Book of Genesis, ספר בראשית (Hebrew)书创世记

General Information一般资料

Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament in the Bible, is so named because it opens with an account of the creation of the world.创世纪中,在圣经旧约的第一本书,如此命名是因为它与一个世界创造帐户打开。The first 11 chapters, which are heavily indebted to Mesopotamian tradition, trace the gradual expansion of humankind and the development of human culture.第11章,这是负债累累到美索不达米亚的传统,追溯人类的逐步扩大和人类文化的发展。But they show the ambiguity of this development by incorporating stories about the sin of Adam and Eve and about the Deluge, both of which illustrate humankind's growing alienation from God and one another.但他们表现出的这种发展对亚当和夏娃的罪,对洪水,这两者说明上帝和彼此人类的结合日益疏远的故事歧义。

Following the call of Abraham in chapter 12, this universal outlook appears to be lost; the focus narrows to one man and his family.继在第12章亚伯拉罕呼叫,这种普遍的前景似乎是丢失;焦点缩小到一个男人和他的家人。Yet the traditions about Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jacob's 12 sons are linked to the earlier chapters by God's promise to bless the whole world through Abraham's descendants. Furthermore, the Covenant established with Israel through the promise made to Abraham (22:15 - 18) is fundamentally the same as the covenant established with all of humankind through Noah (9:1 - 17). 但关于亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,雅各的12个儿子的传统是与上帝的承诺,祝福通过亚伯拉罕的后裔,整个世界的前面的章节此外,与以色列建立通过承诺的公约作出亚伯拉罕(22点十五- 18)从根本上是与全人类建立通过诺亚(9:1公约相同 - 17)。

Although Moses has traditionally been considered the author of Genesis, modern scholars generally agree that the book is a composite of at least three different literary strands: J (10th century BC), E (9th century), and P (5th century).虽然摩西历来被认为是创世纪的作者,现代学者普遍认为,书是一个至少有三个不同的文学股综合:J(公元前10世纪),E(9世纪),和P(5世纪)。 The interpretation of the book has led to many controversies.书的解释导致了许多争议。One of the most difficult problems has been distinguishing historical fact from symbolic narration intended to convey a religious message.最困难的问题之一是区分旨在传达一种宗教符号叙述历史事实的消息。

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Bibliography 参考书目
H Bloom, Book of J (1990); G von Rad, Genesis: A Commentary (1972); EA Speiser, ed., Genesis (1964); R Youngblood, ed., The Genesis Debate (1986). H,J的(1990)图书布卢姆,G冯拉德,成因:评注(1972年); EA Speiser编,创世纪(1964),R布拉德,教育署,创世纪辩论(1986年)。

Book of Genesis书创世纪

Brief Outline简述

  1. The beginning of physical life (1-2)对物质生活的开始(1-2)
  2. The growth of civilization to the Flood (3-8)文明的增长,洪水(3-8)
  3. The descendants of Noah to Abraham (9-11:26)诺亚的后裔亚伯拉罕(9-11:26)
  4. The history of Abraham and Lot; Ishmael and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; and Joseph and his brethren in Egypt (11:27-50:26)伊斯梅尔和Isaac;;雅各和以扫和约瑟夫和他的弟兄们在埃及(11:27-50:26)在亚伯拉罕和地段的历史

BELIEVE Editor's Note regarding the next article不管相信编者按关于下一篇文章

The next two articles first appear to be in direct contradiction, where the first cites what is commonly called the Documentary Hypothesis which says that a "number of authors" wrote Genesis, while the second simply says that Moses did.接下来的两篇文章的第一似乎是在直接的矛盾,其中第一个引用了什么是俗称的提纲挈领的说是“一些作者写道:”创世纪,而第二只说,摩西一样。 This fact seems to have caused many Christian writers to become ferociously against the general concept of this first article!这一事实似乎已经造成了许多基督教作家,成为反对这第一篇文章的一般概念猛烈!However, it seems to us that their reaction might be an "over-reaction".然而,在我们看来,他们的反应可能是“过度反应”。

Consider the practical issues of that ancient time.考虑该古代的实际问题。 At Moses' time (apparently around 1275 BC, according to a known date in Pharaoh Rameses's life), there were actually not yet even any organized written languages yet in existence! (Seven actual written languages would develop around 100 to 300 years later. Only symbol systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphics yet existed, and they were not languages at all. Worse, they were not capable of expressing sophisticated concepts such as the Sabbath. It would likely take hundreds of picture symbols to express the single sentence, Honor the Sabbath. ) It would be hard to imagine Moses taking the time to carve thousands of picture symbols into blocks of stone, along the lines of the heiroglyphics that existed at that time. 在摩西的时间(显然围绕1275年,根据一项在法老拉美西斯的生命已知日期),共有实际上甚至还没有任何有组织的语言文字还存在!(七实际的书面语言将发展约100至300年后,只有如埃及的象形文字符号系统还存在,他们没有语言的。更糟的是,他们没有表达,如安息日复杂概念的能力,这可能要花费数百个符号的图片来表达单句,荣誉安息日。 )这将是很难想象摩西采取沿象形文字,当时存在的线时间雕刻成的石数千块的图片符号。And then, while trying to keep his people alive, hauling many tons of inscribed stone blocks across the desert! So, for very practical reasons, it seems almost certain that (a) Moses was certainly the "author" of the First Five Books of the Bible, but that (b) he did not actually write them down. After all, he was leading a group of people across a desert and in even more dire situations, and had many more urgent things to be dealing with that carving symbols into stones!然后,在试图保住自己的人活着,牵引穿越沙漠的石头块刻多少吨? 所以,很现实的原因,但几乎可以肯定是:(a)摩西是肯定的“作者”的第一个五年书籍圣经,但(b)他实际上并没有把它们写下来,毕竟他是领导全国沙漠和更严峻的情况下有一群人,并且有许多更迫切的事情要与该雕刻符号处理成石头! (And then carrying large numbers of such stones with them through the desert!)(然后进行穿越沙漠与他们这种石头大量!)

So it seems almost certain that Moses (physically) did NOT write down those texts, but instead passed them along orally, in the same STANDARD way that countless societies before and since have done. By around 1000 BC, written language had developed in the region, including Ancient Hebrew or Paleo-Hebrew, and it seems clear that people thought it important to then write down, in a permanent form, the words of Moses. 因此,几乎可以肯定的摩西(身体)没有写下这些文字,而是通过他们沿口头以同样的标准方式,无数的社会之前和之后都做,大约公元前1000年,书面语言在该地区发展包括古代希伯来文或古希伯来语,它似乎很清楚,人们认为有必要然后写下来,在永久形式,摩西的话。 Over the 300-year period between Moses and them (around 15 generations of people) many people had had to memorize and repeat, exactly, all the thousands of words of Moses for the next generation.在摩西与他们之间(约15几代人)300年期间,许多人不得不背诵和重复,准确,所有为下一代的摩西万字。 They were certainly extremely good at preserving those "Oral Traditions" but human beings are not perfect.他们当然极为维护这些“民间文学”不错,但人是不完美的。And so it seems very reasonable to me that (at least) two SLIGHTLY different Oral Traditions of Moses' words could easily have existed by fifteen generations later in 1000 BC.因此,这似乎很合理,我认为(至少)两个略有不同的摩西“字口头传统可以很容易地以十五代存在于公元前1000年以后。

It therefore seems reasonable to me that two separate Scribes (around that time) may have written down slightly different texts.因此,它似乎是合理的,我认为两个(左右的时间)单独文士可能写下略有不同的文本。One of those people might easily have heard the Oral Tradition where God was referred to as Elohim, and so he might easily have written down a text that only refers to Elohim.这些人有一个很容易听到的口头传统在上帝被称为耶洛因,所以他很容易写下的文字,只有指罗欣。The other might have heard and memorized an Oral Tradition where God was referred to as Jehovah/Yahweh.其他可能听说和记忆的口头传统在上帝被称为耶和华/耶和华。(both of which are in our Bibles today.)(两者都是在我们今天的圣经。)

Note that this reasoning does NOT ever question or even doubt that Moses was the actual source author of the texts! It is really just noting that humans are not perfect, but that the Scribes of that time each wanted to record EXACTLY what they had been told and had memorized. 请注意,这个道理也永不问题,或什至怀疑,摩西是该文作者的实际来源!它实际上只是指出,人类是不完美,但在当时的文士每个想记录正是他们被告知并记忆。 If they knew each other, they might not have been able to figure out which of the two was actually correct, regarding the small details where they seem to slightly disagree.如果他们知道对方,他们可能没有能够弄清楚的两个实际上是正确的,就在他们似乎稍微不同意小细节。So both texts were written down and then preserved.因此,两种文本被写下来,然后保存。Often, each story is repeated in inter-weaved stories, like specifying the small detail of exactly how many animals were taken onto the Ark by Noah.通常,每个故事是重复间编织故事,就像指定的到底有多少动物上方舟诺亚采取小细节。It seems to me that this reasoning is totally compatible with Moses being the actual author, but that there were two slightly different texts finally written down, and that, for want of an actual name for those Scribes, we tend to call them J and E. In my opinion, to call them "authors" or "writers" is inappropriate, but to see them as Scribes seems to make excellent sense.在我看来,这个推理是完全符合实际的作者是摩西兼容,但有两个稍微不同的最后写下文字,而且,由于缺乏对于那些文士的实际名​​称,我们往往称他们为J和E在我看来,称他们为“作者”或“作家”是不合适的,但看到他们的文士似乎使优秀的意义。

Continue this reasoning a little further and we would have a situation where two slightly different (written) texts of Moses' words were being circulated.继续这一推理远一点,我们将有一个地方两个略有不同(书面)摩西“字案文分发的情况。It seems reasonable to think that someone would have decided to combine them.似乎可以合理地认为有人会已决定将它们结合起来。 A logical move would be to select which of the two precise texts was actually correct, but there was no way of knowing that.一个合乎逻辑的行动将是选择两个精确的案文,实际上是正确的,但没有办法知道的方式。Therefore, the text was interweaved together in a manner as it is today, where both texts were therefore included, and which therefore certainly includes whichever happens to be the precisely correct wording.因此,文本是交织在一起的方式,因为它是今天,因此在两种文本都包括在内,因此这当然包括两者恰好是准确正确的措辞。

We included a portion of the actual Bible text below, along with the way that some analysts have divided it up, alternately, between the nearly identical texts.我们包括了实际的圣经文本下面的部分,随着一些分析人士划分起来,交替之间几乎相同的文字,方法。(Genesis 7 and 8 excellently show the duplication of story and the slight differences.) To look at this from another view, if there is some other explanation, then there needs to be an explanation for why the story is so clearly duplicated in those Bible Verses, as well as why there are slight differences. (创7和8显示了出色的故事和细微差异的重复。)为了看这从另一种观点认为,如果有一些其他的解释,那么就需要有一个故事为什么这么明显的重复解释圣经诗篇,以及为什么有细微的差别。 In this, the JEDPR concept seems to provide a logical explanation.在此,JEDPR概念似乎提供了一个合乎逻辑的解释。

By the way, we encourage that you also read the Genesis presentation from the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia (nearly 100 years ago) (presented below) which contains an extensive discussion of J, E, D and P, so this is not just a frivolous idea of some recent people.顺便说一下,我们鼓励你也看到从1911年的天主教百科全书(将近100年前)(介绍如下),其中包含了J,E,D和P的广泛讨论的成因介绍,所以这不只是一个无聊的想法最近的一些人。 The duplication of so many wordings, particularly in Genesis, has had the attention of Biblical scholars for a long time, and the JEDP reasoning has been around for a long time.如此多的重复字眼,特别是在创世纪,已经具备了很长一段时间的圣经学者的关注,而JEDP推理已经很长时间。However, the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia article describes the JEDP concept as eliminating Moses as the actual author, which seems not to be the situation. There seems no doubt whatever that Moses was the actual source of these texts.然而,1911年的天主教百科全书文章描述为消除与实际作者,这似乎并没有被这种情况摩西JEDP概念。 似乎没有任何疑问,摩西是这些文本的实际来源。

Also included below is the 1906 Genesis article from the Jewish Encyclopedia, which also discusses extensively these JEDP matters, and even expands them to include additional sources, such as P1, P2 and P3.还包括下面是从1906年创世纪犹太百科全书,也广泛地讨论了这些JEDP问题的文章,甚至扩大他们包括其他来源,如P1,P2和P3。 Many of the other Jewish Encyclopedia articles from a hundred years ago (on other Bible Books) also extensively discuss these subjects.其他犹太百科全书文章从百年前(在其他圣经书籍)许多人还广泛地讨论这些问题。

Grammatical analysis has shown that the Book of Deuteronomy appears to have been (actually) written down by an early Scribe that was not either J or E, and so a third, D, is suggested.语法分析表明,申命记书似乎已经(实际上)抄下来的早期抄写员,这不是要么J或E等第三,D,建议。The reasoning regarding a fourth source, P, allegedly Priests of several hundred years later, has not been deeply pursued by me, so I can offer no opinion.第四个方面的推理源,P,几百以后,一直没有我追求多年深受据称牧师,所以我可以提供任何意见。However, I see great logic in there having been 'R', a redactor (which means editor).然而,我看到在那里已被“R”,一个redactor的(这意味着编辑器)伟大的逻辑。Devout Jews by then must have been troubled by the fact that there seemed to be two slightly different texts.虔诚的犹太人则必须一直困扰的是,似乎有两个略有不同的文本。Keep in mind that this was all WAY before any Books were collected to form a Bible or even a Torah.请记住,这是所有路在任何书籍,收集,形成一本圣经,甚至是诵读经文。Early Jews were known for being fanatical about details, and so it seems to make sense that a Redactor would (later) combine the J, E, D and P (possibly then still separate accounts) into the "inter-threaded" text that we have today.早期的犹太人知名的有关细节的狂热,因此它似乎是有道理的,一个修订者会(后)组合成“跨线程”文本的J,E,D和P(可能当时还单独帐户),我们有今天。 Again, I do not see such a Redactor as an "author" but more as a Scribe who attempted to combine two nearly identical texts, and related texts.同样,我没有看到,如“作者”,但作为一个抄写谁试图将两个几乎相同的文本,以及相关的文本更是修订者。

In recent years, there seem to be absolutely ferocious Christian attacks on the JEDP approach.近年来,似乎有对JEDP做法绝对凶猛基督教的攻击。Rather than even trying to see that the words clearly seem to have been written by two separate people (as seems obvious in Genesis 7 or 8 below, if you read each column separately), there appears to just be an assumption that "anything different from what I believe must be an attack!" 而不是甚至试图看到清楚的话似乎已经由两个(似乎在创世记7或8个以下,很明显,如果你读的每一列分别)分开的人写的,似乎只是一个假设,即“任何不同我认为必须有一个攻击!“ It seems to me that if those Christian counter-attackers could just calm down (and consider my comments here), they might see that there is NO attack on Moses' being the one and only source of those texts, and so most of their criticisms lose all their steam! 在我看来,如果这些基督教反攻击者可能只是平静下来(我的意见,并考虑在这里),他们可能会看到,没有对摩西被这些文字之一,攻击的唯一来源,所以他们的大多数批评失去了他们所有的蒸汽!

In conclusion, I am tempted to think that BOTH of the following two articles are absolutely correct!最后,我忍不住想,下面的两篇文章都是绝对正确的!Yes, Moses DID author it so "The author of this Book was Moses."是的,摩西的作者这么说:“这本书的作者是摩西。”is absolutely true!绝对是真的! However, for logistical reasons, two or more "strands" got eventually written down hundreds of years later.然而,后勤方面的原因,两个或更多的“链”,最终写下了几百年以后。I do not really see why this (scholarly) concept is taken as so offensive by so many Christian writers!<我实在不明白为什么这个(学术)的概念是这样的进攻采取这么多的基督教作家!<

Book of Genesis书创世纪

Advanced Information先进的信息

Modern analysis indicates that the book of Genesis (and the other four Books of the Pentateuch) were written by a number of authors who assembled material from three traditions:现代分析表明,创世记(和其他四个摩西五书)是由一些作者谁组装从三个传统的书面材料:

Two of the additional authors are:另外作者的两个是:

RE Friedman suggests that when the Assyrians conquered the northern kingdom in 722 BC, many refugees streamed south into Judea, bringing their sacred writing "E" with them.RE弗里德曼表明,当亚述人征服了公元前722年的英国北部,许多难民流南到朱迪亚,使他们的神圣与写作“E”。Subsequently, E and J were combined into a single document, referred to as "JE."随后,E和J合并成一个单一的文件被称为“日本脑炎”。

D was written perhaps a century later.D的书面也许一个世纪之后。It was conveniently "discovered" in the temple by the priest Hilkiah in 622 BC, shortly after it was written.这是方便的“发现”,在由祭司希勒家在公元前622庙,不久后,这是写的。D was then joined with JE. D组则加入了日本脑炎。

P was written before the death of King Josiah in 609 BCE, probably during the reign of King Hezekiah.P的书面前,约西亚王死亡609 BCE,大概在希西家王在位。It was written as an alternate to JE.它被写作为JE备用。

R combined J, E, P and other documents together into the first four books of the Hebrew Scriptures.R的合并J,E,P和其他文件一起进入前四的希伯来文圣经的书籍。To this, he added D's writings, the book of Deuteronomy, to complete the Pentateuch.对此,他补充说D的著作,书中的申命记,完成摩西五。By the time that he did the editing, the JE, D and P documents were in wide circulation.到时候,他做了编辑,乙脑,D和P的文件是在广泛流通。Each was supported by various factions.每个得到了各种派别。R saw his task as attempting to join these sources together into a more or less cohesive, single document. ř视为试图加入到或多或少凝聚力,这些来源单一文件一起他的任务。Friedmann suspects that Ezra was the redactor.弗里德曼怀疑以斯拉是redactor的。

During the 18th Century, three investigators (Witter, Astruc and Eichhorn) independently concluded that doublets in the Torah were written by two different authors.在18世纪,三个调查(惠,阿斯特吕克和艾希霍恩)独立得出的结论是,在诵读经文双峰是由两个不同的作者写的。A doublet is a story that is described twice, as in:一个双峰是一个描述在两倍,故事:

These doublets sometimes appear to contradict each other.这些双峰有时会出现相互矛盾。In most cases, one referred to God as Yahweh while the other used the term Elohim .在大多数情况下,一个被称为耶和华上帝,而其他使用的术语罗欣

During the 19th Century, scholars noticed that there were a few triplets in the Torah.在19世纪,学者们注意到,在诵读经文,有几个三胞胎。This indicated that a third author was involved.这表明,三分之一的作者参与。Then, they determined that the book of Deuteronomy was written in a different language style from the remaining 4 books in the Pentateuch (implying a fourth author).然后,他们决定了申命记书是在不同的语言风格书面其余4中的摩西五(暗示第四作者)的书籍。Finally, by the end of the 19th Century, liberal scholars reached a consensus that 4 authors and one redactor (editor) had been actively involved in the writing of the Pentateuch.最后,在19世纪末,自由派学者达成一个作者和一个redactor的4(编辑)一直积极参与该pentateuch书面共识。

During the 20th Century, academics identified which verses (and parts of verses) were authored by the various writers.在20世纪,学者发现其中的诗句(和诗句部分)是由不同的作家创作的。They have also attempted to uncover the names of the authors.他们还试图揭示作者的姓名。In 1943, Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu in which he urged academics to study the sources of Biblical texts.1943年,教皇庇护十二世通谕发出的Divino Afflante Spiritu,他呼吁学术界,研究圣经文本的来源。Recent archeological discoveries and new linguistic analysis tools have facilitated the research.最近的考古发现和新的语言分析工具的研究提供了便利。

(BELIEVE Editor's Note:) (相信编者注:)

Moses was quite likely the original source for the information in the first five Books of the Bible, but these various "strands" or (unknown) ancient authors apparently actually wrote down various portions of what we now have as our Bible.摩西是很有可能的,在第一个五年书籍的圣经原始信息来源,但这些不同的“股”或(未知)古代作者显然实际上写下了我们现在作为我们的圣经有不同的部分。 To give an idea of how these various strands intertwine, the first ten chapters of the King James Authorized Version of the book of Genesis are presented here, with the original authors, according to the modern analyst RE Friedman, indicated in color: J E P R.举个如何将这些不同的链相互交织的想法,前十位的国王詹姆斯章授权的创世记版本这里介绍,与原来的作者,按照现代RE分析师弗里德曼表示颜色:J E P R.('E' did not contribute to this excerpt.)(“E”无助于这个摘录。)


1 (P) In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.1起初,神(P)创建的天地。
2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.2,地球是没有形式,而且无效;和黑暗后,深的脸。 And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.和上帝的精神所感动后,在水面上。
3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.3神说,要有光,就有了光。
4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.4神看灯,这是很好的:与神分开了黑暗的光。
5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.5神称光为昼,称暗为夜。And the evening and the morning were the first day.有晚上,有早晨,是第一天。
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.6神说,要有在苍穹之中的水域,并让它从水域划分的水域。
7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.7神所作的苍穹,并划分了水域,根据上面的水域,是苍穹苍穹是:它是如此。
8 And God called the firmament Heaven.8神称穹苍天。 And the evening and the morning were the second day.有晚上,有早晨,是第二日。
9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.9神说,让我们在天上的水要聚在一起所不欲,一个地方,让旱地露出来:它是如此。
10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.10神称旱地为地,以及聚集在一起的水域称为他海洋:神看着是好的。
11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.11神说,让我们的地球带来草,药草高产种子和果树高产后,他的一种,其种子本身,在地上的水果:它是如此。
12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.12和地球带来了草,药草高产种子后,他的那种,和树高产水果,其种子在自己后,他的那种:神看着是好的。
13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.13有晚上,有早晨,是第三日。
14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:14神说,要有在天上的苍穹灯光分昼夜的日子,并让他们为标志,和季节,为天,年:
15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.15,让他们在苍穹的天灯是让在地上光:它是如此。
16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.16神造了两个大光,大光统治一天,和小光统治夜:他做的星星也。
17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,17集神在天上穹苍他们给在地上光,
18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.18和统治白天和在深夜,来划分从黑暗光:神看着是好的。
19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.19有晚上,有早晨,是第四日。
20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. 20神说,让水域带来丰富的移动的生物说,祂所生活,家禽,可能在地球上空飞在天上的开放天空。
21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.21,上帝创造了巨大的鲸鱼,每一个生物的moveth,其中水域带来了丰富,各从其类,每类后,他的鸡翅膀:神看着是好的。
22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.22神就赐福他们说,要生养众多,并填写在海中的水,让鸡在地上繁殖。
23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.23有晚上,有早晨,是第五日。
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.24神说,让我们的地球带来的生物后,他的那种,牛,蠕动的东西,在他种的地上的走兽:它是如此。
25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.25神使后,他种的地上的走兽,和牛种后,每一个事情creepeth经地球后,他的那种:神看着是好的。
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.26神说,让我们在我们的形象的人,经过我们的相似:让他们有过海的鱼,在空中的飞鸟,地上的牲畜,和全地,并在每一个蠕动的事情creepeth在地上。
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.27因此,神创造了他自己的形象造人,在他的神的形象创造了他,男性和女性,他创造了他们。
28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.28神就赐福给他们,上帝对他们说,要生养众多,遍满地面,治理这地和:和有统治过海的鱼,在空中的飞鸟,并在每一个生命的东西在地上moveth。
29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.29神说,看哪,我已经给你的每药草轴承种子,这取决于所有地球面对的是,每一个树,在这是一个树高产制种果子,你应当对肉类。
30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.30的每一个地上的走兽,和每一个空中的飞鸟,并一切的creepeth后,地球,其中有生命,我给肉类每绿色药草:它是如此。
31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good.31神看着一切,他已经取得的东西,看哪,这是非常好的。And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.有晚上,有早晨,是第六日。


(P) 1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. (P)1因此天地好了之后,他们和所有的主机。
2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.2和第七天上帝结束了他的工作,他提出,他在第七日休息,从他的所有工作,他做了。
3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.3神赐福给第七日,神圣它:因为它是他从他的所有工作,上帝创造并休息。
4 (R) These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, (J) in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, 4(R)这些都是天堂和地球代的时候被创建,(J)的一天,耶和华上帝创造了地球和天空,
5 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.5,每一个领域的工厂收到了地球是,每一个领域药草前增长了:因为耶和华神还没有降雨造成它在地上,有没有一个人到了地上。
6 But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. 6但有上升,从地球的雾气,和浇水地面全脸。
7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.7耶和华神组成的地面尘土造人,将他的鼻孔呼吸的生命气息,他就成了有灵的活人。
8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.8和耶和华上帝种植园在东方的伊甸,并在那里,他把他有造人。
9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.9和出地面所取得的每一个成长耶和华神树是愉快的景象,好作食物,生活也是在花园中间树,以及对善恶知识树。
10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.10有河出去伊甸园水花园,以及从那里它是分手,并为四个头成了。
11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;11第一个名字是皮松:这就是它的compasseth的哈腓拉,哪里有黄金整体土地;
12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.12,土地和黄金是好的:有bdellium和玛瑙石。
13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.13和第二河的名字是由基红:同样是它的compasseth埃塞俄比亚的全地。
14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria.14和第三河的名字是Hiddekel:那就是它的走向亚述东部goeth。And the fourth river is Euphrates.和第四条河是幼发拉底河。
15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.15耶和华神将那人,并投入了伊甸园打扮它,并保持了他。
16 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:16和耶和华神吩咐他说的每一个花园你mayest自由吃树:
17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.17但是,对善恶知识树,你不可吃的:在那一天你eatest为何你必定死。
18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.18耶和华神说,这是不好的,该名男子应单独,我会让他成为帮助满足他。
19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.19和地面形成了耶和华神的每一个领域的野兽,和每一个空中的飞鸟,拿来给亚当他们看到他会叫他们:和任何亚当叫每一个生活的生物,那是名称及其。
20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. 20亚当给所有牛的名字,并在空中的飞鸟,和每一个领域的野兽,但亚当有没有找到帮助满足他。
21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;21耶和华神使深睡眠制住亚当和他睡:他把他的一条肋骨,并关闭了肉体,而不是人;
22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.22和肋骨,其中主神从人采取了他一个女人,领她到那人。
23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.23日和亚当说,这是现在我的骨头骨,肉中的肉,她应被称为女人,因为她被带到民了。
24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.24因此,人要离开他的妻子他的父亲和他的母亲,并应劈开:他们要成为一体。
25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.25他们都是赤身裸体,这名男子和他的妻子,并没有感到羞愧。


1 (J) Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made.1(J)现在的蛇比任何的耶和华神所造领域活物更狡猾。 And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?蛇对女人说,是啊,神岂是真说,你们不可吃园中所有的树?
2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:2,女人对蛇说,我们可以吃的是园中树上的果子:
3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.3但是,该树在花园中间是水果,神曾说,你们不可吃,也不可摸,免得你们死。
4 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:4,蛇对女人说,你们不一定死:
5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.因为神5 doth知道,你们吃的日子不足,那么你的眼睛,应打开了,你们便如神能知道善恶。
6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. 6当女人见那棵树的果子好作食物,而且它是愉快的眼睛,和树可喜爱的,能使人有智慧,就摘下的果子,并没有吃,对她也给了与她的丈夫和他吃。
7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.7和他们的眼睛都被打开了,他们知道,他们是赤裸裸的,而他们拿无花果树的叶子,并提出了自己的围裙。
8 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.8他们听到的声音在耶和华神在天凉花园里散步:和亚当和他的妻子隐瞒了主神之一的园林树木的存在本身。
9 And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?9耶和华神叫祂亚当,对他说,你在哪里艺术?
10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.10他说,我听说你在花园里的声音,我很害怕,因为我赤身露体,而我躲在自己。
11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked?11他说,谁告诉你说你废赤裸裸?Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? 难道你吃的树,以资证明我吩咐你说你shouldest不能吃?
12 And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.12那人说,该女子谁你gavest要与我,她给我的树,我就吃了。
13 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done?13和耶和华神对女人说,这是什么是祢做什么?And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.而女人说,那蛇引诱我,我就吃了。
14 And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:14耶和华神对蛇说,因为祢这样做,你的艺术首先是牛骂,上面的每一个领域的野兽;在你的肚子你必去,和尘埃shalt你吃你的生命所有的日子:
15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.15,我会把你和女人之间的敌意,与你的后裔和她的种子,它要伤你的头,你要伤他的脚跟。
16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.16对女人说,我将极大地乘你的悲伤和你的概念,在悲伤你要带出的孩子和你的愿望应是你的丈夫,他将统治你。
17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;17所不欲,亚当和他说,因为祢听从所不欲,你的妻子的声音,HAST吃的树,我吩咐你说,你不可吃的:诅咒是为你的缘故地,在悲伤你必吃它的所有的你的生活天;
18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;18荆棘和蒺藜也将它带来给你,和你吃田间的菜蔬;
19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.在你的脸必汗19你吃面包,直到你所不欲,返回地面,为它废了你的行动:对粉尘祢,和你们灰尘shalt你的回报。
20 And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. 20亚当给他妻子起名叫夏娃,因为她是众生之母。
21 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.21赐给亚当还和他的妻子做了耶和华神使皮大衣,衣服给他们穿。
22 And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:22耶和华神说,看哪,这名男子是成为当自己人,要知道善恶:现在,免得他提出了他的手,走也是生命树的果子吃,就永远活着:
23 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.23因此,耶和华神便打发他提出从伊甸园去,耕种他从何处被带到地面。
24 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.24于是把他赶出去了;他放在伊甸园的基路伯花园东,和火焰的剑变成各种方式,以保持生命树的道路。


1 (J) And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.1(J)和亚当夏娃知道他的妻子和她的构想,和裸该隐说,我已经得到从耶和华的人。
2 And she again bare his brother Abel.2她再次袒露了他的弟弟亚伯。And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.和亚伯是一个羊门将,但该隐是地面分蘖。
3 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.3和时间的过程中它来传递,即该隐的地面水果带来了耶和华的产品。
4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. 4和亚伯,他还带来了他的羊群和脂肪不足的firstlings。And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:耶和华已所不欲,亚伯的尊重和对他的产品:
5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect.5但祂该隐和他的供他不尊重。And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.而该隐是非常发怒,他的面容下跌。
6 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth?6耶和华对该隐说,你为什么发怒?and why is thy countenance fallen?为什么是你的面容下降?
7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted?7如果你的旨意好,你必不被接受?and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door.如果你的旨意不好,罪lieth在门口。And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.而祢应他的愿望,并在他身上你必治。
8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.8亚伯和该隐交谈,他的兄弟:和它来通过,当他们在外地工作,该隐起来反对他的兄弟亚伯,他和转换。
9 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother?9耶和华对该隐说,你兄弟亚伯在哪里?And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?他说,我不知道:我是我弟弟的门将?
10 And he said, What hast thou done?10他说,祢做什么? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.对你兄弟的血从地上的声音crieth对我。
11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;11现在你骂艺术从地球上,其中祂所张开了嘴,从你手里接受你兄弟的血;
12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.12当你tillest地面,不得今后产量祢她的实力,一个逃犯和一个流浪汉shalt你在地上。
13 And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear.13该隐对耶和华说,我的惩罚大于我所能承受的。
14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me.14看哪,祢驱动我离开这一天从地球表面,并从你的脸我应该是藏,而我将是一个逃犯,并在地球流浪者,并应成为过去,每一个findeth我会杀死我。
15 And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.15,耶和华对他说,因此凡slayeth该隐,报复,应根据他采取七倍。And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.耶和华集后该隐一个标记,以免任何找到他要杀死他。
16 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.16日和该隐走了出去,从耶和华的存在,并住在土地上的Nod的伊甸园东边。
17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch.17该隐知道他的妻子和她的构想,和裸诺:和他builded一个城市,并呼吁城市的名字后,他的儿子,以诺的名字。
18 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech.18和祂诺出生IRAD:和IRAD生了Mehujael:和Mehujael生了Methusael:和Methusael生了拉麦。
19 And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.19拉麦对他两个妻子了:在一个名字是亚大,和其他齐拉的名字。
20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.20日和亚大裸Jabal的:他是住在帐篷里,如父亲,以及诸如有牛。
21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.21和他的兄弟的名字是犹八:他是所有如处理竖琴和器官的父亲。
22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.22日和齐拉,她还裸露Tubalcain,每一个在铜,铁设计者instructer:和Tubalcain妹妹Naamah。
23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt.23拉麦对他妻子说,亚大和洗拉,听我的声音;的拉麦,倾听你们的妻子所不欲,我的发言:因为我有一个人被杀害我伤人,一个小伙子到我的伤害。
24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.24如果该隐应报复七倍,真正拉麦seventy和七倍。
25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew. 25日和亚当知道他的妻子又和她生了一个儿子,叫他的名字塞思:为上帝,她说,祂所任命我又不是阿贝尔种子,其中该隐转换。
26 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.26至塞思,他也有出生的儿子,他叫他的名字埃诺斯:然后开始男子呼吁耶和华的名。


1 (R) This is the book of the generations of Adam.1(R),这是亚当的后代书。In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;在上帝创造的神相似的人,一天做他他;
2 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.2男性和女性,他创造了他们,并祝福他们,并要求在创建时,他们一天他们的名字亚当。
3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:3亚当活到一百三十岁,生在他自己的肖像一个儿子后,他的形象,以及他的名字叫赛斯:
4 And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters: 4和亚当之后的日子里,他独生塞特是800年:和他生了儿子和女儿:
5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.5和所有的日子,亚当活了930年:就死了。
6 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos:6和Seth活到一百五年,生了以挪士:
7 And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters:7和Seth生活后,他生了埃诺斯807年,并生了儿子和女儿:
8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died.8和所有的塞特日子912年:就死了。
9 And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan:9和eNOS生活90年,并生了彩南:
10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters: 10和eNOS后,他住生了彩南815年,并生了儿子和女儿:
11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died.11和所有的eNOS的日子905年:就死了。
12 And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalaleel:12和彩南住古稀,并生了玛勒列:
13 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters:13和彩南后,他住生了玛勒列840年,并生了儿子和女儿:
14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.14和所有的彩南日子910年:就死了。
15 And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared:15玛勒列活sixty和五年,并生了贾里德:
16 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters: 16日和住在他生了玛勒列贾里德830年,并生了儿子和女儿:
17 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died. 17玛勒列和所有的日子,890和五年:就死了。
18 And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch:18雅列活到一百六十,两年了,他生了以诺:
19 And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: 19日和贾里德生活后,他生了以诺八百年,并且生了儿子和女儿:
20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died.20日和所有的贾里德日子九百六十两年:他死了。
21 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah: 21以诺活sixty和五年,生了玛土撒拉:
22 And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: 22以诺与神走了后,他生了玛土撒拉三百年,并且生了儿子和女儿:
23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years:23日和所有的诺天数三百六十五年:
24 And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.24以诺与神走了:他没有,因为神把他。
25 And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech:25日和玛土撒拉活到一百八十七年,并生了拉麦:
26 And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters:26玛土撒拉活后,他生了拉麦七八两年,生儿子和女儿:
27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died. 27和所有的玛士撒拉日子九百六十和九年:他死了。
28 And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son:28拉麦活到一百八十两年,并生了一个儿子:
29 (J) And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed.29(J)和他叫他的名字诺亚说,这同样会安慰我们对我们的工作和我们的双手劳作,由于地面其中耶和华诅咒。
30 (R) And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters:30(R)和拉麦住在他生了挪亚590和五年,并生了儿子和女儿:
31 And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died. 31日和所有的拉麦日子770和七年:就死了。
32 And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth.32挪亚是五百岁:和挪亚生了闪,含,雅弗。


1 (J) And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,1(J)和它来传递,当男人开始繁衍在地球上的脸,对他们的女儿出生了,
2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.2,神的儿子看到了男人,他 ​​们是公平的女儿,他们把他们所有,他们选择了妻子。
3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.3,耶和华说,我一直努力的精神,不得与男子,他也是肉,但他的日子应是一百二十年。
4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.4有巨人在地球在那些日子里,并在这之后,当神的儿子来到祂的人的女儿,他们给他们裸露的儿童,同样成为其中五岁,著名男子勇士。
5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.5神看,人的邪恶是在地球很大,每一位他内心的想法,只是邪恶的想象力不断。
6 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.6它后悔了,他作出了在地球上的人耶和华,并在他的心他的悲痛。
7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.7和耶和华说,我会破坏人被我从地球上创造的;既人,兽,和爬行事,和空中的飞鸟,它悔改我,我提出这些建议。
8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.8但挪亚在耶和华眼前蒙恩。
9 (P) These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God.9(P)这是诺亚的后代:诺亚是一个正直的人,并完善了几代人,挪亚与神同行。
10 And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.10挪亚生了三个儿子,就是闪,含,雅弗。
11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence. 11地球也是腐败的上帝面前,地球是充满了暴力。
12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.12神看着在地上,不料,这是腐败的,所有的肉已损坏在地上了路。
13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.13神对挪亚说,所有的肉到底是来到我面前,因为地上满了他们的暴力行为,以及看哪,我将毁灭地球的。
14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.14让你的歌斐木方舟;球场内,不与客房shalt你作出的方舟,它必间距。
15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.15,这是时尚的你要使它成为:在方舟的长度应为300肘,它的宽五十肘,和它的高三十肘。
16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.16一个窗口,shalt你作出的方舟,并在一肘shalt你完成它上面;以及方舟shalt你在身边及其设置门;较低,第二和第三的故事shalt你做到这一点。
17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die.17,不料,我,连我自己,做带来的洪水后,地球水域,销毁所有的肉,其中,是生命的气息,从下天堂,以及每一件事情,在地球是会死。
18 But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.18但我会与你建立我的约,和你进入方舟,你和你的儿子,和你的妻子,和你的儿子“与你的妻子来了。
19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female.19及凡有血肉的活物,每样必two你带入方舟,让他们与你活着,他们应是男性和女性。
20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.20后的一种家禽和牲畜各从其类的每一个地球爬行后,他的那种东西,每样两名仲裁员来告诉你,让他们活着。
21 And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.21,采取祢你是吃的所有食物,和你收集到你,并应为你的食物,并为他们。
22 Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.22因此,没有诺亚;根据所有上帝命令他,所以没有他。


[Note: Chapter 7 and 8 are of particular interest, as the text switches frequently between the two main authors.[注:第7和8是特别感兴趣,因为文本开关频繁两者之间的主要作者。The Redactor seems to have wanted to preserve both the J and P accounts more or less intact.的redactor似乎都希望保留的J和P账户或多或少完好无损。As a result, the text is quite repetitious:因此,文字是相当重复:

A slight conflict seems to exist:一个轻微的冲突似乎存在:

