would regard Neh., viii-x, as the sequel to the narrative of I Esdras, ix-x, and they likewise hold that Nehemiah' name has been interpolated in Neh., viii, 9, and x, 1.相反其他人会认为尼。,VIII - X,​​作为对我埃斯德拉斯,IX - X叙事续集,他们也认为,尼希米记“的名字已在尼插。,八,九,X,1 。This theory is equally untenable.这一理论也同样站不住脚。It is true that in the Third Book of Esdras (the Greek I Esdras) the narrative of Neh., viii, is reproduced immediately after that of Esdras, ix-x; but the author of the Third Book of Esdras was led to do this by the fact that Neh., viii, presents his hero as reader of the Law.诚然,在埃斯德拉斯(希腊我埃斯德拉斯)的尼,八叙述,三是书后立即埃斯德拉斯,IX - X的复制;但在第三埃斯德拉斯一书的作者是导致做到这一点这一事实尼。,八,表现为对法律的读者他的英雄。He has moreover preserved (III Ezra 9:50) the information of Neh., viii, 9, about the intervention of the Athersatha (Nehemiah), Esdras' superior, which clearly proves that this account does not refer to the epoch when Esdras had returned to Jerusalem entrusted by the king with full powers for the administration of the Jewish community.他而且保存有关的Athersatha(尼希米记),埃斯德拉斯“出众,这清楚地证明,此帐户并非指的时代,当埃斯德拉斯干预(三以斯拉9:50)对尼的信息。,八,九,返回耶路撒冷同为犹太社区管理全权委托王。 See, moreover, the following paragraph.见,而且,下面的段落。

(5) according to our view the return of Esdras with his emigrants and the reform effected by him (Ezra 7-10) ought, chronologically, to be placed after the history of Nehemiah, and the Artaxerxes, in the seventh year of whose reign Esdras returned to Jerusalem, is Artaxerxes II (BC 405-358). (5)根据我们的观点与他的埃斯德拉斯移民和他(以斯拉7-10号)作出的改革应该返回,按时间顺序,待安置的尼希米历史和亚达薛西,在第七年的统治埃斯德拉斯回到耶路撒冷,是亚达薛西二世(公元前405-358)。 As a matter of fact, Esdras finds the wall of Jerusalem rebuilt (Ezra 9:9), Jerusalem well populated (x, 1 ff.), the Temple treasure under proper management (viii, 29 ff.), Jonathan, son of Eliasib, high priest (10:6; cf. Nehemiah 12:23, Hebrew text), and the unlawfulness of mixed marriages recognized by every one (ix, 1 ff.).由于事实上,埃斯德拉斯找到耶路撒冷重建墙(以斯拉9:9),耶路撒冷以及填充(X,1页),妥善管理下寺宝(八,29页),乔纳森,儿子的Eliasib ,大祭司(10时06分;比照尼希米12时23分,希伯来文),以及由每个人(九,1页)承认异族通婚的违法。The radical reform, which Esdras introduced in this matter without being troubled by foreigners who still held the upper hand at the time of Nehemiah' first coming, definitively put an end to the abuse in question which had proved rebellious to all preventive measures (x).激进的改革,在这个问题上引入埃斯德拉斯不受外国人谁仍掌握在尼希米“第一次来时占上风的困扰,明确杜绝有问题的滥用已证明叛逆的所有(x)的预防措施。 The politics and social situation described in the first six chapters of Nehemiah [see above, section I (4), (5), (6)], the religious situation to which the proceedings of the gathering in Neh., x, bear witness [see above, section II (3)], do not admit of being explained as immediately following after the mission of Esdras, who particularly, in virtue of the king's edict, disposed of very valuable resources for the celebration of worship (Ezra 7-8:25 ff.).政治和社会状况上半年尼希米章节描述[见上文第一节(4),(5),(6)],宗教情况,其中在尼收集程序。,X,见证[见上文第二节(3)],不承认被作为后,立即埃斯德拉斯,谁特别是,在国王的诏书美德,为祭祀庆典(以斯拉7非常宝贵的资源处置任务如下解释 - 8:25几段)。Esdras is again entirely unnoticed in Neh., i-vi, and in the list of the subscribers to the covenant (x,1 ff.).埃斯德拉斯再次在尼完全被忽视。,I - VI,并在用户的公约列表(x,1 FF)。He is mentioned in Neh., viii, 1 ff., and in xii, 35, as fulfilling subordinate functions.他提到在尼。,八,1几段,并在第十二章,35条,为履行下属职能。

Considering the singular number of the verbs in Neh., viii, 9, 10, it is probable that in the former of these two verses "Esdras and the Levites" being named as part of the subject of the phrase is due to a later hand.考虑到中尼的动词单数。,八,九,十,很可能在这两个诗句“埃斯德拉斯和利未人”被作为主体部​​分的短语任命前,是由于后来的手。 At the epoch of Nehemiah, therefore, Esdras was at the beginning of his career, and must have gone a little later to Babylonia, whence he returned at the head of a band of emigrants n the seventh year of Artexerxes II (BC 398).在尼希米时代,因此,埃斯德拉斯是在他职业生涯的开始,必须有一点点后来到了巴比伦,他回到何处在一个移民n为Artexerxes二世(公元前398)第七年带的头。

(6) Many critics have maintained that in Neh., viii, we have the history of the first promulgation of the "Priestly Code" by Esdras, but the narrative in question does not authorize such an interpretation. (6)许多评论家认为,在尼,,八,我们已获得的“祭司典”的第一个埃斯德拉斯颁布的历史,但在问题说明不批准这样的解释。Esdras was probably still a very young man at this time, and all he does is to read the Law before the assembled people.埃斯德拉斯很可能仍然是一个非常年轻的男人在这个时候,他所做的一切是阅读前聚集的人的法律。It is quite true that in I Esd., vii, there is made mention in the royal edict of the Law of his God which Esdras has in mind (verse 14), but besides the fact that we hold the events related in I Esd., vii, to be posterior to Neh., viii [see above (5)], these words must not be understood literally of a new document of which Esdras was the bearer.这是很不错,在我ESD。,七,有在对他的神的埃斯德拉斯记(14节)有法律皇家法令提,但事实上,我们除了持有我防静电相关的事件。 ,七,要后到尼。,八[见上文(5)],这句话不能被理解为一个新文件,其中埃斯德拉斯是承载字面上。In the same terms mention is made of the wisdom of his God which Esdras has in mind (verse 25), and in this same passage it is supposed that Esdras' compatriots already know the Law of their God.在提及相同条款是由他的神的智慧,埃斯德拉斯的想法(25节),并在此同一段它应该是埃斯德拉斯“同胞已经知道了他们的神法。

Publication information Written by A. Van Hoonacker.出版信息A.范Hoonacker书面。Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Book of Ezra以斯拉记

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Synopsis of Contents.概要的内容。

-Critical View:临界查看:

Varying Character of Composition.不同程度的构成特征。

Alleged Fabrications.据称捏造。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The contents of the book are as follows:书的内容如下:

Synopsis of Contents.概要的内容。

Ch. CH。i.: Cyrus, inspired by Jehovah, permits the Israelites to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem, and returns to them the golden vessels which had been carried off by Nebuchadnezzar.一:赛勒斯,耶和华的启发,允许以色列人重建耶路撒冷圣殿,并返回到他们已被由尼布甲尼撒关金船。 Ch.CH。ii.: The number of the captives that returned from Babylon to Palestine with Zerubbabel is stated as 42,360, besides 7,337 men servants and women servants and 200 singing men and women.二:对俘虏的与所罗巴伯从巴比伦返回巴勒斯坦人数表述为42360人,除了7337公务员和女性公务员和200歌唱男女。 Ch.CH。iii.: Jeshua ben Jozadak and Zerubbabel build the altar, and celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles.三:约书亚本Jozadak和所罗巴伯建造的祭坛,和庆祝住棚节。In the second year the foundations of the Temple are laid, and the dedication takes place with great rejoicing.在第二年的寺庙是奠定基础,并奉献时间与大喜的地方。

Ch. CH。iv.: The adversaries of the Jews, especially the Samaritans, make efforts to hinder the Jews from building the Temple.四:犹太人的对手,尤其是撒玛利亚,努力建设妨碍犹太人的圣殿。A letter is written by the Samaritans to Artaxerxes to procure a prohibition of the construction of the Temple, and the work is interrupted till the second year of Darius.阿信写的是撒玛利亚到亚达薛西采购了寺庙的建筑禁令,工作是直到大流士第二年中断。

Ch. CH。v.: Through the exhortations of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, Zerubbabel and Jeshua ben Jozadak recommence the building of the Temple.五:通过对先知哈该和撒迦利亚的嘱托,所罗巴伯和耶书亚奔Jozadak重新开始的庙宇建筑。Tatnai, the governor "on this side the river," sends to the king a report of their action. Tatnai,州长“在这方面的河”,发送到国王对他们行动的报告。

Ch. CH。vi.: Darius finds the decree of Cyrus in the archives of Achmetha (Hamadan), and directs Tatnai not to disturb the Jews in their work.六:大流士发现在Achmetha档案馆(哈马丹)的赛勒斯的法令,并指示Tatnai不要打扰他们工作的犹太人。He also exempts them from tribute, and supplies everything necessary for the offerings.他还免除了他们致敬,并提供一切必要的产品。The Temple is finished in the month of Adar, in the sixth year of Darius, and is dedicated with great solemnity.圣殿完成的阿达尔月,在第六年大流士,伟大的严肃性,并与专用。

Ch. CH。vii.: Artaxerxes gives Ezra a commission to bring with him to Jerusalem all the captives that remain in Babylon.七:亚达薛西给以斯拉一个委员会,带他到耶路撒冷的所有俘虏,在巴比伦仍然存在。Ch.CH。viii.: Contains a list of the heads of families who returned with Ezra to Palestine.八:包含一个家庭的头谁与以斯拉返回巴勒斯坦的清单。Ezra institutes a fast while on his way to Jerusalem.以斯拉机构对他的方式快速而耶路撒冷。

Ch. CH。ix.: The princes of Israel inform Ezra that many have not repudiated their foreign wives.九:以色列告知以斯拉,许多没有否定他们的外籍妻子诸侯。

Ch. CH。x.: Those who have taken strange wives are compelled to send them away and to bring each a sin offering.JM Sel.十:那些谁已奇怪的妻子不得不送他们离开,并把每一个罪offering.JM SEL。

-Critical View:临界查看:

The canonical Book of Ezra commences where the Chronicles leave off, and indeed with slight variation repeats the last two verses of II Chron.以斯拉规范书的开始位置编年史离开过,确实有轻微的变化重复最后两个二专栏诗句。What follows consists of three portions: (1) an account of the return of the exiles, and a brief survey of the fortunes of the Jewish community down to the reign of Xerxes; (2) ch.接下来包括三个部分:(1)帐户的流亡者返回,以及对犹太社区下到薛西斯统治的命运简单的调查(2)CH。iv.四。7-vi.7 - VI。22, extracts from a collection of historical documents in Aramaic, illustrating the fortunes of the community in the reigns of Artaxerxes I. and Darius, with a short appendix in Hebrew; (3) ch.22,提取了在阿拉姆历史文献的收集,说明在亚达薛西一和大流士统治社会的财富与希伯来文短附录;(3)CH。vii.七。to end, a record of the enterprise of the author of the book, including a copy of the decree granted to him by Artaxerxes II., with an account of the author's work at Jerusalem.到年底,在书,包括授予他同一个作者的作品帐户亚达薛西二,在耶路撒冷的法令副本提交企业记录。The first section includes a document also transcribed in Neh.第一部分还包括在尼转录的文件。vii.七。6-73a, called by Nehemiah a genealogical table of the first return.6 - 73A,由尼希米称为第一次返回族谱表。

A third copy is to be found in the apocryphal I Esdras.第三个副本是在猜测我埃斯德拉斯发现。

Varying Character of Composition.不同程度的构成特征。

The documents embodied in the second section are described as "written in Aramaic and 'targumed' in Nehemiah Aramaic" (iv. 7).在第二部分所体现的文件被称为“写在阿拉姆语和”targumed“在尼希米阿拉姆”(iv. 7)。Since a work can not be translated into the same language as that in which it is composed, the expression "targumed" must mean "described," a sense which corresponds closely to the sense of the Arabic word "tarjamah," which, used of a tradition, signifies the heading in which its contents are described.由于工作不能进入的,在它是由同一种语言翻译,表达“targumed”必须等于“来形容,”从某种意义上说相当于密切合作,在阿拉伯字意义上的“tarjamah”当中,使用了一个传统,标志着在其中的内容描述标题。 This phrase, then, implies that the contents of this section were transcribed from a collection of documents and accompanied with a commentary, probably made for the benefit of the Eastern community.这句话,那么,意味着这部分的内容被转录从文件收集和附有评注,可能为东方社会的利益作出。In these extracts there is evidently a chronological transposition; for the correspondence with Artaxerxes I. (ch. iv.) is placed before the correspondence with Darius (ch. v., vi.), who is certainly Darius I. This may be due to momentary confusion on the author's part between Darius I. and Darius II.; but it is surprising, since in iv.在这些提取物有明显的时间顺序换位;为与亚达薛西一(。ch.四)对应的是前用大流士(。ch.五,六),谁肯定是大流士一信件放在这可能是由于对作者的一间大流士和大流士二世的一部分一时混乱;但它是令人惊讶,因为在四。 5-7 he shows himself well acquainted with the order of the Persian kings.他显示了自己良好5-7与波斯国王为了熟悉。Thus the period covered by the commentary on the documents in ch.因此,期间涵盖了在通道的文件的评论。v. and vi.五和六。is earlier than that covered by the documents in ch.比在CH的文件覆盖的早。iv.四。

Alleged Fabrications.据称捏造。

The authenticity of the documents is a matter on which there is difference of opinion, the most recent critics (E. Meyer excepted) being disposed to regard all of them as forgeries, whereas before the time of Graetz they were generally thought to be genuine.该文件的真实性,事其上有意见分歧,最近的批评(E.迈尔除外)被视作出售伪造的全部,而在此之前的格雷茨时候,他们普遍认为是真实的。 The custom in use among ancient historians of illustrating their histories by speeches and letters of their own composition makes the treatment of such questions exceedingly difficult.在说明当中的发言和自己的字母组成的历史古史学使用自定义使得这些问题的处理极为困难。The edict of Cyrus, said to have been found at Achmetha (vi. 3-5), is the boldest of these fabrications, if they be such; but the mention of that ancient capital implies some very remarkable knowledge on the part of the author here excerpted.居鲁士的诏令,说已经在Ach​​metha(VI. 3-5)发现,是这些捏造最大胆的,如果他们是这样,但该古都提意味着对一些非常显着的作者的一部分知识这里摘录。Some other reasons for believing these documents genuine are alleged by Herzfeld ("Geschichte des Volkes Israel," i. 125).相信这些文件的真正原因是其他一些涉嫌由Herzfeld(“历史馆DES Volkes以色列,”一125)。The character of the Aramaic in which they are couched agrees fairly well, both in vocabulary and in grammar, with that of early inscriptions and papyri; and there would be nothing surprising in successive compilers having assimilated the language somewhat to the dialect with which they were most familiar.而在它们的措辞阿拉姆字符同意还算不错,无论是在词汇和语法,与早期铭文和纸莎草纸;及会有什么惊人的连续编译器具有一定的语言同化的方言与他们所最熟悉的。 It is also possible that these Aramaic texts are translations of documents in Old Persian, and were accommodated to the taste of those whom they were intended to reach.它也有可能是这些阿拉姆文本文件中的古波斯语翻译,并照顾到那些人,他们的目的达到的味道。