One or more verses from J are followed by one or more verses from P. If you read only the J verses, then you will get a coherent story.一个或多个从J诗句后面是一个或多个体育节如果你只读了J诗句,那么你会得到一个连贯的故事。If you read just the P verses, you will see a consistent but slightly different story.如果你刚读的P诗句,你会看到一个一致的,但略有不同的故事。

Verses by J诗篇由J Verses by P and by R诗篇由P和由R
1 And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.1,耶和华对挪亚说,进入方舟,你和所有你的房子,对你没看到我之前在这一代人的正义。
2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female.和兽不干净2名,男与女:每一个干净的兽你要采取七人,男性和女性的你2。
3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.在家禽的空气也被七人3,男性和女性,以保持种子后,所有在地球上生存。
4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.4对于尚未七天,我将导致它下雨在地上四十天,四十夜,以及各种活物,我已经将我摧毁从离地球表面。
5 And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.5挪亚并根据所不欲,所有的耶和华吩咐他。
6 (R) And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.6(R)和诺亚是六百岁的时候,水域洪水在地上了。
7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.7挪亚走了进去,和他的儿子和他的妻子,他的儿子和他的妻子,进入方舟,因为洪水的水域。
8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth, 8清洁野兽和野兽的不干净,和家禽,和每一个事情creepeth后,地球,
9 There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.9进去有两个及两个进入方舟,男性和女性,因为上帝吩咐诺亚对挪亚。
10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.10和它来通过后七天,洪水水域在地上。
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.在挪亚六百岁11日,在第二个月,当月17日,当天是所有破碎的伟大深刻的喷泉,和天上的窗户也敞开了。
12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.12和雨在地上四十天,四十夜。
13 In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark;在13正当那日进入挪亚,和闪,含,雅弗,挪亚的儿子,诺亚的妻子和他的儿子与他们的三个妻子进入方舟;
14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.14他们,每一种兽后,他和所有的牲畜各从其类,每一个蠕动的事情后,他的那种土后,每样后,他的鸡,每样每一个鸟creepeth。
15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life.15他们在祂诺亚方舟走进了两个和两个所有肉,其中,是生命的气息。
16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him:16他们说走了进去,在男性和女性的所有肉,因为神吩咐他去:
16 (Cont'd) and the LORD shut him in.16(续)和耶和华关闭他。
17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth.17和洪水是四十几天后,地球和水域增加,裸了方舟,它是电梯上面培土。
18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters.18和水域占了上风,并在地上大大增加,以及方舟后,在水面上了。
19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered.19日和水域极为盛行在地上,和所有的高山,下了整个天堂,都淹没了。
20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.20十五肘向上没有水域为准;和山都淹没了。
21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man:21和所有的肉死在地上,既家禽和牲畜,和野兽,和每一个蠕动的东西感动了在地上,每个人creepeth:
22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.22所有在其鼻孔是所有生命的气息,在干燥的土地,死亡。
23 And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.23日和每一个生活的物质被摧毁后,它面对的地面,连人带,和牛,和蠕动的东西,天上的飞鸟是和他们从地球毁灭:和诺亚唯一仍然活着,他们这是与他 ​​在方舟。
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.24和水域盛行后,地球一百五十天。


[Note: Again, we see frequent alterations between J and P.[注:同样,我们看到J和体育之间的频繁变更

Verses by J诗篇由J Verses by P and by R诗篇由P和由R
1 And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged;1神想起诺亚,和每一个生命的东西,所有的牛 ​​,与他同在方舟:上帝做了风越过地球和水域asswaged;
2 The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped,2,也深和天上的窗户喷泉被停止,
2 (Cont'd) and the rain from heaven was restrained;2(续)和从天上下雨受到抑制;
3 And the waters returned from off the earth continually:3而从离地球不断传回的水域:
3 (Cont'd) and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated.3(续)后的一百五十天的水域被减弱结束。
4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.4,在第七方舟休息一个月,在本月17日,在亚拉腊山上。
5 And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.5,水域不断下降,直到第十个月:在第十一个月,在每月的第一天,人是看到山顶。
6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made:6和它来通过在四十天,诺亚打开了,他作出了方舟窗口:
7 And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.7他就差乌鸦,其中又以提出来来回回,直到水域干涸,从关闭培土。
8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground;8此外,他就差从他鸽子,看看水是从离地面面减弱;
9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark.9但是,鸽子没有发现她的脚底休息,她回到祂进入方舟,为水域整个地球的表面是:然后他提出了他的手,拉着她,并拉着她的他所不欲,进入方舟。
10 And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark;10他还住其他七天;又一次他差遣的方舟的鸽子了;
11 And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.11,排在他鸽子在晚上和,罗,在她的嘴是一个橄榄叶pluckt关:让诺亚知道水是从离地球减弱。
12 And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more.12他下榻还有一些七天;和就差鸽子;它返回not再次对他了。
13 And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth:13和它来传递的第六百和第一年,在第一个月,该月的第一天,水就从离地球干起来:
13 (Cont'd) and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.13(续) 和诺亚方舟去掉了覆盖,神情,不料,面对地面干燥。
14 And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.14,在第二月,在七月份二十日,是地球上干燥。
15 And God spake unto Noah, saying,15神对挪亚说话,他说,
16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee.16你出来的方舟,你和你的妻子,和你的儿子,和你儿子的妻子与你同在。
17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.17带出与你同在每一个生活的事是与你,所有的肉,禽都和牛,和每一个蠕动的事情creepeth后,地球,它们可能会滋生大量存在于地球上,并富有成果的,乘在地上。
18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him:18挪亚又提出,和他的儿子和他的妻子,他的儿子和他的妻子:
19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark. 19每个野兽,爬的一切,每一个鸡,和任何在地上creepeth,种后,又提出了走出方舟。
20 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.20日和诺亚builded耶和华筑一座坛,和每一个干净的野兽了,和每一个干净的家禽,并提供在祭坛上燔祭。
21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.21耶和华闻到馨香,以及耶和华说,在他的心中,我不会再骂人的人的缘故地面任何更多;为男人的心想象是从他的青年邪恶;我也不会再次击打任何更多的每生活的事,我做了。
22 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.22,而地球remaineth,seedtime和收获,冷和热,夏天和冬天,昼夜不得停止。


1 (P) And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.1(P)神赐福挪亚和他的儿子,对他们说,要生养众多,遍满地面。
2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.2,你和你的恐惧的恐惧,应在每一个地上的走兽,并要求每一个空中的飞鸟,呼吁所有在地上moveth,并呼吁所有的海鱼类;他们到你的手交付使用。
3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.3每一个动人的事情活着,应为你肉,甚至作为绿色药草有我给你所有的东西。
4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. 4但是,肉及其与生活,这是血条,应你们不能吃。
5 And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man.5和肯定你的血,我将你们的生活需要;在每一个野兽的手将我需要它,并在人的手,在每个人的弟弟的手将我需要人的生命。
6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.6 Whoso sheddeth人的血,他的血的人应被棚:在上帝的形象造他的人。
7 And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein.7而你,你们要生养众多,带来丰富的地球,并繁衍其中。
8 And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,8神吩咐挪亚和他的儿子跟他说,
9 And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you; 9我,看哪,我与您建立我的约,并与您的种子后;
10 And with every living creature that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth.10和每一个生活的生物,与你的是,在鸡,牛的,和每一个与你地上的走兽;去从所有出了方舟,每一个地上的走兽。
11 And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.11,我将与你我的约,所有的肉都不应被切断的洪水水域任何以上;也不再有任何更多的是一个洪水毁灭地球。
12 And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:12神说,这是该公约,我我和你,每一个活的动物,是与您永久的几代人,使标记:
13 I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth.13我在云中设置我的弓,它应为一个我与地球公约令牌。
14 And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud:14它应成为过去,当我把一个比地球云,即弓应在云中看出:
15 And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh.15我会记得我的约,介于我和你,每一个有血肉的活物;及水域不得不再成为洪水摧毁所有的肉体。
16 And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.16日和船头应在云中,而我将眼光来看待它,我可能还记得神与凡有血肉的在地上的生物永远的约。
17 And God said unto Noah, This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.17神对挪亚说,这是该公约,我有我和所有的肉在地上建立令牌。
18 (J) And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan.18(J)和诺亚,即去的方舟第四,儿子闪,含,雅弗:和火腿是迦南的父亲。
19 These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth overspread. 19这是挪亚的三个儿子和他们是整个地球蔓延。
20 And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard:20挪亚开始是一个农夫,他栽了一个葡萄园:
21 And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. 21他喝的酒,并于醉酒,以及他发现在他的帐篷。
22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without.22和火腿,迦南的父亲,看到了他的父亲的下体,并告诉他的两个兄弟没有。
23 And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness.23和闪和雅弗采取了服装,并奠定了它在两肩上,走到落后,涵盖了他们的父亲赤身露体,他们的脸上落后,他们看到的不是他们父亲的下体。
24 And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him. 24挪亚醒了,从他的酒,知道什么他的小儿子对他做了。
25 And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.25他说,诅咒是迦南,一个仆人的仆人,他 ​​应是对他的弟兄。
26 And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. 26他说,是应当称颂耶和华的闪神,迦南应他的仆人。
27 God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.27上帝应放大雅弗,他应住在闪的帐篷和迦南应他的仆人。
28 (R) And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years.28(R)和诺亚住洪水过后350年。
29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years: and he died.29日和所有的诺亚日子950年:就死了。

CHAPTER 10第10章

1 (R) Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: (P) and unto them were sons born after the flood.1(R)现在这些都是挪亚,闪,含,雅弗的儿子的后代:(P)和对他们被洪水后出生的儿子。
2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.2,儿子雅弗;歌篾,和玛,和马岱,以及爪哇,和输卵管,和Meshech和库尔提拉斯。
3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.3,歌篾的儿子Ashkenaz,并Riphath,和陀迦玛。
4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.4和爪哇儿子Elishah,和他施,Kittim和Dodanim。
5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.通过这5人在他们的土地分了外邦人小岛,每后,他的舌头,在他们的家庭,在他们的国家。
6 And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.6和火腿的儿子古实和麦西和弗,迦南。
7 And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.7和古实的儿子是西巴,哈腓拉和,和Sabtah和Raamah和Sabtecha:和Raamah儿子示巴和底但。
8 (J) And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.8(J)和古实生了尼姆罗德:他开始在地球上一支强大的之一。
9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD.9他是一个强大的猎人在耶和华面前:哪,这是说,即使宁录在耶和华面前威武的猎人。
10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.10和他的王国开始了巴贝尔和Erech和阿卡德,并Calneh,在示拿地。
11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,11,土地出了来回亚述,尼尼微和builded,城市里霍博斯,并Calah,
12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city.12之间的尼尼微和Calah RESEN:同样是一个伟大的城市。
13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,13和麦西生了Ludim和Anamim和Lehabim和Naphtuhim,
14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.14和Pathrusim和Casluhim(出人来Philistim)和Caphtorim。
15 And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth,15迦南生了西顿他的长子,和赫,
16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite,16和耶布斯人,亚摩利人,并和Girgasite,
17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,17,希未人,和Arkite和Sinite,
18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.18和Arvadite和Zemarite和Hamathite:和后来都是国外传播的迦南人的家属。
19 And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha.19和边境的迦南人是从西顿,因为你COMEST到基拉耳,祂加沙;为你里去,不欲多玛,和蛾摩拉,和押玛,和Zeboim,甚至所不欲,拉萨。
20 (P) These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations.20(P)这是咸的儿子,在他们的家庭,在他们的方言,在他们的国家,并在他们的国家。
21 (J) Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born.21赐给闪(J)也,所有的希伯,雅弗的哥哥,孩子的父亲甚至对他是儿童出生。
22 (P) The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.22(P)的儿童闪,以拦,和亚述,和亚法撒,路德,和亚兰。
23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.23和亚兰的儿童;乌斯,和讫,并Gether,并捣碎。
24 (J) And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber.24(J)和亚法撒生了沙拉和沙拉生了希伯。
25 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.25日和祂希伯生了两个儿子:一个名字是法勒,在他的天是地球分裂;和他的兄弟的名字是约坍。
26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazar-maveth, and Jerah,26约坍生了Almodad和Sheleph和哈撒拉- maveth和Jerah,
27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah,27和Hadoram和Uzal和Diklah,
28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba,28和Obal和阿维马埃尔,和示巴,
29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan.29和奥弗,和哈腓拉,约巴和:所有这些都是约坍的儿子。
30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east.30和他们的住宅是从米沙,作为一所不欲Sephar东部安装你里去。
31 (P) These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.31(P)这是闪的儿子,在他们的家庭,在他们的方言,在他们的土地,在他们的国家。
32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.32这是挪亚的儿子的家庭,在他们的后代,在他们国家:和这些人在地球划分洪水过后的国家。


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The five books of Moses were collectively called the Pentateuch, a word of Greek origin meaning "the five-fold book."摩西五书被统称为五经,有希腊血统的字意为“五倍的书。”The Jews called them the Torah, ie, "the law."犹太人称他们诵读经文,即“法律”。It is probable that the division of the Torah into five books proceeded from the Greek translators of the Old Testament.这是有可能的是,律法书分为五个部门从旧约的希腊文翻译进行。The names by which these several books are generally known are Greek.通过这些书是一般人都知道几个名字是希腊语。The first book of the Pentateuch (qv) is called by the Jews Bereshith, ie, "in the beginning", because this is the first word of the book.在摩西五(QV)的第一本书叫的犹太人Bereshith,即“一开始”,因为这是书的第一个字。It is generally known among Christians by the name of Genesis, ie, "creation" or "generation," being the name given to it in the LXX.一般人都知道它是由基督徒之间的成因,即“创造”或“代”,正考虑在LXX给它的名称。as designating its character, because it gives an account of the origin of all things.作为指定的性质,因为它给了万物的起源。It contains, according to the usual computation, the history of about two thousand three hundred and sixty-nine years.据载,按照通常的计算,约两千三百历史和69年。

Genesis is divided into two principal parts.Genesis是分为两个主要部分。The first part (1-11) gives a general history of mankind down to the time of the Dispersion.第一部分(1-11)给出了一个人类历史上的一般的分散时间。The second part presents the early history of Israel down to the death and burial of Joseph (12-50).第二部分介绍下到死亡和约瑟夫(12-50),埋葬在以色列的早期历史。There are five principal persons brought in succession under our notice in this book, and around these persons the history of the successive periods is grouped, viz., Adam (1-3), Noah (4-9), Abraham (10-25:18), Isaac (25:19-35:29), and Jacob (36-50).有受到我们的注意连续五个主要在这本书的人,并围绕这些人的历史时期的连续进行分组,即亚当(1-3),诺亚(4-9),亚伯拉罕(10-25 :18),以撒(25:19-35:29),雅各(36-50)。In this book we have several prophecies concerning Christ (3:15; 12:3; 18:18; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14; 49:10).在这本书中,我们有关于基督(3:15; 12时03分,18时18分,22时18分,26:4,28:14,49:10)几个预言。The author of this book was Moses.本书的作者是摩西。Under divine guidance he may indeed have been led to make use of materials already existing in primeval documents, or even of traditions in a trustworthy form that had come down to his time, purifying them from all that was unworthy; but the hand of Moses is clearly seen throughout in its composition.神圣的指导下,他可能确实已导致使原始文件已经在现有材料的使用,甚至在一个值得信赖的形式,已回落到他的时间,净化从所有不配他们传统,但摩西的手清楚地看到整个在其组成。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Genesis Chapter 1创世记第一章

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From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯M灰色


Creation of Heaven and Earth创作天地

v. 1 Here are three facts.五,1这里有三个事实。What was done?是什么呢?Who did it?谁做的呢?When did it occur?它是什么时候发生的?There are two words that require explanation, "created" and "beginning."有两个词需要解释,“创造”和“的开始。”Does the former mean that heaven and earth were created out of nothing?前者意味着是否天地人创造出什么呢?The word ("bara," in Hebrew) does not necessarily mean that, but its peculiar use in this chapter suggests that it means that here. It occurs three times, here in v. 1, at the introduction of life on the fifth day, and at the creation of man on the sixth day. Elsewhere, where only transformations are meant, another word ("asah" in Hebrew) is used, translated "made." "Bara" (created) is thus reserved for marking the introduction of each of the three great spheres of existence, the world of matter, of animal life and of spirit, all three of which, though intimately associated, are distinct in essence, and constitute all the universe known to us.这个词(“巴拉”,在希伯来文)并不一定意味着,但其独特的使用在本章中表明,它意味着在这里, 它发生在第五每日3次,在第1节在这里的生活介绍, ,并在男子第六天创造。其他地方,其中只有转换的意思,另一个字(“asah”在希伯来文)时,译为“使 ”“巴拉”(创建),因此保留标志着介绍对三大领域的存在,物质世界的动物生活和精神,每一个,三个,其中,虽然密切相关,在本质上是不同的,并构成对我们所有已知的宇宙。

Professor Guyot adds that whenever the simple form of "bara" is used in the Bible it always refers to work made by God and never by man.瞿岳教授补充说,每当“巴拉”简单的形式是在圣经中使用它总是指神的工作,从不人造之。These considerations, with others, justify the statement that "created" here means created out of nothing.这些因素,与他人,理由是“创造”在这里声明方式创建无中生有。But when was the "beginning"?但是,当是“开始”?The margin indicates a period about 4,000 years before Christ, but these marginal notes are not part of the divine text, but the work of uninspired minds and therefore open to debate. Should science ultimately determine on millions of years ago as the period of the creation there is nothing in this verse of the Bible it would contradict.保证金表明公元前约4000年,但这些旁注不属于神圣文本的一部分,但缺乏创意的思想工作,因此公开辩论是否应该对科学最终确定万年为周期前的创作还有就是在这种矛盾的圣经经文,将什么。

Making Day制作日

vv.VV。2-5 What was the condition of inert matter as represented in verse 2?2-5什么是惰性物质条件,如第2节的代表?The first verb "was" has sometimes been translated "became."第一个动词“是”有时被翻译“成了。”Read it thus and you get the idea that originally the earth was otherwise than void and waste, but that some catastrophe took place resulting in that state.阅读它,你会得到这样的想法最初是地球以外无效和浪费,但有些灾难发生在该州造成的。This means, if true, that a period elapsed between verses 1 and 2, long enough to account for the geological formations of which some scientists speak, and a race of pre-Adamite men of which others speculate.这意味着,如果属实,这之间经过的诗句1和2,足够长的时间占了地质构造的一些科学家说,与前裸体的人,其中男性他人猜测比赛的时期。 It suggests too that the earth as we now know it may not be much older than tradition places it.它也表明,地球,因为我们现在知道它可能不会有太大的地方,它比传统旧。

The word "earth" in this verse, however, must not be understood to mean our globe with its land and seas, which was not made till the third day, but simply matter in general, that is, the cosmic material out of which the Holy Spirit organized the whole universe, including the earth of to-day.这个词“地球”这一诗句,但是,绝不能被理解为指其土地和海洋,这是不直到第三天,使我们的地球,而只是一般的问题,也就是说,宇宙物质,其中的圣灵有组织整个宇宙,包括向天大地。 "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters."“与神的精神所感动后,在水面上。”"Moved upon" means brooded over as a bird on its nest.“感动于”反复思量作为其巢鸟多手段。"Waters" means not the oceans and seas as we know them, but the gaseous condition of the matter before spoken of.“水”是指没有海洋,因为我们了解他们,但问题的气态情况后谈到。The Spirit of God moved "upon" the waters, and not "inside of" them, showing that God is a personal Being separate from His work.神的精神所感动“后”的水域,而不是“内部”他们,可见神是个人作为从他的工作是分开的。As the result of this brooding, what appeared?作为本次育雏的结果,出现了什么?

We need not suppose that God spake just as a human being speaks, but the coming forth of light out of thick darkness would have seemed to a spectator as the effect of a divine command (Ps. 33:6-9).我们不需要假设上帝说话,就像一个人说话,但未来提出的光厚黑暗似乎将作为一个神圣的命令(诗篇33:6-9)起观众。 On the natural plane of things vibration is light or produces light, which illustrates the relation between the moving of the Spirit upon inert matter and the effect it produced.在平面上的东西自然光或振动产生的光,这说明了在惰性物质之间的运动的精神和它产生的效果的关系。"And God called the light day." “神称光为昼。”The Hebrew word "yom," translated "day," is used in five different senses in the first two chapters of Genesis.希伯来文“赎罪”,翻译成“天”,是用五创世纪的前两章不同的感觉。Here it means light without reference to time.这里是指未经时间的光。Later in the same verse it means the period covered by "the evening and the morning" mentioned, the exact duration of which we do not know.后来在同一诗句意思是“有晚上,有早晨”中提到,确切的期限,我们不知道所涵盖的时期。

At verse 14 it stands for what we know as 24 hours, at verse 16 it means the light part of the day of 24 hours, and at 2:4 the whole period during which the heaven and the earth were created.在14节它代表着我们24小时内都知道,在16节就意味着一天24小时的光部分,并在2时04分整期,其间的天地被创造了。 All this bears on the question whether creation was wrought in 6 days of 24 hours or 6 day-periods of unknown length; and it will be seen that one does not necessarily contradict the Bible if he believes the latter.这一切都事关是否建立了6所造成的24小时或6天的长度未知时段天,和我们将看到,一个并不违背圣经,如果他认为后者。 When we recall that days of 12 and 24 hours were altogether excluded before the appearance of the sun on the fourth day, the latter hypothesis receives the stronger confirmation.当我们回顾12和24小时天,共有前,太阳在第四天出现排斥,后者假设接收更强的确认。

Making Heaven制作天堂

vv.VV。6-8 What does God call forth in verse 6?6-8什么是神的呼召在第6节规​​定?"Firmament" might be translated by "expanse."“苍穹”可能是翻译的“汪洋”。What was it to divide?那是什么分?Notice that according to our definition of "waters" this means a separation of the gaseous matter into which light had now come.请注意,根据我国“水”的定义,这意味着该气态物质进入其中轻了现在来分离。What did God call this expanse?什么上帝称之为广阔?"Heaven" here means not simply the atmosphere around the earth but the greater chamber of immensity where the sun, moon and stars are located. “天人合一”,是指不能简单地绕地球大气层,但更大的广袤室,太阳,月亮和星星的位置。In connection with this read Psalm 148, and notice that there are "waters," that is, gaseous matter above the heaven of which this verse speaks, and that the "waters" below it include the clouds of our atmosphere as well as the oceans and seas we navigate.与此读诗篇148,并注意有“水”,即,上面的天堂,而本节讲气态物质,而且连接的“水”它下面包括我们的大气云层以及海洋和海洋我们浏览。

Making Earth and Seas使地球和海洋

vv.VV。9-13 What command goes forth from God on the third day (v. 9)?9-13什么命令云神提出的第三天(9节)?What did He call the result (v. 10)?他叫什么结果(10节)?Heaven, or the firmament, had divided the cosmic or gaseous matter on the second day.天堂,或苍穹,已划分了第二天宇宙或气态物质。Motion was now everywhere, and gravition and chemical forces tended to concentrate this matter under the firmament around particular centres, one of which became our globe.运动现在随处可见,gravition和化学力趋于集中下,围绕中心,特别是苍穹这件事情,其中​​之一成为我们的地球。 A cooling process set in, shrinking and folding its surface into great wrinkles, the shrinking of some parts furnishing basins for oceans or seas and the projection of other parts bringing continents into view.在冷却过程中设置,收缩,折叠成伟大的皱纹,对一些海洋或海洋和其他部件的投影带入认为大陆部分家具盆地缩小其表面。 Thus would astronomers and geologists comment on these verses.因此,天文学家和地质学家会评论这些经文。But another work than the formation of the globe was accomplished on this day (vv. 11, 12).但另一种比地球形成的工作是完成在这一天(vv. 11,12)。A principle superior to matter begins to govern its particles, and they assume new forms.一个原则优于问题开始执政的粒子,它们承担的新形式。What does the earth put forth?什么是地球的提​​出来呢?Which came first, the plant or the seed?哪个先有植物或种子?"The plant is not yet life," says Guyot, "but the bridge between matter and life." “该工厂尚未生命,说:”居约“,但物质与生活的桥梁。”

Making Lights使灯

vv.VV。14-19 What command went forth on the fourth day?14-19什么命令去提出第四天?For what six purposes were these lights made (v. 14, 15)?对于什么six目的是使这些灯(14节,15)?What discrimination is made between the two greater lights (v. 16)?什么歧视是由两者之间的更大的灯(16节)?Where were the lights placed (v. 17)?如果是放在灯(17节)?What special purpose of their making is emphasized in verses 17 and 18?什么样的目的,是他们作出特别强调在17和18节?It is well to keep in mind that light itself was made on the first day, and that these "lights" of the fourth day were (so to speak) light-holders.它可以很好地记住,光本身作出的第一天,而这些“灯”的第四天了(这么说)轻持有人。It is of course unnecessary to state how they divide the day from the night, and in what sense they are for signs and seasons, as every one knows the first result is secured by the daily rotation of the earth among them on its own axis, and the second by its annual revolution around the sun.这当然是必要的状态如何,他们分昼夜的日子,和在什么意义上,他们的标志和季节的,因为每个人知道的第一个结果是由地球旋转,其中每天在它自己的轴固定,而其围绕太阳革命的第二年。 It is presumable that originally their light was merged in that of the earth's own outer covering of light, and that as her luminous envelope disappeared they became visible, and she came to depend on them for both light and heat.这是presumable原来他们​​的光在地球自身的光外壳的合并,作为她的夜光信封消失了,他们变得​​可见,她来到他们依靠两个光与热。

Creating Animal Life建立动物生命

vv.VV。20-25 What is the command of verse 20?20-25什么是20节命令?The "waters" here referred to are our oceans and seas.而“水”这里所指的是我们的海洋。The Revised Version corrects the misapprehension that "fowl" came forth from the water.经修订的版本修正了误解,“鸡”来自水等等。What word in verse 21 indicates that we have now entered on a new sphere of existence?什么诗21字指示,我们现在就存在进入新的领域?What was the nature of the blessing on the fish and fowl (v. 22)?什么是祝福的鱼和鸡(22节)的性质?What was the further work of creation on this day (v. 24, 25)?什么是创作的这一天(24节,25)进一步开展工作?

It is interesting to note: (a) that this peopling of the water, the air and the land is in the precise order indicated by the science of geology; (b) that the plant life of the third day was the preparation for the animal life of the fifth day; (c) that the plant is now in the animal shaped into new forms, and subservient to higher functions than it could ever perform by itself; (d) that two powers which place the animal on a higher platform than the lower grades of existence are sensation, by which it perceives the world around it, and will, by which it reacts upon it. This is life, and is not the result of chemical elements left to themselves, but the effect of previously existing life. 有趣的是,要注意:(一),这样的水,空气和土地peopling是由地质科学所指示的确切顺序;(二)认为,植物生命的第三天是为动物准备生活的第五天,(c)该工厂目前正在为新的形式塑造了动物,并屈从于更高的功能比它本身可能永远执行;(四)有两个权力,放在一个更高的平台上的动物比存在低年级的轰动,其中感知周围的世界,将通过它在它的反应,这是生活,是不是留给自己的化学元素的结果,但以前存在的生活的影响。 In other words, the Bible and science agree in declaring that "spontaneous generation is an untenable hypothesis," and life only begets life.换句话说,圣经和科学同意在宣称“自发的产生是一个站不住脚的假设,”仅由此引发的生命和生活。

Creating Man创建人

vv.VV。26-31 What word in verse 26 suggests more than one person in the Godhead?26-31什么字在26节以上建议中的一个神人?What dignity is given to man above every other work of creation?什么尊严,是给上面的每一个创造其他工作的人?What dignity in his position?在他的立场是什么尊严?What word in verse 27 shows that in his creation we have entered another new sphere of existence?什么字诗27显示,在他的创作已经进入一个新的领域的存在?What blessing is bestowed on man in verse 28?什么是赋予祝福的诗句28人吗?How does it differ from that bestowed on the lower animals?它是怎样从不同的低等动物赋予的?What provision has God made for the sustenance of man and beast?有什么规定上帝造的人与野兽的寄托?

Note: (a) that the consultation in the Godhead regarding man's creation foreshadows the New Testament doctrine of the Trinity; (b) that the "image of God" may mean the trinity in man represented by body, soul and spirit (2:7; 1 Thess. 5:23), but especially that moral image suggested in Colossians 3:10; (c) that the dominion of man over the lower creation has in some measure been lost through sin, but will be restored again in Christ (Psalm 8); (d) that the creation of matter, of life and of man are three distinct creations out of nothing, and that God's action in them is direct, hence evolution from one into the other is impossible.注:(A),在关于人的创造神咨询预示新约圣经的三位一体教义;(二)认为,“上帝的形象”可能是指在人三位一体的身体,灵魂和精神(二时07分代表;帖前5:23),但特别是道德形象建议在歌罗西书三时十;(三)认为,在创造人的统治下已经在一定程度上已经失去了通过罪,但将恢复在基督再次(诗篇8);(四)创造的物质生活和人,是三个不同的创作无中生有,和上帝对他们的行动是直接的,因此,从进化成另一种是不可能的。 There may be evolution within any one of these systems of existence considered by itself, but this is different from that other evolution which would make man the descendant of an ape and rule God out of the universe which He made.有可能在任何进化的存在本身考虑这些系统之一,但这是从其他进化这会使人的后裔猿和规则的宇宙神造出来的,他不同。

Questions 1.问题1。What does "create" probably mean in this chapter, and why do you think so?什么是“创造”可能意味着在这一章中,和你为什么这么认为?2.2。When may "the beginning" have been?当可“开始”已?3.3。What does "earth" mean in verse 2?什么是“地球”的意思是在第2节?4.4。What word in verse 2 opposes pantheism by showing God to be a Person?在第2节什么字反对通过展示上帝是一个人的泛神论?5.5。If the creation days were not limited to 24 hours, why do you think so?如果建立天并不限于24小时,你为什么这么认为?6.6。What does "heaven" of the second day stand for?什么是“天堂”的第二天代表什么?7.7。What two works were accomplished on the third day?哪两项工程完成第三天?8.8。What two powers in the animal define life?什么动物中的两个权力界定的生活吗?9.9。Quote Colossians 3:10.引用歌罗西书3:10。10.10。How would you distinguish between a rationalistic and a possibly Biblical evolution?你会如何​​区分理性和圣经可能演变?


Advanced Information先进的信息

"In the beginning" God created, ie, called into being, all things out of nothing. “一开始”上帝创造的,即所谓的应运而生,一切事物都是无中生有。This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons.这种对上帝的一部分创造性的行为是绝对自由的,无限智慧的原因。The cause of all things exists only in the will of God.万物的原因只存在于上帝的意志。The work of creation is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, 26); (2) to the Father (1 Cor. 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, 17); (4) to the Holy Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30).创作的作品,是因为(1)向神(创1:1,26);(2)父(林前8点06分);(3)子(约1:3;上校。1:16,17);(4)圣灵(创1:2;作业26:13;诗篇104:30)。 The fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true God (Isa. 37:16; 40:12, 13; 54:5; Ps. 96:5; Jer. 10:11, 12).事实上,他是造物主脱颖而出,成为真正的神(以赛亚书37:16,40:12,13; 54:5;诗96:5;耶10:11 12)耶和华。The one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of the glory of the Creator (Col. 1:16; Rev. 4:11; Rom. 11:36).一个在创造工作带来极大的结束是造物主的荣耀的体现(西1:16;启示录4:11;罗11:36)。

God's works, equally with God's word, are a revelation from him; and between the teachings of the one and those of the other, when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction.上帝的作品,同样与神的话,是从他的启示,以及一间和其他人的教导,当正确地理解,就不会有矛盾。Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found among the records of ancient Eastern nations.的创作,由腐败毁容,传统中被发现的古代东方国家的记录。(See ACCAD.) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia. (见阿卡德)属于一种特殊的利益的Accadians,对下美索不达米亚平原上的原始居民的传统。These within the last few years have been brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria.在过去几年中,这些已经败露,在片剂和已经从尘封的亚述宫殿和庙宇救出气瓶。They bear a remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.他们承担了创纪录的显着相似之处。


Catholic Information天主教信息

The Book of Genesis prepares the reader for the Pentateuchal legislation; it tells us how God chose a particular family to keep His Revelation, and how He trained the Chosen People to fulfil its mission.在创世记准备读者的Pentateuchal立法,它告诉我们神如何选择了一个特殊的家庭,以保持他的启示,以及他如何训练所选择的人履行其使命。 From the nature of its contents the book consists of two rather unequal parts; cc.从它的内容性质的书分为两部分,而不平等;毫升。i-xi present the features of a general history, while cc.我喜目前一般历史的功能,同时抄送。xii-1 contain the particular history of the Chosen People.XII - 1包含了特定的历史所选择的人。By a literary device, each of these parts is subdivided into five sections differing in length.通过文学设备,这些部件每个细分为五个不同的部分的长度。The sections are introduced by the phrase elleh tholedhoth (these are the generations) or its variant zeh sepher toledhoth (this is the book of the generations).本节介绍了词组elleh tholedhoth(这是几代人)或其变种zeh sepher toledhoth(这是几代人的书)。"Generations", however, is only the etymological meaning of the Hebrew toledhoth; in its context the formula can hardly signify a mere genealogical table, for it is neither preceded nor followed by such tables. “世代”,然而,仅仅是希伯来文toledhoth词源意义,在其范围内的公式难以意味着只有家谱表,因为它既不之前也不是由这样的表之后。As early Oriental history usually begins with genealogical records, and consists to a large extend of such records, one naturally interprets the above introductory formula and its variant as meaning, "this is the history" or "this is the book of the history."早在东方历史上通常开始与族谱记载,并组成了这样的记录的大延伸,人们自然地解释上述介绍公式的意思,“这是历史”或及其变种“这是历史的书。” History in these phrases is not to be understood as a narrative resting on folklore, as Fr.在这些词组历史是不能被理解为一种叙事休息民俗,作为神父。Von Hummelauer believes ("Exegetisches zur Inspirationsfrage, Biblische Studien", Freiburg, 1904, IX, 4, pp. 26-32); but as a record based on genealogies.冯Hummelauer认为(“Exegetisches楚Inspirationsfrage,Biblische(研究)”,弗赖堡,1904年,九,4,页26-32),但作为对族谱的记录。 Moreover, the introductory formula often refers back to some principal feature of the preceding section, thus forming a transition and connection between the successive parts.此外,介绍公式常常引用了一些上一节的主要特征,从而形成一个连续的过渡和部分之间的连接。Gen., v, 1, eg, refers back to Gen., ii, 7 sqq.; vi, 9 to v, 29 sqq.将军,五,1,例如,是指回将军,二,7 SQQ;六,9 V,29 SQQ。and vi, 8; x, 1 to ix, 18, 19, etc. Finally, the sacred writer deals very briefly with the non-chosen families or tribes, and he always considers them before the chosen branch of the family.和六,8,X,1至九,18,19等,最后,神圣的作家交易非常简单与非选择家庭或部落,他总是认为之前的家庭选择的分支他们。 He treats of Cain before he speaks of Seth; similarly, Cham and Japhet precede Sem; the rest of Sem's posterity precedes Abraham; Ismael precedes Isaac; Esau precedes Jacob.他待人该隐之前,他讲的赛斯;同样,罗文钰先湛和扫描电镜,SEM的的后代休息之前亚伯拉罕,以撒伊斯梅尔之前,先以扫雅各。 Bearing in mind these general outlines of the contents and the literary structure of Genesis, we shall easily understand the following analytical table.记的内容和文学结构的成因这些一般概述轴承,我们会很容易理解下面的分析表。

Introduction (Genesis 1:1-2:3) -- Consists of the Hexaemeron; it teaches the power and goodness of God as manifested in the creation of the world, and also the dependence of creatures on the dominion of the Creator.导言(创1:1-2:3) - 包括了Hexaemeron,它教导的力量和善良的上帝在创造世界体现,也是对造物主的统治生灵的依赖。

General History (2:4-11:26) -- Man did not acknowledge his dependence on God.通史(2:4-11:26) - 人不承认他对神的依赖。Hence, leaving the disobedient to their own devices, God chose one special family or one individual as the depositary of His Revelation.因此,离开自己的设备不听话,上帝选择了他的启示作为一个特殊的家庭或保存一个人。

History of Heaven and Earth (2:4-4:26) -- Here we have the story of the fall of our first parents, ii, 5-iii, 24; of the fratricide of Cain, iv, 1-16; the posterity of Cain and its elimination, iv, 17-26.天堂和地球历史(2:4-4:26) - 在这里,我们的父母,我们第一,二,五三,24秋天的故事,对该隐同室操戈,四,1-16;的后人该隐和消灭,四,17-26。

History of Adam (5:1-6:8) -- The writer enumerates the Sethites, another line of Adam's descendants, v, 1-32, but shows that they too became so corrupt that only one among them found favour before God, vi, 1-8.亚当(5:1-6:8)历史 - 作者列举了Sethites,另一个亚当的后裔线,V,1-32,但表明他们也变得如此腐败,只有其中一只发现之前神的青睐,六,1-8。

History of Noah (6:9-9:29) -- Neither the Deluge which destroyed the whole human race excepting Noah's family, vi, 11-viii, 19, nor God's covenant with Noah and his sons, viii, 20-ix, 17, brought about the amendment of the human family, and only one of Noah's sons was chosen as the bearer of the Divine blessings, ix, 18-29.历史诺亚(6:9-9:29) - 无论是洪水摧毁整个人类除外诺亚家庭,六,11八,19,也不上帝的盟约与挪亚和他的儿子,八,20九, 17,所带来的人类大家庭修正案,只有诺亚的儿子一人作为神的祝福,九,18-29承载选择。

History of the Sons of Noah (10:1-11:9) -- The posterity of the non-chosen sons, x, 1-32, brought a new punishment on the human race by its pride, xi, 1-9.对诺亚(10:1-11:9)的儿子历史 - 非选择的儿子,X,1-32子孙后代,对人类带来了其自尊心,第十一,1-9新的处罚。

History of Sem (11:10-26) -- The posterity of Sem is enumerated down to Thare the father of Abraham, in whose seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed.扫描电镜(11:10-26)历史 - SEM的后代是列举到Thare的亚伯拉罕,在其种子的所有国家的地球应祝福父亲。

Special History (11:27-50:26) -- Here the inspired writer describes the special Providence watching over Abraham and his offspring which developed in Egypt into a large nation.专门史(11:27-50:26) - 在这里,笔者介绍了灵感特别静宜在亚伯拉罕和他的后代在埃及的发展成为一个大国看。 At the same time, he eliminates the sons of Abraham who were not children of God's promise.与此同时,他消除了亚伯拉罕的儿子谁没有上帝的诺言的孩子。This teaches the Israelites that carnal descent from Abraham does not suffice to make them true sons of Abraham.这教导以色列人肉体的后裔,从亚伯拉罕并不足以使他们真正亚伯拉罕的儿子。