The third part of the book appears to be a personal memoir; and the decree there given (vii. 11-26), coming from an Artaxerxes whom the author distinguishes by spelling from Artaxerxes I., can not be regarded as spurious without seriously shaking the writer's credit.该书的第三部分似乎是个人回忆录,以及有鉴于(vii. 11-26),其中从亚达薛西笔者从亚达薛西一区分开来拼写,政令不能作为虚假视为无严重晃动作家的信用。The narrative which he proceeds to give of his journey, however, contains little which might have been invented for the purpose of edification, though it might be open to any one to regard viii.他所得的叙述给他的旅程,但是,几乎不含可能已经为目的的熏陶发明,尽管它可能是开放给任何人以八方面。22 as written by one who had Neh.22作为一个谁写的了尼。ii.II。7 before him.7他面前。The narrative of Ezra's doings at Jerusalem is also not marked by exaggeration.而在耶路撒冷以斯拉的所作所为叙事也并不夸张标志。Ch.CH。ix.九。records a lengthy prayer offered by him on receipt of the intelligence of the mixed marriages, and ch.记录了他漫长的祷告上提供收到的异族通婚的情报,和CH。x.X.the measures taken by him to separate the erring couples, with a list of the persons affected.他采取分开犯错误的夫妇的措施,与受影响的人员名单。The objection urged by some critics that so severe a measure would not have been obeyed, seems insufficient to justify the condemnation of this part of the narrative as unhistorical; since the author may well have supposed it would be more effective than it turned out to be.一些有这么严重的措施将不会被遵守评论家呼吁反对,似乎不足以证明这个作为非历史叙述部分谴责,因为作者很可能应该会更有效比竟然是。 Nor indeed does the recurrence to the subject in Neh.也确实没有给中尼主题复发。x.X.31 and xiii.31十三。23 render it improbable that severe measures were taken years before in the same direction. 23渲染它不可能采取的严厉措施,在同一方向年前。

Supposing the king to have been Artaxerxes II., Ezra's arrival in Palestine may be considered to have taken place in 397 BC From the mention in Neh.假设国王已经亚达薛西二,以斯拉在巴勒斯坦的到来可能被认为已在公元前397从在尼提的地方。xiii.十三。13 of Zadok as scribe, whereas in Neh.13撒督为隶,而在尼。viii.八。9 Ezra has that title, it is perhaps to be inferred that Ezra predeceased Nehemiah: in that case his death probably occurred between 370 and 360 BC 9以斯拉的那个标题,它可能是被推断,以斯拉先死尼希米记:在这种情况下,他的死亡可能发生在公元前370和360

The question of the historical character of the Book of Ezra is concerned chiefly with the last section; since in the first two sections the scribe is not speaking as an eye-witness, whereas in the third there is either an authentic narration or a fiction.而对历史人物的以斯拉书主要关注的问题是,与上一节,因为在首两个路段的划线是不是说作为一个目击证人,而在第三个是不是有一个真实的叙述或小说。 The latter view is taken by CC Torrey in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1896, Supplement.后一种观点是由CC托里在体育场的“(杂志),”1896年增刊。

Joseph Jacobs, M. Seligsohn, Morris Jastrow Jr., David Samuel Margoliouth约瑟夫雅各布斯,M. Seligsohn,莫里斯贾斯特罗小,大卫塞缪尔马戈柳思

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Ezra, in the introductions to the Old Testament of Driver, Cornill, Kuenen, König, Wellhausen-Bleek, Ryle, Wildeboer, Baudissin; the commentaries of Bertheau-yssel, Oettli, Ryle; Sayce, Introduction to Ezra and Nehemiah; Kosters, Het Herstel van Israel, 1894; (also German translation, Die Wiederherstellung Israels in der Persischen Periode, 1895); Meyer, Die Entstehung des Judenthums, Halle, 1896; Van Hoonacker, Nouvelles Etudes sur la Restauration Juive, 1896; Etude Chronoloyique des Livres d'Esdras et Néhémie, Paris, 1868; Sigmund Jampel, Die Wiederherstellung Israel's unter den Achäemeniden, in Monatsschrift, xlvi.以斯拉,在对司机旧约,Cornill,Kuenen,柯尼希,豪森- Bleek,赖尔,Wildeboer的,Baudissin介绍; HET Kosters;的Bertheau - yssel,欧特列,赖尔的评注;塞斯,介绍以斯拉和尼希米Herstel面包车以色列,1894年(也德语翻译,模具Wiederherstellung在DER Persischen Periode,1895年以色列);迈耶,模具Entstehung DES Judenthums,哈雷,1896年,范Hoonacker,新军练习曲SUR LA恢复Juive,1896年;练习曲Chronoloyique DES里弗ð “埃斯德拉斯等Néhémie,巴黎,1868年,西格蒙德Jampel,模具Wiederherstellung以色列的温特窟Achäemeniden,在月刊,四十六。 (1902).J.(1902年)。J. Jr. DSM小帝斯曼


Ezra the Scribe以斯拉的Scribe

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Returns to Jerusalem.耶路撒冷返回。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

-Critical View:临界查看:

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13; Ezra vii. 1 et seq.; II Kings xxv. 18-21); a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest (: Ezra vii. 11; x. 10, 16).后代的大祭司西莱雅(尼八13;以斯拉七1及以下; II国王二十五18〜21。);一个祭司秩序的成员,因此也被称为以斯拉祭司(:以斯拉七11,十10,16)。The name, probably an abbreviation of "Azaryahu" (God helps), appears in Greek (LXX., Apocrypha, Josephus) and in Latin (Vulgate) as "Esdras."这个名字,相信是“Azaryahu”(天助)的缩写,显示为“埃斯德拉斯。”在希腊语(LXX.,伪经,约瑟夫)和拉丁美洲(武加大) Though Ezra was one of the most important personages of his day, and of far-reaching influence upon the development of Judaism, his biography has to be reconstructed from scanty material, furnished in part by fragments from his own memoirs (see Ezra, Book of).虽然以斯拉是他那个时代的一个最重要的人物,和深远的发展后,犹太教的影响,他的传记必须从微薄的物质重建,部分家具由他自己的回忆录片段(见以斯拉,书)。 The first definite mention of him is in connection with a royal firman granting him permission to lead a band of exiles back to Jerusalem (Ezra vii. 12-26).他的第一次明确提及是在与王室授予他的权限,导致了流亡者带回到耶路撒冷(以斯拉七12-26)菲尔曼连接。This edict was issued in the seventh year of King Artaxerxes, corresponding to 458 BC There is no reason to doubt the authenticity of the document as incorporated in Aramaic in the Book of Ezra, though Jewish coloring may be admitted.这诏书颁布于亚达薛西王,相当于458年的第七个年头,没有理由怀疑在阿拉姆纳入以斯拉图书文件的真实性,尽管犹太着色可能被录取。 The arguments advanced for the opposite view (Cornill, "Einleitung in das Alte Testament," p. 264; Driver, "Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament," 10th ed., p. 550) at their utmost reflect on the verbal, not the virtual, accuracy of the decree.该论点的相反意见(Cornill,“导论在DAS阿尔特约”,第264页;驱动程序“,介绍了旧约文学”第10版,页550)在他们的口头反映最,而不是虚拟的,准确的法令。 Nor is there any ground for holding that the king in question was any other than Artaxerxes Longimanus.也没有任何认为有问题的王亚达薛西Longimanus是比任何其他理由。A. van Hoonacker's contention ("Néhémie et Esdras," etc., Paris, 1890) that Ezra came to Jerusalem in the seventh year of Artaxerxes II. A.面包车Hoonacker的论点(“Néhémie等埃斯德拉斯”等,巴黎,1890年)的以斯拉排在第二亚达薛西第七年耶路撒冷。(397 BC; comp. Winckler, "Altorientalische Forschungen," ii. 2; Cheyne, in "Biblical World," Oct., 1899), is untenable (see Guthe, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel," p. 252; Piepenbring, "Histoire du Peuple d'Israel," p. 537; Kuenen, "Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Bibl. Wissenschaft," ed. Budde, pp. 239 et seq.). (公元前397;比赛Winckler,“Altorientalische Forschungen,”二2;进益,在“圣经的世界”10月,1899年),是站不住脚的(见Guthe,“Gesch DES Volkes以色列。”第252页; Piepenbring “Histoire D'以色列杜人民报”,第537页; Kuenen,“Gesammelte Abhandlungen楚Bibl Wissenschaft,”埃德布德,第239页起)。

Returns to Jerusalem.耶路撒冷返回。

Though received with greater favor, the assumption of Kosters (in "Het Herstel van Israel," German ed. by Basedow, pp. 103 et seq.) that Ezra arrived in Jerusalem only during the second visit of Nehemiah (433 BC), can not be maintained (see Ed. Meyer, "Die Entstehung des Judenthums," 1896, pp. 60, 89, 199 et seq.; Wellhausen, "Die Rückkehr der Juden," pp. 3 et seq.).虽然具有更大的青睐,在Kosters假设(在“HET Herstel面包车以色列,”德国版由巴斯多,第103页起)的以斯拉到达耶路撒冷的尼希米仅在(433年)第二次访问,可以不能保持(见埃德迈尔,“模具Entstehung DES Judenthums,”1896年,第60,89,199及以下;。豪森,“模具Rückkehr DER Juden”,页3页起)。 Probably the reputation he enjoyed for learning (hence "the ready scribe": Ezra vii. 6) stood him in good stead with the king, who in the firman appears to have conferred upon him extensive authority to carry his intention into effect.也许他的声誉学习(因此“就绪隶”:以斯拉七6)享有站在占得先机与王,谁在菲尔曼似乎赋予他广泛的权力来进行他打算生效。 To the number of about 1, 500, mostly from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin (Ezra viii. 1-14), not counting the women and children, the companions of Ezra assembled at the river flowing toward Ahava.到了约1号,500,大多是从犹大和本杰明(拉八1-14)部落,不包括妇女和儿童,以斯拉的同伴聚集在走向艾哈佛流淌的河流。 But no Levite being among them, Ezra induced 38 Levites and 220 Nethinim to join his expedition.但是,没有利未人,其中正,以斯拉利诱导38和220 Nethinim加入他的远征。After observing a day of public fasting and prayer, on the twelfth day of the first month (Nisan = April), without military escort but with due precaution for the safeguarding of the rich gifts and treasures in their keeping, they set out on their journey, and arrived without mishap at Jerusalem in the fifth month (Ab = August).在观察上的正月十二日(尼散月= 4月)没有军事护送,但由于预防措施的公共禁食和祈祷日,为丰富的礼物和他们保持珍品维护,他们成立了自己的旅程,并没有抵达耶路撒冷在第五个月事故(AB = 8月)。

Soon after his arrival Ezra was compelled to take strenuous measures against marriage with non-Hebrew women (which had become common even among men of high standing), and he insisted in a very dramatic manner upon the dismissal of such wives (Ezra ix. and x.); but it was only after the arrival of Nehemiah (444 BC; comp. Neh. viii. 1 et seq.) that he published the "book of the law of Moses" which he had brought with him from Babylon, and made the colony solemnly recognize it as the basis of their religious and civil code.他在抵达后不久以斯拉被迫采取剧烈措施,婚姻与非希伯来妇女(这已经成为了崇高的地位,即使在男性常见的),他在一个非常戏剧性地坚持这样的妻子后,解雇(以斯拉九,和十),但它只是后尼希米(公元前444年的到来;。排版尼八1起),他出版了他与他带来了从巴比伦“的摩西律法书”,并使殖民地郑重承认对他们的宗教和民法的基础。 Ezra is further mentioned as the leader or one of the two choirs singing hymns of thanksgiving at the dedication of the wall (Neh. xii. 36 et seq.), but this note is suspected of being a gloss of questionable historical value.以斯拉是进一步提到作为领导者或两个歌唱在墙上(尼十二36起。)奉献感恩赞美诗合唱团之一,但这种注意的问题是被历史价值光泽怀疑。 EGHEGH

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Ezra marks the springtime in the national history of Judaism.以斯拉标志着在犹太教的民族历史的春天。 "The flowers appear on the earth" (Cant. ii. 12) refers to Ezra and Nehemiah (Midr. Cant. ad loc.).他说:“花出现在地球上”(Cant.二12),是指以斯拉和尼希米(Midr.公会。广告同上)。Ezra was worthy of being the vehicle of the Law, had it not been already given through Moses (Sanh.21b).以斯拉是作为该法值得车辆,如果不是已经通过摩西(Sanh.21b)给出。It was forgotten, but Ezra restored it (Suk. 20a).它被遗忘,但以斯拉恢复它(Suk. 20A)。But for its sins, Israel in the time of Ezra would have witnessed miracles as in the time of Joshua (Ber. 4a).但对于它的罪恶,在以斯拉,以色列将目睹如在约书亚(Ber. 4A)时间的奇迹。Ezra was the disciple of Baruch ben Neriah (Cant. R.); his studies prevented him from joining the first party returning to Jerusalem in the reign of Cyrus, the study of the Law being of greater importance than the reconstruction of the Temple.以斯拉是巴鲁克本Neriah(Cant. R.)的弟子,他的研究无法回国参加第一方在居鲁士,对大于圣殿重建的重要性正在学法统治耶路撒冷他。According to another opinion, Ezra remained behind so as not to compete, even involuntarily, with Jeshua ben Jozadak for the office of chief priest.另一种意见认为,以斯拉仍然落后,以免竞争,甚至不由自主地与约书亚本Jozadak,为大祭司的办公室。Ezra reestablished the text of the Pentateuch, introducing therein the Assyrian or square characters, apparently as a polemical measure against the Samaritans (Sanh. 21b).以斯拉重新确立了五经文字,介绍其中的亚述人或方形字,显然是对撒玛利亚论战措施(Sanh. 21B)。He showed his doubts concerning the correctness of some words of the text by placing points over them.他显示了他的怀疑就放在了他们点的文字有些话的正确性。Should Elijah, said he, approve the text, the points will be disregarded; should he disapprove, the doubtful words will be removed from the text (Ab. RN xxxiv.).如果以利亚,他说,批准文,积分将被忽略,如果他不同意,将可疑的话从文本(Ab. RN三十四。)删除。Ezra wrote the Book of Chronicles and the book bearing his name (BB 16a).以斯拉写的书和书中记载他的名字命名(BB 16A)。 He is regarded and quoted as the type of person most competent and learned in the Law (Ber. R. xxxvi.).他被认为并引述的人最有能力的类型和精通法律(Ber.河三十六)。The Rabbis associate his name with several important institutions.拉比关联的几个重要机构他的名字。It was he who ordained that three men should read ten verses from the Torah on the second and fifth days of the week and during the afternoon ("Minḥah") service on Sabbath (B. Ḳ. 82a); that the "curses" in Leviticus should be read before Shabu'ot, and those in Deuteronomy before Rosh ha-Shanah (Meg. 31b; see Bloch, "Die Institutionen des Judenthums," i. 1, pp. 112 et seq., Vienna, 1879).这是他命定三人谁应该阅读在每周二,五天,在下午十位的圣经经文(“Minḥah”)在安息日服务(B.Ḳ82A);的“诅咒”的利未记之前,应阅读Shabu'ot,并在申命记的前犹太公顷Shanah(Meg. 31B,见布洛赫,“模具Institutionen DES Judenthums,”一1,第112页起,维也纳,1879年)。He ordained also that courts be in session on Mondays and Thursdays; that garments be washed on these days; that garlic be eaten on the eve of Sabbath; that the wife should rise early and bake bread in the morning; that women should wear a girdle (BK 82a; Yer. Meg. iv. 75a); that women should bathe (B. Ḳ. 82a); that pedlers be permitted to visit cities where merchants were established (B. Ḳ. 82a; see Bloch, lcp 127); that under certain contingencies men should take a ritual bath; that the reading at the conclusion of the benedictions should be "min ha-'olam we-'ad ha'olam" (from eternity to eternity: against the Sadducees; see Bloch, lcp 137).他还祝圣,法院将在星期一和星期四的会议;的服装清洗这些天,大蒜上的安息日前夕食用;,妻子应该上升,在清晨和烤面包;,妇女应该穿带(BK 82A;。也门里亚尔梅格四75A);妇女应洗澡(B.Ḳ82A);的pedlers被允许访问,客商建立了(B.Ḳ82A;见布洛赫,LCP 127)城市;在某些突发男人应该采取一种仪式洗澡,认为在祝福结束读数应为“闽公顷'olam WE - 'ad ha'olam”(从永恒到永恒:反对撒都该人,见布洛赫,LCP 137)。His name is also associated with the work of the Great Synagogue (Meg.17b).他的名字也与经济大犹太教堂(Meg.17b)的工作。 He is said to have pronounced the Divine Name (Yhwh) according to its proper sounds (Yoma 69b), and the beginnings of the Jewish calendar are traced back to him (Beẓah 6a; Rashi, ad loc.).他说,有明显的神的名字(耶和华)根据其正确的声音(山脉69B)和犹太历的开端是追溯到他(Beẓah6A; Rashi,广告同上)。