History of Thare (11:27-25:11) -- This section tells of the call of Abraham, his transmigration into Chanaan, his covenant with God, and His promises.对Thare(11:27-25:11)历史 - 本节讲述了亚伯拉罕,他进入Chanaan轮回,他与神立约,并呼吁他的承诺。

History of Ismael (25:12-28) -- This section eliminates the tribes springing from Ismael.的伊斯梅尔(25:12-28)历史 - 这部分消除了部落雨后春笋般从伊斯梅尔。

History of Isaac (25:19-35:29 -- Here we have the history of Isaac's sons, Esau and Jacob.以撒的历史(25:19-35:29 - 在这里,我们有以撒的儿子,以扫和雅各的历史。

History of Esau (36:1-37:1) -- The sacred writer gives a list of Esau's posterity; it does not belong to the number of the Chosen People.以扫的历史(36:1-37:1) - 神圣的作家给人以扫的后代名单,它不属于所选的人数。

History of Jacob (37:2-50:26) -- This final portion of Genesis tells of the fate of Jacob's family down to the death of the Patriarch and of Joseph.雅各(37:2-50:26)历史 - 这是创世纪的最后部分讲述了雅各的家庭下降到了族长死亡和约瑟夫的命运。

What has been said shows a uniform plan in the structure of Genesis, which some scholars prefer to call "schematism".所说的话表明,在统一的计划结构的成因,一些学者更愿意称之为“图式”。 (i) The whole book is divided into ten sections.(一)全书分为十个部分。(ii) Each section is introduced by the same formula.(二)每个部分介绍了相同的公式。(iii) The sections are arranged according to a definite plan, the history of the lateral genealogical branches always preceding that of the corresponding part of the main line. (三)部分是安排根据一个明确的计划中,始终前面的主线相应部分lateral家谱分支的历史。(iv) Within the sections, the introductory formula or the title is usually followed by a brief repetition of some prominent feature of the preceding section, a fact duly noted and explained by as early a writer as Rhabanus Maurus (Comment. In Gen., II, xii; PG, CVII, 531-2), but misconstrued by our recent critics into an argument for a diversity of sources. (四)内的部分,介绍公式或标题通常是由一些前一节突出的特点简短的重复其次充分注意到这一事实,并解释早作为Rhabanus毛鲁斯(在将军Comment.作家的,二,十二,PG,CVII,531-2),但我们最近的批评误解成为一个争论的来源多样化。 (v) The history of each Patriarch tells of the development of his family during his lifetime, while the account of his life varies between a bare notice consisting of a few words or lines, and a more lengthy description. (五)每一宗主教的历史诉说着他的家人在他一生的发展,而他的生活账户之间的裸露的几句话或线组成的通知,和一个较为漫长的描述各不相同。(vi) When the life of the Patriarch is given more in detail, the account usually ends in an almost uniform way, indicating the length of his life and his burial with his ancestors (cf. ix, 29; xi, 32; xxv, 7; xxxv, 28; xlvii, 28). (六)当祖师生活中给出更详细的帐户通常结束在一个几乎统一的方式,表明了他的生活和他的墓地与他的祖先(见九,29长度;十一,32;二十五, 7,三十五,28; XLVII,28)。Such a definite plan of the book shows that it was written with a definite end in view and according to preconceived arrangement.这样一书中明确的计划表明,它是写有鉴于明确的结束,并根据既定的安排。The critics attribute this to the final "redactor" of the Pentateuch who adopted, according to their views, the genealogical framework and the "schematism" from the Priestly Code.批评者指称这是最后的“修订者”的pentateuch谁通过,根据他们的意见,家谱框架和“图式”,从祭司码。The value of these views will be discussed later; for the present, it suffices to know that a striking unity prevails throughout the Book of Genesis (cf. Kurtrz, "Die Einheit der Genesis", Berlin, 1846; Delattre, "Plan de la Genèse" in "Revue des quest. hist.", July, 1876; XX, pp. 5-43; Delattre, "Le plan de la Genese et les generations du ciel et de la terre" in "La science cath.", 15 Oct., 1891, V, pp. 978-89; de Broglie, "Etude sur les genealogies bibliques" in "Le congres scientif. internat. des catholiques de 1888", Paris, 1889, I, pp. 94-101; Julian, "Etude critique sur la composition de la Genese", Paris, 1888, pp. 232-50).这些意见,是将在后面讨论,就目前来说,它足以知道,一个惊人的统一贯穿于创世纪(见Kurtrz,“模具Einheit之成因”,柏林,1846书为准; Delattre,“计划德拉杰尼斯“中的”歌剧DES追求历史“,7月,1876年,XX,页5-43; Delattre,” 乐计划德拉杰尼斯ET LES代杜CIEL等德拉地球“中的”香格里拉科学导管“ 1891年10月15日,第978-89 V;德布罗意,“练习曲河畔莱族谱bibliques”中的“乐CONGRES scientif INTERNAT DES CATHOLIQUES DE 1888。。”,巴黎,1889年,我,第94-101;朱利安,“练习曲批判SUR LA组成德拉杰尼斯”,巴黎,1888年,第232-50)。


The contents of the Pentateuch furnish the basis for the history, the law, the worship, and the life of the Chosen People of God.摩西五提供的内容为历史,法律,崇拜,以及对神所选择的人生活的基础。 Hence the authorship of the work, the time and manner of its origin, and its historicity are of paramount importance.因此,工作的时间和它的起源地,它的历史性作者是至关重要的。These are not merely literary problems, but questions belonging to the fields of history of religion and theology.这些不仅仅是文学的问题,但问题属于历史的宗教和神学的领域。The Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is inseparably connected with the question, whether and in what sense Moses was the author or intermediary of the Old-Testament legislation, and the bearer of pre-Mosaic tradition.在花叶作者的pentateuch是密不可分的问题,无论在何种意义摩西是作者或中介的老全书立法,以及前花叶传统的旗手。 According to the trend of both Old and New Testament, and according to Jewish and Christian theology, the work of the great lawgiver Moses is the origin of the history of Israel and the basis of its development down to the time of Jesus Christ; but modern criticism sees in all this only the result, or the precipitate, of a purely natural historical development.根据双方的旧约和新约的趋势,并根据犹太教和基督教神学,伟大的立法者摩西的工作是以色列历史的起源和其发展到耶稣基督的时间计算;但现代批评看到了这一切只有结果,或沉淀,一个纯粹的自然的历史发展。 The question of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch leads us, therefore, to the alternative, revelation or historical evolution; it touches the historical and theological foundation of both the Jewish and the Christian dispensation.该花叶作者的pentateuch问题导致我们,因此,替代,启示或历史演变,它触及了两个犹太历史和神学的基础和基督教福音。 We shall consider the subject first in the light of Scripture; secondly, in the light of Jewish and Christian tradition; thirdly, in the light of internal evidence, furnished by the Pentateuch; finally, in the light of ecclesiastical decisions.我们会考虑这个问题,在根据圣经的第一,第二,在犹太教和基督教传统的光;第三,在内部证据的五家具,光,最后,在教会的决定光。


It will be found convenient to divide the Biblical evidence for the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch into three parts: (1) Testimony of the Pentateuch;这将是发现方便划分为三个部分花叶作者的pentateuch圣经的证据:(1)摩西五证言;

(2) Testimony of the other Old-Testament books; (3) Testimony of the New Testament. (2)证词其他旧全书书籍;(3)新约的见证。

(1) Witness of the Pentateuch(1)证人的pentateuch

The Pentateuch in its present form does not present itself as a complete literary production of Moses.在其目前的形式五经不存在作为一个完整的文学生产摩西本身。It contains an account of Moses' death, it tells the story of his life in the third person and in an indirect form, and the last four books do not exhibit the literary form of memoirs of the great lawgiver; besides, the expression "God said to Moses" shows only the Divine origin of the Mosaic laws but does not prove that Moses himself codified in the Pentateuch the various laws promulgated by him.它包含了摩西的死帐,它告诉第三人,以间接的形式,他的生平事迹,最后四书不表现出的伟大的立法者回忆录的文学形式,此外,表达“神对摩西说:“只显示了法律的神圣起源的马赛克,但并不能证明自己在摩西五经是由他颁布的各项法律编纂。 On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.另一方面,反映出我们摩西五经至少四个部分的文学著作,部分历史,部分法律,部分诗意。(a) After Israel's victory over the Amalecites near Raphidim, the Lord said to Moses (Exodus 17:14): "Write this for a memorial in a book, and deliver it to the ears of Josue." (a)在以色列对近Raphidim的Amalecites胜利,耶和华对摩西说(出埃及记17:14):“写了一本书纪念这一点,并将其交付给若苏埃的耳朵。” This order is naturally restricted to Amalec's defeat, a benefit which God wished to keep alive in the memory of the people (Deuteronomy 25:17-19).这自然是为了限制Amalec的失败,受益上帝希望保持在人们的记忆(申命记25:17-19)活着。The present pointing of the Hebrew text reads "in the book", but the Septuagint version omits the definite article.目前的希伯来文指着读“的书”,但译本的版本省略冠词。Even if we suppose that the Massoretic pointing gives the original text, we can hardly prove that the book referred to is the Pentateuch, though this is highly probable (cf. von Hummelauer "Exodus et Leviticus", Paris, 1897, p. 182; Idem, "Deuteronomium", Paris, 1901, p. 152; Kley, "Die Pentateuchfrage", Munster, 1903, p. 217).即使我们假设的massoretic指向​​给出了原文,我们很难证明所指的书是摩西五,虽然这是极有可能(参见冯Hummelauer“出埃及记等利未记”,巴黎,1897年,第182页;同上,“Deuteronomium”,巴黎,1901年,第152页;克利,“模具Pentateuchfrage”,穆斯特,1903年,第217页)。 (b) Again, Ex., xxiv, 4: "And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord."(二)同样,前,二十四,4:“摩西说主所有的话。”The context does not allow us to understand these words in an indefinite manner, but as referring to the words of the Lord immediately preceding or to the so-called "Book of the Covenant", Ex., xx-xxiii.上下文不允许我们在无限期地理解这句话,但指的是紧接主的话,或所谓的“图书的公约”,当然。,XX - XXIII。 (c) Ex., xxxiv, 27: "And the Lord said to Moses: Write thee these words by which I have made a covenant both with thee and with Israel."(三)前,三十四,27:“耶和华对摩西说:你写这些的,我已经做了两个与你以及与以色列立约的话。” The next verse adds: "and he wrote upon the tables the ten words of the covenant."接下来的诗句补充说:“和他的表后,写了公约的十个字。”Ex., xxxiv, 1, 4, shows how Moses had prepared the tables, and Ex., xxxiv, 10-26, gives us the contents of the ten words.前。,三十四,1,4,显示了摩西编写了表,和前。,三十四,10月26日,给我们的十个字的内容。(d) Num., xxxiii, 1-2: "These are the mansions of the children of Israel, who went out of Egypt by their troops under the conduct of Moses and Aaron, which Moses wrote down according to the places of their encamping." (四)数,三十三,1-2:“这是对以色列的孩子豪宅,谁去了他们的军队在埃及的摩西和亚伦的行为,这摩西写下根据自己的地方驻训“Here we are informed that Moses wrote the list of the people's encampments in the desert; but where it this list to be found?在这里,我们被告知,摩西写了沙漠中的人的营地名单,但这份名单的地方被发现?Most probably it is given in Num., xxxiii, 3-49, or the immediate context of the passage telling of Moses' literary activity; there are, however, scholars who understand this latter passage as referring to the history of Israel's departure from Egypt written in the order of the people's encampments, so that it would be our present Book of Exodus.最大的可能是在给定的数,三十三,3-49,或者是摩西的文学活动,告诉通过直接背景;有,然而,学者谁理解为指的是以色列从埃及出发历史后者通过写在人民的营地秩序,因此,这将是我们目前的出埃及记书。 But this view is hardly probable; for its assumption that Num., xxxiii, 3-49, is a summary of Exodus cannot be upheld, as the chapter of Numbers mentions several encampments not occurring in Exodus.但这种观点是难以可能;其前提是数量,三十三,3-49,是出埃及记总结不能得到维护,因为数字的章节中提到发生在出埃及记没有几个营地。

Besides these four passages there are certain indications in Deuteronomy which point to the literary activity of Moses.除了这四个段落中有一些迹象表明这一点申命记的摩西的文学活动。Deut., i, 5: "And Moses began to expound the law and to say"; even if the "law" in this text refer to the whole of the Pentateuchal legislation, which is not very probable, it shows only that Moses promulgated the whole law, but not that he necessarily wrote it. ,申,我,5:“摩西开始阐述法律,并说”,即使“法”在这段文字指的Pentateuchal立法,这是不太可能的整体,它表明只有摩西颁布整个法律,但并不表明他一定写的。 Practically the entire Book of Deuteronomy claims to be a special legislation promulgated by Moses in the land of Moab: iv, 1-40; 44-49; v, 1 sqq.; xii, 1 sqq.几乎整本书的申命记声称自己是一个特殊的立法颁布的摩西在摩押地:四,1-40,44-49,V,1 SQQ;十二,1 SQQ。 But there is a suggestion of writing too: xvii, 18-9, enjoins that the future kings are to receive a copy of this law from the priests in order to read and observe it; xxvii, 1-8, commands that on the west side of the Jordan "all the words of this law" be written on stones set up in Mount Hebal; xxviii, 58, speaks of "all the words of this law, that are written in this volume" after enumerating the blessings and curses which will come upon the observers and violators of the law respectively, and which are again referred to as written in a book in xxix, 20, 21, 27, and xxxii, 46, 47; now, the law repeatedly referred to as written in a book must be at least the Deuteronomic legislation.但是有一个建议,写太多:17,18-9,责成,未来的国王接受祭司的这部法律的副本,以阅读和遵守它;二十七,1-8,命令,在西部在“所有的话,该法”上设置写在石头山Hebal约旦一侧;二十八,58,说的是“所有的话这部法律,这是写在本卷”之后列举的祝福和诅咒的会后,观察员和法律的违反者分别的,哪些是再次提到,如在XXIX,20,21,27,和三十二,46,47册上,现在,法律一再提到的在书面书必须至少Deuteronomic立法。 Moreover, xxxi, 9-13 states, "and Moses wrote this law", and xxxi, 26, adds, "take this book, and put it in the side of the ark. . .that it may be there for a testimony against thee"; to explain these texts as fiction or as anachronisms is hardly compatible with the inerrancy of Sacred Scripture.此外,三十一,9-13状态“,并写了这个摩西法”,以及三十一,26,补充说:“借此书,并把在方舟。侧。它可用于对证词有你“,来解释这些文本的小说或时代错误是很难与圣经无误的兼容。 Finally, xxxi, 19, commands Moses to write the canticle contained in Deut., xxxii, 1-43.最后,第31,19,命令摩西在申命记中写的颂歌。,三十二,1-43。

The Scriptural scholar will not complain that there are so few express indications in the Pentateuch of Moses' literary activity; he will rather be surprised at their number.圣经的学者不会抱怨,有这么几个表达了摩西五经的文学活动的迹象,他将在他们的人数相当惊讶。As far as explicit testimony for its own, at least partial, authorship is concerned, the Pentateuch compares rather favourably with many other books of the Old Testament.至于对自己的明确的证词,至少部分,作者而言,五经比较有利,而与旧约许多其他书籍。

(2) Witness of other Old-Testament Books(2)证人的其他旧全书书籍

(a) Josue.-The narrative of the Book of Josue presupposes not merely the facts and essential ordinances contained in the Pentateuch, but also the law given by Moses and written in the book of the law of Moses: Jos., i, 7-8; viii, 31; xxii, 5; xxiii, 6.(一)Josue. - 该图书的前提不仅是若苏埃的事实和基本条例中的摩西五,但也给了摩西和在摩西的律法书上所写的法律叙述:圣何塞,我7 -8;八,31;二十二,5;二十三,6。Josue himself "wrote all these things in the volume of the law of the Lord" (xxiv, 26).若苏埃他写道:“在主法卷的所有这些事情”(24,26)。Prof. Hobverg maintains that this "volume of the law of the Lord" is the Pentateuch ("Über den Ursprung des Pentateuchs" in "Biblische Zeitschrift", 1906, IV, 340); Mangenot believes that it refers at least to Deuteronomy (Dict. de la Bible, V, 66). Hobverg教授认为,这种“主的法律卷”是五经(“超级巢穴Ursprung DES Pentateuchs”中的“Biblische(杂志)”,1906年,IV,340);芒热诺认为,它是指至少在申命记(快译通。德拉圣经,V,66)。 At any rate, Josue and his contemporaries were acquainted with a written Mosaic legislation, which was divinely revealed.无论如何,若苏埃和他同时代的人熟悉的书面花叶立法,这是上天显示。

(b) Judges; I, II Kings.-In the Book of Judges and the first two Books of Kings there is no explicit reference to Moses and the book of the law, but a number of incidents and statements presuppose the existence of the Pentateuchal legislation and institutions. (二)法官,我,二Kings,在法官和前两本书的国王书没有明确提到摩西和法律的书,而是一个事件和报表数量的前提是存在的Pentateuchal立法和机构。 Thus Judges, xv, 8-10, recalls Israel's delivery from Egypt and its conquest of the Promised Land; Judges, xi, 12-28, states incidents recorded in Num., xx, 14; xxi, 13,24; xxii, 2; Judges, xiii, 4, states a practice founded on the law of the Nazarites in Num., vi, 1-21; Judges, xviii, 31, speaks of the tabernacle existing in the times when there was no king in Israel; Judges, xx, 26-8 mentions the ark of the covenant, the various kinds of sacrifices, and the Aaronic priesthood.因此,法官,十五,8-10,召回以色列的交付从埃及和其征服的乐土;法官,十一,12-28,在数量录得州的事件,XX,14; XXI,13,24;二十二,2 ;法官,十三,四,国家对在数量的Nazarites法,六,1-21创立了实践;法官,十八,31日,在存在的时候,没有国王在以色列幕说话;法官,XX,26-8提到的约柜,各种牺牲,和Aaronic铎。 The Pentateuchal history and laws are similarly presupposed in 1 Samuel 10:18; 15:1-10; 10:25; 21:1-6; 22:6 sqq.; 23:6-9; 2 Samuel 6.该Pentateuchal历史和法律同样的先决条件在撒母耳记上10时18分; 15:1-10,10时25分; 21:1-6; 22时零六SQQ; 23:6-9;撒下6。

(c) 1 and 2 Kings.-The last two Books of Kings repeatedly speak of the law of Moses. (三)1和第2 Kings的最后两本书的国王多次谈到摩西的法律。To restrict the meaning of this term to Deuteronomy is an arbitrary exegesis (cf. 1 Kings 2:3; 10:31); Amasias showed mercy to the children of the murderers "according to that which is written in the book of the law of Moses" (2 Kings 14:6); the sacred writer records the Divine promise of protecting the Israelites "Only if they will observe to do all that I have commanded them according to the law which my servant Moses commanded them" (2 Kings 21:8).为了限制这个词的含义申命记是一个任意的注释(参见王上2:3; 10:31); Amasias表明怜悯的杀人犯的孩子“根据那是在法律书上所写摩西“(2国王14:6);神圣的作家记录了保护以色列人神圣的承诺”只有当他们将遵守尽一切,我吩咐他们依法办事,我的仆人摩西吩咐他们“(2国王21 :8)。In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josias was found the book of the law (2 Kings 22:8, 11), or the book of the covenant (2 Kings 23:2), according to which he conducted his religious reform (2 Kings 23:10-24), and which is identified with "the law of Moses" (2 Kings 23:25).在对Josias在位十八年被发现的法律书(2国王22时08分,11),或该公约(2国王23时零二)一书,根据他进行他的宗教改革(2国王23:10-24),并确定这是与“摩西律法”(2国王23时25分)。 Catholic commentators are not at one whether this law-book was Deuteronomy (von Hummelauer, "Deuteronomium", Paris, 1901, p. 40-60, 83-7) or the entire Pentateuch (Clair, "Les livres des Rois", Paris, 1884, II, p. 557 seq.; Hoberg, "Moses und der Pentateuch", Frieburg, 1905, p. 17 seq.; "uber den Ursprung des Pentateuchs" in "Biblische Zeitschrift", 1906, IV, pp. 338-40).天主教评论家不是在一个是否本法书是申命记(冯Hummelauer,“Deuteronomium”,巴黎,1901年版,第40-60,83-7)或整个摩西五(克莱尔,“莱斯里弗DES罗伊斯”,巴黎,1884年,第二版,第557页起;霍贝格,“摩西五经UND DER”,Frieburg,1905年,第17页起;“超级巢穴Ursprung DES Pentateuchs”中的“Biblische(杂志)”,1906年,四,第338 -40)。

(d) Paralipomenon.-The inspired writer of Paralipomenon refers to the law and the book of Moses much more frequently and clearly. (四)Paralipomenon.,该作家的灵感的Paralipomenon是指法律和这本书的摩西更频繁和明确。The objectionable names and numbers occurring in these books are mostly due to transcribers.不良的姓名和号码出现在这些图书大多是由于誊写。The omission of incidents which would detract from the glory of the Israelite kings or would not edify the reader is not detrimental to the credibility or veracity of the work.该事件将影响从以色列人国王的荣耀或不会陶冶读者遗漏不会损害的信誉或真实性的工作。Otherwise one should have to place among works of fiction a number of biographical or patriotic publications intended for the young or for the common reader.否则应该有小说作品之间放置一个为年轻人或为共同的读者传记或爱国出版物。On their part, the modern critics are too eager to discredit the authority of Paralipomena.在他们的一部分,现代的批评太急于诋毁权威Paralipomena。"After removing the account of Paralipomena", writes de Wette (Beitrage, I, 135), "the whole Jewish history assumes another form, and the Pentateuchal investigations take another turn; a number of strong proofs, hard to explain away, for the early existence of the Mosaic books have disappeared, the other vestiges of their existence are placed in a different light."“删除后的Paralipomena帐户”,写DE Wette(Beitrage,我,135),“整个犹太历史假设另一种形式,和Pentateuchal调查,再反过来,一个强有力的证据数量,很难解释了,对于早期存在的马赛克书籍已经消失,其存在的其他遗迹是在一个不同的角度上。“ A glance at the contents of Parlipomenon suffices to explain the efforts of de Witte and Wellhausen to disprove the historicity of the books.一个在Parlipomenon的内容一目了然足以解释德维特和豪森努力反驳历史性的书籍。Not only are the genealogies (1 Chronicles 1-9) and the descriptions of worship traced after the data and laws of the Pentateuch, but the sacred writer expressly points out their conformity with what is written in the law of the Lord (1 Chronicles 16:40), in the law of Moses (2 Chronicles 23:18; 31:3), thus identifying the law of the Lord with that written by Moses (cf. 2 Chronicles 25:4).其中不仅有族谱(历代1-9)和崇拜的描述后的数据和法律的pentateuch追查,但神圣的作家明确指出哪些是与在主(历代志上16是否符合法律的书面:40),在摩西(历代志下23:18的法律; 31:3),从而确定了与摩西(见历代志下25:4)编写的主法。The reader will find similar indications of the existence and the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch in I Par., xxii, 12 seq.; II Par., xvii, 9; xxxiii, 4; xxxiv, 14; xxv, 12.读者会发现类似的迹象的存在和在我的摩西五杆马赛克起源,22,12页起;二杆,十七,9;三十三,四,三十四,14;二十五,12。 By an artificial interpretation, indeed, the Books of Paralipomenon may be construed to represent the Pentateuch as a book containing the law promulgated by Moses; but the natural sense of the foregoing passages regards the Pentateuch as a book edited by Moses.通过人工解释,事实上,图书的Paralipomenon可能被解释为代表包含法律颁布的摩西五经书,但根据上述段落自然的感觉就如摩西编辑一书五经。

(e) I, II Esdras.-The Books of Esdras and Nehemias, too, taken in their natural and commonly accepted sense, consider the Pentateuch as the book of Moses, not merely as a book containing the law of Moses. (五)一,二Esdras。埃斯德拉斯和Nehemias书籍也是如此,在他们的自然和普遍接受的意义上考虑,考虑的摩西五经书,而不是仅仅作为一书中载有摩西的法律。 This contention is based on the study of the following texts: I Esd., iii, 2 sqq.; vi, 18; vii, 14; II Esd., i, 7 sqq.; viii, 1, 8, 14; ix, 3; x, 34, 36; xiii, 1-3.这个论点是基于以下文本的研究: 我防静电,三,2 SQQ;六,18岁;七,14; II ESD,我7 SQQ;八,1,8,14;九, 3,X,34,36;十三,1-3。 Graf and his followers expressed the view that the book of Moses referred to in these texts is not the Pentateuch, but only the Priestly Code; but when we keep in mind that the book in question contained the laws of Lev., xxiii, and Deut., vii, 2-4; xv, 2, we perceive at once that the book of Moses cannot be restricted to the Priestly Code.格拉夫和他的追随者认为,这本书的摩西提到的这些文本的是不是摩西五,但只有祭司码,但是当我们记住,有问题的书所载的列弗,二十三,和申命记的法律。 ,,七,2-4;十五,2,我们认为在此声明,本书的摩西不能仅限于在祭司码。To the witness of the historical books we may add II Mach., ii, 4; vii, 6; Judith, viii, 23; Ecclus., xxiv, 33; xlv, 1-6; xlv, 18, and especially the Preface of Ecclus.为了对历史书籍见证我们可以添加二马赫,二,四,七,六,朱,八,23; Ecclus,二十四,33; XLV,1-6; XLV,18,特别是前言Ecclus。

(f) Prophetic Books.-Express reference to the written law of Moses is found only in the later Prophets: Bar., ii, 2, 28; Dan., ix, 11, 13; Mal., iv, 4. (F)先知Books.,明确提到了摩西律法是发现,只有在后来先知:酒吧,二,2,28;丹,九,11,13;发作,四,4。Among these, Baruch knows that Moses has been commanded to write the law, and though his expressions run parallel to those of Deut., xxviii, 15, 53, 62-64, his threats contain allusions to those contained in other parts of the Pentateuch.其中,巴鲁克知道摩西已写入命令的法律,尽管他的表现形式平行于申的人。,二十八,15,53,62-64,他的威胁含有典故中的其他部分所载的摩西五。 The other Prophets frequently refer to the law of the Lord guarded by the priests (cf. Deuteronomy 31:9), and they put it on the same level with Divine Revelation and the eternal covenant of the Lord.其他先知经常提到的由祭司(参见申命记31:9)把守的主法,他们把与神的启示和主的同级别它永恒的盟约。They appeal to God's covenant, the sacrificial laws the calendar of feasts, and other laws of the Pentateuch in such a way as to render it probable that a written legislation formed the basis of their prophetic admonitions (cf. Hosea 8:12), and that they were acquainted with verbal expressions of the book of the law.他们呼吁上帝的盟约,在节日日历牺牲法律,以及在这样一种方式摩西五其他法律,以使其有可能以书面立法形成了自己的(参见何西阿书8:12)预言告诫的基础上,他们是熟悉的法律书籍口头表达。 Thus in the northern kingdom Amos (iv, 4-5; v, 22 sqq.) and Isaias in the south (i, 11 sqq.) employ expressions which are practically technical words for sacrifice occurring in Lev., i-iii; vii, 12, 16; and Deut., xii, 6.因此,在英国北部阿莫斯(四,4-5,V,22 SQQ)聘用和南部伊萨亚斯(I,11 SQQ)的表达,这是技术的话几乎牺牲发生在列弗,I - III;七,12,16和申,十二,6。

(3) Witness of the New Testament(3)见证新约

We need not show that Jesus and the Apostles quoted the whole of the Pentateuch as written by Moses.我们无须表明,耶稣和使徒引用了摩西五经全所编写的。If they attributed to Moses all the passages which they happen to cite, if they ascribe the Pentateuch to Moses whenever there is question of its authorship, even the most exacting critics must admit that they express their conviction that the work was indeed written by Moses.如果他们由于摩西的所有通道,它们发生举,如果他们对摩西五经归于每当有其著作权的问题,即使是最苛刻的批评者必须承认,他们表示相信,工作确实是摩西写的。 When the Sadducees quote against Jesus the marriage law of Deut., xxv, 5, as written by Moses (Matthew 22:24; Mark 12:19; Luke 20:28), Jesus does not deny the Mosaic authorship, but appeals to Ex., iii, 6, as equally written by Moses (Mark 12:26; Matthew 22:31; Luke 20:37).当对耶稣的申婚姻法,二十五,5所摩西(马太22时24;马克12时19,路加福音20:28)写的,撒都该人的报价。耶稣并不否认花叶著作权,但前上诉,,三,六,因为同样的摩西(马克12时26分;马太22:31;路加福音20:37)写的。 Again, in the parable of Dives and Lazarus (Luke 16:29), He speaks of "Moses and the prophets", while on other occasions He speaks of "the law and the prophets" (Luke 16:16), thus showing that in His mind the law, or the Pentateuch, and Moses are identical.再如,在潜水和拉撒路(路加福音16:29)比喻,他说的是“摩西和先知”,而在其他场合,他的“法律和先知”(路加福音16:16)说话,从而表明在他心中的法律,或五经,摩西是相同的。 The same expressions reappear in the last discourse addressed by Christ to His disciples (Luke 24:44-6; cf. 27): "which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning me".在最后的话语再次出现同样的表情处理由基督门徒(路加福音24:44-6;比照27):“这是在摩西的法律化,并在先知,并在关于我的诗篇”。 Finally, in John, v, 45-7, Jesus is more explicit in asserting the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch: "There is one that accuseth you, Moses. . .for he wrote of me. But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe my words?"最后,在约翰,五,45-7,耶稣是更明确地断言花叶作者的pentateuch:“有一个accuseth你,摩西因为他对我说,但如果你不相信他的著作。。 ,您将如何相信我的话?“Nor can it be maintained that Christ merely accommodated himself to the current beliefs of his contemporaries who considered Moses as the author of the Pentateuch not merely in a moral but also in the literary sense of authorship.也不能被认为基督只是住自己对他同时代的谁视为作者的pentateuch摩西在道德,但在文学意义上的作者也不仅仅是当前的信心。 Jesus did not need to enter into the critical study of the nature of Mosaic authorship, but He could not expressly endorse the popular belief, if it was erroneous.耶稣并不需要进入的花叶作者批判性研究,但他没有明确赞同普遍认为,如果它是错误的。

The Apostles too felt convinced of, and testified to, the Mosaic authorship.使徒们也感到信服,并证明,著作权的马赛克。"Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith to him: We have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write."“菲利普findeth拿,和saith对他说:我们已经找到了他的人摩西的法律,和先知没有写。”St. Peter introduces a quotation from Deut., xviii, 15, with the words: "For Moses said" (Acts 3:22).圣彼得介绍,从申报价,改为十八,15,:“对摩西说:”(徒3:22)。St. James and St. Paul relate that Moses is read in the synagogues on the Sabbath day (Acts 15:21; 2 Corinthians 3:15).圣雅各福群和圣保罗,摩西是在涉及在安息日(使徒15点21分;哥林多后书3:15)的犹太教堂读。The great Apostle speaks in other passages of the law of Moses (Acts 13:33; 1 Corinthians 9:9); he preaches Jesus according to the law of Moses and the Prophets (Acts 28:23), and cites passages from the Pentateuch as words written by Moses (Romans 10:5-8; 19).伟大的使徒谈到在摩西(使徒13时33分;哥林多前书9:9);其他法律的段落,他鼓吹耶稣根据摩西律法和先知(徒28:23),并列举从pentateuch通道作为文字写的摩西(罗马书10:5-8; 19)。St. John mentions the canticle of Moses (Revelation 15:3).圣约翰提到了摩西(启示录15:3)颂歌。


The voice of tradition, both Jewish and Christian, is so unanimous and constant in proclaiming the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch that down to the seventeenth century it did not allow the rise of any serious doubt.对传统的语音,无论是犹太教和基督教,是如此的一致,在宣告花叶作者的pentateuch常数,下至十七世纪它不容许任何严重的怀疑上升。 The following paragraphs are only a meagre outline of this living tradition.以下各段仅是微薄的大纲此生活的传统。

(1) Jewish Tradition(1)犹太传统

It has been seen that the books of the Old Testament, beginning with those of the Pentateuch, present Moses as the author of at least parts of the Pentateuch.人们看到的是,旧约书,与五经的开始,现在作为的pentateuch作者至少部分摩西。The writer of the Books of Kings believes that Moses is the author of Deuteronomy at least.对作家的书国王认为,摩西是作者申命记最少。Esdras, Nehemias, Malachias, the author of Paralipomena, and the Greek authors of the Septuagint Version consider Moses as the author of the whole Pentateuch.埃斯德拉斯,内赫米亚斯,Malachias的作者Paralipomena,以及希腊作者七十版本考虑整个摩西五经的作者。 At the time of Jesus Christ and the Apostles friend and foe take the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch for granted; neither our Lord nor His enemies take exception to this assumption.在耶稣基督的时间和使徒的朋友和敌人采取的是理所当然的摩西五花叶著作权;既不是我们的上帝,也没有他的敌人采取例外,这一假设。 In the first century of the Christian era, Josephus ascribes to Moses the authorship of the entire Pentateuch, not excepting the account of the lawgiver's death ("Antiq. Jud.", IV, viii, 3-48; cf. I Procem., 4; "Contra Apion.", I, 8).在公元一世纪,约瑟夫归咎到摩西整个五经作者,而不是除对立法者的死亡帐户(“Antiq达瓦慈善会。”,四,八,3-48;比照我Procem, 4,“魂斗罗阿皮翁”,我,8)。The Alexandrian philosopher Philo is convinced that the entire Pentateuch is the work of Moses, and that the latter wrote a prophetic account of his death under the influence of a special divine inspiration ("De vita Mosis", ll. II, III in "Opera", Geneva, 1613, pp. 511, 538).哲学家斐洛的亚历山大相信,整个摩西五是摩西的工作,而后者写了下,一个特殊的神的启示(“德VITA MOSIS”,将二,三,在“歌剧影响了​​他的死亡预言帐户“,日内瓦,1613年,第511,538)。The Babylonian Talmud ("Baba-Bathra", II, col. 140; "Makkoth", fol. IIa; "Menachoth", fol. 30a; cf. Vogue, "Hist. de la Bible et de l'exegese biblique jusqua'a nos jours", Paris, 1881, p. 21), the Talmud of Jerusalem (Sota, v, 5), the rabbis, and the doctors of Israel (cf. Furst, "Der Kanon des Alten Testaments nach den Überlieferungen im Talmud und Midrasch", Leipzig, 1868, pp. 7-9) bear testimony to the continuance of this tradition for the first thousand years.巴比伦塔木德(“巴巴 - Bathra”,第二章,列140;。“Makkoth”,FOL第IIa;。“Menachoth”,FOL 30A;。比照时尚,“组织胺德拉圣经ET DE L' exegese biblique jusqua” a数乐之日“,巴黎,1881年,第21页),耶路撒冷的犹太法典(索塔,V,5),拉比,和以色列的医生(见弗斯特,”明镜加隆DES Alten旧约nach巢穴Überlieferungen IM塔木德UND Midrasch“,莱比锡,1868年,第7-9页)见证了第一个千年来这一传统的延续。Though Isaac ben Jasus in the eleventh century and Abenesra in the twelfth admitted certain post-Mosaic additions in the Pentateuch, still they as well as Maimonides upheld its Mosaic authorship, and did not substantially differ in this point from the teaching of R. Becchai (thirteenth cent.), Joseph Karo, and Abarbanel (fifteenth cent.; cf. Richard Simon, "Critique de la Bibl. des aut. eccles. de E. Dupin", Paris, 1730, III, pp. 215-20).虽然伊萨克本Jasus于11世纪和第十二届Abenesra承认在某些摩西五后花叶增加,他们仍然以及迈蒙尼德坚持花叶著作权,并没有显着不同,这一点从河Becchai教学(百分之十三),约瑟夫卡罗和Abarbanel(百分之十五;。比照理查德西蒙“。批判德拉Bibl DES引渡埃克尔斯德E.独品”,巴黎,1730年,第三,第215-20)。Only in the seventeenth century, Baruch Spinoza rejected the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, pointing out the possibility that the work might have been written by Esdras ("Tract. Theol.-politicus", c. viii, ed. Tauchnitz, III, p. 125).只有在十七世纪,巴鲁克斯宾诺莎拒绝马赛克著作权的五经,指出这项工作可能被埃斯德拉斯(“道。Theol. - politicus”角八,编辑。Tauchnitz,III,P书面可能性125段)。Among the more recent Jewish writers several have adopted the results of the critics, thus abandoning the tradition of their forefathers.其中较近期的几个犹太人作家已经通过了批评者的结果,从而放弃了他们祖先的传统。

(2) Christian Tradition(2)基督教传统

The Jewish tradition concerning the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch was brought in to the Christian Church by Christ Himself and the Apostles.关于犹太传统的马赛克著作权的五经被带到到基督教教会由基督自己和使徒。No one will seriously deny the existence and continuance of such a tradition from the patristic period onward; one might indeed be curious about the interval between the time of the Apostles and beginning of the third century.没有人会认真地否认了这种从教父期间起传统的存在和延续,一个可能确实是之间的使徒和第三世纪初的时间间隔好奇。 For this period we may appeal to the "Epistle of Barnabus" (x, 1-12; Funk, "Patres apostol.", 2nd ed., Tübingen, 1901, I, p. 66-70; xii, 2-9k; ibid., p. 74-6), to St. Clement of Rome (1 Corinthians 41:1; ibid., p. 152), St. Justin ("Apol. I", 59; PG, VI, 416; I, 32, 54; ibid., 377, 409; "Dial.", 29; ibid., 537), to the author of "Cohort. Ad Graec."对于这个时期,我们可以上诉到“Barnabus书信”(X,1-12;冯克,“Patres apostol ”,第二版,蒂宾根大学,1901年,我,第66-70;十二,2 9K;同上,第74-6),圣克莱门特的罗马(哥林多前书41:1;同上,第152页),圣贾斯汀(“APOL我 ”,59,PG,六,416,我,32,54,同上,377,409;“拨号”,29;同上,537),给作者。“队列广告Graec。” (9, 28, 30, 33, 34; ibid., 257, 293, 296-7, 361), to St. Theophilus ("Ad Autol.", III, 23; ibid., 1156; 11, 30; ibid., 1100), to St. Irenæus (Cont. haer., I, ii, 6; PG, VII, 715-6), to St. Hippolytus of Rome ("Comment. In Deut.", xxxi, 9, 31, 35; cf. Achelis, "Arabische Fragmente etc.", Leipzig, 1897, I, 118; "Philosophumena", VIII, 8; X, 33; PG, XVI, 3350, 3448), to Tertullian of Carthage (Adv. Hermog., XIX; PL, II, 214), to Origen of Alexandria (Contra. Cels., III, 5-6; PG, XI, 928; etc.), to St. Eusthatius of Antioch (De engastrimytha c. Orig., 21; PG, XVIII, 656); for all these writers, and others might be added, bear witness to the continuance of the Christian tradition that Moses wrote the Pentateuch. (9,28,30,33,34,同上,257,293,296-7,361),圣西奥菲勒斯(,III,23“广告Autol”;同上,1156,11,30;同上,,1100),圣爱任纽(续haer,I,II,6; PG,七,715-6),圣罗马希波吕托斯(,三十一,9,31“评论在申。” 35;比照Achelis,“Arabische Fragmente等”,莱比锡,1897年,我,118;“Philosophumena”,八,8,X,33; PG,XVI,3350,3448),德尔图良的迦太基(Adv. Hermog,第十九; PL,II,214),以亚历山大的奥利(Contra. CELS,三,5-6; PG,第十一,928;等),圣安提阿(德engastrimytha C.原价Eusthatius ,21,PG,第十八,656);所有这些作家,和其他人可能会增加,见证基督教传统,摩西写五经的延续。A list of the later Fathers who bear witness to the same truth may be found in Mangenot's article in the "Dict. de la Bible" (V, 74 seq.).一个是谁见证相同​​的事实后来父亲名单中可以找到芒热诺公司在“快译通。德拉圣经”的文章(V,74页起)。Hoberg (Moses und der Pentateuch, 72 seq.) has collected the testimony for the existence of the tradition during the Middle Ages and in more recent times.霍贝格(摩西五经UND DER,72起。)已收集的传统,在中世纪和近代存在的证词。