According to tradition, Ezra died at the age of 120 in Babylonia.按照传统,以斯拉去世,享年120岁在巴比伦。Benjamin of Tudela was shown his grave on the Shaṭṭ al-'Arab, near the point where the Tigris flows into the Euphrates ("Itinerary," i. 73).本杰明的图德拉是显示在河AL - 'Arab他的坟墓,附近的地步底格里斯河到幼发拉底河(“行程,”一73)流动。According to another legend, he was at the time of his death in Babylon, as a courtier in the retinue of Artaxerxes (see Vigouroux, "Dictionnaire de la Bible," ii. 1931).另据传说,他在他的死亡在巴比伦的时候,作为一个在亚达薛西随从朝臣(见Vigouroux,“德拉圣经辞典,”二。1931)。 Josephus, however, relates that Ezra died at Jerusalem, where he was buried ("Ant." xi. 5, § 5).约瑟夫,然而,有关这以斯拉在耶路撒冷,在那里他被埋葬(“蚂蚁。”十一,五,§ 5)死亡。In the seliḥah for the 10th of Ṭebet the date of Ezra's death is given as the 9th of Ṭebet (see Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 580).ECEGHI Br.在10日为Ṭebetseliḥah的以斯拉的死亡日期是定为Ṭebet9日(见Shulḥan“Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,580)。ECEGHI溴。

-Critical View:临界查看:

The historical character of the Biblical data regarding Ezra the Scribe (after Ed. Meyer, "Die Entstehung des Judenthums," p. 321) is generally conceded.关于以斯拉的抄写员(后埃德。迈尔,“模具Entstehung DES Judenthums,”第321页)圣经的数据历史人物普遍承认。But the zeal of Ezra to carry out his theory that Israel should be a holy seed (), and therefore of absolutely pure Hebrew stock, was not altogether effective; that his views met with opposition is indicated in the books of Ruth and Jonah.但以斯拉热情开展他的理论,以色列应该是一个圣洁的种子(),因此绝对纯希伯来股票,并不完全有效,也就是说他的观点与反对派会面是在露丝和约拿书表示。 The "book of the law" which he proclaimed at the public assembly (Neh. viii.-x.) is substantially identified with the Priestly Code (P), which, though containing older priestly ordinances ("torot"), came to be recognized as the constitutional law of the congregation (Judaism) only after Ezra's time and largely through his and Nehemiah's influence and authority.在“法律书”,他在公众集会(尼viii.-x.)宣布实质上确定与祭司码(P),其中,虽然包含以上(“torot”)祭司的条例,后来被公认的会众(犹太教)只在以斯拉的时间,主要是通过他和尼希米的影响力和权威性的宪制性法律。 EGHEGH

Emil G. Hirsch, Executive Committee of the Editorial Board.埃米尔赫斯基G.,编辑委员会执行委员会。 Isaac Broydé艾萨克Broydé

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。


Book of Nehemiah尼希米记

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

Documents Inserted.文件插入。

Solemn League and Covenant.庄严联赛和盟约。

Registers.寄存器。

A work ascribed to Nehemiah, but bearing in some canons the title Esdras II.一个工作冲高尼希米,但在一些大炮的称号埃斯德拉斯II轴承。or Esdras III., having been attributed to Ezra on the ground that Nehemiah's self-assertion deserved some punishment (Sanh. 93b), or because, having ordinarily been written on the same scroll with the Book of Ezra, it came to be regarded as an appendix to it.或埃斯德拉斯三,被归结为理由,尼希米的自我主张应得的一些惩罚(Sanh. 93B),或者是因为,通常有一直在与以斯拉书相同滚动写入以斯拉,它逐渐被视为对它的附录。The book consists ostensibly (i. 1) of the memoirs of Nehemiah, compiled, or at any rate completed, toward the close of his life, since he alludes to a second visit to Jerusalem "at the end of days" (xiii. 6, AV margin), which must mean a long time after the first.该书由表面上(一1)尼希米的回忆录,编译或至少完成,对他的生活密切,因为他暗示了第二次访问耶路撒冷“在天结束”(xiii. 6 ,AV保证金),这意味着必须在第一次长的时间。In xiii.在十三。28 he speaks of a grandson (comp. xii. 10, 11) of the high priest Eliashib as being of mature years; whence it appears that the latest event mentioned in the book, the high-priesthood of Jaddua, contemporary of Alexander the Great (xii. 11, 22), may have fallen within Nehemiah's time. 28,他谈到了大祭司以利亚实的孙子(comp.十二10,11。)作为成熟的年福利;何处看来,最新的事件在书中,高圣职的Jaddua,提到了亚历山大大帝当代(xii. 11,22),可能已经下降尼希米内的时间。The redaction of his memoirs occurred probably later than 360 BC, but how much later can not easily be determined.他的回忆录节录发生可能晚于公元前360年,但后来多少不易确定。The first person is employed in ch.第一个人是受雇于通道。i.-vii.一,七。5, xii.5,十二。31-42, xiii.31-42,十三。 6 et seq.6起。Sometimes, however, Nehemiah prefers to speak in the name of the community (ii. 19, iii. 33-38, x.), and in some places he himself is spoken of in the third person, either with the title "tirshatha" (viii. 9, x. 2) or "peḥah" (xii. 26, claimed by him in v. 14; AV "governor"), or without title (xii. 47).但是,有时尼希米喜欢发言的团体名称(白介素19,三33-38,十),并在一些地方,他说自己是在第三人的,无论是与标题“tirshatha” (viii. 9十2)或“peḥah”(xii. 26日,他声称在14节; AV“总督”),或(xii. 47)无标题。The style of these last passages implies somewhat that Nehemiah is not the writer, especially that of the third and fourth: "in the days of Nehemiah the governor, and of Ezra"; "in the days of Zerubbabel, and in the days of Nehemiah."这些最后的段落样式意味着有些是尼希米不是作家,特别是第三和第四名:“在天省长尼希米和以斯拉”,“在所罗巴伯的日子,而在尼希米的日子“ The portions of the book in which the first person is used are marked by repeated prayers for recognition of the author's services, and imprecations on his enemies (iii. 36, 67; v. 19; vi. 13; xiii. 14, 22, 29, 31), which may be taken as characteristic of an individual's style; and indeed the identity of the traits of character which are manifested by the writer of the opening and closing chapters can not escape notice.在其中的第一个人是二手书的部分重复的标志是为表扬在祈祷他的敌人作者的服务,并诅咒(III. 36,67,19节,六13;第十三14,22, 29,31),这可能是作为一个人的风格特点,以及确实的性格是表现在作家的开幕和闭幕章无法逃避的通知性状的身份。Moreover, the author's enemies, Sanballat and Tobiah, figure in both parts.此外,提交的敌人,参巴拉和多比雅,在这两个部分的数字。

Documents Inserted.文件插入。

The unity of the book is marred by the insertion of a variety of documents, chiefly lists of names.该书的团结,是由各种文档插入毁损,主要是列出了名。These are the following:这有以下几种:

(1) Ch. (1)CH。iii.三。1-32, a list of persons who helped to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem.1-32,一个人谁帮助重建耶路撒冷城墙的清单。This document agrees with ch.该文件同意通道。xii.十二。in exhibiting remarkable acquaintance with the topography of Jerusalem; and it also gives some curious details about the persons who took part in the work, some of whose names figure in other contexts.在参展的耶路撒冷地形显着熟人,而且还提供了有关人谁参加了部分工作,其中一些名字在其他情况下的数字有些好奇的细节。 It is, however, observable that Eliashib is said to have been high priest at the time of Nehemiah's first visit; and the same is suggested by xiii.它是,但是,观察到的以利亚实,据说已在尼希米记的第一次访问时间大祭司,以及同样是由十三建议。7, whereas in Ezra x. 7,而在以斯拉X.6 it is suggested that Eliashib's grandson (Neh. xii. 11, 12) was in office thirteen years before Nehemiah came.六是建议,以利亚实的孙子(尼十二11,12)在办公室13年之前尼希米来了。If the list of high priests in ch.如果在CH大祭司名单。xii.十二。be correct, it is clear that Eliashib could not have been in office in Nehemiah's time; and this fact discredits the historical character of the document, at any rate to a certain extent; for the possibility of Nehemiah, at a great distance from the scene of the events, having mistaken some of the details, can not be quite excluded.是正确的,很显然,以利亚实不可能在尼希米的时候上任,这个事实诋毁该文件的历史人物,随时在一定程度上率;为尼希米的可能性在离现场很远的距离,的事件,有误的一些细节,不能完全排除。 The account of the building given in this chapter represents it as more elaborate and national than would be imagined from iii.在本章给出的建筑帐户代表它作为更复杂和国家比会从三可想而知。33-38.33-38。

(2) Ch. (2)CH。vii.七。6-73, a list of the exiles who returned with Zerubbabel.6-73,一个流亡者谁与所罗巴伯返回的列表。This is a document which Nehemiah says he discovered (vii. 5); and it is embodied in the narrative of Ezra also (Ezra ii.).这是一个文件,尼希米说,他发现(vii. 5),以及它是在以斯拉叙事也(以斯拉二)体现。The difference between the copies is such as can be attributed to the not overstrict ideas of accuracy current in antiquity.份之间的区别是,如可以归结为没有overstrict在古代的准确性目前的想法。Some difficulty is occasioned by the fact that the narrative which deals with the days of Zerubbabel is continued without break into ascene which ostensibly took place in Nehemiah's own time; in other words, though the document is introduced as extraneous, it is not clear at what point it ends.有些困难是所引致的,是叙述这与所罗巴伯的日子交易是不纳入ascene打破这表面上是发生在尼希米自己的时间进行持续的事实,换句话说,虽然文件是多余的介绍,它不是什么明确点结束。 Indeed, the purpose for which Nehemiah says he gathered the people, namely, to discover their genealogies (vii. 5), does not appear to have been realized, but instead the reader is taken into a scene at which the Law is publicly read by Ezra.事实上,目的是尼希米说,他收集到的人,即发现其族谱(vii. 5),未出现已实现,而是读者到该法是在公开读取现场拍摄以斯拉。Here again resort may be had to the hypothesis of carelessness on the author's part, or to that of compilation by an unscientific collector.这里可能有再次诉诸于作者的部分原因是不小心的假设,或由一个不科学的收集汇编了。

(3) If the Septuagint be believed, ch.(3)如果译​​本被采信,CH。ix.九。contains a discourse delivered by Ezra.包含由以斯拉作了论述。

Solemn League and Covenant.庄严联赛和盟约。

(4) Ch. (4)CH。x., containing a solemn league and covenant, bearing eighty-four signatures of persons who undertook to observe the Law of Moses and discharge certain duties.十,含有庄严联赛和盟约,轴承的人谁承诺遵守摩西的法律和履行一定的义务84签名。The number of signatories is evidently a multiple of the sacred numbers 7 and 12, and the list is headed by Nehemiah himself.在签署国的数目显然是一个神圣的7号和12多个,和尼希米的名单是由他自己负责。Of the signatories some are persons about whom something definite is learnt in either Ezra or Nehemiah (eg, Sherebiah, Ezra viii. 18; Hanan, Neh. xiii. 13; Kelita, Ezra x. 23), but those called "the heads of the people" appear all to be families, their names occurring to a great extent in the same order as that in which they occur in the list of ch.在一些人的签署关于他的东西一定是在任或以斯拉尼希米(例如,示利比,以斯拉八18;哈南,尼十三13;。Kelita,以斯拉十23)据悉,但这些所谓的“元首人“似乎是所有的家庭,他们的名字中的一个出现的,在他们中的通道列表的顺序发生很大的程度。 vii.七。This mixture of family names with names of individuals excites suspicion; but the unhistorical character of this document, if proved, would greatly mar the credit of the whole book.这与个人的名字姓氏混合激发怀疑,但本文件非历史人物,如果证实,将大大三月整个书的功劳。The framing of such a document at a time of religious revival and excitement has no a priori improbability.这样一个在宗教复兴和兴奋的时间框架文件并没有先天的不可能性。

Registers.寄存器。

(5) Ch. (5)CH。xi.十一。contains a list of persons who drew lots to reside at Jerusalem, with notices of the assignment of offices and of the residences of officials.含有大量的人谁抽签居住在耶路撒冷的办公室和官员的住宅分配通知,名单。 This document agrees very closely in places with one embodied in I Chron.该文件同意密切合作,体现在我专栏有一个地方。ix.; indeed, both would appear to be adaptations of a register originally found in a "book of the kings of Israel and Judah" (ib. verse 1).九;的确,无论是似乎是在原先的“以色列和犹大王书”(同上一节)发现了一个寄存器的修改。 It might seem as if the use of the word "king's" in Neh.它看起来好像这个词“国王的”中尼使用。xi.十一。23, 24, having been taken over from the older document, had given rise to the charge of which Nehemiah complains in vi.23日,24日,已被接管的旧文件,曾产生电荷,其中尼希米在vi抱怨。6, where his enemies accuse him of making himself king; and indeed the arbitrary character of some of his measures (xiii. 25) would in part justify such a charge. 6,在那里他的敌人指责他使自己的国王,实际上也是他的一些措施(xiii. 25)任意字符将部分证明这样的费用。If one may judge by the analogy of Mohammedan states, there would be nothing unusual in a provincial governor taking that title.如果一个人可以判断由穆罕默德州的比喻,就什么也没有在一个省省长采取不寻常的那个标题。The purpose of the register must have been seriously misunderstood by either Nehemiah or the Chronicler; but it may be inferred with certainty, from the occurrence of the same document in such different forms in the two books, that the compiler of Nehemiah is not identical with the Chronicler.该登记册的目的必须是严重误解,或者尼希米或编年史,但可以推断肯定从在两书等不同形式的同一个文档的发生,该编译器的尼希米是不相同的的编年史。