But Catholic tradition does not necessarily maintain that Moses wrote every letter of the Pentateuch as it is today, and that the work has come down to us in an absolutely unchanged form.但是,天主教的传统,并不一定认为摩西写的每一个摩西五书,因为它是今天,这项工作已回落在一个绝对不变的形式给我们。 This rigid view of the Mosaic authorship began to develop in the eighteenth century, and practically gained the upper hand in the nineteenth.这种僵化观点的花叶作者开始发展在十八世纪,几乎获得了在十九上风。 The arbitrary treatment of Scripture on the part of Protestants, and the succession of the various destructive systems advanced by Biblical criticism, caused this change of front in the Catholic camp.在圣经上的新教徒和各种破坏性的圣经批评先进的系统,继承部分造成这种任意对待面前的天主教派发生变化。In the sixteenth century Card.在十六世纪卡。Bellarmine, who may be considered as a reliable exponent of Catholic tradition, expressed the opinion that Esdras had collected, readjusted, and corrected the scattered parts of the Pentateuch, and had even added the parts necessary for the completion of the Pentateuchal history (De verbo Dei, II, I; cf. III, iv).贝拉明,谁可以作为传统的天主教可靠的指数考虑,表示,埃斯德拉斯收集,调整,并纠正了摩西五分散部分,甚至增加了部分的Pentateuchal历史完成必要的(德verbo意见台达电子,II,I,比照三,四)。 The views of Génebrard, Pereira, Bonfrere, a Lapide, Masius, Jansenius, and of other notable Biblicists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are equally elastic with regard to the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.对Génebrard,佩雷拉,邦弗雷雷,一个Lapide,麦西斯,Jansenius,以及对十六,十七世纪等显着Biblicists的意见同样是关于花叶作者的pentateuch弹性。 Not that they agree with the contentions of our modern Biblical criticism; but they show that today's Pentateuchal problems were not wholly unknown to Catholic scholars, and that the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch as determined by the Biblical Commission is no concession forced on the Church by unbelieving Bible students.这并不是说他们同意我们的现代圣经批判的争论,但它们表明,今天的Pentateuchal问题没有完全陌生的天主教学者,并认为该pentateuch花叶作者所确定的圣经委员会是在教会被迫绝不让步不信圣经学生。


The possibility of producing a written record at the time of Moses is no longer contested.在生产的时候,摩西在书面记录的可能性已经不再有争议。The art of writing was known long before the time of the great lawgiver, and was extensively practised both in Egypt and Babylon.写作的艺术被称为很久之前的伟大立法者的时间,并广泛在埃及和巴比伦。As to the Israelites, Flinders Petrie infers from certain Semitic inscriptions found in 1905 on the Sinaitic peninsula, that they kept written accounts of their national history from the time of their captivity under Ramses II.至于以色列人,弗林德斯皮特里铭文推断某些犹太人在1905年发现的Sinaitic半岛,他们不断从他们在拉美西斯二世被关押的时间写自己民族的历史账目。 The Tell-el-Amarna tablets show the language of Babylon was in a way the official language at the time of Moses, known in Western Asia, Palestine, and Egypt; the finds of Taanek have confirmed this fact.该告诉EL -阿玛尔纳片显示的语言,巴比伦的方式是在摩西时代的官方语言,在西亚,巴勒斯坦和埃及著名;的Taanek的发现证实了这一事实。But it cannot be inferred from this that the Egyptians and Israelites employed this sacred or official language among themselves and in their religious documents (cf. Benzinger, "Hebraische Archaologie", 2nd ed., Tübingen, 1907, p. 172 sqq.).但它不能被推断这是埃及人和以色列人之间的雇用自己和他们(参Benzinger,“Hebraische Archaologie”,第二版,蒂宾根大学,1907年,第172页SQQ。)宗教这个神圣的文件或官方语言。It is not merely the possibility of writing at the time of Moses and the question of language that confronts us here; there is the further problem of the kind of written signs used in the Mosaic documents.它不仅是可能的时候,摩西在写作和语言在这里我们所面临的问题,还有就是在书面文件中使用的马赛克样的迹象进一步的问题。 The hieroglyphic and cuneiform signs were widely employed at that early date; the oldest inscriptions written in alphabetical characters date only from the ninth century BC But there can hardly be any doubt as to the higher antiquity of alphabetic writing, and there seems to be nothing to prevent our extending it back to the time of Moses.象形文字和楔形文字的标志,广泛采用该早日生效;最古老的字母文字的书面铭文迄今为止,只有从公元前9世纪,但是,就不可能有任何的拼音文字较高的文物怀疑,似乎有无关防止我们的延伸回的时候,摩西。 Finally, the Code of Hammurabi, discovered in Susa in 1901 by the French expedition funded by Mr. And Mrs. Dieulafoy, shows that even in pre-Mosaic times legal enactments were committed to, and preserved in, writing; for the Code antedates Moses some five centuries, and contains about 282 regulations concerning various contingencies in the civic life.最后,在苏萨发现于1901年由先生和夫人杜氏资助的法国探险汉谟拉比,代码显示,即使在预花叶次法律文书都致力于,并保存在,写作;守则antedates摩西大约5个世纪,并载有大约282法规关于在公民生活中的各种突发事件。

Thus far it has been shown negatively that an historic and legal document claiming to be written at the time of Moses involves no antecedent improbability of its authenticity.迄今为止,它已被证明是一种消极的历史和法律文件,声称是在写的时候,摩西不涉及先行不大可能的真实性。 But the internal characteristics of the Pentateuch show also positively that the work is at least probably Mosaic.但内部特征的pentateuch显示了积极的,工作是至少是可能马赛克。It is true that the Pentateuch contains no express declaration of its entire Mosaic authorship; but even the most exacting of critics will hardly require such testimony.诚然,五经不包含其整个花叶作者发表的声明,但即使是最苛刻的批评者将很难要求这些证词。It is practically lacking in all other books, whether sacred or profane.这实际上是缺乏在所有其他的书籍,不论是神圣的或亵渎。On the other hand, it has already been shown that four distinct passages of the Pentateuch are expressly ascribed to the authorship of Moses.另一方面,它已经表明,四个不同的五通道有明确归因于摩西的作者。Deut., xxxi, 24-9, is especially noted; for it knows that Moses wrote the "words of this law in a volume" and commanded it to be placed in the ark of the covenant as a testimony against the people who have been so rebellious during the lawgiver's life and will "do wickedly" after his death. ,申,三十一,24-9,特别指出,因为它知道,摩西写了“卷中的这部法律的话”,并命令它是在约柜放在作为对谁被人证言因此,在立法者的生活叛逆,将“做坏透”在他的死亡。 Again, a number of legal sections, though not explicitly ascribed to the writing of Moses, are distinctly derived from Moses as the lawgiver.再次,法律部门,虽然没有明确归因于摩西的写作,有明显来自摩西作为立法者。 Besides, many of the Pentateuchal laws bear evidence of their origin in the desert; hence they too lay an indirect claim to Mosaic origin.此外,许多Pentateuchal法律承担其在沙漠起源的证据,因此他们也奠定间接声称花叶来源。What has been said of a number of Pentateuchal laws is equally true of several historical sections.什么一直是一个Pentateuchal法律说的是同样数量的若干历史章节。These contain in the Book of Numbers, for instance, so many names and numbers that they must have been handed down in writing.这些包含在这本书中的数字,例如,如此众多的名字,他们必须以书面形式流传下来的数字。Unless the critics can bring irrefutable evidence showing that in these sections we have only fiction, they must grant that these historical details were written down in contemporary documents, and not transmitted by mere oral tradition.除非批评可以带来不可辩驳的证据显示,在这些路段,我们只有小说,他们必须承认,这些历史的细节写在当代的文件,而不是仅仅通过口头传播的传统。 Moreover, Hommel ("Die altisraelitische Überlieferung in inschriftlicher Beleuchtung", p. 302) has shown that the names in the lists of the Book of Numbers bear the character of the Arabian names of the second millennium before Christ, and can have originated only in the time of Moses, though it must be admitted that the text of certain portions, eg, Num., xiii, has suffered in its transmission.此外,HOMMEL(“模具altisraelitische Überlieferung在inschriftlicher Beleuchtung”,第302页)显示,在数字的图书清单的名称承担的公元前二世纪的阿拉伯名字字符,可以只在起源摩西的时间,但必须承认,某些部分,例如,数,第十三,文字在它的传输受到影响。 We need not remind the reader that numerous Pentateuchal laws and data imply the conditions of a nomadic life of Israel.我们需要提醒读者,许多Pentateuchal法律和数据意味着以色列游牧的生活条件。Finally, both the author of the Pentateuch and its first readers must have been more familiar with the topography and the social conditions of Egypt and with the Sinaitic peninsula than with the land of Chanaan.最后,无论是五经和它的第一读者作者必须已与埃及的地形和社会情况,并与西乃半岛半岛比较熟悉的土地Chanaan。 Cf., eg, Deut., viii, 7-10; xi, 10 sqq.CF,如申,八,7-10;。十一,10 SQQ。These internal characteristics of the Pentateuch have been developed at greater length by Smith, "The Book of Moses or the Pentateuch in its Authorship, Credibility, and Civilisation", London, 1868; Vigouroux, "La Bible et les decouvertes modernes", 6th ed., Paris, 1896, I, 453-80; II, 1-213, 529-47, 586-91; Idem, "Les Livres Saints et la critique rationaliste", Paris, 1902, III, 28-46, 79-99, 122-6; Heyes, "Bibel und Ægypten", Munster, 1904, p.这些内部的摩西五特点已在更大的长度开发的史密斯,伦敦,1868年他说:“摩西五经,或在其作者,信誉,文明之书”; Vigouroux,“香格里拉圣经ET LES decouvertes modernes”,第6版,巴黎,1896年,我,453-80;二,1-213,529-47,586-91;同上,“莱斯里弗圣徒ET LA批判rationaliste”,巴黎,1902年,三,28-46,79 - 99,122-6; Heyes,“Bibel UND Ægypten”,穆斯特,1904年,第142; Cornely, "Introductio specialis in histor. Vet. Test. libros", I, Paris, 1887, pp. 57-60; Poole, "Ancient Egypt" in "Contemporary Review", March, 1879, pp. 757-9.142条; Cornely“。Introductio在histor特别兽医试验libros”,我,巴黎,1887年,页57-60;普尔,“古埃及”在“当代评论”,3月,1879年,第757-9 。


In accordance with the voice of the triple argument thus far advanced for the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, the Biblical Commission on 27 June, 1906, answered a series of questions concerning this subject in the following way:为配合迄今为摩西五,对1906年6月27日圣经委员会花叶作者先进的三重参数语音的规定,回答了关于这个问题的方式如下一系列问题:

(1) The arguments accumulated by the critics to impugn the Mosaic authenticity of the sacred books designated by the name Pentateuch are not of such weight as to give us the right, after setting aside numerous passages of both Testaments taken collectively, the continuous consensus of the Jewish people, the constant tradition of the Church, and internal indications derived from the text itself, to maintain that these books have not Moses as their author, but are compiled from sources for the greatest part later than the Mosaic age. (1)积累批评家抨击了由名字指定的圣书五经马赛克真实性的论点是不是这样的重量以给我们的权利,设置后,除了采取集体许多段落都圣经,连续共识犹太人民,教会不断的传统,从文字本身产生的内部指示,以保持这些书籍没有摩西作为其作者,但编撰的最大部分来自源不迟于花叶年龄。

(2) The Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch does not necessarily require such a redaction of the whole work as to render it absolutely imperative to maintain that Moses wrote all and everything with his own hand or dictated it to his secretaries; the hypothesis of those can be admitted who believe that he entrusted the composition of the work itself, conceived by him under the influence of Divine inspiration, to others, but in such a way that they were to express faithfully his own thoughts, were to write nothing against his will, were to omit nothing; and that finally the work thus produced should be approved by the same Moses, its principal and inspired author, and published under his name. (2)花叶真实性摩西五并不一定需要这样的编辑整个工作,以使其绝对必须保持这一摩西写了所有与他自己的手的一切或口述给他的秘书,这些假设可以必须承认谁相信他委托组成的工作本身,他所设想的神的启示下,影响力,对他人,但在这样一种方式,他们忠实地表达自己的想法,写了对他的意志无关,被省略了什么,以及由此产生的最后的工作应该得到批准由同摩西,其本金和激励作者和出版他的名字。

(3) It may be granted without prejudice to the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch, that Moses employed sources in the production of his work, ie, written documents or oral traditions, from which he may have drawn a number of things in accordance with the end he had in view and under the influence of Divine inspiration, and inserted them in his work either literally or according to their sense, in an abbreviated or amplified form. (3)可在不影响授予的摩西五,摩西在他的工作,即以书面文件或口头传统的生产就业来源马赛克的真实性,从中他可能得出符合规定的一些事情最终他在视图下,在神的启示的影响,插在他的工作中也确实或根据自己的意识在放大或缩写形式。

(4) The substantial Mosaic authenticity and integrity of the Pentateuch remains intact if it be granted that in the long course of centuries the work has suffered several modifications, as; post-Mosaic additions either appended by an inspired author or inserted into the text as glosses and explanations; the translation of certain words and forms out of an antiquated language into the recent form of speech; finally, wrong readings due to the fault of transcribers, which one may investigate and pass sentence on according to the laws of criticism. (4)大量马赛克真实性和完整性的pentateuch保持不变,如果它被理所当然地,在百年长河中的工作受到一些修改,如;后花叶增加或者附加的启发作者或插入到文本掩盖和解释;某些词语和形式的到最近的讲话形式陈旧的语言翻译出来,最后,由于誊写,其中一个调查,并通过关于根据法律判决的批评错误读数的过错。

The post-Mosaic additions and modifications allowed by the Biblical Commission in the Pentateuch without removing it from the range of substantial integrity and Mosaic authenticity are variously interpreted by Catholic scholars.后花叶补充和圣经中的摩西五委员会允许不删除从大量的完整性和马赛克的真实性范围内,它的修改是不同的解释天主教学者。

(1) We should have to understand them in a rather wide sense, if we were to defend the views of von Hummelauer or Vetter. (1)我们应该要明白在一个相当广泛的意义上说,如果我们要捍卫冯Hummelauer或Vetter的意见。This latter writer admits legal and historical documents based on Mosaic tradition, but written only in the times of the Judges; he places the first redaction of the Pentateuch in the time of the erection of Solomon's temple, and its last redaction in the time of Esdras.后者作家承认法律和历史文献的基础上镶嵌的传统,但只在法官的时代写的,他的地方在所罗门的圣殿勃起时间的pentateuch第一节录,以及其在埃斯德拉斯去年节录。 Vetter died in 1906, the year in which the Biblical Commission issued the above Decree; it is an interesting question, whether and how the scholar would have modified his theory, if time had been granted him to do so. Vetter死于1906年,这一年中的圣经委员会发表了上述法令,它是一个有趣的问题,是否和如何修改的学者将他的理论,如果时间已给予他这样做。

(2) A less liberal interpretation of the Decree is implied in the Pentateuchal hypotheses advanced by Hobert ("Moses und der Pentateuch; Die Pentateuch Frage" in "Biblische Studien", X, 4, Freiburg, 1907; "Erklarung des Genesis", 1908, Freiburg, IL), Schopfer (Geschichte des Alten Testamentes, 4th ed., 226 sqq.), Hopfl ("Die hohere Bibelkritik", 2nd ed., Paderborn, 1906), Brucker ("L'eglise et la critique", Paris, 1907, 103 sqq.), and Selbst (Schuster and Holzammer's "Handbuch zur Biblischen Geschichte", 7th ed., Freiburg, 1910, II, 94, 96).(2)少从宽解释法令是隐含的Pentateuchal假设先进的霍伯特(“摩西五经UND DER;模具五经查询搜索”中的“Biblische(研究)”,X,4,弗赖堡,1907年,“Erklarung DES创世纪”, 1908年,弗莱堡,IL),Schopfer(历史馆DES Alten Testamentes,第4版,226 SQQ),Hopfl(“模具hohere Bibelkritik”,第二版,帕德博恩,1906年),布鲁克(“L' eglise ET LA批判” ,巴黎,1907年,103 SQQ),和Selbst(舒斯特和Holzammer的“手册下载楚Biblischen历史馆”,第7版,弗赖堡,1910年,第二,94,96)。 The last-named writer believes that Moses left a written law-book to which Josue and Samuel added supplementary sections and regulations, while David and Solomon supplied new statutes concerning worship and priesthood, and other kings introduced certain religious reforms, until Esdras promulgated the whole law and made it the basis of Israel's restoration after the Exile.最后命名的作家认为,摩西留下了书面法律书籍的若苏埃和Samuel补充和规章的补充部分,而大卫和所罗门提供有关新法规的崇拜和神职人员,和其他国王介绍了某些宗教的改革,直到整个埃斯德拉斯颁布法律,使其成为以色列的恢复后,流亡国外的基础。 Our present Pentateuch is, therefore, an Esdrine edition of the work.我们目前的五经,因此,一个Esdrine版的工作。Dr. Selbst feels convinced that his admission of both textual changes and material additions in the Pentateuch agrees with the law of historical development and with the results of literary criticism.Selbst博士相信,他觉得这两个文本的修改和补充材料中的摩西五入场与历史发展的规律,并与文学批评的结果一致。 Historical development adapts laws and regulations to the religious, civil, and social conditions of successive ages, while literary criticism discovers in our actual Pentateuch peculiarities of words and phrases which can hardly have been original, and also historical additions or notices, legal modifications, and signs of more recent administration of justice and of later forms of worship.适应历史发展的宗教,民间和社会的历届年龄条件的法律和法规,而文学批评在我们的实际摩西五字和它难以被发现原来短语的特殊性,也是历史上增加或通知,法律的修改,迹象更加公正和后来的崇拜形式最近管理。 But Dr. Selbst believes that these peculiarities do not offer a sufficient basis for a distinction of different sources in the Pentateuch.但医生认为,这些特点Selbst不提供针对不同来源的五区分充分的依据。

(3) A strict interpretation of the words of the Decree is implied in the views of Kaulen (Einleitung, n. 193 sqq.), Key ("Die Pentateuchfrage, ihre Geschichte un ihre System", Munster, 1903), Flunk (Kirchenlexicon, IX, 1782 sqq.), and Mangenot ("L'authenticite mosaique du Pentateuque", Paris, 1907; Idem, "Dict. de la Bible", V, 50-119. With the exception of those portions that belong to the time after the death of Moses, and of certain accidental changes of the text due to transcribers, the whole of the Pentateuch is the work of Moses who composed the work in one of the ways suggested by the Biblical Commission. Finally, there is the question as the theological certainty of the thesis maintaining the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch.(3)该法令严格解释的话是在考伦(导论,北路193 sqq),主要的意见暗示(“模具Pentateuchfrage,ihre历史馆联合国ihre系统”,穆斯特,1903年),不及格(Kirchenlexicon ,九,1782年SQQ)和芒热诺(“L' authenticite mosaique杜Pentateuque”,巴黎,1907年,同上,“快译通德拉圣经”,V,50-119随着这些部分属于例外。之后,摩西死亡,对文字,由于誊写某些意外更改时间,整个摩西五是工作的摩西谁组成的圣经委员会所建议的方式之一工作,最后,存在的问题作为保持花叶真实性摩西五论断神学确定性。

(1) Certain Catholic scholars who wrote between 1887 and 1906 expressed their opinion that the thesis in question is not revealed in Scripture nor taught by the Church; that it expresses a truth not contained in Revelation, but a tenet which may be freely contested and discussed. (1)某些谁1887年和1906年间写了天主教学者表示,他们认为,有问题的论文,也没有发现在圣经教导的教会,它在启示录中表示没有一个真理,而是一个可以自由有争议的宗旨,讨论。 At that time, ecclesiastical authority had issued no pronouncement on the question.当时,教会当局没有发出关于这个问题的声明。

(2) Other writers grant that the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch is not explicitly revealed, but they consider it as a truth revealed formally implicitly, being derived from the revealed formulae not by a syllogism in the strict sense of the word, but by a simple explanation of the terms. (2)其他作者给予的摩西五马赛克的真实性是没有明确透露,但他们认为这是一个事实表明正式含蓄,正在从没有在这个词的严格意义上的三段论显示公式,但由简单的解释的条款。 The denial of the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch is an error, and the contradictory of the thesis maintaining the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch is considered erronea in fide (cf. Mechineau, "L'origine mosaique du Pentateuque", p. 34).该摩西五马赛克真实性否定是错误的,和保持花叶真实性摩西五论断矛盾被认为是真正(见Mechineau,“L' origine mosaique杜Pentateuque”,第34页)erronea。

(3) A third class of scholars considers the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch neither as a freely debatable tenet, nor as a truth formally implicitly revealed; they believe it has been virtually revealed, or that it is inferred from revealed truth by truly syllogistic deduction. (3)第三类学者认为既不是一个有争议的自由的宗旨,也作为正式含蓄地揭示真理的pentateuch马赛克真实性,他们认为它实际上已被发现,或者说,它是从推断揭示真理的真正三段论扣除。 It is, therefore, a theologically certain truth, and its contradictory is a rash (temeraria) or even erroneous proposition (cf. Brucker, "Authenticite des livres de Moise" in "Etudes", March, 1888, p. 327; ibid., January, 1897, p. 122-3; Mangenot, "L'authenticité mosaïque du Pentateuque", pp. 267-310.正是因此,一个神学一定的道理,其矛盾的是皮疹(temeraria),甚至错误的主张(参见布鲁克,“Authenticite DES里弗DE莫伊兹”中的“练习曲”,3月,1888年,第327页;同上。一月,1897年,第122-3;芒热诺,“L' authenticité mosaïque杜Pentateuque”,第267-310。

Whatever effect the ecclesiastical decision concerning the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch may have had, or will have, on the opinion of students of the Pentateuchal question, it cannot be said to have occasioned the conservative attitude of scholars who wrote before the promulgation of the Decree.无论教会决定作用的有关摩西五马赛克的真实性可能有,或将有对的Pentateuchal问题的学生认为,不能说已经引起学者的保守态度,谁前颁布的法令写道。 The following list contains the names of the principal recent defenders of Mosaic authenticity: Hengstenberg, "Die Bucher Moses und Aegypten", Berlin, 1841; Smith, "The Book of Moses or the Pentateuch in its Authorship, Credibility, and Civilisation", London, 1868; C. Schobel, "Demonstration de l'authenticite du Deuteronome", Paris, 1868; Idem, "Demonstration de l'authenticite mosaique de l'Exode", Paris, 1871; Idem, "Demonstration de l'authenticite mosaique du Levitique et des Nombres", Paris, 1869; Idem, "Demonstration de l'authenticite de la Genese", Paris, 1872; Idem, "Le Moise historique et la redaction mosaique du Pentateuque", Paris, 1875; Knabenbauer, "Der Pentateuch und die unglaubige Bibelkritik" in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", 1873, IV; Bredenkamp, "Gesetz und Propheten", Erlangen, 1881; Green, "Moses and the Prophets", New York, 1883; Idem, "The Hebrew Feasts", New York, 1885; Idem, "The Pentateuchal Question" in "Hebraica", 1889-92; Idem, "The Higher Criticism of the Pentateuch", New York, 1895; Idem, "The Unity of the Book of Genesis", New York, 1895; C. Elliot, "Vindication of the Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch", Cincinnati, 1884; Bissel, "The Pentateuch, its Origin and Structure", New York, 1885; Ubaldi, "Introductio in Sacram Scripturam", 2nd ed., Rome, 1882, I, 452- 509; Cornely, "Introductio specialis in historicos VT libros", Paris, 1887, pp. 19-160; Vos, "Mosaic Origin of the Pentateuchal Codes", London, 1886; Bohl, "Zum Gesetz und zum Zeugniss", Vienna, 1883; Zah, "Erneste Blicke in den Wahn der modernen Kritik des AT", Gutersloh, 1893; Idem, "Das Deuteronomium", 1890; Idem, "Israelitische und judische Geschichte", 1895; Rupprecht, "Die Anschauung der kritischen Schule Wellhausens vom Pentateuch", Leipzig, 1893; Idem, "Das Rathsel des Funfbuches Mose und seine falsche Losung", Gutersloh, 1894; Idem, "Des Rathsels Losung order Beitrage zur richtigen Losung des Pentateuchrathsels", 1897; Idem, "Die Kritik nach ihrem Recht uknd Unrecht", 1897; "Lex Mosaica, or the Law of Moses and the Higher Criticism" (by Sayce, Rawlinson, Trench, Lias, Wace, etc.), London, 1894; Card.以下列表包含了最近的马赛克真实性主要捍卫者的名字:韩斯坦堡,“模具布赫尔摩西UND Aegypten”,柏林,1841年,史密斯说:“摩西五经,或在其作者,诚信书,与文明”,伦敦,1868; C. Schobel,“示范DE L' authenticite杜Deuteronome”,巴黎,1868年,同上,“示范DE L' authenticite mosaique DE L' Exode”,巴黎,1871年,同上,“示范DE L' authenticite mosaique杜Levitique ET DES Nombres“,巴黎,1869年,同上,”示范DE L' authenticite德拉杰尼斯“,巴黎,1872年,同上,”乐莫伊兹historique ET LA节录mosaique杜Pentateuque“,巴黎,1875年; Knabenbauer,”明镜摩西五UND死unglaubige Bibelkritik“中的”Stimmen AUS玛丽亚 - Laach“,1873年,第四; Bredenkamp,”Gesetz UND Propheten“,埃尔兰根,1881年,绿色,”摩西和先知“,纽约,1883年;同上,”希伯来节日“,纽约,1885年;同上,”Pentateuchal问题“中的”Hebraica“,1889年至1892年,同上,他说:”摩西五更高批判“,纽约,1895年,同上,”在统一的创世记“ ,纽约,1895年;,辛辛那提,1884年“的报复的马赛克著作权的五经”C.艾略特;比塞尔,“摩西五,其来源和结构”,纽约,1885年; Ubaldi,“在Sacram Scripturam Introductio” ,第二版,罗马,1882年,我,452 - 509; Cornely,“Introductio特别在historicos VT libros”,巴黎,1887年,页19-160;沃斯,“马赛克起源的Pentateuchal守则”,伦敦,1886年; Bohl,“ZUM Gesetz UND ZUM Zeugniss”,维也纳,1883年; Zah,“Erneste Blicke在书房Wahn DER modernen Kritik DES AT”,居特斯洛,1893年,同上,“资本Deuteronomium”,1890年,同上,“Israelitische UND judische历史馆“1895年; Rupprecht,”模具Anschauung DER kritischen学派Wellhausens VOM五经“,莱比锡,1893年,同上,”资本Rathsel DES Funfbuches莫斯UND围网falsche Losung“,居特斯洛,1894年,同上,”德Rathsels Losung为了Beitrage楚richtigen Losung DES Pentateuchrathsels“,1897年,同上,”模具Kritik nach ihrem Recht uknd Unrecht“,1897年,”莱克斯Mosaica,或摩西律法和更高批判“(由Sayce,罗林森,麟趾,黑侏罗统,WACE等),伦敦,1894年;卡。 Meignan, "De L'Eden a Moise", Paris, 1895, 1-88; Baxter, "Sanctuary and Sacrifice", London, 1896; Abbé de Broglie, "Questions bibliques", Paris, 1897, pp. 89-169; Pelt, "Histoire de l'AT", 3rd ed., Paris, 1901, I, pp. 291-326; Vigouroux, "Les Livres Saints et la critique ratioinaliste", Paris, 1902, III, 1-226; IV, 239-53, 405-15; Idem, "Manuel biblique", 12th ed., Paris, 1906, I, 397-478; Kley, "Die Pentateuchfrage, ihre Geschichte und ihre Systeme", Munster, 1903; Hopfl, "Die hohere Bibelkritik", Paderborn, 1902; Thomas, "The Organic Unity of the Pentateuch", London, 1904; Wiener, "Studies in Biblical Law", London, 1904; Rouse, "The Old Testament in New Testament Light", London, 1905; Redpath, "Modern Criticism and the Book of Genesis", London, 1905; Hoberg, "Moses und der Pentateuch", Freiburg, 1905; Orr, "The Problem of the Old Testament considered with reference to Recent Criticism", London, 1906. Meignan,“德L'伊甸园a莫伊兹”,巴黎,1895年1-88;巴克斯特,“保护区和牺牲”,伦敦,1896年;阿贝德布罗意,“问题bibliques”,巴黎,1897年,页89-169;佩尔特,“DE L' Histoire AT”,第3版,巴黎,1901年,我,第291-326; Vigouroux,“莱斯里弗圣徒ET LA批判ratioinaliste”,巴黎,1902年,三,1-226;四, 239-53,405-15;同上,“曼努埃尔biblique”,第12版,巴黎,1906年,我,397-478;克利,“模具Pentateuchfrage,ihre历史馆UND ihre SYSTEME”,穆斯特,1903; Hopfl,“模具hohere Bibelkritik“,帕德博恩,1902年,托马斯,他说:”五经有机统一“,伦敦,1904年,维纳,”圣经研究法“,伦敦,1904年,劳斯,”在新约圣经旧约光“,伦敦, 1905年;雷德帕思,“现代批评和书创世纪”,伦敦,1905年;霍贝格,“摩西五经UND DER”,弗赖堡,1905年,奥尔,他说:“考虑参照最近批评旧约问题”,伦敦, 1906年。


A detailed account of the opposition to the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is neither desirable nor necessary in this article.一到花叶作者的pentateuch详细交代反对是既不可取,也不在本文必要的。In itself it would form only a noisome history of human errors; each little system has had its day, and its successors have tried their best to bury it in hushed oblivion.它本身只是一个形式有碍人类历史错误,每个小系统也有一天,它的后继者都竭尽所能,以埋葬在寂静遗忘。The actual difficulties we have to consider are those advanced by our actual opponents of today; only the fact that the systems of the past show us the fleeting and transitory character of the actual theories now in vogue can induce us to briefly enumerate the successive views upheld by the opponents of the Mosaic authorship.我们所要考虑的实际困难是那些由我们今天的实际对手先进,只有一个事实,即过去的系统我们展示了实际的理论和过渡性质稍纵即逝现在流行可诱导我们简要列举坚持连续意见由花叶作者的对手。

(1) Abandoned Theories(1)被遗弃的理论

The views advanced by the Valentinian Ptolemy, the Nazarites, Abenesra, Carlstadt, Isaac Peyrerius, Baruch Spinoza, Jean Leclerc are sporadic phenomena.由瓦伦蒂安托勒密的Nazarites,Abenesra,Carlstadt的,以撒Peyrerius,巴鲁克斯宾诺莎,让勒克莱尔先进的意见是零星的现象。 Not all of them were wholly incompatible with the Mosaic authorship as now understood, and the others have found their answer in their own time.-With the work of John Astrue, published in 1753, began the so-called Hypothesis of Documents which was further developed by Eichhorn and Ilgen.并非所有的人完全不兼容的花叶作者像现在的理解,和其他人发现他们的答案在他们自己time随着约翰Astrue发表于1753年,开始了工作文件,进一步所谓的假说开发艾希霍恩和伊尔根。 But the works of the suspended priest, Alexander Geddes, published in 1792 and 1800, introduced the Hypothesis of Fragments, which in its day was elaborated and championed by Vater, de Wette (temporarily at least), Berthold, Hartmann, and von Bohlen.但在工程暂停神父,亚历山大格迪斯,于1792年和1800年出版,介绍了碎片,这一天是在其制定并通过壶腹部,DE Wette(至少暂时),贝特霍尔德,哈特曼和冯波伦倡导假说。This theory was soon confronted by, and had to yield to the Hypothesis of Complements or Interpolations which numbered among its patrons Kelle, Ewald, Stahelin, Bleek, Tuch, de Wette, von Lengerke, and for a brief period also Franz Delitzsch.这一理论很快就面临了,只好屈服的假说补或插值其中凯莱之间的顾客,埃瓦尔德,斯斯塔埃林,Bleek,TUCH,DE Wette,冯Lengerke,和一个短暂的时期也弗朗茨Delitzsch编号。The theory of interpolations again had hardly found any adherents before Gramberg (1828), Stahelin (1830), and Bleek (1831) returned to the Hypothesis of Documents, proposing it in a somewhat modified form.插值理论的再次几乎没有发现之前格兰贝格(1828),斯斯塔埃林(1830),和Bleek任何信徒(1831)返回假设的文件,提出了略加修改的形式。 Subsequently, Ewald, Knobel, Hupfeld, Noldeke, and Schrader advanced each a different explanation of the documentary hypothesis.随后,埃瓦尔德,克诺贝尔,霍普菲,Noldeke和施拉德先进的每一个纪录片的假说不同的解释。But all of these are at present only of an historical interest.但是,所有这些都是目前只有一个历史的兴趣。

(2) Present Hypothesis of Documents(2)假设目前的文件

A course of religious development in Israel had been proposed by Reuss in 1830 and 1834, by Vatke in 1835, and by George in the same year.一个在以色列的宗教发展过程中已经提出了Reuss在1830年和1834年,由1835年Vatke,由乔治在同一年。 In 1865-66 Graf took up this idea and applied it to the literary criticism of the Hexateuch; for the critics had begun to consider the Book of Josue as belonging to the preceding five books, so that the collection formed a Hexateuch instead of a Pentateuch.在1865年至1866格拉夫了这一想法,并把它应用到文学批评的Hexateuch;的批评已开始考虑为属于前五书若苏埃书,以便收集形成的,而不是一个摩西五Hexateuch 。The same application was made by Merx in 1869.同样的申请是由Merx于1869年。Thus modified the documentary theory continued in its development until it reached the state described in the translation of the Bible by Kautzsch (3rd ed., with Introduction and Annotations, Tübingen, 1908 sqq.).因此,修改的文件在其理论继续发展,直至它达到了的Kautzsch翻译的圣经描述的状态(第3版,以介绍和说明,蒂宾根大学,1908年SQQ)。 In itself there is nothing against the assumption of documents written by Moses; but we cannot ascribe with certainty anything of our literary remains to the hands of the Hebrew lawgiver.在本身就存在反对的摩西假设没有书面文件,但我们不能肯定地归于我们的文学仍然什么的希伯来立法者手中。The beginning of written accounts must be placed towards the end of the time of Judges; only then were fulfilled the conditions which must precede the origin of a literature properly so called, ie, a general acquaintance with the art of writing and reading, stationary settlement of the people, and national prosperity.书面账户开始必须放置在接近年底时法官;才得到满足的条件,必须先于文学出身的所谓正确,即与艺术的写作和阅读一般的熟人,平稳解决人民和国家的繁荣。 What then are the oldest literary remains of the Hebrews?那么,什么是最古老的希伯来文学仍然?They are the collections of the songs dating from the heroic time of the nation, eg, the Book of the Wars of the Lord (Numbers 21:14), the Book of the Just (Joshua 10:12 sqq.), the Book of Songs (1 Kings 8:53; cf. Budde, "Geschichte der althebr. Literature", Leipzig, 1906, 17).他们是从民族的英雄时间约会歌曲,例如,对主(民数记21:14),对刚(约书亚10时12 SQQ),图书的图书的馆藏图书的战争歌曲(1国王53分;比照布德,“历史馆DER althebr文学”,莱比锡,1906年,17)。The Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:24-23:19) too must have existed before the other sources of the Pentateuch.该图书的盟约(出20:24-23:19)也必须有前存在的pentateuch的其他来源。The oldest historical work is probably the book of the Yahwist, designated by J, and ascribed to the priesthood of Juda, belonging most probably to the ninth century BC最古老的历史大概是工作的Yahwist书,指定由J和归因于圣职的犹大,最有可能属于公元前9世纪到

Akin to this is the Elohim document, designated by E, and written probably in the northern kingdom (Ephraim) about a century after the production of the Yahweh document.类似于这是耶洛因文件,指定由E和书面大概一个世纪在英国北部(莲)后,耶和华文件制作。These two sources were combined by a redactor into one work soon after the middle of the sixth century.这两个来源合并成一个工作后不久,第六世纪中叶由修订者。Next follows the law-book, almost entirely embodied in our actual Book of Deuteronomy, discovered in the temple 621 BC, and containing the precipitate of the prophetic teaching which advocated the abolition of the sacrifices in the so- called high places and the centralization of worship in the temple of Jerusalem.下一步如下法律书籍,几乎完全在我们的实际书申命记体现,在寺庙621年发现的,并载有预言教学主张在所谓的高的地方取消了牺牲和集权沉淀崇拜在耶路撒冷圣殿。 During the Exile originated the Priestly Code, P, based on the so-called law of holiness, Lev., xvii-xxvi, and the programme of Ezechiel, xl-xlviii; the substance of P was read before the post-exilic community by Esdras about 444 BC (Nehemiah 8-10), and was accepted by the multitude.在流亡的祭司码起源,P的基础上,圣洁的,列弗,十七 - 26所谓的法律,以及Ezechiel,XL - XLVIII方案;的P物质前,后放逐社会阅读约公元前444年(尼希米记8-10)埃斯德拉斯,并接受了众多。History does not tell us when and how these divers historical and legal sources were combined into our present Pentateuch; but it is generally assumed that there was an urgent call for a compilation of the tradition and pre-exilic history of the people.历史没有告诉我们何时和如何将这些历史和法律的来源合并为我们目前的五经潜水员,但人们普遍认为有一个为人民的传统和前放逐历史编纂迫切要求。 The only indication of time may be found in the fact that the Samaritans accepted the Pentateuch as a sacred book probably in the fourth century BC Considering their hatred for the Jews, one must conclude that they would not have taken this step, unless they had felt certain of the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch.显示的时间只可能是一个事实,即撒玛利亚接纳为一个神圣的书,在第四世纪的考虑他们的仇恨犹太人大概是公元前五经发现,必须得出结论,他们不会采取这一步骤,除非他们认为在摩西五马赛克起源肯定。 Hence a considerable time must have intervened between the compilation of the Pentateuch and its acceptance by the Samaritans, so that the work of combining must be placed in the fifth century.因此,一个相当长的时间必须进行干预之间的pentateuch和接受撒玛利亚编译,这样相结合的工作必须在五世纪上。 It is quite generally agreed that the last redactor of the Pentateuch completed his task with great adroitness.这是很普遍认为,过去的五经redactor完成他的任务十分精明。Without altering the text of the older sources, he did all within man's power to fuse the heterogeneous elements into one apparent (?) whole, with such success that not only the Jews after the fourth century BC, but also the Christians for many centuries could maintain their conviction that the entire Pentateuch was written by Moses.如果没有改变的旧源文本,他在人的一切力量融合成一个明显的(?)整个异质因素与这样的成功,不仅对犹太人在公元前四世纪,也为许多世纪可能的基督徒维护他们的信念,即整个五经是由摩西写的。