(6) Ch. (6)CH。xii.十二。1-26 gives a list of priests and Levites who returned with Zerubbabel, carried down, very imperfectly, to Nehemiah's time, or perhaps later. 1-26给出了一个祭司和利未人谁一起返回所罗巴伯,进行了下来,非常不完善,对尼希米的时候,或者以后的清单。The "book of the chronicles" (verse 23) is cited for parts of it; but this document covers some of the same ground as the last, and it might seem as if both were rough drafts, never finally worked up.该“的编年史书”(23节)是列举了其中的一部分,但这份文件涵盖了作为最后的相同地上部分,它看起来好像都被粗糙易其稿,终于没有工作了。 It is of course open to the critic to regard the whole work as compiled by Nehemiah, who, where his memory or knowledge failed him, may have inserted these documents, or have ordered his secretaries to insert accounts of scenes.这当然是开放的评论家认为,整个工作由尼希米,谁,在他的记忆或知识没有他编译的,可能已插入这些文件,或下令他的秘书插入场景帐户。 Indeed, the expression "and in all this" (xiii. 6), which reintroduces the personal narrative, implies that the author had before him some matter which he had not himself described.事实上,表达“和这一切”(xiii. 6),重新引入个人叙事,意味着作者在他之前有一些事情,他没有自己描述。

It is more usual to suppose that Nehemiah's memoirs were utilized by another writer, who did not take the trouble to alter the first person where it occurred; such a supposition involves no impossibility, provided the compiler be not identified with the compiler of Ezra or the compiler of the Chronicles; for the utilization by these authors of documents also incorporated in Nehemiah involves improbabilities calculated to outweigh any arguments that can be urged on the other side.这是更一般的假设,尼希米的回忆录是由另一位作家,谁也不嫌麻烦,改变的第一人在那里发生的利用,这样的假设不涉及不可能的,所提供的编译器将无法与以斯拉编译器或确定编译器的记载,对因这类文件也纳入尼希米作者利用涉及计算,超过任何可以在对方要求的参数不可能性。 Ben Sira (Sirach [Ecclus.] xlix. 13), in describing Nehemiah's work, evidently refers to the account found in Neh.本西拉(西拉奇[Ecclus] XLIX 13),在描述尼希米的工作,显然是指在尼发现该帐户。i.-vii.一,七。1; from the short space that he devotes to each hero no inference can be drawn with regard to the existence of the whole work in his time.1,从短期的空间,他致力于每个英雄无推论可以用关于在他的整个工作时间的存在绘制。The fact of its being contained in his canon would, however, make it probable that it existed in its present form as early as 300 BC, a date separated by some decades only from the last mentioned in the book, and by less than a century from Nehemiah's first visit to Jerusalem.其正在将他的经典中的事实,但是,它可能使得它在目前的形式存在如公元前300年,通过几十年的分离只能从书中提到的最后一个日期早,超过一个世纪的时间从尼希米的第一次访问耶路撒冷。 From the Second Book of Maccabees it is learned that various legends were current about Nehemiah when it was written, to which the Biblical book contains no allusion.从马加比二书据悉,各种传说大约尼希米电流时它是书面的,以该圣经的书不包含典故。Possibly those writers who reduce the credible element to the smallest amount do not sufficiently take into account the rapidity with which events succeed one another, the fragmentary character of modern knowledge of postexilic Israel, and the general complication of political phenomena.可能是这些作家谁可信的元素减少到最小量不充分考虑到了速度与成功的事件彼此,对postexilic以色列现代知识零碎的性格,以及政治现象一般并发症。

Emil G. Hirsch, David Samuel Margoliouth埃米尔赫斯基G.大卫塞缪尔马戈柳思

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Epochs are marked in the study of the book by the treatise of Hoonacker, Zorobabel et le Second Temple, Paris, 1892; and that of Kosters, Het Herstel van Israel, 1894.时代是在书的研究特点是,Hoonacker论文,Zorobabel ET LE二寺,巴黎,1892年,以及Kosters,HET Herstel面包车以色列,1894年的。Skepticism is carried to its furthest by CC Torrey, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1896, 2d Supplement.怀疑论进行其最远由CC托里,在体育场的(杂志),1896年,第2补充。Comp.比赛。also Hoonacker, Nouvelles Etudes sur la Restauration Juive, Paris, 1896.也Hoonacker,新军练习曲SUR LA恢复Juive,巴黎,1896年。Of importance also are E. Meyer, Die Entstehung des Judenthums, 1896, and J. Geissler, Die Literarischen Beziehungen der Esramemoiren, Chemnitz, 1899, in which the literature is best collected.EGHDSM重要也是E.迈尔,模具Entstehung DES Judenthums,1896年,和J.盖斯勒,模具Literarischen Beziehungen DER Esramemoiren,开姆尼茨,1899年,在这文学是最好的collected.EGHDSM


Nehemiah尼希米

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

Rebuilds the Walls of Jerusalem.重建耶路撒冷的城墙。

His Reforms.他的改革。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Son of Hachaliah; rebuilder of the walls of Jerusalem.儿子Hachaliah;对耶路撒冷的城墙rebuilder。 The sole source of information about Nehemiah is the canonical book that bears his name, parts of which, at any rate, furnished Ben Sira with the matter for the short notice which he gives of Nehemiah.约尼希米信息的唯一来源是规范书,他的名字命名,其中部分在配备为短时间内使他的尼希米事本西拉无论如何,。He was cupbearer to Artaxerxes (identified by De Saulcy with Artaxerxes II., whose reign began 404 BC).他cupbearer到亚达薛西(由德Saulcy确定了亚达薛西二,其在位公元前404年开始)。Owing to a painful report that had reached him of the condition of the Jews in Palestine, he, perhaps with the countenance of the queen-mother or queen, obtained permission to visit Jerusalem, and to rebuild the walls, for which purpose he was furnished with firmans and a supply of timber.由于痛苦的报告,已经达到了他的犹太人在巴勒斯坦的条件,他,与女王母亲或王后,获准访问耶路撒冷,重建城墙,为此目的,他也许是布置嘴脸与firmans和木材供应。 Incidentally it is mentioned that he had the title "peḥah" or "tirshatha," equivalent to "viceroy," for twelve successive years (384-372), and apparently again at a later period.顺便提及的是,他的标题是“peḥah”或“tirshatha,”等同于“总督”,连续十二年年(384-372),并在后期明显了。

Rebuilds the Walls of Jerusalem.重建耶路撒冷的城墙。

The rebuilding of the walls (a task which had before Nehemiah's time been repeatedly attempted) was commenced by him with caution, and excited enmity and even armed intervention, which latter, however, Nehemiah showed himself able to resist.重建的城墙(一任务,收到了尼希米的时间被一再试图)是由他开始谨慎,兴奋敌意,甚至武装干涉,其中后者,然而,尼希米表明自己能够抗拒。 The account of the details of the building is not, apparently, from Nehemiah's hand, and would seem to represent the work as more of a national enterprise than would be inferred from Nehemiah's own statements.该建筑物的细节帐户不是,显然,从尼希米的手,似乎代表作为国家企业多会从尼希米自己的陈述推断的工作。 The account of the inaugural ceremony after completion comes rather late in the book, and was probably written some years after the event.建成后的就职典礼帐户来,而在书晚了,可能是几年后的事件编写的。Nehemiah's opponents appear to have been wealthy landowners, not themselves Israelites, but allied with leading families within the city.尼希米的对手​​似乎已经在全市范围内领导与富裕的地主家庭,本身不是以色列人,但结盟。After the completion of the walls Nehemiah had to occupy himself with political reforms also, of which one was the restoration to their original owners of lands taken for debt by the wealthier members of the community-a scheme not unlike the "novæ tabulæ" of the classical republics, and regarded by the owners as an ultra-revolutionary measure; for it meant the abandonment without consideration of much property lawfully acquired.后的墙壁完成尼希米也不得不占据,其中之一是他们原来的土地债务采取由社区计划的富裕不不同于“新星tabulæ”的成员业主恢复自己的政治改革古典的共和国,并把由业主作为一个超革命性措施,因为这意味着没有合法取得多少财产考虑放弃。 According to Nehemiah's account, it was effected with a minimum of friction, owing to his own disinterestedness in relinquishing his claim to the governor's allowances; and it took the form of a cheerful sacrifice on the part of the moneyed class.据尼希米的帐户,这是一个影响最小的摩擦,由于他在放弃他的要求,以州长的津贴自己的无私和它采取了一种对有钱阶级的一部分欢快牺牲形式。 He tells, however, almost immediately afterward, of attempts on his own life, which he dexterously escaped, and of endeavors to represent his restoration of the walls as the prelude to a declaration of independence.他告诉,但是,几乎紧接着,在他的自己的生活,他巧妙地逃脱了,并努力试图代表作为一个独立宣言的序幕恢复他的墙。 In these attempts residents of Jerusalem took part, either having conspired with or being in the pay of external enemies.在这些尝试的耶路撒冷居民参加,无论有或在外部的敌人正在密谋支付。Among these instruments were a false prophet and a false prophetess, whom Nehemiah was able to unmask.在这些文书是假先知和假先知,他们才得以揭露尼希米。