(3) Deficiencies of the Critical Hypothesis的关键假设(3)缺陷

As several Pentateuchal critics have endeavoured to assign the last redaction of the Pentateuch to more recent dates, its placement in the fifth century may be regarded as rather favourable to conservative views.正如一些批评者一直在努力Pentateuchal指派最后节录的pentateuch以更近的日期,它在五世纪安置可能会被视为相当有利的保守观点。 But it is hard to understand why the patrons of this opinion should not agree in considering Esdras as the last editor.但是,很难理解为什么顾客的意见不应该同意在考虑埃斯德拉斯作为最后的编辑。Again, it is quite certain that the last editor of the Pentateuch must have notably preceded its acceptance on the part of the Samaritans as a sacred book; bit is it probably that the Samaritans would have accepted the Pentateuch as such in the fourth century BC, when the national and religious opposition between them and Jews was well developed?再次,这是很肯定地说,过去的五经编辑器之前,它必须具有显着的,作为一个神圣的书撒玛利亚部分验收;位是它可能是撒玛利亚会已接纳这些在公元前四世纪的五,当他们与犹太人的民族和宗教反对派发达? Is it not more probable that the mixed nation of Samaria received the Pentateuch through the priest sent to them from Assyria?这难道不是更可能是混合的国家收到的撒马利亚通过发送亚述给他​​们的祭司的五?Cf.比照。2 Kings 17:27.2国王17时27分。 Or again, as this priest instructed the Samaritan population in the law of the god of the country, is it not reasonable to suppose that he taught them the Pentateuchal law which the ten tribes carried with them when they separated from Juda?或者再次,因为这神父指示在该国的法神撒玛利亚人口,是不是合理的假设,他教他们的Pentateuchal法律,十个部落与他们进行分离,当他们从犹大? At any rate, the fact that the Samaritans accepted as sacred only the Pentateuch, but not the Prophets, leads us to infer that the Pentateuch existed among the Jews before a collection of the prophetic writings was made, and that Samaria chose its sacred book before even Juda placed the works of the Prophets on the same level with the work of Moses.无论如何,认为撒玛利亚接纳为神圣只有五经,但不是先知,实际上使我们推测,摩西五犹太人之间存在之前收集的预言著作写了,那撒马利亚选择了其神圣的书之前甚至犹大放在与摩西同级别工作的先知的作品。 But this natural inference finds no favour among the critics; for it implies that the historical and legal traditions codified in the Pentateuch, described the beginning, and not the end, of Israel's religious development.但这种自然的推论认定之间没有批评的青睐;因为它意味着,历史和法律中的摩西五编纂传统,描述的开始,而不是以色列的宗教发展的结束。 The view of Israel's religious development prevalent among the critics implies that the Pentateuch is later than the Prophets, and that the Psalms are later than both.以色列的宗教发展中普遍存在的批评意味着摩西五晚于先知,而且诗篇是不迟于两个。After these general considerations, we shall briefly examine the main principles, the methods, the results, and the arguments of the critical theory.这些一般性的考虑后,我们将简要地研究的主要原则,方法,结果,以及批判理论的论点。

(a) Principles of the Critics的批评(一)原则

Without pretending to review all the principles involved in the theories of the critics, we draw attention to two: the historical development of religion, and the comparative value of internal evidence and tradition.没有假装审查所有的批评者的理论涉及的原则,我们提请大家注意二:历史发展的宗教,以及内部证据和传统的比较价值。

(i) The theory of the historical evolution of Israelitic religions leads us from Mosaic Yahwehism to the ethical monotheism of the Prophets, from this to the universalist conception of God developed during the Exile, and from this again to the ossified Phariseeism of later days. (一)对历史演变Israelitic宗教理论使我们从花叶Yahwehism的伦理一神教的先知,从这个神的普遍性概念流亡期间发展起来的,从这个再次到僵化Phariseeism后来天。 This religion of the Jews is codified in our actual Pentateuch, but has been fictitiously projected backwards in the historical books into the Mosaic and pre-prophetic times.这是犹太人的宗教是编纂在我们的实际摩西五,但已经fictitiously预计的花叶和前预言次倒退的历史书籍。The idea of development is not a purely modern discovery.发展思路是不是一个纯粹的现代发现。Meyer ("Der Entwicklungsgedanke bei Aristoteles", Bonn, 1909) shows that Aristotle was acquainted with it; Gunkel ("Weiterbildung der Religion", Munich, 1905, 64) maintains that its application to religion is as old as Christianity, and that St. Paul has enunciated this principle; Diestel ("Geschichte des AT in der chrislichen Kirche", Jena, 1869, 56 sqq.), Willmann ("Geschichte des Idealismus", 2nd ed., II, 23 sqq.), and Schanz ("Apologie des Christentums", 3rd ed. II, 4 sqq., 376) find the same application in the writings of the Fathers, though Hoberg ("Die Forschritte der bibl. Wissenschaften", Freiburg, 1902, 10) grants that the patristic writers often neglect the external forms which influenced the ideas the Chosen People.迈耶(“明镜Entwicklungsgedanke北亚里士多德”,波恩,1909)表明,亚里士多德熟悉它;贡克尔(“Weiterbildung DER宗教”,慕尼黑,1905年,64岁)坚持认为,它适用于宗教一样古老基督教,和意法半导体保罗已经阐明了这一原则; Diestel,Willmann(“历史馆DES Idealismus”,第二版,二,23 SQQ。)和Schanz((“历史馆DES AT在DER chrislichen Kirche”,耶拿,1869年,56 SQQ)。 “Apologie DES Christentums”,第3版。II,4 SQQ。,376)找到了父亲的著作同一个应用程序,虽然霍贝格(“死Forschritte之bibl。学问”,弗赖堡,1902年,10)赠款教父作家往往忽视了它的思想影响的选民外在形式。 The Fathers were not fully acquainted with profane history, and were more concerned about the contents of Revelation than about its historical development.在父亲没有完全熟悉亵渎历史,更关心比其历史发展的启示录的内容表示关注。Pesch ("Glaube, Dogmen und geschichtliche Thatsachen" in "Theol. Zeitfragen", IV, Freiburg, 1908, 183) discovers that St. Thomas, too, admits the principle of development in his "Summa" (II-II, Q. i, a. 9, 10; Q. ii, a. 3; etc.).佩施(“Glaube,Dogmen UND geschichtliche Thatsachen”中的“Theol。Zeitfragen”,四,弗赖堡,1908年,183)发现,圣托马斯也承认在他的“大全”(II - II,问发展的原则我答:9,10,问二,A. 3;等)。But the Catholic conception of this principle avoids two extremes:但这一原则的天主教观念避免两个极端:

the theory of degeneracy, based on the teaching of the early Lutheran theologians (cf. Giesebrecht, "Die Degradationshypothese und die altl. Geschichte", Leipzig, 1905; Steude, "Entwicklung und Offenbarung", Stuttgart, 1905, 18 sqq.);对退化理论的基础上,早期路德神学家(见Giesebrecht,“模具Degradationshypothese UND死altl历史馆”,莱比锡,1905年; Steude,“发展协会UND Offenbarung”,斯图加特,1905年,18 SQQ)教学;

the theory of evolution which dissolves all truth and history into purely natural development to the exclusion of everything supernatural.进化的理论,溶解一切的真理,并为纯粹的自然发展史的一切超自然的排斥。

It is this latter extreme that is advocated by the Biblical critics.正是这种极端后者是由圣经的主张的批评。Their description of the early religion of Israel is contradicted by the testimony of the oldest Prophets whose authority is not questioned by them.他们对以色列的早期宗教的描述是矛盾的最古老的先知,其权威是不能质疑他们的证词。These inspired seers know of the fall of Adam (Hosea 6:7), the call of Abraham (Isaiah 29:23; Micah 7:20), the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha (Hosea 11:8; Isaiah 1:9; Amos 4:11), the history of Jacob and his struggle with the angel (Hosea 12:2 sqq.), Israel's exodus from Egypt and dwelling in the desert (Hosea 2:14; 7:16; 11:1; 12:9, 13; 13:4, 5; Amos 2:10; 3:1; 9:7), the activity of Moses (Hosea 12:13; Micah 6:4; Isaiah 63:11-12), a written legislation (Hosea 8:12), and a number of particular statutes (cf. Kley, "Die Pentateuchfrage", Munster, 1903, 223 sqq.).这些灵感的预言家知道了亚当的堕落(何西阿书6:7),亚伯拉罕(以赛亚书29:23;弥迦7:20)通话,所多玛和Gomorrha(何西阿11时08破坏;以赛亚书1:9;阿莫斯4时11分,历史上的雅各布和他的天使(何西阿12:2 sqq),以色列从埃及和居住在沙漠中(何西阿2时14出埃及记斗争); 7时16分,11时零一分,12时09分13人; 13时04分,5;阿莫斯2点10,3:1; 9:7),摩西(何西阿12:13活动;弥6:4;以赛亚书63:11-12),书面立法(何西阿书8:12),以及一些特别的章程(见克利,“模具Pentateuchfrage”,穆斯特,1903年,223 SQQ)。Again, the theory of development is more and more contradicted by the results of historical investigation.再次,发展理论,是越来越多的历史调查的结果相矛盾。Weber ("Theologie und Assyriologie im Streit um Babel und Bibel", Leipzig, 1904, 17) points out that the recent historical results imply decadence rather than development in ancient oriental art, science, and religion; Winckler ("Religionsgeschichtler und geschichtl. Orient", Leipzig, 1906, 33) considers the evolutionary view of the primitive state of man as false, and believes that the development theory has, at least, been badly shaken, if not actually destroyed by recent Oriental research (cf. Bantsch, "Altorientalischer und israelitischer Monothesismus", Tübingen, 1906).韦伯(“神学UND Assyriologie IM史漫飞嗯巴贝尔UND Bibel”,莱比锡,1904年,17岁)指出,最近的历史结果意味着颓废,而不是在古代东方艺术,科学和宗教的发展; Winckler(“Religionsgeschichtler UND geschichtl东方。 “,莱比锡,1906年,33岁)认为,人的原始状态为假进化观点,并认为,发展理论,至少受到严重动​​摇,如果不是最近东方研究实际破坏(参见Bantsch” Altorientalischer与israelitischer Monothesismus“,图宾根,1906年)。

Köberle ("Die Theologie der Gegenwart", Leipzig, 1907, I, 2) says that the development theory has exhausted itself, reproducing only the thoughts of Wellhausen, and deciding particular questions not in the light of facts, but according to the postulates of the theory.Köberle(“模具神学DER Gegenwart”,莱比锡,1907年,一,二)说,发展理论已用尽本身,音响只有豪森的想法,并决定在对具体问题没有根据的事实,但根据假设的这一理论。 Finally, even the rationalistic writers have thought it necessary to replace the development theory by another more in agreement with historical facts.最后,即使是理性的作家都认为有必要,以取代另一个符合历史事实的协议越多,发展的理论。Hence Winckler ("Ex Oriente lux", Leipzig, 1905- 6; Idem, "Der Alte Orient", III, 2-3; Idem, "Die babylonische Geisteskultur in ihren Beziehungen zur Kulturentwicklung der Menschheit" in "Wissenschaft und Bildung", Leipzig, 1907; cf. Landersdorfer in "Historisch-Politische Blatter", 1909, 144) has originated the theory of pan-Babelism according to which Biblical religion is conceived as a conscious and express reaction against the Babylonian polytheistic state religion.因此Winckler(“前东方力士”,莱比锡,1905年 - 6;同上,“明镜阿尔特东方”,三,2-3;同上,“模具babylonische Geisteskultur在ihren Beziehungen楚Kulturentwicklung DER Menschheit”中的“Wissenschaft UND教化”莱比锡,1907年;比照Landersdorfer在“历史,政治的布拉特”,1909年,144)已经发起了泛Babelism理论根据这些圣经宗教是作为对巴比伦多神教国家宗教意识的反应,并表示。 It was not the common property of Israel, but of a religious sect which was supported in Babylon by certain monotheistic circles irrespective of nationality.这不是以色列的共同财产,而是一个宗教教派,得到了一定的一神教界在巴比伦不论国籍。This theory has found powerful opponents in Budde, Stade, Bezold, Köberle, Kugler, Wilke, and others; but it has also a number of adherents.这一理论已经发现在布德,体育场,Bezold,Köberle,库格勒,维尔克等强大的对手,但它也有不少信徒。 Though wholly untenable from a Christian point of view, it shows at least the weakness of the historical development theory.虽然完全从基督教的观点来看站不住脚的,这说明至少在历史发展理论的弱点。

(ii) Another principle involved in the critical theory of the Pentateuch supposes that the internal evidence of literary criticism is of higher value than the evidence of tradition.(ii)在批判理论的pentateuch另一个原则参与设的文学批评内部证据高于传统的证据价值。But thus far the results of excavations and historical research have been favourable to tradition rather than to internal evidence.但是,迄今为止的发掘和历史研究成果已有利,而不是内部的证据的传统。Let the reader only remember the case of Troy, Tiryns, Mycenae, and Orchomenos (in Greece); the excavations of the English explorer Evans in Crete have shown the historical character of King Minos and his labyrinth; Assyrian inscriptions have re-established the historical credit of King Midas of Phrygia; similarly, Menes of Thebes and Sargon of Agade have been shown to belong to history; in general, the more accurate have been the scientific investigations, the more clearly have they shown the reliability of even the most slender traditions.让读者只记得特洛伊,梯林斯,迈锡尼和Orchomenos(希腊)的情况下,英国探险家的埃文斯在克里特岛发掘表明国王米诺斯迷宫和他的历史风貌;亚述铭文重新建立的历史同样,底比斯和Agade萨尔贡梅内斯已被证明属于历史;;国王迈达斯的Phrygia信贷在一般情况下,更准确的科学已调查,更清楚地表明,他们即使是最微弱的传统可靠性。 In the field of New-Testament criticism the call "back to tradition" has begun to be heeded, and has been endorsed by such authorities as Harnack and Deissmann.在新约圣经批评领域的呼吁“回到传统”,已经开始得到重视,并已被批准为哈尔纳克等部门和戴斯曼。In the study of the Old Testament too there are unmistakable signs of a coming change.在旧约的研究也有明确的迹象表明,未来的变化。Hommel ("Die altisrealitische Überlieferung in inschriftlicher Beleuchtung", Munich, 1897) maintains that Old- Testament tradition, both as a whole and in its details, proves to be reliable, even in the light of critical research.HOMMEL(“模具altisrealitische Überlieferung在inschriftlicher Beleuchtung”,慕尼黑,1897年)认为,旧全书传统,无论是作为一个整体,在其详细信息,被证明是可靠的,即使在光线的关键研究。 Meyer ("Die Entstehung des Judentums", Halle, 1896) comes to the conclusion that the foundations of the critical Pentateuchal theory are destroyed, if it can be proved that even part of the impugned Hebrew tradition is reliable; the same writer proves the credibility of the sources of the Books of Esdras (cf. "Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orientes", Munich, 1904, 167 sqq.).迈耶(“死Entstehung DES Judentums”,哈雷,1896年)的,该关键Pentateuchal理论的基础被破坏,如果能够证明,即使在受到指责的希伯来传统的一部分,是可靠的结论;同一作家证明的公信力对书刊的埃斯德拉斯(参见“Grundriss DER Geographie DES alten Orientes UND历史馆”,慕尼黑,1904年,167 SQQ)的来源。SA Fries has been led by his critical studies, and without being influenced by dogmatic bias, to accept the whole traditional view of the history of Israel. SA薯条已率领他的批判研究,并没有受到教条偏见的影响,接受整个以色列的历史传统观点。Cornill and Oettli express the conviction that Israel's traditions concerning even its earliest history are reliable and will withstand the bitterest attacks of criticism; Dawson (cf. Fonck, "Kritik und Tradition im AT" in "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1899, 262-81) and others apply to tradition the old principle which has been so frequently misapplied, "magna est veritas, et praevalebit"; Gunkel ("Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher", II, Tübingen, 1906, 8) grants that Old-Testament criticism has gone a little too far, and that many Biblical traditions now rejected will be re-established. Cornill和欧特列表示相信,以色列的传统有关,甚至其最早的历史是可靠的和能够承受的批评最激烈的攻击;道森(参见方克,在“(杂志)皮草katholische神学”,1899年,262“Kritik UND AT传统IM” - 81)和其他适用于传统的旧的原则已被如此频繁地被误用,“大EST VERITAS,等praevalebit”;贡克尔(“Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher”,二,蒂宾根大学,1906年,8)赠款,旧全书批评了一有点过头了,现在拒绝许多圣经传统将重新建立。

(b) Critical Method(二)关键方法

The falsehood of the critical method does not consist in the use of criticism as such, but in its illegitimate use.而谎言的重要方法并不在这样的批评,作为使用,但在其非法使用。Criticism became more common in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; at the end of the eighteenth it was applied to classical antiquity.批评变得更加普遍在十六,十七世纪,在十八世纪末它被应用到古代。Bernheim ("Lehrbuch der historischen Methode", Leipzig, 1903, 296) believes that by this means alone history first became a science.伯恩海姆(“Lehrbuch DER historischen梭”,莱比锡,1903年,296页)认​​为,通过这意味着单独的历史首次成为一门科学。In the application of criticism to the Bible was are limited, indeed, by the inspiration and the canonicity of its books; but there is an ample field left for our critical investigations (Pesch, "Theol. Zeitfragen", III, 48).在批评的圣经应用程序是有限的,事实上,灵感和正规的书籍,但有一个充分的实地调查,为我们的关键左(佩施,“Theol Zeitfragen”,三,48)。

Some of the principal sins of the critics in their treatment of Sacred Scripture are the following:在他们的治疗圣经批评的主要罪过一些如下:

They deny everything supernatural, so that they reject not merely inspiration and canonicity, but also prophecy and miracle a priori (cf. Metzler, "Das Wunder vor dem Forum der modernen Geschichtswissenschaft" in "Katholik", 1908, II, 241 sqq.).他们否认一切超自然的,让他们拒绝不仅仅是灵感和正规,而且还预言和奇迹的先验(参见梅茨勒,“达斯Wunder的VOR DEM论坛DER modernen Geschichtswissenschaft”中的“Katholik”,1908年,二,241 SQQ)。 。

They seem to be convinced a priori of the credibility of non-Biblical historical documents, while they are prejudiced against the truthfulness of Biblical accounts.他们似乎都相信了非圣经的历史文献的可信度先验的,而他们是反对偏见的真实性圣经帐户。(Cf. Stade, "Geschichte Israel's", I, 86 seq., 88, 101.) Depreciating external evidence almost entirely, they consider the questions of the origin, the integrity, and the authenticity of the sacred books in the light of internal evidence (Encycl. Prov. Deus, 52). (参见体育场,“历史馆以色列的”,我,86页起,88,101。)贬值的外部证据几乎完全,他们考虑的起源问题,完整和神圣的书籍在内部灯光的真实性证据(Encycl.省。杀出,52)。

They overestimate the critical analysis of the sources, without considering the chief point, ie, the credibility of the sources (Lorenz, "Die Geschichtswissenschaft in ihren Hauptrichtungen und Aufgaben", ii, 329 sqq.).他们高估了批判性分析的来源,而不考虑行政点,即信誉的来源(洛伦茨,“模具Geschichtswissenschaft在ihren Hauptrichtungen UND Aufgaben”,二,329 SQQ)。Recent documents may contain reliable reports of ancient history.最近的文件可能包含古代历史的可靠报告。Some of the critics begin to acknowledge that the historical credibility of the sources is of greater importance than their division and dating (Stark, "Die Entstehung des AT", Leipzig, 1905, 29; cf. Vetter, "Tübinger theologische Quartalschrift", 1899, 552).一些批评者开始认识到,历史信誉的来源大于他们的分裂和交友(斯塔克,“模具Entstehung DES AT”,莱比锡,1905年,29的重要性;比照Vetter,“Tübinger theologische Quartalschrift”,1899 ,552)。

The critical division of sources is based on the Hebrew text, though it is not certain how far the present Massoretic text differs from that, for instance, followed by the Septuagint translators, and how far the latter differed form the Hebrew text before its redaction in the fifth century BC Dahse ("Textkritische Bedenken gegen den Ausgangspunkt der heutigen Pentateuchkritik" in "Archiv fur Religionsgeschichte", VI, 1903, 305 sqq.) shows that the Divine names in the Greek translation of the Pentateuch differ in about 180 cases from those of the Hebrew text (cf. Hoberg, "Die Genesis", 2nd ed., p. xxii sqq.); in other words and phrases the changes may be fewer, but it would be unreasonable to deny the existence of any.关键的来源划分的基础上,希伯来文,但它不是某些多远目前massoretic文本从该不同,例如,其次是译本翻译,并有多远后者不同的形式在其节录的希伯来文中公元前五世纪Dahse(“Textkritische Bedenken葛根巢穴Ausgangspunkt DER heutigen Pentateuchkritik”中的“论坛存档皮毛Religionsgeschichte”,六,1903年,305 SQQ)显示,在希腊文翻译的pentateuch神圣的名字在约180例不同的在希伯来文(见霍贝格,“模具创世纪”,第2版,第二十二SQQ。);在其他单词和短语的变化可能会减少,但它是不合理的否认存在任何。 Again, it is antecedently probable that the Septuagint text differs less from the Massoretic than from the ante-Esdrine text, which must have been closer to the original.再次,这是antecedently可能不同于文字的译本的massoretic不到从休息室Esdrine文本,必须已接近原始。 The starting point of literary criticism is therefore uncertain.对文学批评的出发点,因此不确定。It is not an inherent fault of literary criticism that it was applied to the Pentateuch after it had become practically antiquated in the study of Homer and the Nibelungenlied (cf. Katholik, 1896, I, 303, 306 sqq.), nor that Reuss considered it as more productive of difference of opinion than of results (cf. Katholik, 1896, I, 304 seq.), nor again that Wellhausen thought it had degenerated into childish play.它不是固有的文学批评错误,它是适用于摩西五后,它已成为研究荷马和龙根之歌(参见Katholik,1896年,我,303,306 SQQ),也不是Reuss认为几乎过时它更富有成效的意见分歧,而不是结果(参见Katholik,1896年,我,304起),也再次表明豪森认为它已蜕变为幼稚的发挥。 Among Bible students, Klostermann ("Der Pentateuch", Leipzig, 1893), Konig ("Falsche Extreme im Gebiete der neueren Kritik des AT", Leipzig, 1885; "Neueste Prinzipien der alt. Kritik", Berlin, 1902; "Im Kampfe um das AT", Berlin, 1903), Bugge ("Die Hauptparabeln Jesu", Giessen, 1903) are sceptical as to the results of literary criticism, while Orelli ("Der Prophet Jesaja", 1904, V), Jeremias ("Das alte Testament im Lichte des Alten Orients", 1906, VIII), and Oettli ("Geschichte Israels", V) wish to insist more on the exegesis of the text than on the criss-cross roads of criticism.在圣经的学生,Klostermann(“明镜五经”,莱比锡,1893年),柯尼希(“Falsche至尊IM Gebiete DER neueren Kritik DES AT”,莱比锡,1885年;“。Neueste Prinzipien DER ALT Kritik”,柏林,1902年,“进出口Kampfe嗯DAS AT“,柏林,1903年),Bugge(”模具Hauptparabeln Jesu“,吉森,1903年)是对文学批评的结果持怀疑态度,而Orelli(”明镜先知Jesaja“,1904年,V),赫雷米亚斯(”资本阿尔特约IM Lichte DES Alten定向“,1906年,八)和欧特列(”以色列的历史“,五)要坚持注释的文字比对批评的纵横交错的道路了。G. Jacob ("Der Pentateuch", Göttingen, 1905) thinks that the past Pentateuchal criticism needs a thorough revision; Eerdmans ("Die Komposition der Genesis", Giessen, 1908) feels convinced that criticism has been misled into wrong paths by Astrue. G.雅各布(“明镜五经”,哥廷根,1905)认为,过去Pentateuchal批评需要彻底修改; Eerdmans(“模具Komposition之成因”,吉森,1908年)认为相信,批评被误导到错误的路径的Astrue。Merx expresses the opinion that the next generation will have to revise backwards many of the present historico-literary views of the Old Testament ("Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher", II, 1907, 3, 132 sqq.).Merx表示认为,下一代将不得不修改倒退本历史 - 文学的旧约(“Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher”,二,1907年,3,132 SQQ)很多意见。

(c) Critical Results(三)关键的结果

Here we must distinguish between the principles of criticism and its results; the principles of the historical development of religion, for instance, and of the inferiority of tradition to internal evidence, are not the outcome of literary analysis, but are its partial basis.在这里,我们必须区分的批评原则,其结果,对宗教的历史发展的原则,例如,与传统内部的证据自卑,都不是文学分析的结果,但其部分依据。 Again, we must distinguish between those results of literary criticism which are compatible with the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch and those that contradict it.再次,我们必须区分这些成果的文学批评与摩西五和那些违背它马赛克真实性兼容。The patrons of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, and even the ecclesiastical Decree relating to this subject, plainly admit that Moses or his secretaries may have utilized sources or documents in the composition of the Pentateuch; both admit also that the sacred text has suffered in its transmission and may have received additions, in the form of either inspired appendices or exegetical glosses.该花叶作者的pentateuch顾客,甚至是宗教法令有关这个问题,显然承认摩西或他的秘书可能利用源或在摩西五组成的文件;都承认还神圣的文本已遭受它的传输和可能得到增加,在任的启发附录或训诂美化形式。 If the critics, therefore, can succeed in determining the number and the limits of the documentary sources, and of the post-Mosaic additions, whether inspired or profane, they render an important service to the traditional tenet of Pentateuchal authenticity.如果批评,因此,可以成功地确定数量和文件来源的限制,并后的马赛克增加,无论是启发或亵渎,他们提供服务的一个重要的一些Pentateuchal真实性传统的宗旨。 The same must be said with regard to the successive laws established by Moses, and the gradual fidelity of the Jewish people to the Mosaic law.同样必须指出的是关于连续法律设立的摩西,和犹太人民逐步忠实于镶嵌法。Here again the certain or even probable results of sane literary and historical criticism will aid greatly the conservative commentator of the Pentateuch.这里又理智的文学和历史的批评,甚至一些可能的结果将有助于大大保守评论员的摩西五。We do not quarrel with the legitimate conclusions of the critics, if the critics do not quarrel with each other.我们不吵架的批评者的合法的结论,如果批评不互相争吵。But they do quarrel with each other.但他们互相争吵。According to Merx (loc. cit.) there is nothing certain in the field of criticism except its uncertainty; each critic proclaims his views with the greatest self-reliance, but without any regard to the consistency of the whole.根据Merx(。如上)没有什么,除了它的不确定性在一定的批评领域,每个评论家宣称最大的自力更生他的看法,但没有任何全方面的一致性。 Former views are simply killed by silence; even Reuss and Dillmann are junk-iron, and there is a noticeable lack of judgment as to what can or cannot be known.前意见只是被沉默;甚至Reuss和Dillmann是垃圾铁,并有一个判断,什么可以或不可以被称为明显不足。Hence the critical results, in as far as they consist merely in the distinction of documentary sources, in the determination of post-Mosaic materials, eg, textual changes, and profane or inspired additions, in the description of various legal codes, are not at variance with the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch.因此,关键的结果,据他们组成的区别文件来源,在后镶嵌材料,如文字的变化,亵渎或启发补充测定的各种法律法规的阐述,只是,不擅长方差与摩西五马赛克的真实性。 Nor can an anti-Mosaic character be pointed out in the facts or phenomena from which criticism legitimately infers the foregoing conclusions; such facts or phenomena are, for instance, the change of the Divine names in the text, the use of certain words, the difference of style, the so-called double accounts of really, not merely apparently, identical events; the truth of falsehood of these and similar details does not directly affect the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.也不能反马赛克性质必须指出的事实或现象从批评合法推断上述结论;这些事实或现象,例如,在文本神圣的名字,对某些词的使用,改变差的风格,真正所谓的双账户,而不仅仅是显然,相同的活动;的的谬误和类似的细节,这些真理不直接影响花叶作者的pentateuch。 In which results then does criticism clash with tradition?在这种结果那么批评与传统的冲突?Criticism and tradition are incompatible in their views as to the age and sequence of the documentary sources, as to the origin of the various legal codes, and as to the time and manner of the redaction of the Pentateuch.批评和传统是不相容的意见,以年龄和序列的文件来源,至于起源的各种法律法规,并作为对时间和方式的pentateuch节录。

(i) Pentateuchal Documents.-As to the age and sequence of the various documents, the critics do not agree.(一)Pentateuchal Documents,至于年龄和序列的各种文件,批评不同意。Dillmann, Kittel, Konig, and Winckler place the Elohist, who is subdivided by several writers into the first, second, and third Elohist, before the Yahwist, who also is divided into the first and second Yahwist; but Wellhausen and most critics believe that the Elohist is about a century younger than the Yahwist. Dillmann,基特尔,柯尼格和Winckler把Elohist,谁被细分成几个作家的第一,第二和第三Elohist之前,Yahwist,谁也分为第一和第二Yahwist分;但豪森和大多数评论家认为,在Elohist约一个世纪比年轻Yahwist。 At any rate, both are assigned to about the ninth and eight centuries BC; both too incorporate earlier traditions or even documents.无论如何,都被分配到的第九和公元前8世纪,既过于纳入较早的传统,甚至文件。

All critics appear to agree as to the composite character of Deuteronomy; they admit rather a Deuteronomist school than single writers.所有批评似乎同意,以申命记复合字符,他们承认,而比单一作家Deuteronomist学校。Still, the successive layers composing the whole book are briefly designated by D1, D2, D3, etc. As to the character of these layers, the critics do not agree: Montet and Driver, for instance, assigned to the first Deuteronomist cc.尽管如此,构成全书简要连续层由D1,D2,D3,等作为的性质这些层指定,批评不同意:Montet和驱动程序,例如,分配给第一个Deuteronomist毫升。 i-xxi; Kuenen, Konig, Reuss, Renan, Westphal ascribe to DN, iv, 45-9, and v-xxvi; a third class of critics reduce D1 to xii, 1-xxvi, 19, allowing it a double edition: according to Wellhausen, the first edition contained i, 1-iv, 44; xii-xxvi; xxvii, while the second comprised iv, 45-xi, 39; xii-xxvi; xxviii-xxx; both editions were combined by the redactor who inserted Deuteronomy into the Hexateuch.I - XXI; Kuenen,柯尼希,罗伊斯,韦斯特法尔归于DN,四,45-9,和V - 26雷南;第三类的批评减少D1至十二,1 - 26,19,允许其双重版本:根据豪森,第一版所载,1 - IV,44;十二,二十六,二十七,而第二个由四,45席,39;十二,二十六,二十八,XXX;两种版本的redactor谁合并申命记插入到Hexateuch。 Cornill arranges the two editions somewhat differently.Cornill安排两个版本有所不同。Horst considers even cc.霍斯特认为,即使CC。xii-xxvi as a compilation of pre-existing elements, gathered together without order and often by chance.作为一个预先存在的要点汇编十二 - 26,聚集和无秩序往往是偶然的。Wellhausen and his adherents do not wish to assign to D1 a higher age than 621 BC, Cornill and Bertholet consider the document as a summary of the prophetic teaching, Colenso and Renan ascribe it to Jeremias, others place its origin in the reign of Ezechias or Manasses, Klostermann identifies the document with the book read before the people in the time of Josaphat, while Kleinert refers it back to the end of the time of the Judges.豪森和他的追随者不想指派为D1更高的年龄超过621年,Cornill和贝尔托莱审议该文​​件作为预言教学总结,科伦索和雷南赋予它赫雷米亚斯,其他地方的统治它的起源或埃泽希亚什Manasses,Klostermann确定之前,在当时人们的约萨法特读过书的文件,而莱内特指回了法官的时间结束。 The Deuteronomist depends on the two preceding documents, J and E, both for his history land his legislation; the historical details not found in these may have been derived from other sources not known to us, and the laws not contained in the Sinaitic legislation and the decalogue are either pure fiction or a crystallization of the prophetic teaching.该Deuteronomist取决于前两个文件,​​J和E,对他的历史土地的立法两者;没有在这些发现的历史细节可能已被来自我们不知道其他来源,而不是在法律的Sinaitic立法中和十诫不是纯粹的小说或预言教学的结晶。

Finally, the Priestly Code, P, is also a compilation: the first stratum of the book, both historical and legal in its character, is designated by P1 or P2; the second stratum is the law of holiness, H or Lev., xvii-xxvi, and is the work of a contemporary of Ezechiel, or perhaps of the Prophet himself (H, P2, Ph); besides, there are additional elements springing rather from a school than from any single writer, and designated by Kunen as P3, P4, P5, but by other critics as Ps and Px.最后,祭司码,P,也是编译:书的第一层,在其历史和性质的法律,是由P1或P2指定的,第二层是圣洁的,H或列弗法律,十七。 - 26,是当代的一个Ezechiel,或者自己的先知(H,P2,pH值)也许工作;此外,还有如雨后春笋般从一所学校,而不是从任何一个作家的其他元素,以及由丘嫩指定为P3 ,P4,P5,而是由Ps和Px的其他批评。Bertholet and Bantsch speak of two other collections of laws: the law of sacrifices, Lev., i-vii, designated as Po; and the law of purity, Lev., xi-xv, designated as Pr.贝尔托莱和Bantsch发言的两个法律的其他集合:法律的牺牲,列弗,第一至第七,作为宝指定和法律的纯洁性,列夫,西十五,为Pr指定。 The first documentary hypothesis considered PN as the oldest part of the Pentateuch; Duston and Dillmann place it before the Deuteronomic code, but most recent critics regard it as more recent than the other documents of the Pentateuch, and even later than Ezech., xliv, 10-xlvi, 15 (573-2 BC); the followers of Wellhausen date the Priestly Code after the return from the Babylonian Captivity, while Wildeboer places it either after or towards the end of the captivity.第一纪录片假说认为是最古老的部分的pentateuch PN; Duston和Dillmann置于前Deuteronomic代码,但最近的批评者认为这是超过了最近的其他文件摩西五,甚至晚于Ezech,四十四。 10 XLVI,15(573-2 BC);的豪森日期祭司码的追随者后,从巴比伦圈养的回报,而Wildeboer的地方,无论是在或接近尾声的囚禁。 The historical parts of the Priestly Code depend on the Yahwistic and the Elohistic documents, but Wellhausen's adherents believe that the material of these documents has been manipulated so as to fit it for the special purpose of the Priestly Code; Dillmann and Drive maintain that facts have not been invented or falsified by P, but that the latter had at hand other historical documents besides J and E. As to the legal part of P, Wellhausen considers it as an a priori programme for the Jewish priesthood after the return from the captivity, projected backwards into the past, and attributed to Moses; but other critics believe that P has systematized the pre-exilic customs of worship, developing then, and adapting them to the new circumstances.的祭司码的历史部分取决于Yahwistic和Elohistic文件,但豪森的信徒相信,这些文件材料已被操纵,以适合的祭司码特殊用途它; Dillmann和驱动保持这一事实没有发明或伪造的P,但后者在手,除了J和大肠杆菌等历史文件至于法律的一部分磷,豪森认为这是一个先验的犹太祭司程序后,从囚禁返回它,预计倒退到过去,归因于摩西,但其他批评者认为磷已系统化的崇拜前放逐海关,然后发展,并使之适应新的情况。

What has been said clearly shows that the critics are at variance in many respects, but they are at one in maintaining the post- Mosaic origin of the Pentateuchal documents.什么已经说得很清楚表明,批评在许多方面有异,但他们在维护Pentateuchal文件后花叶产地之一的。 What is the weight of the reasons on which they base their opinion?是什么原因基础上,他们自己的意见的重量?

The conditions laid down by the critics as prerequisites to literature do not prove that the sources of the Pentateuch must be post-Mosaic.所规定的先决条件,以文学批评的条件并不证明来源的pentateuch必须后花叶。The Hebrew people had lived for, at least, two hundred years in Egypt; besides, most of the forty years spent in the desert were passed in the neighbourhood of Cades, so that the Israelites were not longer a nomadic people.希伯来人的生活了,至少二百年在埃及;此外,在沙漠中度过的四十年中的大部分是通过附近的Cades,使以色列人不再是游牧人。 Whatever may be said of their material prosperity, or of their proficiency in writing and reading, the above-mentioned researches of Flinders Petrie show that they kept records of their national traditions at the time of Moses.无论是其物质繁荣,或他们的写作和阅读能力说过,弗林德斯皮特里显示上述研究,他们一直在摩西时代的民族传统的记录。

If the Hebrew contemporaries of Moses kept written records, why should not the Pentateuchal sources be among these documents?如果摩西希伯来同时代保持书面记录,为什么不应该的来源之一Pentateuchal这些文件?It is true that in our actual Pentateuch we find non-Mosaic and post- Mosaic indications; but, then, the non-Mosaic, impersonal style may be due to a literary device, or to the pen of secretaries; the post-Mosaic geographical and historical indications may have crept into the text by way of glosses, or errors of the transcribers, or even inspired additions.的确,在我们的实际摩西五我们发现非马赛克和后花叶的迹象,但是,然后,非马赛克,非个人的风格,可能是由于文学设备,或以笔的秘书;后花叶地理和历史的迹象可能已经悄悄进入文本的美化,或誊写错误,甚至启发补充方式。 The critics cannot reject these suggestions as mere subterfuges; for they should have to grant a continuous miracle in the preservation of the Pentateuchal text, if they were to deny the moral certainty of the presence of such textual changes.批评者不能仅仅作为托辞拒绝这些建议,因为他们应该授予在维护Pentateuchal文字持续的奇迹,如果他们否认了这种文字的变化存在道德确定性。

But would not the Pentateuch have been known to the earlier Prophets, if it had been handed down from the time of Moses?但不会对摩西五已经知道先前的先知,如果它一直流传下来的时候,摩西?This critical exception is really an argument e silentio which is very apt to be fallacious, unless it be most carefully handled.这一重要的例外是真正的论点é silentio这是很容易被错误的,除非它是最认真的处理。 Besides, if we keep in mind the labour involved in multiplying copies of the Pentateuch, we cannot be wrong in assuming that they were very rare in the interval between Moses and the Prophets, so that few were able to read the actual text.此外,如果我们记住在成倍的摩西五份涉及的劳动,我们不能错误的假设,他们是非常有摩西和先知之间的间隔罕见,所以很少有人能够读取实际的文本。 Again, it has been pointed out that at least one of the earlier Prophets appeals to a written mosaic law, and that all appeal to such a national conscience as presupposes the Pentateuchal history and law.再次,它已经指出,至少有一个早期先知呼吁书面镶嵌法,所有这样的民族良知的前提上诉Pentateuchal历史和法律。 Finally, some of the critics maintain the J views the history of man and of Israel according to the religious and the moral ideas of the Prophets; if there be such an agreement, why not say that the Prophets write according to the religious and moral ideas of the Pentateuch?最后,一​​些批评意见,保持了J人与以色列的历史根据宗教和先知的道德观念,如果有这样的协议,为什么不说,先知写根据宗教和道德观念摩西五?

The critics urge the fact that the Pentateuchal laws concerning the sanctuary, the sacrifices, the feasts, and the priesthood agree with different stages of post-Mosaic historical development; that the second stage agrees with the reform of Josias, and the third with the enactments enforced after the time of the Babylonian Exile.批评者呼吁的事实,有关庇护Pentateuchal法律,牺牲的节日,和神职人员与后花叶历史发展的不同阶段同意;,第二阶段同意的Josias的改革,以及与成文法第三实施后的巴比伦流亡的时间。 But it must be kept in mind that the Mosaic law was intended for Israel as the Christian law is intended for the whole world; if then 1900 years after Christ the greater part of the world is still un-Christian, it is not astonishing that the Mosaic law required centuries before it penetrated the whole nation.但必须牢记,镶嵌法目的是为以色列的基督教法律是为整个世界;如果再1900年基督之后,更大的世界的一部分仍然是联合国的基督徒,这是不令人惊讶的镶嵌法规定百年前侵入整个国家。 Besides, there were, no doubt, many violations of the law, just as the Ten Commandments are violated today without detriment to their legal promulgation.此外,有,毫无疑问,许多违反法律,正如十诫受到侵犯不损害其法律颁布今天。Again there were times of religious reforms and disasters as there are periods of religious fervour and coldness in the history of the Christian Church; but such human frailties do not imply the non-existence of the law, either Mosaic or Christian.再有对宗教的改革和灾害倍有宗教热情和基督教教会的历史时期冷漠,但这种人类弱点并不意味着法律不存在,无论是马赛克或基督教。 As to the particular laws in question, it will be found more satisfactory to examine them more in detail.至于在具体的法律问题,这将是较为理想的研究发现他们更详细。

(ii) Pentateuchal Codes.-The critics endeavour to establish a triple Pentateuchal code: the Book of the Covenant, Deuteronomy, and the Priestly Code.(二)Pentateuchal Codes -评论家努力建立一个三Pentateuchal代码:该公约,申命记,和祭司法典。Instead of regarding this legislation as applying to different phases in the forty years' wandering in the desert, they consider it as agreeing with three historical stages in the national history.相反的就为适用于在第四年在沙漠中游荡的不同阶段这一立法,他们认为这三个国家的历史同意它的历史阶段。As stated above, the main objects of this triple legislation are the sanctuary, the feast, and the priesthood.如上所述,这三重立法的主要对象是圣殿,节日,和神职人员。

(a) The Sanctuary(一)保护区

At first, so the critics say, sacrifices were allowed to be offered in any place where the Lord had manifested his name (Exodus 20:24-6); then the sanctuary was limited to the one place chosen by God (Deuteronomy 12:5); thirdly, the Priestly Code supposes the unity of sanctuary, and prescribes the proper religious rites to be observed.起初,因此批评者认为,牺牲被允许可在任何地方,体现了上帝的名字(出20:24-6),然后圣殿仅限于一个地方的神(申命记12时05分选择);第三,祭司码设团结的避难所,并规定适当的宗教仪式待观察。 Moreover, the critics point out historical incidents showing that before the enforcement of the Deuteronomic law sacrifices were offered in various places quite distinct from the resting place of the ark.此外,批评者指出,显示前的Deuteronomic法牺牲的执法在相当从方舟休息的地方不同的各个地方提供的历史事件。 What do the defenders of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch answer?什么做的pentateuch回答花叶著作权的捍卫者? First, as to the triple law, it points to three different stages in Israel's desert life: before the erection of the tabernacle at the foot of Mt.首先,作为法律的三倍,它分三个在以色列的沙漠生活的不同阶段:前幕在山脚下勃起。Sinai, the people were allowed to erect altars and to offer sacrifices everywhere provided the name of the Lord had been manifested; next, after the people had adored the golden calf, and the tabernacle had been erected, sacrifice could be offered only before the tabernacle, and even the cattle killed for consumption had to be slaughtered in the same place, in order to prevent a relapse into idolatry; finally, when the people were about to enter the promised land, the last law was abolished, being then quite impossible, but the unity of sanctuary was kept in the place which God would choose.西奈半岛,人们被允许建造祭坛,并提供各地提供主的名称体现了牺牲;下,在人民爱戴的金牛犊,以及幕已经竖立,牺牲可只提供前幕,甚至死亡的牛消费不得不宰杀在同一地点,以防止重新陷入偶像崇拜,最后,当人即将进入应许之地,过去的法律被废除,被当时很不可能的,但团结的避难所被关在的地方,上帝会选择。 Secondly, as to the historical facts urged by the critics, some of them are caused by direct Divine intervention, miracle or prophetic inspiration, and as such are fully legitimate; others are evidently violations of the law, and are not sanctioned by the inspired writers; a third class of facts may be explained in one of three ways:其次,由批评家敦促历史事实,其中一些是由神直接干预,奇迹或先知的灵感,因此是完全合法的,有些则是明显的违法违纪行为,并没有被认可的作家的启发;第三类的事实可以解释三种方式之一:

Poels ("Le sanctuaire de Kirjath Jeraim", Louvain, 1894; "Examen critique de l'histoire du sanctuaire de l'arche", Louvain, 1897) endeavours to prove that Gabaon, Masphath, and Kiriath-Jarim denote the same place, so that the multiplicity of sanctuaries is only apparent, not real.Poels(“乐sanctuaire DE Kirjath Jeraim”,鲁汶,1894年,“DE L' histoire Examen批判杜sanctuaire DE L'雅倩”,鲁汶,1897年)的努力,证明Gabaon,Masphath和基列耶琳Jarim表示同一个地方,使多重保护区是唯一明显的,不是真实的。

Van Hoonacker ("Le Lieu du culte dans la legislation rituelle des Hebreux" in "Musceeon", April-Oct., 1894, XIII, 195-204, 299- 320, 533-41; XIV, 17-38) distinguishes between private and public altars; the public and national worship is legally centralized in one sanctuary and around one altar, while private altars may be had for domestic worship.凡Hoonacker(“乐寮杜culte DANS LA立法rituelle DES Hebreux”中的“Musceeon”,四月至十月,1894年,十三世,195-204,299 - 320,533-41;十四,17-38)区分私营和公共祭坛,公众和国家崇拜是集中在一个法律庇护和一个祭坛周围,而私人神坛可能已为国内崇拜。

But more commonly it is admitted that before God had chosen the site of national sanctuary, it was not forbidden by law to sacrifice anywhere, even away from the place of the ark.但更常见的是承认,在神面前选择了网站的国家庇护,这是法律不禁止的任何牺牲,甚至远离了方舟的地方。After the building of the temple the law was not considered so stringent as to bind under all circumstances.后的寺庙建筑的法律不认为如此严格的约束,任何情况下。Thus far then the argument of the critics is not conclusive.迄今为止然后论点的批评是没有定论。

(b) The Sacrifices(二)牺牲

According to the critics, the Book of the Covenant enjoined only the offering of the first-fruits and the first-born of animals, the redemption of the first-born of men, and a free-will offering on visiting the sanctuary (Ex., xxii, 28-9; xxiii, 15, [Heb., xxiii, 19]); Deuteronomy more clearly defines some of these laws (xv, 19-23; xxvi, 1-11), and imposes the law of tithes for the benefit of the poor, the widows, the orphans, and the Levites (xxvi, 12-5); the Priestly Code distinguishes different kinds of sacrifices, determines their rites, and introduces also incense offering.据批评,对图书的盟约责成只的第一水果产品和动物第一胎,对男性的第一个出生的赎回和庇护的访问自由意志募股(出埃及记,22,28-9,二十三,15,[希伯来书,二十三,19]);申命记更清楚地界定了这些法律的一些(十五,19-23,二十六,1-11),并规定了法律规定的什一税穷人的利益,寡妇,孤儿,和利未人(26,12-5);祭司码区分不同种类的牺牲,决定了他们的仪式,并介绍了也香提供。 But history hardly bears out this view: as there existed a permanent priesthood in Silo, and later on in Jerusalem, we may safely infer that there existed a permanent sacrifice.但是,历史很难证明了这一观点:由于存在着一个永久神职人员在筒仓,以及后来在耶路撒冷,我们可以有把握地推断,存在着一个永久的牺牲。 The earliest prophets are acquainted with an excess of care bestowed on the sacrificial rites (cf. Amos 4:4, 5; 5:21-22, 25; Hosea passim).最早的先知熟悉的照顾上(参见阿莫斯4点04,5; 5:21-22,25;何西阿各处)祭祀赋予过剩。The expressions of Jeremias (vii, 21-3) may be explained in the same sense.对赫雷米亚斯(七,21-3)的表达可以解释在同样的意义。 Sin offering was known long before the critics introduce their Priestly Code (Osee, iv, 8; Mich., vi, 7; Ps., xxxix [xl], 7; 1 Kings, iii, 14).赎罪祭被称为很久之前批评介绍他们的祭司码(Osee,四,八,密歇根州,六,七,PS,XXXIX [XL],7; 1国王,三,14)。Trespass offering is formally distinguished from sin offering in 2 Kings 13:16 (cf. 1 Samuel 6:3-15; Isaiah 53:10).侵入提供正式区别于罪在2国王13点16(参撒上6:3-15;以赛亚书53:10)产品。 Hence the distinction between the different kinds of sacrifice is due neither to Ezekiel 45:22-5, nor to the Priestly Code.因此牺牲之间的区别是由于不同种类既不厄泽克尔45:22-5,也不向祭司码。

(c) The Feasts(三)节日

The Book of the Covenant, so the critics tell us, knows only three feasts: the seven-days feast of the azymes in memory of the exodus form Egypt, the feast of the harvest, and that of the end of the harvest (Exodus 23:14-7); Deuteronomy ordains the keeping of the feasts at the central sanctuary adds to Pasch to the feast of the azymes, places the second feast seven weeks after the first, and calls the third, "feast of tabernacles", extending its duration to seven days (Deuteronomy 16:1-17); the Priestly Code prescribes the exact ritual for five feasts, adding the feast of trumpets and of atonement, all of which must be kept at the central sanctuary.该图书的盟约,所以批评告诉我们,只知道三个节日:七天在出埃及记的形式埃及,节日的收成内存的azymes盛宴,并在年底的收成(出埃及记23 :14 - 7);申命记ordains的节日保持在中央圣殿增加Pasch的盛宴的azymes,地方七周之后的第一,第二盛宴,并呼吁第三,“住棚节”,扩大其期限为7天(申命记16:1-17);守则规定的祭司的确切仪式五个节日,增加了喇叭和赎罪,所有这些都必须在中央圣殿保持盛宴。 Moreover, history appears to endorse the contention of the critics: Judges, xxi, 19 knows of only one annual feast in Silo; 1 Samuel 1:3, 7, 21 testifies that the parents of Samuel went every year to Silo to the sanctuary; Jeroboam I established in his kingdom one annual feast similar to that celebrated in Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:32-3); the earliest Prophets do not mention the names of the religious feasts; the Pasch is celebrated for the first time after the discovery of Deuteronomy (2 Kings 23:21-3); Ezechiel knows only three feasts and a sin offering on the first day of the first and the seventh month.此外,历史上似乎赞同论点的批评:法官,二十一世纪,19知道只有一个年度盛宴在筒仓;撒上1:3,7,21,证明是父母的塞缪尔了每年筒仓的庇护;耶罗波安我设立在他的王国一个年度盛宴类似耶路撒冷(1国王12:32-3)庆祝的,最早的先知没有提到的宗教节日的名称;的Pasch首次发现后的庆祝申命记(列王纪下23:21-3); Ezechiel知道第一和第七月的第一天只有三个节日和赎罪祭。But here again, the critics use the argument e silentio which is not conclusive in this case.但在这里再次批评使用的论点é silentio这是不是在这种情况下定论。The feast of atonement, for instance, is not mentioned in the Old Testament outside the Pentateuch; only Josephus refers to its celebration in the time of John Hyrcanus or Herod.节日赎罪,例如,是不是在外面提到旧约的摩西五,只有约瑟夫指庆祝在约翰Hyrcanus或希律时间。Will the critics infer from this, that the feast was not kept throughout the Old Testament?将批评这一推断,该节日是不是保持整个旧约?History does not record facts generally known.历史不会记录一般人都知道的事实。As to the one annual feast mentioned in the early records, weighty commentators are of opinion that after the settlement of the people in the promised land, the custom was gradually introduced of going to the central sanctuary only once a year.至于一个年度盛宴在早期的记录中提到,有分量的评论家都认为,后在许之地的人定居,自定义是逐步的去中央避难所只有每年一次推出。 This custom prevailed before the critics allow the existence of the Deuteronomic law (1 Kings 12:26-31), so that the latter cannot have introduced it.这种风俗前的批评允许的Deuteronomic法(王纪上12:26-31)的存在,使后者可以不用介绍了吧。Isaias (xxix, 1; xxx, 29) speaks of a cycle of feasts, but Osee, xii, 9 alludes already to the feast of tabernacles, so that its establishment cannot be due to the Priestly Code as the critics describe it.伊萨亚斯(二十九,1,XXX,29)讲一个周期的节日,但Osee,第十二章,第9的意思已经向住棚节,因此,它的设立不能由于祭司码作为批评家描述它。 Ezechiel (xlv, 18-25) speaks only of the three feasts which had to be kept at the central sanctuary. Ezechiel(第四十五,18-25)讲只有三个节日,必须在中央避难所。

(d) The Priesthood(四)职

The critics contend that the Book of the Covenant knows nothing of an Aaronitic priesthood (Exodus 24:5); that Deuteronomy mentions priests and Levites without any hierarchical distinction and without any high priest, determines their rights, and distinguishes only between the Levite living in the country and the Levite attached to the central sanctuary; finally, that the Priestly Code represents the priesthood as a social and hierarchical institution, with legally determined duties, rights, and revenues.批评者争辩说,此书的盟约知道的Aaronitic铎(出埃及记24:5)无关;申命记提到没有任何等级的区分,没有任何大祭司祭司和利未人,确定他们的权利,只有利未人的生活之间的区别在国家和利未人连接到中央圣殿,最后,祭司的代码表示在法律上确定的职责,权利和收入作为社会和等级制度的祭司。 This theory is said to be borne out by the evidence of history.这一理论被认为是承担了历史的证据出来。But the testimony of history points in the opposite direction.但在相反方向的历史见证点。At the time of Josue and the early Judges, Eleazar and Phinees, the son and nephew of Aaron, were priests (Numbers 26:1; Deuteronomy 10:6; Joshua 14:1 sqq.; 22:13, 21; 24:33; Judges 20:28).在若苏埃和早期法官的时间,以利亚撒,Phinees,亚伦的儿子和侄子,是祭司(民数记26:1,申命记10时06分;约书亚14点零一SQQ; 22点13分,21; 24:33法官:20:28)。From the end of the time of Judges to Solomon, the priesthood was in the hands of Heli and his descendants (1 Samuel 1:3 sqq.; 14:3; 21:1; 22:1) who sprang from Ithamar the younger son of Aaron (1 Chronicles 24:3; cf. 1 Samuel 22:29; 14:3; 2:7 sqq.).从法官到所罗门时间结束,神职人员在手中的合力和他的后裔(撒母耳记上1:3 SQQ; 14点03分,21时01; 22:1)谁从窜出的小儿子以他玛亚伦(历代志上24:3;比照撒上22时29分,14点03分; 2时07 SQQ)。Solomon raised Sadoc, the son of Achitob, to the dignity of the high priesthood, and his descendants held the office down to the time of the Babylonian Captivity (2 Samuel 8:17; 15:24 sqq.; 20:25; 1 Kings 2:26, 27, 35; Ezekiel 44:15); that Sadoc too was of Aaronic descent is attested by I Par., vi, 8.所罗门提出萨多克,对Achitob儿子,到了高神父的尊严,和他的后裔举行的办事处下到巴比伦的圈养时间(2塞缪尔8时17; 15时24 SQQ; 20点25分,列王记上2点26分,27,35,以西结书44:15);的萨多克太亚伦后裔是证明了我看齐,六,八。Besides the Books of Josue and Paralipomenon acknowledge the distinction between priests and Levites; according to 1 Samuel 6:15, the Levites handled the ark, but the Bethsamites, the inhabitants of a priestly city (Joshua 21:13-6), offered sacrifice.除了若苏埃和Paralipomenon书刊承认祭司和利之间的区别;根据撒母耳记上6:15利未人处理的方舟,但Bethsamites,一个城市的居民祭司(约书亚21:13-6),提供了牺牲。 A similar distinction is made in 2 Samuel 15:24; 1 Kings 8:3 sq.; Isaiah 66:21.类似的区别是在撒母耳记下15时24分,1国王8时03平方米;以赛亚书66:21。Van Hoonacker ("Les pretres et les levites dans le livre d'Ezechiel" in "Revue biblique", 1899, VIII, 180-189, 192-194) shows that Ezechiel did not create the distinction between priests and Levites, but that supposing the traditional distinction in existence, he suggested a divisions in to these classes according to merit, and not according to birth (xliv, 15-xlv, 5).凡Hoonacker(“莱斯pretres ET LES利DANS LE livre D' Ezechiel”中的“歌剧biblique”,1899年,八,180-189,192-194)显示,Ezechiel没有创造之间的祭司和利未人的区别,但假设在传统存在区别,他建议在这些类根据功德部门,而不是根据出生(四十四,15 XLV,5)。Unless the critics simply set aside all this historical evidence, they must grant the existence of an Aaronitic priesthood in Israel, and its division into priests and Levites, long before the D and P codes were promulgated according to the critical theory.除非批评只是抛开这一切的历史证据,他们必须给予一个在以色列Aaronitic铎的存在,并将其纳入祭司和利未人,在D和P码颁布根据批判理论长除法。 It is true that in a number of passages persons are said to offer sacrifice who are not of Aaronitic descent: Judges, vi, 25 sqq.; xiii, 9; 1 Samuel 7:9; 10:8; 13:9; 2 Samuel 6:17; 24:25; 1 Kings 8:5, 62; etc. But in the first place, the phrase "to offer sacrifice" means either to furnish the victim (Leviticus 1:2, 5) or to perform the sacrificial rite; the victim might be furnished by any devout layman; secondly, it would be hard to prove that God committed the priestly office in such a way to Aaron and his sons as not to reserve to himself the liberty of delegating in extraordinary cases a non-Aaronite to perform the priestly functions.诚然,在一些段落人士说,提供牺牲谁是Aaronitic血统不是:法官,六,25 SQQ;十三,9;撒上七点09分,10点08分,13时09;撒下6点17分,24:25; 1国王8:5,62;等,但摆在首位,把“提供的牺牲”是指以提供受害者(利未记1:2,5)或执行祭祀仪式;受害者可能须提交的任何虔诚的门外汉;其次,就难以证明上帝犯这样的方式来亚伦祭司的办公室和他的儿子为了不给自己保留在特殊情况下,委托非自由 - Aaronite执行祭司的职能。

(iii) Pentateuchal Redaction.-The four documentary sources of the Pentateuch thus far descried were combined not by any one individual; critics require rather three different stages of combination: first, a Yahwistic redactor RXX or RX combined J and E with a view of harmonizing them, and adapting them to Deuteronomic ideas; this happened either before or after the redaction of D. Secondly, after D had been completed in the sixth century BC, a redactor, or perhaps a school of redactors, imbued with the spirit of D combined the documents JE into JED, introducing however the modifications necessary to secure consistency. (三)Pentateuchal Redaction.,四个文件的摩西五迄今descried来源合并不是由任何一个个人;批评需要而三个不同阶段的组合:第一,Yahwistic修订者RXX或RX结合J和使用的查看电子邮件他们协调,并使之适应申命记想法,这发生之前或之后的D.节录其次,经过D已经完成了在公元前六世纪,一个redactor的,或者一个学校的编纂,与D的精神的组合成JED文件乙脑,但引进必要的修改,以确保一致性。 Thirdly, a last redactor RX imbued with the letter and the spirit of P, combined this document with JED, introducing again the necessary changes.第三,去年redactor的RX与P的文字和精神的,结合JED这个文件,再引进必要的修改。The table of nations in Gen., xiv was according to Kunen added by this last redactor.在创国表,十四是根据丘嫩的这最后redactor的补充。

At first sight, one is struck by the complex character of this theory; as a rule, truth is of a more simple texture.乍一看,一个是震惊的是这一理论的复杂性格;作为一项规则,一个更简单的真理质地。Secondly, one is impressed by the unique nature of the hypothesis; antiquity has nothing to equal it.其次,一个是印象深刻的是假设的独特性;古代无关等于它。Thirdly, if one reads or studies the Pentateuch in the light of this theory, one is impressed by the whimsical character of the redactor; he often retained what should have been omitted, and omitted what should have been retained.第三,如果一曰或研究这一理论轻的五,一个是印象深刻的是异想天开的redactor性格,他常常保留什么应该被省略,省略哪些应该被保留下来。 The critics themselves have to take refuge, time and time again, in the work of the redactor, in order save their own views of the Pentateuch.批评者本身采取避难,一次又一次,在工作的redactor,为了挽救自己的看法的pentateuch。 A recent writer does not hesitate to call the complex redactor ein genialer Esel.最近作家不惜调用复杂redactor的EIN genialer ESEL。Fourthly, a truth-loving, straightforward reader is naturally shocked by the literary fictions and forgeries, the editorial changes and subterfuges implied in the critical theory of the Pentateuchal documents and redaction.第四,真理爱好,直截了当读者自然感到震惊的文学小说和伪造,编辑修改,并在Pentateuchal文件和节录批判理论隐含的托辞。 The more moderate critics endeavour to escape this inconvenience: some appeal to the difference between the ancient and the modern standard of literary property and editorial accuracy; others practically sanctify the means by the end.比较温和的批评努力摆脱这种不便:一些之间的古代和文学财产和编辑准确性现代化的标准差吸引力;他人几乎圣经目的的手段。 Oettli considers the dilemma "either the work of Moses or the work of a deceiver" as the expression of sheer imprudence; Kautzsch unctuously points to the depth of the wisdom and knowledge of God whose ways we cannot fathom, but must admire.欧特列认为,作为纯粹的轻率表达的困境“无论是工作的摩西或一个骗子的工作”; Kautzsch假惺惺指向的智慧和神的方式,我们无法捉摸知识的深度,但必须佩服。The left wing of criticism openly acknowledges that there is no use in hushing up matters; it actually is the result of scientific research that both form and contents of a great part of the Old Testament are based on conscious fiction and forgery.批评左翼公开承认,也没有在hushing事项中使用了,它实际上是对科学的研究成果,无论形式和旧约的很大一部分内容是关于意识的小说和伪造的。


In some general introductions to the Pentateuch its messianic prophecies are specially considered, ie, the so-called proto-evangelium, Gen., iii, 15; the blessing of Sem, Gen., ix, 26-7; the patriarchal promises, Gen., xii, 2; xiii, 16; xv, 5; xvii, 4-6, 16; xviii, 10-15; xxii, 17; xxvi, 4; xxviii, 14; the blessing of the dying Jacob, Gen., xlix, 8-10; the Prophecy of Balaam, Num., xxiv, 15 sqq.; and the great Prophet announced by Moses, Deut., xviii, 15-19.在一些普通的五经推出其弥赛亚的预言是专门考虑,即所谓的原evangelium,将军,三,15; SEM的祝福,将军,九,26-7;父权的承诺,根,,十二,2;十三,16;十五,5;十七,4-6,16;十八,10-15,二十二,17;二十六,4;二十八,14;了奄奄一息的雅各,创福, XLIX,8-10;的巴兰预言,数量,二十四,15 SQQ;,和伟大的先​​知摩西宣布,申,十八,15-19。But these prophecies belong rather to the province of exegesis than introduction.但这些预言属于而是要引进的注释比全省。 Again, the text of the Pentateuch has been considered in some general introductions to the work.再次,五经文字一直被认为在一些一般性的工作介绍。We have seen already that besides the Massoretic Text we have to take into account the earlier text followed by the Septuagint translators, and the still earlier readings of the Samaritan Pentateuch; a detailed investigation of this subject belongs to the field of textual or lower criticism.我们已经看到,除了massoretic文本,我们必须考虑到先前的文本翻译的译本,和撒玛利亚摩西五更早的读数之后,对这个问题的详细调查,属于文字或更低批评领域。 But the style of the Pentateuch can hardly be referred to any other department of Pentateuchal study.但风格的pentateuch难以被转介到其他任何一些Pentateuchal研究部门。

As Moses employed no doubt pre-existent documents in the composition of his work, and as he must have made use too of the aid of secretaries, we expect antecedently a variety of style in the Pentateuch.正如摩西受聘于他的工作无疑构成前存在的文件,因为他必须已使用过的秘书援助,我们期待antecedently了各种风格的摩西五。 It is no doubt due to the presence of this literary phenomenon that the critics have found so many points of support in their minute analysis.这无疑是由于这一文学现象的存在,批评已经发现在他们的支持,以便分析分钟多点。 But in general, the style of the work is in keeping with its contents.但在一般情况下,工作作风,是与它的内容一致。There are three kinds of material in the Pentateuch: first, there are statistics, genealogies, and legal formularies; secondly, there are narrative portions; thirdly, there are parenthetic sections.有三种材料中的五种:第一,有数据统计,族谱,法律处方;第二,有叙事的部分;第三,有弧形的部分。

No reader will find fault with the writer's dry and simple style in his genealogical and ethnographic lists, in his table of encampments in the desert, or his legal enactments.没有读者会发现作家的干旱和朴实的作风在他的过错家谱和人种名单,在他的营地在沙漠中,他的法律文书或表。 Any other literary expression would be out of place in records of this kind.任何其他文学表现将是发生在这一类的记录。The narrative style of the Pentateuch is simple and natural, but also lively and picturesque.在叙事风格的摩西五是简单和自然,而且活泼,风景如画。It abounds in simple character sketches, dialogues, and anecdotes.它盛产简单的字符素描,对话,和轶事。The accounts of Abraham's purchase of a burying-ground, of the history of Joseph, and of the Egyptian plagues are also dramatic.亚伯拉罕的购买了埋地对约瑟夫的历史,和埃及瘟疫的帐户也戏剧性。Deuteronomy has its peculiar style on account of the exhortations it contains.申命记有其上的嘱托它包含帐户独特的风格。Moses explains the laws he promulgates, but urges also, and mainly, their practice.摩西解释他颁布的法律,但也敦促,主要是,他们的做法。As an orator, he shows a great deal of unction and persuasiveness, but is not destitute of the earnestness of the Prophets.作为一个演说家,他显示了油膏和说服力很大,但不属于贫困语重心长的先知。His long sentences remain at times incomplete, thus giving rise to so-called anacolutha (cf. Deuteronomy 6:10-12; 8:11-17; 9:9-11; 11:2-7; 24:1-4).他留长句,有时不完整,所以才会出现所谓的anacolutha(参见申命记6:10-12; 8:11-17,9:9-11; 11:2-7; 24:1-4) 。Being necessarily a popular preacher, he is not lacking in repetitions.作为流行的不一定是传道,他是不缺乏的重复。But his earnestness, persuasiveness, and unction do not interfere with the clearness of his statements.但他语重心长,说服力和油膏不干扰他的陈述清晰。He is not merely a rigid legislator, but he shows his love for the people, and in turn wins their love and confidence.他不仅是一个僵化的立委,但他表明了他对人民的热爱,进而赢得他们的爱和信心。

Decisions of the Biblical Commission圣经委员会的决定

Some decisions of the Biblical Commission in regards to the chief subject of this article, viz., Genesis, are as follows: The various exegetical systems which exclude the literal and historical sense of the first three chapters of the Book of Genesis are not based on solid foundation. ,是在问候了本文,即,创行政主体圣经委员会一些决定,现报告如下:不同的是排除了前三个章节的创世记字面和历史意义训诂系统不是基于坚实的基础。 It should not be taught that these three chapters do not contain true narrations of facts, but only fables derived from the mythologies and cosmogonies of earlier peoples, purged of the polytheistic errors and accommodated to monotheism; or allegories and symbols, with no objective reality, set forth in the guise of history to inculcate religious and philosophical truths; or, finally, legends partly historical and partly fictitious put together for instruction and edification.它不应该告诉我们,这三个章节不包含事实的叙述,而是从神话和早期人民cosmogonies所得只有寓言,清除错误的多神教和安置到一神教;或寓言和符号,没有客观现实,提出在历史的幌子,以灌输宗教和哲学的真理,或最后,部分历史传说和虚构的部分提出的指导和熏陶在一起。 In particular, doubt should not be cast on the literal and historical sense of passages which touch on the foundations of the Christian religion, as, for instance, the creation of the universe by God at the beginning of time; the special creation of man; the formation of the first woman from the first man; the unity of the human race; the original happiness, integrity, and immortality of our first parents in the state of justice; the precept given by God to man to try his obedience; the transgression of the Divine precept, at the suggestion of the Devil, under the form of a serpent; the fall of our first parents from their original state of justice; the promise of a future Redeemer.特别是,怀疑不应该令人对通道的触及基督教的基础字面和历史意义,因为,例如,由上帝创造的宇宙在刚开始的时候,人的特殊的创造;人类种族的团结;;原来幸福,完整,在我们的第一个国家司法父母不朽;上帝赋予人类尝试他服从戒律,海侵的第一人,从第一个女人的形成神圣戒律,在魔鬼的建议下,蛇的形式;从他们的正义原始状态达不到我们的第一个父母,一个未来的救世主的承诺。

In explaining such passages in these chapters as the Fathers and Doctors interpreted differently, one may follow and defend the opinion which meets his approval.在解释这些章节中有关段落的父亲和医生不同的解释,人们可以遵循和捍卫的意见,符合他的批准。Not every word or phrase in these chapters is always necessarily to be taken in its literal sense so that it may never have another, as when it is manifestly used metaphorically or anthropomorphically.并不是每一个词或短语在这些章节总是一定要采取在其字面意义上,以便它可能永远不会有另一个当它显然是用来比喻或anthropomorphically。 The literal and historical meaning of some passages in these chapters presupposed, an allegorical and prophetical meaning may wisely and usefully be employed.对一些段落文字和历史意义的先决条件在这些章节,一个寓言和预言的含义可能明智和有益的就业。As in writing the first chapter of Genesis the purpose of the sacred author was not to expound in a scientific manner the constitution of the universe or the complete order of creation, but rather to give to the people popular information in the ordinary language of the day, adapted to the intelligence of all, the strict propriety of scientific language is not always to be looked for in their terminology.正如写作创世纪第一章的神圣作者的目的不是为了科学地阐述了宇宙的创造或完整的订单宪法,而是给予一天的日常语言向人们普及信息,适应了所有情报,严格的科学语言礼并不总是要在他们的术语看。 The expression six days and their division may be taken in the ordinary sense of a natural day, or for a certain period of time, and exegetes may dispute about this question.六天的表达他们的分裂可能会采取的一般意义上的自然日,或在一定的时间期限,注释者可能争议这个问题。

Publication information Written by AJ Moss.出版信息写AJ莫斯。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett & Michael T. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特&迈克尔T巴雷特。Dedicated to the Poor Souls in Purgatory The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.致力于在炼狱天主教百科全书,卷席可怜的灵魂。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Many works referring to the Pentateuch have been cited throughout the course of this article.五经指的是,许多作品被引用的这篇文章整个过程。We shall here add a list of mainly exegetical works, both ancient and modern, without attempting to give a complete catalogue.我们将在这里增添了主要训诂作品名单,既古老又现代,没有试图给出一个完整的目录。

PATRISTIC WRITERS."Eastern Church:--ORIGEN, Selecta in Gen., PG, XII, 91- 145; IDEM, Homil. in Gen., ibid., 145-62; IDEM, Selecta et homil, in Ex., Lev., Num., Deut., ibid., 263-818; IDEM, Fragmenta in PG, XVII, 11-36; ST. BASIL, Homil. in Hexaemer. in PG, XXIX, 3-208; ST. GREGORY OF NYSSA, In Hexaemer. in PG, XLIV, 61-124; IDEM, De homin. Opific., ibid., 124-297; IDEM, De vita Moysis, ibid., 297-430; ST. JOHN CHRYS., Homil. in Gen. in PG, LIII, LIV, 23- 580; IDEM, Serm. In Gen. in PG, LIV, 581-630; ST. EPHR., Comment in Pentat. in Oper. Syr., I, 1-115; ST. CYRIL OF ALEX., De adoratione in spiritu in PG, LXVIII, 133-1125; Glaphyra in PG, LXIX, 13-677; THEODORETUS, Quaest. in Gen., Ex., Lev., Num., Deut. in PG, LXXX, 76-456; PROCOPIUS OF GAZA, Comment. in Octateuch. in PG, LXXXVII, 21-992; NICEPHORUS, Catena in Octateuch. et libros Reg. (Leipzig, 1772).教父作家“东方教会: - 奥利,在将军,PG,XII,91 Selecta - 145,同上,Homil在将军,同上,145-62;同上,Selecta等homil,在防爆,列弗。。 ,,数量,申,同上,263-818;。同上,在PG,十七,11-36 Fragmenta; ST罗勒,Homil在Hexaemer在PG,XXIX,3-208;。ST GREGORY的nyssa ,在Hexaemer在PG,XLIV,61-124;同上,德homin Opific,同上,124-297;。同上,德VITA Moysis,同上,297-430;。ST JOHN CHRYS,Homil在将军在PG,LIII,LIV,23 - 580;。同上,SERM在将军在PG,LIV,581-630; ST EPHR,注释在Pentat在歌剧院锡尔河,我1-115;。 。ST CYRIL的ALEX,德在spiritu adoratione在PG,LXVIII,133-1125;在PG,LXIX,13-677 Glaphyra; THEODORETUS,Quaest在将军,前,列弗,数量,申在。。。 PG,LXXX,76-456;加沙普罗科匹厄斯,注释在Octateuch在PG,LXXXVII,21-992;。NICEPHORUS,在Octateuch卡泰纳等libros注册(莱比锡,1772)。

Western Church: ST.西方教会:ST。AMBROSE, In Hexaemer.刘汉铨,在Hexaemer。in PL, XIV, 123-274; IDEM, De Paradiso terrestri, ibid., 275-314; IDEM, De Cain et Abel, ibid., 315-60; IDEM, De Noe et arca, ibid., 361-416; IDEM, De Abraham, ibid., 419-500; IDEM, De Isaac et anima, ibid., 501-34; IDEM, De Joseph patriarcha, ibid., 641-72; IDEM, De benedictionibus patriarcharum, ibid., 673-94; ST.在PL,十四,123-274;同上,德天堂terrestri,同上,275-314;同上,德等亚伯该隐,同上,315-60;同上,德野老等方舟,同上,361-416;同上,德亚伯拉罕,同上,419-500;,德以撒等灵魂,同上,501-34同上,同上,德约瑟夫patriarcha,同上,641-72;。同上,德benedictionibus patriarcharum,同上,673 - 94; ST。JEROME, Liber quaest.杰罗姆,LIBER quaest。hebraic.希伯来。in Gen. in PL, XXIII, 935-1010; ST.在PL,二十三,935-1010将军; ST。AUGUSTINE, De Gen. c.奥古斯丁,德将军角Manich.Manich。ll.会。due in PL, XXXIV, 173-220; IDEM, De Ger.同上,德德文,在PL,XXXIV,173-220到期。ad lit., ibid., 219-46; IDEM, De Ger.广告亮,同上,219-46;同上,德GER。ad lit.广告点亮。ll.会。duodecim, ibid., 245-486; IDEM, Quaest in Heptateuch., ibid., 547-776; RUFINUS, De benedictionibus patriarcharum in PL, XXI, 295-336; ST.duodecim,同上,245-486;同上,在Heptateuch Quaest,同上,547-776;。RUFINUS,德benedictionibus在PL,XXI,295-336 patriarcharum; ST。VEN. VEN。BEDE, Hexaemeron in PL, XCI, 9-190; IDEM, In Pentateuch. BEDE,Hexaemeron在PL,XCI,9-190;同上,在摩西五。Commentarii, ibid., 189-394; IDEM, De tabernaculo et vasibus ejus, ibid., 393-498; RHABANUS MAURUS, Comm. Commentarii,同上,189-394;同上,德tabernaculo等vasibus ejus,同上,393-498; RHABANUS毛鲁斯,通讯。in Gen. in PL, CVII, 443-670; IDEM, Comment.在将军在PL,CVII,443-670;同上,评论。in Ez., Lev., Num., Deut.在EZ。,列弗。,序号。,申。in PL, CVIII, 9-998; WALAFRID STRABO, Glossa ordinaria in PL, CXIII, 67-506.在PL,CVIII,9-998; WALAFRID斯特拉波,Glossa ordinaria在PL,CXIII,67-506。