Nehemiah's next measure would appear to have been as aristocratic in tendency as the last was democratic.尼希米的下一个措施似乎已倾向作为最后的贵族是民主。He instituted an inquiry into the pedigrees of the residents of Jerusalem with the view of degrading aliens, and for this purpose obtained a copy of the roll of the families that returned with Zerubbabel.他设立了一个INTO的耶路撒冷居民的家系与外星人降解研讯,并为此获得了对家庭,与所罗巴伯回卷的副本。 His narrative, however, breaks off without describing the nature of the measure which he adopted or the smoothness with which it worked.他的叙述,但是,没有休息过描述了他采取的措施,或与它合作的平滑性。It appears from other parts of the book that priestly families were connected by marriage with the aliens, and, though Nehemiah resumed his inquisition on his second visit to Jerusalem, it required the arbitrary exercise of power to carry it through.看来,祭司的家庭已连接的婚姻与外星人,而且,虽然尼希米恢复了他的第二次访问耶路撒冷的宗教裁判所,它需要对权力进行任意行使它通过从书的其他部分。 It is possible that the danger of offending the humbler classes, whom he had won over by his "novæ tabulæ," prevented him from inquiring too strictly into this matter on his first visit.这可能是违法的类的谦逊,他已赢得了他的“新星tabulæ,”过度的危险阻止询问此事过于严格按照他的首次访问了他。

His Reforms.他的改革。

The rest of his reforms appear to have been of a religious nature, although, the chapters in which they are recorded being by other hands, there is a want of clearness in the details.他的改革其余似乎已经被一个宗教性质,虽然,在其中记录了他们的手被其他章节中,有一个清晰要在细节。He appears with the aid of Ezra to have enforced or reenforced the Mosaic law, especially the provision relating to the sanctity of the Sabbath, which on his second visit he had again to emphasize.他似乎与以斯拉援助已经实施或reenforced镶嵌法,尤其是有关的安息日,这对他的第二次访问,他再次强调神圣。 He also provided by a regular system of forced contributions for the maintenance of the Temple services and of the various castes who took part in performing them.他还提供了一种强迫的贡献例会制度为庙服务和谁参加了其中的一部分进行各种种姓维护。He writes with unusual naïveté and the accuracy of his personal narrative has rarely been questioned.他写与不寻常的天真和他的个人叙事的准确性很少受到质疑。It seems, however, surprising that the accredited representative of the sovereign court should, in carrying out his commission, have met with fierce opposition, leading to the imminent risk of skirmishesand battles; but the classical historians give no high idea of the administrative capacity of Artaxerxes II.看来,然而,令人惊讶的是,主权法院授权代表应在履行他的佣金,遭到了强烈反对,导致skirmishesand战争迫在眉睫的风险,但古典历史学家给予行政能力不高的想法亚达薛西二世。 Further, there appears to be some contradiction between the statements that he went to Jerusalem on a visit for a strictly limited time (ii. 6), and that he went to Judea as "peḥah" and held office for twelve years (v. 14 and xiii. 6); but this may also be due to the fragmentary nature of his memoirs.此外,似乎有一些报表之间,他进行了一次访问耶路撒冷有严格限制的时间(白介素6)矛盾,他去了朱迪亚为“peḥah”,并举行十二年(14节办公室和第十三6);但是这也可能是由于他的回忆录零碎的性质。

From Nehemiah's own account of his conduct it may be gathered that he was an adroit politician, a wary leader and soldier, and a skilful organizer, though not free from pedantry and fanaticism; and it is probable that Ben Sira, in naming him after Zerubbabel as one of those to whom the Jews owed their restoration and reconstitution as a nation, only does him justice.从尼希米对他进行自己的帐户可能被收集,他是一个熟练的政治家,谨慎的领导者和士兵,一个熟练的组织者,虽然不能从迂腐和狂热的自由,并有可能本西拉,在命名后所罗巴伯他作为犹太人的那些人欠他们的恢复和重建作为一个国家,一个只有他不公平。 For without walls Jerusalem could not, according to ancient ideas, have ranked as a place of importance, and the measure, of which there is an obscure mention (xi. 1), of obtaining a resident population fitted for its size, by drawing lots, would also do much toward restoring its former grandeur.对于没有围墙的耶路撒冷不能,根据古代思想,有列为一个重要的地方,和措施,其中有一个不起眼的提(xi. 1)获得常住人口为它的大小装,以抽签方式,也做对恢复了往日的气派得多。His name was, however, not popular with the tradition which has come down in the Talmuds; but in that which is preserved in the Second Book of Maccabees many services are attributed to him of which the Bible knows nothing.他的名字,然而,不与它已经在Talmuds下来的传统流行,但在这其中是在许多服务都归于他其中圣经一无所知马加比二书保存。 Among these are the miraculous production of fire, celebrated by a feast called "Naphthar" (II Macc. i. 36); the compilation of a sacred library (ib. ii. 13); and even the building of the Temple and the altar (ib. verse 18).其中有火的神奇生产,由一个名为“Naphthar”(一,二,排雷36)一场盛宴庆祝,是一个神圣的库编译(ib.二13);甚至寺庙建设和祭坛(同上第18节)。 These statements are not worthy of credit; and it is evident that Nehemiah's personality was overshadowed by that of Ezra, whose services, though less brilliant, were more lasting.EGHDSM这些陈述不值得称道的,并很明显,尼希米的个性是由以斯拉,其服务,尽管不那么辉煌的阴影,更lasting.EGHDSM

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Nehemiah is identified in one haggadah with Zerubbabel, the latter name being considered an epithet of Nehemiah and as indicating that he was born at Babylon ("Zera'+ Babel"; Sanh. 38a).尼希米是确定在一个哈加达与所罗巴伯,后者的名字被认为是尼希米记词和指示,他在巴比伦(“Zera”+通天塔“。Sanh 38A)诞生了。With Ezra, he marks the spring-time in the national history of Judaism (Cant. R. ii. 12).随着以斯拉,他标志着在犹太教的民族历史(Cant. R.二12)春天。A certain mishnah is declared by the Rabbis to have originated in the school of Nehemiah (Shab. 123b).某米示拿是由已宣布在尼希米(Shab. 123B)学校起源拉比。Still, Nehemiah is blamed by the Rabbis for his seemingly boastful expression, "Think upon me, my God, for good" (Neh. v. 19, xiii. 31), and for his disparagement of his predecessors (ib. v. 15), among whom was Daniel.尽管如此,尼希米是吹嘘他似乎表达拉比指责,“想想在我身上,我的上帝,好”(尼五19,十三31),以及他对他的前任轻视(同上第15节数字),其中丹尼尔。 The Rabbis think that these two faults were the reason that this book is not mentioned under its own name, but forms part of the Book of Ezra (Sanh. 93b).拉比认为这两个错误是,这本书是不以自己的名义提到的原因,但形式的以斯拉书(Sanh. 93B)的一部分。According to BB 15a Nehemiah completed the Book of Chronicles, which was written by Ezra.WBM Sel.据BB 15A尼希米完成了历代书,这是由Ezra.WBM Sel的编写。

Emil G. Hirsch, David Samuel Margoliouth, Wilhelm Bacher, M. Seligsohn埃米尔赫斯基G.,大卫塞缪尔马戈柳思,威廉巴切尔,M. Seligsohn

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。



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