MIDDLE AGES:-ST.中世纪:ST段。BRUNO OF ASTI, Expositio in Pentateuch.布鲁诺ASTI,在摩西五Expositio。in PL, RUPERT OF DEUTZ, De SS.在PL,鲁珀特的道依茨,德SS。Trinitate et operib. Trinitate等operib。Ejus in PL, CLXVII, 197-1000; HUGH OF ST.在PL,CLXVII,197-1000 Ejus;圣休。VICTOR, Adnotationes elucidatoriae in Pent.VICTOR,Adnotationes在被压抑elucidatoriae。in PL, CLXXV, 29-86; HONORIUS OF AUTUN, Hexameron in PL, CLXXII, 253-66; IDEM, De decem plagis Aegypti, ibid., 265-70; ABELARD, Expositio in Hexaemeron in PL, CLXXVII, 731-84; HUGH OF ST.在PL,CLXXV,29-86;挪的欧坦,在PL,CLXXII,253-66 Hexameron;同上,德decem plagis埃及斑蚊,同上,265-70;阿贝拉尔,在Hexaemeron Expositio在PL,CLXXVII,731-84 ;休ST。 CHER, Postilla (Venice, 1588); NICOLAUS OF LYRA, Postilla (Rome, 1471); TOSTATUS, Opera, I-IV (Venice, 1728); DIONYSIUS THE CARTHUSIAN, Comment.雪儿,Postilla(威尼斯,1588); Nicolaus的天琴座,Postilla(罗马,1471); TOSTATUS,歌剧,I - IV(威尼斯,1728);狄奥尼修斯的CARTHUSIAN,评论。in Pentateuch.在摩西五。in Opera omnia, I, II (Montreuil, 1896-7).在歌剧OMNIA,I,II(蒙特勒伊,1896-7)。

MORE RECENT WORKS.-Jewish Writers:-The Commentaries of RASHI (1040-1150), ABENASRA (1092-1167), and DAVID KIMCHI, (1160-1235) are contained in the Rabbinic Bibles; ABARBANEL, Comment.更多近期WORKS.犹太作家: - 的RASHI(1040至1150年),ABENASRA(1092年至1167年)和大卫泡菜,(1160年至1235年)评注,载于拉比圣经; ABARBANEL,评论。(Venice, 5539 AM; 1579 BC); CAHEN, French tr.(威尼斯,5539上午,1579年);擦痕,法语入门。of Pent.被压抑。(Paris, 1831); KALISCH, Historical and Critical Comment on the Old Test.(巴黎,1831); KALISCH,历史和批判的旧的测试评论。 (London), Gen. (1885); Lev. (伦敦),将军(1885);列弗。(1867, 1872); Ez.(1867年,1872年); EZ。(1855); HIRSCH, Der Pent.(1855年); HIRSCH,德被压抑。ubersetzt und erklart (2nd ed., Frankfurt, 1893, 1895); HOFFMANN, Das Buch Lev.ubersetzt UND erklart(第二版,法兰克福,1893年,1895年);霍夫曼达斯布赫列弗。ubersetz und erklart (Berlin, 1906).ubersetz UND erklart(柏林,1906年)。

Protestant Writers:-The works of LUTHER, MELANCHTHON, CALVIN, GERHART, CALOVIUS, DRUSIUS, DE DIEU, CAPPEL, COCCEIUS, MICHAELIS, LE CLERC, ROSENMULLER, and even of TUCH and BAUMGARTEN, are of minor importance in our days; KNOBEL, Gen. (6th ed., by DILLMANN, 1892; tr., Edinburgh, 1897); RYSSEL, Ez.新教作家: - 的路德,梅兰希顿,卡尔文,格哈特,CALOVIUS,DRUSIUS,DE Dieu酒店,CAPPEL,COCCEIUS,米氏,LE CLERC,ROSENMULLER,甚至TUCH和鲍姆加滕,作品是在我们的天轻微的重要性;克诺贝尔,将军(第6版,由DILLMANN,1892;。TR,爱丁堡,1897年); RYSSEL,EZ。and Lev.和列弗。(3rd ed., 1897); DILLMANN, Numbers, deut., Jos. (2nd ed., 1886); LANGE, Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk (Bielefeld and Leipzig); IDEM, Gen. (2nd ed., 1877); IDEM, Ez., Lev., and Numbers (1874); STOSCH, Deut.(第3版,1897年); DILLMANN,数字,申,圣何塞(第二版,1886年);。LANGE,Theologisch - homiletisches Bibelwerk(比勒费尔德和莱比锡),同上,创世纪(第二版,1877); IDEM ,EZ,列弗,与数字(1874);。STOSCH,申命记。 (2nd ed., 1902); KEIL and FRANZ DELITZSCH, Biblischer Comment.(第2版,1902年); KEIL和FRANZ DELITZSCH,Biblischer评论。uber das AT; KEIL, Gen. and Ex.尤伯杯DAS AT; KEIL,将军和前。(3rd ed., Leipzig, 1878); IDEM, Lev., Numbers, Deut.(第3版,莱比锡,1878年);同上,列弗,数字,申命记。(2nd ed., 1870; tr., Edinburgh, 1881, 1885); STRACK and ZOCKLER, Kurzgefasster Komment.(第2版,1870; TR,爱丁堡,1881年,1885年);施特拉克和ZOCKLER,Kurzgefasster Komment。zu den h.祖书房H.Schriften A. und NT (Munich); STRACK, Gen. (2nd ed., 1905); IDEM, Ez., Lev., Numbers (1894); OETTLI, Deut. Schriften A. UND NT(慕尼黑);施特拉克,将军(第2版,1905年);同上,EZ,列弗,数字(1894年);。欧特列,申。 (1893); NOWACK, Handkomment. (1893年); NOWACK,Handkomment。zum AT (Gottingen); GUNKEL, Gen. (1901); BANTSCH, Ez., Lev., Numbers (1903); Deut.ZUM AT(哥廷根);贡克尔,将军(1901年);。BANTSCH,EZ,列弗,数字(1903年);申。by STEUERNAGEL (1900); MARTI, Kurtzer Handommentar z.由STEUERNAGEL(1900);马蒂,Kurtzer Handommentar Z。AT (Freiburg): HOLZINGER, Gen. (1898), Ez.AT(弗赖堡):HOLZINGER,将军(1898年),EZ。(1900), Numbers (1903); BERTHOLET, Lev.(1900年),数字(1903年);贝尔托莱,列弗。(1901), Deut.(1901年),申。 (1899); BOHMER, Das erste Buch Mose (Stuttgart, 1905); COOK, The Holy Bible according to the Authorized Version, I-II (London, 1877); SPENCE and EXELL, The Pulpit Commentary (London): WHITELAW, Gen.; RAWLINSON, Ex.; MEYRICK, Lev.; WINTERBOTHAM, Numbers; ALEXANDER, Deut.; The Expositor's Bible (London): DODS, Gen. (1887); CHADWICK, Exod. (1899年); BOHMER,达斯erste布赫莫斯(斯图加特,1905年),库克,圣经根据授权版本,I - II(伦敦,1877年); SPENCE和EXELL,讲坛评(伦敦):怀特洛,根;罗林森,防爆;蛾,列弗;温特伯森,数字;亚历山大,申;的解释者的圣经(伦敦):。DODS,将军(1887年);查德威克,出埃及记。 (1890); KELLOGG, Lev. (1890年);凯洛格,列弗。(1891); WATSON, Numbers (1889); HARPER, Deut.(1891年),WATSON,数字(1889年);哈珀,申。(1895); The International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh): GRAY, Numbers (1903); DRIVER, Deut. (1895年),国际评论文章(爱丁堡):灰色,数字(1903年); DRIVER,申。(1895); SPURRELL, Notes on the Hebrew Text of Gen. (2nd ed., Oxford, 1896); GINSBURG, The Third Book of Moses (London, 1904); MACLAREN, The Books of Ex., Lev., and Numbers (London, 1906); IDEM, Deut.(1895年); SPURRELL,对将军(第二版,牛津大学,1896年)。希伯来文字注释;金斯伯格,第三本书的摩西(伦敦,1904年);。麦克拉伦,对前书,列弗,与数字(伦敦,1906年);同上,申。 (London, 1906); REUSS, L'histoire sainte et la loi (Paris, 1879); KUENEN, HOSYKAAS, and OORT, Het Oude Testament (Leyden, 1900-1).(伦敦,1906年);罗伊斯,L' histoire圣ET LA意向书(巴黎,1879年); KUENEN,HOSYKAAS和奥尔特,HET欧德约(莱顿,1900-1)。

Catholic Works:-The works of CAJETAN, OLEASTER, STEUCHUS EUGUBINUS, SANTE PAGINO, LIPPOMANNUS, HAMMER, B. POREIRA, ASORIUS MARTINENGUS, LORINUS, TIRINUS, A LAPIDE, CORN, JANSENIUS, BONFRERE, FRASSEN, CALMET, BRENTANO, DERESER, and SCHOLZ are either too well known or too unimportant to need further notice.天主教作品: - 该CAJETAN,OLEASTER,STEUCHUS EUGUBINUS,SANTE PAGINO,LIPPOMANNUS,锤,B. POREIRA,ASORIUS MARTINENGUS,LORINUS,TIRINUS,A LAPIDE,玉米,JANSENIUS,邦弗雷雷,FRASSEN,卡尔梅特,布伦塔诺,DERESER,和作品SCHOLZ不是太知名的或太不重要需要进一步的通知。 La Sainte Bible (Paris); CHELIER, La Genese (1889); IDEM, l'Exode et la Levitique (1886); TROCHON, Les Nombres et le Deuteronome (1887-8); Cursus Scripturae Sacrae (Paris); VON HUMMELAUER, Gen. (1895); Ex., Lev.香格里拉圣圣经(巴黎); CHELIER,拉杰尼斯(1889年);同上,L' Exode ET LA Levitique(1886年); TROCHON,莱斯Nombres ET LE Deuteronome(1887-8); Cursus Scripturae Sacrae(巴黎);冯Hummelauer,创世纪(1895年);前,列弗。(1897); Num.(1897);数量。 (1899); Deut.(1899年);申。 (1901); SCHRANK, Comment. (1901年); SCHRANK,评论。literal.文字。in Gen. (1835); LAMY, Comment in l.在将军(1835);拉米评论中湖Gen. (Mechlin, 1883-4); TAPPEHORN, Erklarung der Gen. (Paderborn, 1888); HOBERG, Die Gen. nach dem Literalsinn erklart (Freiburg, 1899); FILLION, La Sainte Bible, I (Paris, 1888); NETELER, Das Buch Genesis der Vulgata und des hebraischen Textes ubersetzt und erklart (Munster, 1905); GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, I (New York, 1901).将军(Mechlin,1883-4); TAPPEHORN,Erklarung DER将军(帕德博恩,1888);霍贝格,模具将军nach DEM Literalsinn erklart(弗赖堡,1899年);菲利安,香格里拉圣圣经,我(巴黎,1888); NETELER,达斯布赫创DER Vulgata UND DES hebraischen Textes ubersetzt UND erklart(明斯特,1905年); GIGOT,特别介绍了旧约,我(纽约,1901)的研究。Biblical Commission: Acta Apostolicoe Sedis (15 July, 1908); Rome (17 July, 1909).圣经委员会:文献Apostolicoe Sedis(1908年7月15日),罗马(七月十七日,1909年)。


Orthodox Information东正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息可能不是在相信其他文章的学术质量。由于很少有正统学术文章已被翻译成英文,我们不得不依赖于作为源东正教的Wiki,由于维基百科集合不注明作者姓名的文章,而且基本上任何人都可以自由地编辑或改变他们的任何文章(同样没有任何的改变是什么或谁改变了它的指示),我们有顾虑,但为了我们的主题包括在一些正统的角度介绍,我们发现有必要做到这一点。至少到实际的学术正统的希腊文本从原稿翻译!)

The Book of Genesis contains the pre-history of the people of Israel.在创世记包含了以色列人民的史前史。It starts the first part the Old Testament section of the Bible called the Pentateuch, Torah, or Books of Moses.它启动了第一部分的圣经旧约部分称为摩西五,诵读经文,或书籍的摩西。The name Genesis comes from the Greek for beginning, origin, or birth because of Septuagint's division of the Pentateuch into five books.这个名字来的创世纪开始,产地,或因译本的摩西五书的诞生划分为五个来自希腊。 Tradition has it that the Genesis was mostly written by the Prophet Moses 1,300 years before Christ.传统有它的成因主要是由1300年公元前先知摩西写的。


Genesis begins with the story of the creation of the world, the fall of Adam and Eve and the subsequent, quite sinful, history of the children of Adam.创世纪开始的世界创造了亚当和夏娃的下降,随后,相当罪孽深重,对亚当的儿童历史故事。It tells of Noah and the great flood, the tower of Babel, and Abram and Melchizedek.它告诉挪亚和大洪水,巴别塔,亚伯兰和默基瑟德。It then tells of God's call and promise of salvation to Abraham, and the story of Isaac and Jacob, whom God named Israel, ending with the settlement of the twelve tribes of Israel (the families of the twelve sons of Jacob) in Egypt, during the time of Joseph's favor with the Egyptian Pharaoh.然后,它讲述了神的呼召和拯救亚伯拉罕的承诺,以及以撒和雅各,其中神名为以色列,故事与以色列的十二支派在埃及(对雅各的十二个儿子的家庭)结算结束,期间约瑟夫的青睐与埃及法老的时间。 In traditional Church language, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are called the Patriarchs and are also Forefathers of Christ.在传统的教会语言,亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各被称为始祖,也是基督的祖先。


The creation narrative in Genesis can be split into two sections - the first section starts with an account of the Creation of the universe by God, which occurs in six days, the second section is more human-oriented, and less concerned with explaining how the Earth, its creatures and its features came to exist as they are today.在创世纪创作的叙事可以分为两个部分 - 第一部分与一个由上帝创造的宇宙,这在六天内发生的帐户启动,第二部分是更人性化,而较少关注如何与解释地球,它的生物,其功能来存在的,因为他们的今天。

Within the first section, on the first day God created light; on the second, the firmament of heaven; on the third, he separated water and land, and created plant life; on the fourth day he created the sun, moon, and stars; on the fifth day marine life and birds; on the sixth day land animals, and man and woman.在第一部分,在第一天上帝创造了光,在第二,天坛苍穹,在第三,他分开水和土地,并创造了植物的生命,在第四天,他创造了太阳,月亮和星星;在第五天的海洋生物和鸟类;在第六天陆地动物,和男人和女人。 On the seventh day, the Sabbath, God rested, and sanctified the day.在第七天,安息日,上帝休息,和神圣的一天。The second section of the creation narrative explains that the earth was lifeless, how God brought moisture to the soil and how man was formed from the dust (Adam translates from Hebrew to mean 'Red Earth').对第二部分的创作叙事解释说,地球是没有生命的,神如何使土壤水分和男子如何从尘埃(从希伯来文的意思翻译亚当“红地球”)组成。

Adam and Eve亚当与夏娃

God formed Adam out of earth ("adamah"), and set him in the Garden of Eden, to watch over it.亚当神形成了地球(“adamah”),并设置在他的伊甸园,观看过它。Adam is allowed to eat of all the fruit within it, except that of the "Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil."亚当是不准吃的所有水果,除了在它认为,“对善恶知识树。”God then brings all the animals to Adam (2:19).然后神使亚当所有的动物(2:19)。In verse 2:18, God says he will make a helper for Adam, singular, and then creates the animals.在2:18节,神说他将一个亚当,奇异的帮手,然后创建的动物。In 2:20, Adam studies all the animals and names them.在2:20亚当研究所有的动物和它们的名字。He does not find his helpmate and notices that all the other animals have helpmates for them (the male and female).他没有找到他的伴侣,并通知所有其他动物都为他们帮手(男性和女性)。When Adam realizes this, God then puts him into a deep sleep, takes a rib from his side, and from it forms a woman (called later "Eve"), to be his companion (his helpmate).当亚当意识到了这一点,然后放入神沉睡他,需要一个从他身边肋骨,并从中形成了一个女人(后来称为“夏娃”),是他的同伴(他的伴侣)。

Later, starting in verse 3:1, Eve was convinced by Satan, in the form of a serpent, to eat of the forbidden fruit, the only freedom that God had prohibited Adam and Eve in Eden.后来,开始在诗歌3:1,夏娃相信撒旦,在蛇的形式,吃的禁果,唯一的自由,上帝已经禁止在伊甸园的亚当和夏娃。This turning from God is also considered the original sin in traditional Christian interpretation.这是从神转向也被认为是在传统的基督教解释原罪。As punishment, the ground is cursed, Adam and Eve become mortal (because they no longer have access to the Tree of Life), and they are driven out of the garden.作为惩罚,地面是诅咒,亚当和夏娃成为凡人(因为他们不再有机会获得生命之树),他们赶出了花园。The entrance to the garden is then guarded by cherubim with a flaming sword.到花园的入口,然后基路伯把守与火焰的剑。

Adam and Eve initially have two sons, Cain and Abel.亚当和夏娃最初有两个儿子,该隐和亚伯。Eventually Cain grows envious of the favor found by his brother before God, and slays him.最后该隐增长由他的弟弟发现在上帝的青睐羡慕,并杀害了他。The first murder is that of a brother.第一个是兄弟谋杀的。Cain is sentenced to wander over the earth as a fugitive.该隐被判处漫步地球作为一个逃犯。He finally settles in the land of Nod.他最后定居在挪得之地。

From Adam to Noah从亚当到挪亚

Cain, the son of Adam, builds the first known city in the Bible and calls it after the name of his son, Enoch (Genesis 4:17).该隐,亚当的儿子,建立在圣经中第一个已知的城市,并调用后,他的儿子,以诺(创4:17)名称。Further down the line of genealogy, Lamech takes two wives (Genesis 4:19).再往下的族谱线,拉麦有两个妻子(创世记4:19)。 Lamech's sons are the first dwellers in tents and owners of herds (Genesis 4:20, Jabal is called the "father of such as dwell in tents"), and they are the earliest inventors of musical instruments (Genesis 4:21) and workers in brass and iron (Genesis 4:22).拉麦的儿子都在帐篷和业主群第一居民(创4点20分,Jabal的被称为“如住在帐篷里的父亲”),他们是最早发明的乐器(创世记4:21)和工人在铜,铁(创世记4:22)。 These descendants of Cain know nothing about God (Genesis 4:16).这些后代该隐知道神(创世纪4:16)无关。

Another son of Adam, Seth, has in the meantime been born to Adam and Eve in place of the slain Abel (Genesis 4:25).另一个亚当,塞思,儿子已经在此期间出生在杀害亚伯(创世记4:25)亚当和夏娃的地方。 Seth's descendants never lose thought of God (Genesis 4:26).塞特的后代永远不会失去想到神(创世记4:26)。The tenth in regular descent is Noah (Genesis 5:1-29).在第十次定期后裔是诺亚(创5:1-29)。Adam and Eve also have other sons and daughters (Genesis 5:4).亚当和夏娃也有其他的儿子和女儿(创5:4)。In line with most of the other biblical characters born before the flood whose ages are provided, Adam lived until the age of 930 (Genesis 5:5).在与洪水前出生的青睐,其提供的其他圣经人物最行,亚当一直活到930岁(创世记5:5)。

Chapter 5 provides a genealogy of descendants of Adam till Noah: Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah第5章提供了亚当到诺亚的后裔族谱:亚当,塞特,以挪士,凯南,玛勒列,贾里德,以诺,玛土撒拉,拉麦,诺亚

Noah and the great flood诺亚和大洪水

In Genesis chapter 6, verse 2, the sons of God (the men who turned back to God after the original fall), took daughters of men (women who were in rebellion against God) to be their wives.在创世记第六章,第2节,神(男子谁转身后,原来属于上帝),儿子参加了女儿的男子(妇女谁在反抗上帝是)被他们的妻子。 Then, in Genesis 6:3, the Lord said; "My spirit shall not put up with humans for these lengths of time, for they are mortal flesh. In the future, humans shall live no more than 120 years."然后,在创世纪六点03分,主说,“我的精神,不得忍受这些长的时间人类,因为他们是凡人肉身在未来,人类将居住不超过120岁。” Then God looked down on the earth and was very displeased.然后,上帝放在眼里地球和非常不满。He saw that the beautiful world He made was filled with the violence and hate of mankind; so He decided to cleanse the world with a flood and start again.他看到了美丽的世界,他是与暴力和人类充满仇恨,所以他决定用洪水清洗世界,重新开始。God selected one man, Noah, and his family, to survive the flood, as Noah's family is still perfect genetically (Genesis 6:9).上帝选择了一个人,诺亚和他的家人,生存的洪水,如诺亚的家庭仍然是完美的基因(创世记6:9)。God commanded him to build a large ark, since the work of destruction was to be accomplished by means of a great flood.神吩咐他建造大型方舟,因为销毁工作是由一个大洪水的手段来完成。Noah obeyed the command, entering the ark together with his family, into which they also brought a mating pair of each kind of animal and bird on Earth.诺亚服从命令,进入与他的家庭,将他们也带来了各种动物和鸟类在地球上一种交配对方舟在一起。Water burst out of the ground and fell from the sky, and the world was flooded, destroying all living beings except those in the ark.水迸发出地面,从天上掉下,世界被水淹没,摧毁除了那些在方舟众生。When the flood had subsided, Noah's family left the ark, and God enters into a covenant with Noah and all his descendants, the entire human race.当洪水已经消退,诺亚一家人离开方舟,上帝与诺亚成和他的后裔,整个人类进入盟约。Noah soon planted a vineyard (ix. 20) and drank of its wine.诺亚很快种植了葡萄园(ix. 20)和其葡萄酒喝。While he is intoxicated, Noah is shamelessly treated by his son Ham; upon awakening, Noah cursed the latter in the person of Ham's son Canaan, while his sons Shem and Japheth are blessed.虽然他是陶醉,诺亚是无耻地对待他的儿子火腿;觉醒后,诺亚诅咒中的火腿的儿子迦南人后者,而他的儿子闪和雅弗的祝福。

Chapter 10 reviews the peoples descended from Japheth, Ham, and Shem.第10章回顾了人民雅弗的后裔,火腿,和闪。The dispersion of humanity into separate races and nations is described in the story of the Tower of Babel.人类的种族和民族为独立分散的描述中的巴别塔的故事。Humanity is dispersed by a "confusion of tongues," which God brought about when men attempted to build a tower that should reach up to heaven.人类是由分散的“舌头混乱,”神约当男人试图建立一个塔,应可达天堂带来的。 A genealogy is given of Shem's descendants.家谱是一个给定的闪的后代。

Abram and Sarai亚伯兰和撒莱

The Righteous Abraham, a major figure in the Book of Genesis.义人亚伯拉罕,在创世纪的重要人物。

Terah, who lives in Ur of the Chaldees, has three sons: Abram, Nahor, and Haran, father of Lot.他拉,谁在迦勒底的吾珥的生活,有三个儿子:亚伯兰,拿鹤,哈兰,地段的父亲。Abram married Sarai.亚伯兰结婚撒莱。God soon directs Abram to leave his home.上帝很快指示亚伯兰离开他的家。Abram obeys, emigrating with his entire household and Lot, his brother's son, to the land of Canaan.亚伯兰服从,移民与他的整个家庭和地段,他的弟弟的儿子,到迦南地。Here God appears to him and promises that the land shall become the property of his descendants.这里神似乎对他和承诺,即土地应成为他的子孙的财产。

However, Abram is forced by a famine to leave Canaan for Egypt.然而,亚伯兰是迫于饥荒离开埃及迦南。 Once there, the Pharaoh of Egypt takes possession of the beautiful Sarai (whom Abram has misleadingly represented as his sister; she was in fact his half-sister).一旦有,埃及法老利用了美丽的萨莱(其中艾布拉姆已经误导表示为他的妹妹,她其实是他同父异母的妹妹)占有。 God afflicts Pharaoh with a disease, which the ruler recognizes as a sign from God; thus Pharaoh returns Sarai to Abram.神与疾病折磨,这对统治者作为识别标志从神法老,因此法老返回撒莱对亚伯兰。Abram returns to Canaan and separates from Lot in order to put an end to land disputes.亚伯兰回到迦南和分离,以便从大量杜绝土地纠纷。God again appears to Abram, promising him the whole country.上帝再次出现艾布拉姆,看好他的整个国家。

Abram and Melchizedek亚伯兰和麦基

Lot is taken prisoner by invading kings from the East.地段是由入侵从东国王的囚犯。Abram pursues the victors with his armed retainers.亚伯兰奉行与他的武装家臣的胜利者。Returning with his warband after rescuing Lot and his clan, Abram is met by Melchizedek, the king and high priest of Salem (Jerusalem), who blesses him; in return Abram gives him a tithe of his booty, refusing his share of the same.他骑马返回后抢救地段和他的氏族,亚伯兰是满足了麦基洗德,王和塞勒姆(耶路撒冷),谁祝福他大祭司;亚伯兰给他回报了他的战利品十分之一,拒绝他的相同份额。 After this exploit God again appears to Abram and promises him protection, a rich reward, and numerous progeny.在此之后再次利用上帝似乎亚伯兰和许诺他的保护,丰富的奖励,以及众多的后代。These descendants will pass four hundred years in servitude in a strange land, but after God has judged their oppressors they shall leave the land of their affliction, and the fourth generation shall return to Canaan.这些后代将通过在一个陌生的土地400年的奴役,但在神审判他们的压迫者,他们将离开他们的苦难的土地,第四代应返回迦南。

Hagar and Ishmael夏甲和以实玛利

Rublev's famous icon of three angels, a type of the Holy Trinity, appearing to Abraham and Sarah.Rublev著名的图标的三个天使,一个三位一体的类型,出现亚伯拉罕和撒拉。

Sarai is still childless in her old age, so Sarai and Abram decide that they will produce an heir for Abram through his Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar.撒莱仍​​然在她的晚年膝下无子,所以撒莱和亚伯兰决定,他们会产生通过他的埃及侍女,夏甲为亚伯兰继承人。Abram takes her as a concubine and has a child with her named Ishmael.亚伯兰需要作为妾她与她的名字命名,并以实玛利的孩子。God again appears to Abram and enters into a personal covenant securing Abram's future: God promises numerous progeny, including one to Sarah within a year, changes Abram's name to "Abraham" and that of Sarai to "Sarah," and institutes the circumcision of all males as an eternal sign of this covenant.上帝又似乎亚伯兰和成个人安全亚伯兰的未来契约进入:上帝应许许多后代,其中包括一名在一年之内莎拉变化亚伯兰的名称为“亚伯拉罕”,并以撒莱说,“莎拉”和研究所的所有割礼男性作为本公约的永恒标志。 This meeting, in which three angels appear to Abraham and Sarah, is the subject of Andrei Rublev's famous icon, called either The Hospitality of Abraham or simply The Trinity.本次会议,其中三个天使似乎亚伯拉罕和莎拉,是安德烈Rublev著名的图标或者叫做亚伯拉罕的酒店或干脆三位一体的主题。

Sodom and Gomorrah所多玛和蛾摩拉

Next, Abraham also hears that God intends to send angels to execute judgment upon the wicked inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah.接下来,亚伯拉罕还听到上帝派天使打算时执行所多玛和蛾摩拉的恶人居民的判断。He intercedes for the sinners, bargaining with God for the lowest number of righteous people required to save the cities.他代求的罪人,与神讨价还价的所需保存城市的正义之士的最低数量。God agrees that he will spare the cities in their entirety if only ten righteous people are to be found therein.上帝同意,他将不遗余力地全部的城市,如果只有十义人被发现其中。Two angels go to Sodom, where they are hospitably received by Lot.两个天使到所多玛,他们在那里殷勤通过抽签获得。The men of the city, however, pound on Lot's door, demanding to have sexual relations with the visitors.这个城市的男人,但是,在停车场的大门英镑,要求与游客发生性关系。Having thus shown that they deserved their fate, Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed by fire and brimstone.经由此表明,他们无愧自己的命运,所多玛和蛾摩拉被烧毁和硫磺。

Only Lot and his two daughters are saved.只有罗得和他的两个女儿被保存。Lot's incestuous relationship with his daughters, which resulted in the births of Ammon and Moab, is also described.地段的乱伦关系,与他的女儿,这在亚扪人和摩押人造成的出生,也被描述。Abraham journeys to Gerar, the country of Abimelech.亚伯拉罕行程,基拉耳中,亚比米勒的国家。Here once again he represents Sarah as his sister, and Abimelech plans to gain possession of her.在这里再次表示,他作为他的姐姐莎拉和亚比米勒计划获得了她身上。He desists on being warned by God.他desists就被神警告。

The birth of Isaac以撒的出生

At last the long-expected son of Abraham and Sarah is born and receives the name of "Isaac" (Itzhak: "will laugh" in Hebrew).最后,亚伯拉罕和撒拉期待已久的儿子出生并接收“以撒”(伊扎克:“会笑”在希伯来文)的名称。At Sarah's insistence Ishmael, together with his mother Hagar, is driven out of the house.在萨拉的坚持以实玛利,连同他的母亲夏甲,是赶出了家门。They also have a great future promised to them by God.他们也有伟大的未来许诺给他们的神。Abraham, during the banquet that he gives in honor of Isaac's birth, enters into a covenant with Abimelech, who confirms his right to the well Beer-sheba.亚伯拉罕,席间,他在以撒的出生给荣誉,进入到一个与亚比米勒,谁证实了他的权利的同时别是巴约。

A Byzantine-style mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Italy depicting the angel's visition to Abraham and his almost-execution of Isaac.从圣在意大利Vitale的大教堂拜占庭式的马赛克描绘了天使的visition亚伯拉罕,以撒和他差不多,执行。

The near-sacrifice of Isaac以撒的近牺牲

Now that Abraham seems to have all his desires fulfilled, having even provided for the future of his son, God subjects him to the greatest trial of his faith by demanding Isaac as a sacrifice.现在,亚伯拉罕似乎都满足他的欲望,甚至还为他的儿子将来提供,上帝科目他对他的信仰,要求作为最大的牺牲艾萨克审判。 Abraham obeys; but, as he is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him numberless descendants.亚伯拉罕服从,但是,因为他即将躺在儿子的刀,上帝约束他,希望他无数的后裔。On the death of Sarah, Abraham acquires Machpelah for a family tomb.在萨拉死后,亚伯拉罕获得一个家庭墓Machpelah。Then he sends his servant to Mesopotamia, Nahor's home, to find among his relations a wife for Isaac; and Rebekah, Nahor's granddaughter, is chosen.然后,他送他的仆人到美索不达米亚,拿鹤的家,在他的关系找到了以撒的妻子和利百加,拿鹤的孙女,是选择。Other children are born to Abraham by another wife, Keturah, among whose descendants are the Midianites, and he dies in a prosperous old age.其他儿童出生亚伯拉罕另一个妻子,基土拉的子孙之间的米甸人,他在一个繁荣老年死亡。

Esau and Jacob以扫和雅各

After being married for twenty years Rebekah has twins by Isaac: Esau, who becomes a hunter, and Jacob (Ya'akov: "will follow"), who becomes a herdsman.经过二十年结婚利百加了由Isaac双胞胎:以扫,谁成为一个猎人,雅各(Ya'akov:“将按照”),谁成为牧民。 Jacob persuades Esau to sell him his birthright, for which the latter does not care; notwithstanding this bargain, God appears to Isaac and repeats the promises given to Abraham.雅各以扫卖给他说服他的与生俱来的权利,为此,后者并不关心;尽管如此讨价还价,上帝似乎艾萨克并重申承诺给亚伯拉罕。 His wife, whom he represents as his sister, is endangered in the country of the Philistines, but King Abimelech himself averts disaster.他的妻子,被他视为他的妹妹表示,是濒危的非利士人的国家,但国王亚比米勒自己避免出现灾难。In spite of the hostility of Abimelech's people, Isaac is fortunate in all his undertakings in that country, especially in digging wells.鉴于亚比米勒的人的敌意尽管如此,以撒是在他的所有在该国经营幸运,尤其是在打井。God appears to him at Beer-sheba, encourages him, and promises him blessings and numerous descendants; and Abimelech enters into a covenant with him at the same place.上帝似乎他在别是巴,鼓励他,并许诺他的祝福和众多的后裔,并与他亚比米勒到契约进入在同一地点。Esau marries Canaanite women, to the regret of his parents.以扫娶迦南妇女,他的父母后悔莫及。

Rebekah persuades Jacob to dress himself as Esau, and thus obtain from his blinded by old age father the blessing intended for Esau.利百加说服雅各装扮成以扫自己,从而获得他的晚年失明的父亲打算以扫祝福。To escape his brother's vengeance, Jacob is sent to relations in Haran, being charged by Isaac to find a wife there.为了逃避他哥哥的复仇,雅各布发送到关系的哈兰,被指控艾萨克找到一个妻子那里。On the way God appears to him at night, promising protection and aid for himself and the land for his numerous descendants.在途中上帝似乎他在夜间,有前途的保护和为自己和为他的众多子孙的土地援助。Arrived at Haran, Jacob hires himself to Laban, his mother's brother, on condition that, after having served for seven years as a herdsman, he shall have for wife the younger daughter, Rachel, with whom he is in love.在哈兰抵达,雅各布雇用自己拉班,他的母亲的兄弟,条件是,七年后,作为牧民年担任,他应为妻子的小女儿,雷切尔,与他的爱。 At the end of this period Laban gives him the elder daughter, Leah; Jacob therefore serves another seven years for Rachel, and after that six years more for cattle.在这一时期结束时拉班给他的大女儿,莉娅;服务为雷切尔雅各布因此另一个七年后的6年多的牛。In the meantime Leah bears him Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; by Rachel's maid Bilhah he has Dan and Naphtali; by Zilpah, Leah's maid, Gad and Asher; then, by Leah again, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah; and finally, by Rachel, Joseph.在此期间利亚熊他流便,西缅,利未,犹大,由Rachel的女仆辟拉他丹和拿弗他利;由Zilpah,莉娅的侍女,盖德和亚设,然后,由莉亚再次,以萨迦,西布伦,和黛娜,最后由雷切尔,约瑟夫。 He also acquires much wealth in flocks.他还获得多少财富在鸡群。

Jacob wrestles withGod雅各与神搏斗

In fear of Laban, Jacob flees with his family, but soon becomes reconciled with Laban.在拉班的恐惧,雅各逃离与他的家庭,但很快就变得与拉班和解。On approaching his home he is in fear of Esau, to whom he sends presents.在接近他的家,他是在以扫的恐惧,对谁他送礼物。While sleeping, a being (variously regarded as God, an angel, or a man), appears to Jacob and wrestles with him.睡觉时,一个被(分别为上帝,天使,还是男人都把),似乎雅各布和他搏斗。The mysterious one pleads to be released before daybreak, but Jacob refuses to release the being until he agrees to bless him.在神秘的一个恳求拂晓前公布,但雅各布拒绝释放被,直到他同意保佑他。The being announces to Jacob that he shall bear the name "Israel," which means "one who wrestled with God," and is freed.在被宣布为雅各,他应当承担的名字“以色列”,意思是“一个谁与上帝摔跤”,是释放。

The meeting with Esau proves a friendly one, and the brothers separate reconciled.与以扫会议证明了一个友好的,和兄弟单独和解。Jacob settles at Shechem.雅各在示剑平息。His sons Simeon and Levi take vengeance on the city of Shechem, whose prince has raped their sister Dinah.他的儿子西蒙和Levi采取的示剑,他们的王子已经强奸妹妹黛娜城市复仇。On the road from Bethel, Rachel gives birth to a son, Benjamin, and dies.在从伯特利道路,雷切尔生下一个儿子,本杰明,并且死。

Joseph the dreamer约瑟的梦

Joseph, Jacob's favorite son, is hated by his brothers on account of his dreams prognosticating his future dominion, and on the advice of Judah is secretly sold to a caravan of Ishmaelite merchants going to Egypt.约瑟夫,雅各最喜爱的儿子,是讨厌他的兄弟在他的prognosticating他未来的统治梦想帐户,并在犹大的建议是偷偷出售给实玛利前往埃及商人的商队。 His brothers tell their father that a wild animal has devoured Joseph.他的兄弟告诉他们的父亲,一个野生动物吞噬约瑟夫。

The Patriarch Joseph, who was sold into slavery in Egypt by his brothers.约瑟夫的主教,谁被卖了在埃及为奴由他的兄弟。Joseph, carried to Egypt, is there sold as a slave to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh's officials.约瑟夫,对埃及进行的,是有出售的奴隶波提乏,法老的官员之一。He gains his master's confidence; but when the latter's wife, unable to seduce him, accuses him falsely, he is cast into prison.他获得他的主人的信心,但是当后者的妻子,无法勾引他,指责他的假,他是演员关进监狱。Here he correctly interprets the dreams of two of his fellow prisoners, the king's butler and baker.在这里,他正确地解释了他的囚犯,国王的管家和贝克两个梦想。When Pharaoh is troubled by dreams that no one is able to interpret, the butler draws attention to Joseph.当法老是梦想,没有人能够解释的困扰,管家提请注意约瑟夫。The latter is thereupon brought before Pharaoh, whose dreams he interprets to mean that seven years of abundance will be followed by seven years of famine.后者随即带到法老,他的梦想,他解释为意味着七丰度年会由七个饥荒年的随访。He advises the king to make provision accordingly, and is empowered to take the necessary steps, being appointed second in the kingdom.他建议国王作出相应规定,并有权采取必要的步骤,被任命为英国第二位。Joseph marries Asenath, the daughter of the priest Poti-pherah, by whom he has two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, who were blessed by Israel, Ephraim with Israel's right hand, Manassah with Israel's left.约瑟夫结婚阿塞纳丝,牧师的波季,pherah的女儿,是谁,他已与以色列的左两个儿子玛拿西,以法莲,谁是以色列得天独厚,以色列的右手以法莲,Manassah。

When the famine comes it is felt even in Canaan; and Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy grain.当饥荒来是觉得即使在迦南和他的儿子雅各布发送到埃及买粮食。The brothers appear before Joseph, who recognizes them, but does not reveal himself.兄弟约瑟夫出庭,谁认识他们,但没有透露自己。After having proved them on this and on a second journey, and they having shown themselves so fearful and penitent that Judah even offers himself as a slave, Joseph reveals his identity, forgives his brothers the wrong they did him, and promises to settle in Egypt both them and his father.后证明这一点,就在第二个旅程他们,他们已证明自己,恐惧和忏悔的犹太甚至提供自己作为一个奴隶,约瑟夫透露自己的身份,原谅他的兄弟他错了他们,并承诺在埃及定居他们和他的父亲。 Jacob brings his whole family, numbering 66 persons, to Egypt, this making, inclusive of Joseph and his sons and himself, 70 persons.雅各布带来了他的整个家庭,编号66人,埃及,这一决策,包括约瑟夫和他的儿子和他本人,70人。Pharaoh receives them amicably and assigns to them the land of Goshen.老王收到他们友好和分配给他们的歌珊地。When Jacob feels the approach of death he sends for Joseph and his sons, and receives Ephraim and Manasseh among his own sons.当雅各布认为他的死亡方式发送的约瑟夫和他的儿子,并接收在他自己的儿子以法莲和玛拿西。Then he calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future to them.然后,他要求他的儿子对他的床边,揭示其未来给他们。Jacob dies, and is solemnly interred in the family tomb at Machpelah.雅各布去世,并郑重地在家庭墓安葬在Machpelah。Joseph lives to see his great-grandchildren, and on his death-bed he exhorts his brethren, if God should remember them and lead them out of the country, to take his bones with them.约瑟夫生命看到他的曾孙,和对他的逝世床,他告诫他的弟兄们,如果上帝应该记住他们,并带领他们走出国门,与他们采取他的骨头。 The book ends with Joseph's remains being put "in a coffin in Egypt."该书结尾约瑟夫的遗体被放在“在埃及的棺材。”This, however, does not imply that his family was unfaithful to his wishes, but rather this burial is only temporary.然而,这并不意味着他的家庭是忠于他的愿望,而这只是暂时的墓地。Obviously, they could not have left him unburied for the remainder of their stay in Egypt.显然,他们不能离开他为他们在埃及逗留的其余部分掩埋。They do, in fact, take his bones with them on their journey and bury him at Shechem, a plot of ground already owned by their family (Joshua 24:32).他们这样做,其实,拿他的骨头与他们在他们的旅途和埋在示剑,情节的地面已经被他们的家庭(书24:32)拥有他。

Purpose and Interpretation目的和解释

Genesis is not treated as mere history, but as a source of spiritual wisdom, a book inspired by God himself.Genesis是不被视为单纯的历史,但作为一种精神智慧,上帝自己的启发书源。Out of all historical information available to Moses, he selected only what was related to the religious life of people.出于所有历史信息提供给摩西,他只选择什么是关系到人民的宗教生活。It most likely has been edited for this goal over time.它最有可能被编辑这个目标在一段时间。

Liturgical readings礼仪读数

Almost all of Genesis is read by a reader at services of the Orthodox Church during Great Lent and Holy Week.几乎所有的成因是在读的东正教服务在大斋期和圣周的读者。

At Vespers before the Nativity of the Theotokos, the reading is from 28:10-17, the story of Jacob's vision of a ladder which unites heaven and earth.在晚祷前的东正诞生,读数从28:10-17,雅各的梯子的团结天地视觉故事。This passage indicates the union of God with men which is realized most fully and perfectly, both spiritually and physically, in Mary the Theotokos, Bearer of God.这段话表明了这是神与实现最充分和完全的男子结合,既在精神上和肉体玛丽东正,神的承载。

See also也见

Byzantine Creation Era拜占庭式的创作时代

External links外部链接

Nine homilies delivered by St. Basil the Great on the cosmogony of the opening chapters of Genesis:交付圣罗勒在创世纪的开放宇宙起源的大九章节讲道:
In the Beginning God Made the Heaven and the Earth在开始上帝创造了天地
The Earth Was Invisible and Unfinished.地球是无形的和未完成的。
On the Firmament.在苍穹。
Upon the Gathering Together of the Waters.当上述水域聚集在一起。
The Germination of the Earth.地球的萌发。
The Creation of Luminous Bodies.发光体的创作。
The Creation of Moving Creatures.而移动的生物创建。
The Creation of Fowl and Water Animals.对家禽和水生动物创作。
The Creation of Terrestrial Animals.陆地动物的创建。

Book of Genesis or Bereshit创世纪书或Bereshit

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

§ 1.§ 1。-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The first book of the Torah, and therefore of the whole Bible, is called by the Jews "Bereshit," after the initial word; by the Septuagint and by Philo it is called Γύνεσις (κόσμου) = "origin" (of the world), after the contents, and hence "Genesis" has become the usual non-Hebrew designation for it.托拉的第一本书,并因此在整本圣经,被称为由犹太人“Bereshit,”在最初的字;由七十和斐罗它被称为Γύνεσις(κόσμου)=“起源”(世界)之后的内容,因而是“创世纪”已成为通常的非希伯来语为它指定。 According to the Masorah, it is divided into ninety-one sections ("parashiyyot"), forty-three of which have open or broken lines ("petuḥot"), and forty-eight closed lines ("setumot"); or into forty-three chapters ("sedarim") and twenty-nine sections ("pisḳot"); for reading on the Sabbath, into twelve lessons; according to the division adopted from the Vulgate, into fifty chapters with 1,543 verses.据Masorah,它分为91节(“parashiyyot”),43,其中有开启或虚线(“petuḥot”),以及48(“setumot”)封闭线路,或成forty三个章节(“sedarim”)和29节(“pisḳot”);读在安息日成12个教训;按照分工采取从武加大,到50例1543经文章节。

§ 2.§ 2。Nature and Plan.自然和计划。

Genesis is a historical work.创世纪是一个历史的工作。Beginning with the creation of the world, it recounts the primal history of humanity and the early history of the people of Israel as exemplified in the lives of its patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their families.首先是创造世界,它讲述了人类原始的历史和以色列在其始祖亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,和他们家庭的生活体现人的早期历史。 It contains the historical presupposition and basis of the national religious ideas and institutions of Israel, and serves as an introduction to its history and legislation.它包含的历史前提和国家宗教思想和以色列的机制基础上,并作为它的历史,正好为立法。It is a well-planned and well-executed composition of a single writer, who has recounted the traditions of his people with masterly skill, combining them into a uniform work, without contradictions or useless repetitions, but preserving the textual and formal peculiarities incident to their difference in origin and mode of transmission.它是一个单一的作家精心策划和执行的组成,谁细数与精湛的技巧他的人的传统,结合成一个统一的工作中,没有矛盾或无用的重复,而是维护和正式文本的特性事件它们的区别在起源和传播方式。

§ 3.§ 3。The author has treated the story as a series of ten "generations" ("toledot"); namely, (1) of heaven and earth, ch.笔者视为十“代”(“toledot”)系列的故事;即天地,CH(1)。ii.II。4-iv.; (2) of Adam, v.-vi.4 - IV;(2)亚当,v.-vi.8; (3) of Noah, vi.8,(3)诺亚,六。9-ix.; (4) of Noah's sons, x.-xi.9 - IX;(4)挪亚的儿子,x.-xi.9; (5) of Shem, xi. 9,(5)闪,十一。10-26; (6) of Terah, xi.10-26(6)他拉,十一。27-xxv.27二十五。11; (7) of Ishmael, xxv. 11(7)以实玛利,二十五。12-18; (8) of Isaac, xxv.12-18;(8)艾萨克,二十五。19-xxxv.; (9) of Esau, xxxvi.; (10) of Jacob, xxxvii.-1.19 - 三十五;(9)以扫,三十六;(10)雅各,xxxvii. - 1。

§ 4.§ 4。Contents.内容。

In the beginning God created heaven and earth (i. 1), and set them in order in six days.起初,神创造天地(一1),并设置为六个天。He spoke, and on the first day there appeared the light; on the second, the firmament of heaven; on the third, the separation between water and land, with vegetation upon the latter; on the fourth, sun, moon, and stars; on the fifth, the marine animals and birds; on the sixth, the land animals; and, finally, God created man in His image, man and woman together, blessing them and giving them dominion over all beings.他谈到,并在第一天便出现了光;在第二,天坛苍穹,在第三,水与土地分离后,后者与植被;在第四,太阳,月亮和星星;在第五,海洋动物和鸟类,在第六,土地动物;,最后,上帝创造了他的形象,男人和女人的男人在一起,祝福他们,让他们对所有众生统治。 On the seventh day God rested, and blessed and sanctified the day (i. 2-ii. 3).在第七天上帝休息,并祝福和神圣的日子(一,二二3)。As regards the creation and subsequent story of man (Adam), God forms him out of earth ("adama"), and breathes into him the breath of life.至于人(亚当)的创建和随后的故事,他出上帝形式地球(“阿达玛”),并把他的呼吸生命的气息。 Then He sets him in a pleasure-garden (Eden), to cultivate and watch over it.然后,他套在一个快乐园(伊甸园)他,培养和在它的手表。 Adam is allowed to eat of all the fruit therein except that of the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil."亚当是不准吃的所有水果,除了认为其中“对善恶知识树”。God then brings all the animals to Adam, to serve as company for and to receive names from him.上帝然后把所有的动物亚当,担任公司并接收他的名字。When Adam can find no being like himself among all these creatures, God puts him into a deep sleep, takes a rib from his side, and forms a woman (called later "Eve"), to be a companion to him.当亚当可以找到没有像他自己在所有这些动物,上帝放他进入深度睡眠,需要从他身边肋骨,形成一个女人(后来称为“夏娃”),是一个对他的同伴。 The woman is seduced by the artful serpent to eat of the forbidden fruit, and the man also partakes of the same.该女子勾引由巧蛇吃的禁果,而该男子也同样参与大。As punishment they are driven out of Eden (ii. 4-iii.).作为惩罚他们赶出伊甸园(白介素4 - III)。Adam and Eve have two sons, Cain and Abel.亚当与夏娃的两个儿子,该隐和亚伯。Cain grows envious of the favor found by his brother before God, and slays him; he then wanders over the earth as a fugitive, and finally settles in the land of Nod.该隐增长由他的弟弟发现在上帝的青睐羡慕,并杀害了他,他则徘徊在地球作为一个逃犯,终于在挪地落户。Enoch, one of his sons, builds the first city, and Lamech takes two wives, whose sons are the first dwellers in tents and owners of herds and the earliest inventors of musical instruments and workers in brass and iron.以诺,他的一个儿子,构建第一个城市,拉麦有两个妻子,他们的儿子都在帐篷和畜群和乐器和铜,铁工人的最早发明者业主的第一居民。 Cain's descendants know nothing about God (iv.).该隐的后代了解神(iv.)无关。Another son, Seth, has in the meantime been born to Adam and Eve in place of the slain Abel.另一个儿子,塞思,在此期间出生亚当和夏娃在被杀害亚伯的地方。Seth's descendants never lose thought of God.塞特的后代永远不会失去想到神。The tenth in regular descent is the pious Noah (v.).在第十次定期后裔是虔诚的诺亚(诉)。

§ 5.§ 5。As mankind has become wicked, indulging in cruelties and excesses, God determines to destroy it entirely.当人类已经成为邪恶的,在残酷和过分沉迷,神决定毁灭它完全。Noah only, on account of his piety, will escape the general ruin; and God commands him to build a large ark, since the work of destruction is to be accomplished by means of a great flood.诺亚只,在他的虔诚的帐户,将难逃一般绝路,和上帝命令他建造一个大方舟,因为销毁工作是由一个大洪水的手段来完成。 Noah obeys the command, entering the ark together with his wife, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, their wives, and, by God's instructions, with one couple of each kind of animal on the earth.诺亚服从命令,进入方舟连同他的妻子,他的三个儿子,闪,含,雅弗,他们的妻子,而且,由神的指示一项每一种动物在地球上的情侣。 Then the flood comes, destroying all living beings save those in the ark.然后,洪水来了,摧毁一切众生拯救那些在方舟。When it has subsided, the latter leave the ark, and God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants.当它已经消退,后者离开方舟,上帝将与诺亚和他的后裔立约进入。Noah begins to cultivate the field that has been cursed during Adam's lifetime (iii. 17-19; v. 29), and plants a vineyard (ix. 20).诺亚开始培养,已在亚当的一生(III. 17-19;诉29)诅咒领域,和植物葡萄园(ix. 20)。When, in a fit of intoxication, Noah is shamelessly treated by his son Ham, he curses the latter in the person of Ham's son Canaan, while the reverential Shem and Japheth are blessed (ix. 21-27).当在一个合适的中毒,诺亚是无耻地由他的儿子火腿,他咒骂中的火腿的儿子迦南人后,经过处理而恭敬闪和雅弗的祝福(ix. 21-27)。Ch. CH。x. X.contains a review of the peoples that are descended fromJapheth, Ham, and Shem (down to the chief branch of the last-named), and are living dispersed over the whole earth.包含了那些后裔fromJapheth,火腿,和闪(下到最后命名首席分支),和居住分散在整个地球人民检讨。The dispersion was due to the "confusion of tongues," which God brought about when men attempted to build a tower that should reach up to heaven (xi. 1-9).色散是由于“混乱的舌头,”上帝约当男人试图建立一个塔,应可达天堂(xi. 1-9)带来的。A genealogy is given of Shem's descendants in regular line, the tenth generation of whom is represented by Terah (xi. 10-25).家谱是一个在常规线路闪的后裔给出,其中第十代的代表是他拉(xi. 10-25)。

§ 6.§ 6。Terah, who lives at Ur of the Chaldees, has three sons, Abram, Nahor, and Haran.他拉,谁在生命的迦勒底的吾珥,有三个儿子,亚伯兰,拿鹤,哈兰。Haran's son is Lot.哈兰的儿子是地段。Nahor is married to Milcah, and Abram to Sarai, who has no children (xi. 26-32).拿鹤的妻子是密迦,亚伯兰萨莱,谁没有子女(xi. 26-32)。God directs Abram to leave his home and kindred because He intends to bless him.上帝指示亚伯兰离开他的家和亲属,因为他打算保佑他。Abram obeys, emigrating with his entire household and Lot, his brother's son, to the land of Canaan.亚伯兰服从,移民与他的整个家庭和地段,他的弟弟的儿子,到迦南地。Here God appears to him and promises that the land shall become the property of his descendants.这里神似乎对他和承诺,即土地应成为他的子孙的财产。Abram is forced by a famine to leave the country and go to Egypt.亚伯兰是迫于饥荒离开该国,进入埃及。The King of Egypt takes possession of the beautiful Sarai (whom Abram has represented as his sister), but, smitten by God, is compelled to restore her (xii.).埃及国王利用了美丽的萨莱(其中艾布拉姆已经为他的妹妹为代表)拥有,但由神击打,不得不恢复她(xii.)。Abram returns to Canaan, and separates from Lot in order to put an end to disputes about pasturage, leaving to Lot the beautiful country in the valley of the Jordan near Sodom.亚伯兰回到迦南,政企分开,才能从大量杜绝约牧草纠纷,留下来地段在约旦河谷附近所多玛的美丽的国家。God thereupon again appears to Abram, and again promises him the whole country (xiii.).于是神再次出现艾布拉姆,并再次承诺,他的整个国家(xiii.)。Lot is taken prisoner during a war between Amraphel, King of Shinar, and Bera, King of Sodom, with their respective allies, whereupon Abram pursues the victors with his armed servants, liberates Lot, and seizes the booty, refusing his share of the same (xiv.).地段是在拍摄之间Amraphel,示拿王,贝拉,所多玛王战俘,按照各自的盟友,于是亚伯兰奉行与他的武装人员的胜利者,解放地段,并缴获的战利品,拒绝他的同一个共享(xiv.)。 After this exploit God again appears to Abram and promises him protection, a rich reward, and, in spite of the fact that Abram still has no children, a numerous progeny.在此之后再次利用上帝似乎亚伯兰和他在承诺的事实,亚伯兰仍没有孩子,尽管许多后代保护,丰富的奖励,。These descendants must pass four hundred years in servitude in a strange land; but after God has judged their oppressors they, in the possession of great wealth, shall leave the land of their affliction, and the fourth generation shall return to the same land (xv.).这些后代都必须通过在一个陌生的土地400年的奴役,但之后上帝判断他们的压迫者,他们在拥有巨大财富,应离开他们的苦难的土地,而第四代将回归到同一块土地(XV 。)

Sarai being still childless, Abram gets a son, Ishmael, by her Egyptian handmaid, Hagar (xvi.).撒莱被仍膝下无子,亚伯兰得到了她的埃及侍女,黑格(xvi.)一个儿子,以实玛利。God again appears to Abram, and enters into a personal covenant with him securing Abram's future: God promises him a numerous progeny, changes his name to "Abraham" and that of Sarai to "Sarah," and institutes the circumcision of all males as an eternal sign of the covenant.上帝再次出现艾布拉姆,并进入个人盟约进入与他争取亚伯兰的未来:上帝应许他无数后代,改变他的名字为“亚伯拉罕”,并以撒莱说,“莎拉”和研究所的所有男性为割礼永恒签署该公约。 Abraham, together with his whole house, immediately fulfils the rite (xvii.).亚伯拉罕,连同他的整个房子,马上满足了成年礼(xvii.)。God once more appears to Abraham in the person of three messengers, whom Abraham receives hospitably, and who announce to him that he will have a son within a year, although he and his wife are already very old.上帝再次出现亚伯拉罕在三个使者,其中亚伯拉罕得到殷勤的人,谁向他宣布,他将在一年之内有一个儿子,虽然他和妻子都已经很老了。 Abraham also hears that God's messengers intend to execute judgment upon the wicked inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, whereupon he intercedes for the sinners, and endeavors to have their fate set aside (xviii.).亚伯拉罕还听到上帝的使者打算执行后,所多玛和蛾摩拉的恶人居民的判断,于是他为罪人代求,并努力让他们的命运搁置(xviii.)。 Two of the messengers go to Sodom, where they are hospitably received by Lot.在两个使者前往所多玛,他们在那里殷勤通过抽签获得。The men of the city wish to lay shameless hands upon them, and, having thus shown that they have deserved their fate, Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed by fire and brimstone, only Lot and his two daughters being saved.这个城市的男人想躺在他们无耻的手,并因由此表明,他们有值得自己的命运,所多玛和蛾摩拉被烧毁和硫磺,只有罗得和他的两个女儿被保存。 The circumstances of the birth of Ammon and Moab are set forth (xix.).在亚扪人和摩押人出生的情况载(xix.)。Abraham journeys to Gerar, the country of Abimelech.亚伯拉罕行程,基拉耳中,亚比米勒的国家。Here also he represents Sarah as his sister, and Abimelech plans to gain possession of her, but desists on being warned by God (xx.).这里还因为他代表他的姐姐莎拉和亚比米勒计划获得了她的财产,但被神(xx.)警告desists。At last the long-expected son is born, and receives the name of "Isaac."最后期待已久的儿子出生,并接收名为“艾萨克。”At the instance of Sarah, the boy Ishmael, together with his mother, Hagar, is driven out of the house, but they also have a great future promised to them.在萨拉的实例,男孩伊斯梅尔,连同他的母亲,黑格,是赶出了家门,但他们也有伟大的未来许诺给他们。Abraham, during the banquet that he gives in honor of Isaac's birth, enters into a covenant with Abimelech, who confirms his right to the well Beer-sheba (xxi.).亚伯拉罕在宴会上,他在以撒的出生给荣誉,进入到一个与亚比米勒,谁确认他的权利的同时别是巴(xxi.)公约。Now that Abraham seems to have all his desires fulfilled, having even provided for the future of his son, God subjects him to the greatest trial of his faith by demanding Isaac as a sacrifice.现在,亚伯拉罕似乎都满足他的欲望,甚至还为他的儿子将来提供,上帝科目他对他的信仰,要求作为最大的牺牲艾萨克审判。 Abraham obeys; but, as he is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him numberless descendants.亚伯拉罕服从,但是,因为他即将躺在儿子的刀,上帝约束他,希望他无数的后裔。On the death of Sarah Abraham acquires Machpelah for a family tomb (xxiii.).在萨拉亚伯拉罕获得Machpelah一个家庭墓(xxiii.)死亡。Then he sends his servant to Mesopotamia, Nahor's home, to find among his relations a wife for Isaac; and Rebekah, Nahor's granddaughter, is chosen (xxiv.).然后,他送他的仆人到美索不达米亚,拿鹤的家,在他的关系找到了以撒的妻子和利百加,拿鹤的孙女,是选择(xxiv.)。 Other children are born to Abraham by another wife, Keturah, among whose descendants are the Midianites; and he dies in a prosperous old age (xxv. 1-18).其他儿童出生亚伯拉罕另一个妻子,基土拉的子孙之间的米甸人,和他在一个繁荣的老年(xxv. 1-18)死亡。

§ 7.§ 7。After being married for twenty years Rebekah has twins by Isaac: Esau, who becomes a hunter, and Jacob, who becomes a herdsman.经过二十年结婚利百加了由Isaac双胞胎:以扫,谁成为一个猎人,和Jacob,谁成为牧民。Jacob persuades Esau to sell him his birthright, for which the latter does not care (xxv. 19-34); notwithstanding this bargain, God appears to Isaac and repeats the promises given to Abraham.雅各以扫卖给他说服他的与生俱来的权利,为此,后者并不关心(xxv. 19-34);尽管如此讨价还价,上帝似乎艾萨克和重复给亚伯拉罕的承诺。His wife, whom he represents as his sister, is endangered in the country of the Philistines, but King Abimelech himself averts disaster.他的妻子,被他视为他的妹妹表示,是濒危的非利士人的国家,但国王亚比米勒自己避免出现灾难。In spite of the hostility of Abimelech's people, Isaac is fortunate in all his undertakings in that country, especially in digging wells.鉴于亚比米勒的人的敌意尽管如此,以撒是在他的所有在该国经营幸运,尤其是在打井。God appears to him at Beer-sheba, encourages him, and promises him blessings and numerous descendants; and Abimelech enters into a covenant with him at the same place.上帝似乎他在别是巴,鼓励他,并许诺他的祝福和众多的后裔,并与他亚比米勒到契约进入在同一地点。Esau marries Canaanite women, to the regret of his parents (xxvi.).以扫娶迦南妇女,他的父母后悔(xxvi.)。Rebekah persuades Jacob to dress himself as Esau, and thus obtain from his senile father the blessing intended for Esau (xxvii.).利百加说服雅各装扮成以扫自己,因而从他的老年父亲取得扫(xxvii.)意的祝福。To escape his brother's vengeance, Jacob is sent to relations in Haran, being charged by Isaac to find a wife there.为了逃避他哥哥的复仇,雅各布发送到关系的哈兰,被指控艾萨克找到一个妻子那里。On the way God appears to him at night, promising protection and aid for himself and the land for his numerous descendants (xxviii.).在途中上帝似乎他在夜间,有前途的保护和为自己和为他(xxviii.)众多子孙的土地援助。 Arrived at Haran, Jacob hires himself to Laban, his mother's brother, on condition that, after having served for seven years as herdsman, he shall have for wife the younger daughter, Rachel, with whom he is in love.在哈兰抵达,雅各布雇用自己拉班,他的母亲的兄弟,条件是,七年后的牧民年担任,他应为妻子的小女儿,雷切尔,与他的爱。 At the end of this period Laban gives him the elder daughter, Leah; Jacob therefore serves another seven years for Rachel, and after that six years more for cattle.在这一时期结束时拉班给他的大女儿,莉娅;服务为雷切尔雅各布因此另一个七年后的6年多的牛。In the meantime Leah bears him Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; by Rachel's maid Bilhah he has Dan and Naphtali; by Zilpah, Leah's maid, Gad and Asher; then, by Leah again, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah; and finally, by Rachel, Joseph.在此期间利亚熊他流便,西缅,利未,犹大,由Rachel的女仆辟拉他丹和拿弗他利;由Zilpah,莉娅的侍女,盖德和亚设,然后,由莉亚再次,以萨迦,西布伦,和黛娜,最后由雷切尔,约瑟夫。 He also acquires much wealth in flocks (xxix.-xxx.).他还获得多少财富在鸡群(xxix. - XXX)。

In fear of Laban, Jacob flees with his family and all his possessions, but becomes reconciled with Laban, who overtakes him (xxxi.).在拉班的恐惧,雅各逃离与他的家人和他的所有财产,而是成为与拉班,谁赶超他(xxxi.)重归于好。On approaching his home he is in fear of Esau, to whom he sends presents; and with the worst apprehensions he turns at night to God in prayer.在接近他的家,他是在以扫的恐惧,对谁他送礼物,并与最坏的忧虑,他轮流在夜间向上帝祈祷。 An angel of God appears to Jacob, is vanquished in wrestling, and announces to him that he shall bear the name "Israel," ie, "the combatant of God" (xxxii.).神的使者似乎雅各布,是战败国在摔跤,并宣布对他说,他应当承担的名字“以色列”,即“上帝的战斗员”(xxxii.)。 The meeting with Esau proves a friendly one, and the brothers separate reconciled.与以扫会议证明了一个友好的,和兄弟单独和解。 Jacob settles at Shalem (xxxiii.).雅各落户在Shalem(xxxiii.)。His sons Simeon and Levi take bloody vengeance on the city of Shechem, whose prince has dishonored their sister Dinah (xxxiv.).他的儿子西蒙和Levi采取的示剑,其王子已兑现其妹妹黛娜(xxxiv.)城市的血腥报复。Jacob moves to Beth-el, where God bestows upon him the promised name of "Israel," and repeats His other promises.雅各移动到伯特利,上帝赋予他所许诺的名字“以色列”,并重申他的其他承诺。On the road from Beth-el Rachel gives birth to a son, Benjamin, and dies (xxxv.).在从伯特利雷切尔道生了一个儿子,本杰明,以及模具(xxxv.)。A genealogy of Esau and the inhabitants and rulers of his country, Edom, is given in ch.一个以扫和居民和他的国家,以东,统治者家谱给出了通道。xxxvi.三十六。

§ 8.§ 8。Joseph, Jacob's favorite, is hated by his brothers on account of his dreams prognosticating his future dominion, and on the advice of Judah is secretly sold to a caravan of Ishmaelitic merchants going to Egypt.约瑟夫,雅各的喜爱,是恨他的兄弟们对他的prognosticating他未来的统治梦想帐户,并在犹大的建议是偷偷出售给商人前往埃及Ishmaelitic大篷车。 His brothers tell their father that a wild animal has devoured Joseph (xxxvii.).他的兄弟告诉他们的父亲,一个野生动物吞噬约瑟夫(xxxvii.)。Joseph, carried to Egypt, is there sold as a slave to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh's officials.约瑟夫,对埃及进行的,是有出售的奴隶波提乏,法老的官员之一。He gains his master's confidence; but when the latter's wife, unable to seduce him, accuses him falsely, he is cast into prison (xxxix.).他获得他的主人的信心,但是当后者的妻子,无法勾引他,指责他的假,他是演员关进监狱(xxxix.)。Here he correctly interprets the dreams of two of his fellow prisoners, the king's butler and baker (xl.).在这里,他正确地解释了他的囚犯,国王的管家和贝克(xl.)两个梦想。When Pharaoh is troubled by dreams that no one is able to interpret, the butler draws attention to Joseph.当法老是梦想,没有人能够解释的困扰,管家提请注意约瑟夫。The latter is thereupon brought before Pharaoh, whose dreams he interprets to mean that seven years of abundance will be followed by seven years of famine.后者随即带到法老,他的梦想,他解释为意味着七丰度年会由七个饥荒年的随访。He advises the king to make provision accordingly, and is empowered to take the necessary steps, being appointed second in the kingdom.他建议国王作出相应规定,并有权采取必要的步骤,被任命为英国第二位。Joseph marries Asenath, the daughter of the priest Poti-pherah, by whom he has two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim (xli.).约瑟夫结婚阿塞纳丝,牧师的波季,pherah的女儿,是谁,他有两个儿子,玛拿西,以法莲(xli.)。

When the famine comes it is felt even in Canaan; and Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy corn.当饥荒来是觉得即使在迦南和他的儿子雅各布发送到埃及购买玉米。The brothers appear before Joseph, who recognizes them, but does not discover himself.兄弟约瑟夫出庭,谁认识他们,但没有发现自己。After having proved them on this and on a second journey, and they having shown themselves so fearful and penitent that Judah even offers himself as slave, Joseph reveals his identity, forgives his brothers the wrong they did him, and promises to settle in Egypt both them and his father (xlii.-xlv.).后证明这一点,就在第二个旅程他们,他们已证明自己,恐惧和忏悔的犹太甚至提供自己的奴隶,约瑟夫透露自己的身份,原谅他的兄弟,他们没有错他,并承诺在埃及定居都他们和他的父亲(xlii. - XLV)。Jacob brings his whole family, numbering 66 persons, to Egypt, this making, inclusive of Joseph and his sons and himself, 70 persons.雅各布带来了他的整个家庭,编号66人,埃及,这一决策,包括约瑟夫和他的儿子和他本人,70人。Pharaoh receives them amicably and assigns to them the land of Goshen (xlvi.-xlvii.).老王收到他们友好和分配给他们的歌珊(xlvi. - 四十七)土地。When Jacob feels the approach of death he sends for Joseph and his sons, and receives Ephraim and Manasseh among his own sons (xlviii.).当雅各布认为他的死亡方式发送的约瑟夫和他的儿子,并接收在他(xlviii.)自己的儿子以法莲和玛拿西。 Then he calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future to them (xlix.).然后,他要求他的儿子对他的床边,揭示其未来向他们(xlix.)。Jacob dies, and is solemnly interred in the family tomb at Machpelah.雅各布去世,并郑重地在家庭墓安葬在Machpelah。Joseph lives to see his great-grandchildren, and on his death-bed he exhorts his brethren, if God should remember them and lead them out of the country, to take his bones with them (1.).约瑟夫生命看到他的曾孙,和对他的逝世床,他告诫他的弟兄们,如果上帝应该记住他们,并带领他们走出国门,与他们采取他的骨头(1)。

§ 9.§ 9。Aim of Work.目的工作。

In the choice, connection, and presentation of his material the narrator has followed certain principles incident to the purpose and scope of his work.在选择连接,并介绍他的材料叙述者事件一直遵循某些原则的目的和他的工作范围。Although he adopts the universal view-point of history, beginning with the Creation and giving a review of the entire human race, he yet intends to deal particularly with Israel, the people subsequently chosen by God, and to give an account of its origin and of its election, which is based on its religious and moral character.虽然他采用的普遍历史观点,首先是建立和给人一种全人类的审查,他还打算与以色列的特别处理,人民subsequently皆由上帝,并给予它的起源和它的选举,这是根据其宗教和道德品质的基础。 His chief point of view, therefore, is that of narrator of tribal and religious history; and only the details that bear on this history are reported.他的观点的主要点,因此,部族和宗教的历史叙述者说,只有细节,承担这段历史的报道。

§ 10.§ 10。It is his primary intention to show that the people of Israel are descended in a direct line from Adam, the first man created by God, through legitimate marriages in conformity with Israelitish moral ideals, ie, monandric marriages.这是他的主要意图表明,以色列人民都在从亚当,上帝创造的第一个人通过合法的婚姻,与Israelitish道德理想,即monandric婚姻符合直线下降。 Offshoots branch from this main line at central points represented by Adam, Noah, Shem, Eber, Abraham, and Isaac, though their subsequent legitimacy can not be guaranteed.从这个分支的分支在由亚当,挪亚,闪,希伯,亚伯拉罕和以撒,但随后将其合法性无法保证代表的中央点的主线。 Linguistically the descent from the main line is always indicated by the word , vouching for the paternity; while descent in a branch line is indicated by .语言上的后裔从主线始终是指示字,为侍单证员,而在支线血统表示。This is the explanation of the interchange of these two words, a phenomenon which has never yet been correctly interpreted.这是这两个词互换的解释,这种现象还从来没有被正确理解。The line branching off at any one central point is always fully treated before the next member of the main line is mentioned.该生产线分支在任何一个中心点过总是充分治疗前的主线下一个成员被提及。Only such matters are related in regard to the branch lines as are important for the history of humanity or that of Israel.只有这些问题都考虑到相关的分支线是重要的人类或以色列历史。No fact is ever introduced merely on account of its historical or antiquarian value.无事实是有史以来推出仅仅就其历史或古文物价值计算在内。In the main line the interest is concentrated upon the promised, long-expected generations of Isaac-Jacob, his sons and grandsons-who safely pass through all dangers and tribulations, emphasis being laid on their religious and moral character.在主线的利益是建立在承诺,期待已久的一代以撒,雅各,他的儿子和孙子,谁安全通过集中所有的危险和磨难,重点是放在他们的宗教和道德品质。

§ 11.§ 11。The events are related in definite chronological order, the chief dates being as follows:这些事件有关的明确的时间顺序,行政日期如下福利:

see table见表

The year of the Creation is the year 3949 before the common era.的创作时间是3949年之前,共同的时代。The ten generations before the Flood attain to ages varying between 777 years (Lamech) and 969 years (Methuselah), with the exception of Enoch (365 years).洪水之前十代,以达到不同年龄之间777年(拉麦)和969年(玛土撒拉)不同,与以诺异常(365年)。Those of the ten generations after the Flood vary between 600 years (Shem) and 148 (Nahor).洪水后的十代这些变化在600年(闪)和148(拿鹤)。All the reasons for the details of this chronology have not yet been discovered.所有对本年表的细节原因尚未被发现。Oppert has declared (in "REJ" 1895, and in Chronology) that the figures are connected with ancient Babylonian chronological systems.奥佩特已宣布(在“REJ”1895年,在年表),这些数字与古巴比伦时间顺序系统连接。 The variations found in the Septuagint and in the Samaritan Pentateuch were introduced for certain purposes (see Jacob in "JQR" xii. 434 et seq.).在七十和撒玛利亚五经发现的变化是引入了某些目的(见“jqr”十二雅各布434页起)。The correctness of the Masoretic figures, however, is evident from the context.马所拉的数字的正确性,然而,从上下文明显。

§ 12.§ 12。Anachronisms such as various critics allege are found in Genesis do not in reality exist; and their assumption is based on a misunderstanding of the historiographic principles of the book.如各种批评时代错误声称是在创世纪发现在现实中不存在做,他们的假设是建立在书的史学原则有所误解。Thus the history of a generation no longer of importance is closed and the death of its last member noted, although it may not be contemporaneous with the next succeeding generation, to which the attention is then exclusively directed.因此,一个重要的一代不再是封闭的历史和它的最后一个成员的死亡所指出的,尽管它可能无法与同时代的未来一代人,对此的关注,然后专门指示。 This view explains the apparent contradictions between xi.这种观点解释了十一大的明显的矛盾。32 and xi.32席。26, xii.26,第十二章。4; also between xxv. 4;之间也二十五。7 and xxv. 7,二十五。26; xxi. 26; XXI。5 and xxv. 5,二十五。20; xxxv. 20;三十五。28 (Jacob was at that time 120 years old) and xlvii.28(雅各布当时120岁了)和四十七。9; xxxvii.9;三十七。2, xli.2,四十一。46; etc. In ch. 46,等等,在CH。xxxiv.三十四。Dinah is not six to seven years old, nor Simeon and Levi eleven and ten respectively, but (xxxv. 27, xxxvii. 1 et seq., xxxiii. 17) each is ten years older.黛娜不是六至七岁,也没有西缅和利未eleven和十分别,但(xxxv. 27日,三十七(1)及以下,三十三17)每个为十年以上。The events in ch.在通道的事件。 xxxviii.三十八。do not cover twenty-three years-from the sale of Joseph in his seventeenth year to the arrival of Judah's grandsons in Egypt (xlvi. 12) in Joseph's fortieth year-but thirty-three years, as the words (elsewhere only in xxi. 22 and I Kings xi. 29) refer back in this case to xxxiii.不包括23年,从约瑟夫在他的十七年出售给埃及的到来犹大的孙子(xlvi. 12)约瑟夫的第四十个年头,但三十三年,作为字(其他地方XXI只。 22,我国王十一29)是指在这种情况下,回到三十三​​。17.17。The story is introduced at this point to provide a pause after ch.故事介绍在这一点上提供了通道后暂停。xxxvii.三十七。

§ 13.§ 13。Nor are there any repetitions or unnecessary doublets.也没有任何重复或不必要的双峰。If ch.如果通道。ii.II。were an account of the Creation differing from that found in ch.是一个来自于不同的创作CH发现帐户。i., nearly all the events would have been omitted; it is, however, the story in detail of the creation of man, introduced by a summary of what preceded.一,几乎所有的事件会被省略,它是,但是,在人类创造的细节故事,通过一个什么样的前面摘要介绍。Neither are there two accounts of the Flood in ch.无论是有两个在CH洪水帐户。vi.-ix., in which no detail is,其中任何一个细节是多余的。The three accounts of the danger of Sarah and Rebekah, ch.对萨拉和利百加,CH危险的三个帐户。xii., xx., and xxvi., are not repetitions, as the circumstances are different in each case; and ch. 。十二,XX,和二十六,不重复,因为在每个案件情况不同,和CH。xxvi.二十六。refers expressly to ch.明确提到通道。xx.XX。The account in xix.在十九帐户。 29 of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the rescue of Lot, is but a summary introducing the story that follows, which would not be comprehensible without xix.在所多玛和蛾摩拉和救援地段,破坏29不过是故事的摘要介绍如下,其中不会没有十九理解。14, 23, 28.14,23,28。 Repeated references to the same place (Beth-el, xxviii. 19, xxxv. 15), or renewed attempts to explain the same name (Beer-sheba, xxi. 31, xxvi. 33; comp. xxx. 20 et seq.), or several names for the same person (xxvi. 34, xxvii. 46-xxxvi. 2 for Esau's wives) are not contradictions.重复引用同一个地方(伯特利,二十八19,三十五15),或重新试图解释相同的名称(别是巴,二十一31,二十六33;。。比赛XXX 20及以下) ,或为同一人(xxvi. 34,二十七。46三十六(2)以扫的妻子)数名不矛盾。The change of Jacob's name into that of "Israel" is not narrated twice; for xxxii.雅各的名字为“以色列”的变化不是叙述的两倍;为三十二。29 contains only the announcement by the messenger of God.29只包含了上帝的使者的公告。

Apparently no exegete has noted that is a parenthesis often found in prophetic speeches ("Not Jacob-thus it will be said [ie, in xxxv. 10]-shall be thy name"); is an impossible construction in Hebrew; xxxii.显然没有注释家已经注意到,往往是在找到先知讲话(“不雅各布,因此它会说[即在三十五,10],应你的名字”)的括号,是在希伯来不可能建设;三十二。 4 et seq.4起。and xxxiii.和三十三。1 et seq.1起。do not prove, contrary to xxxvi.没有证明,违反三十六。6-7, that Esau was living at Seir before Jacob's return.6-7,在西珥的以扫是生活在雅各布的回报。The account of the sale of Joseph as found in xxxvii.该帐户买卖约瑟夫发现三十七。1-25, 28, 29-36; xl. 1-25,28,29-36; XL。1 et seq.1起。does not contradict xxxvii.并不矛盾三十七。25-27, 28; xxxix.25-27,28; XXXIX。; forthe Midianites were the middlemen between the brothers and the Ishmaelites, on the one hand, and between the latter and Potiphar, on the other.; forthe米甸人是兄弟之间的和以实玛利的中间人,一方面之间,以及后者与波提乏,另一方面。Potiphar is a different person from the overseer of the prison; and Joseph could very well say that he had been stolen, ie, that he had been put out of the way (xl. 15).波提乏是从监督员的监狱不同的人;和约瑟夫很可能会说,他已被人偷走,也就是说,他已经把的方式(xl. 15)。

§ 14.§ 14。It is the purpose of the book, on its religious as well as its historic side, to portray the relation of God to humanity and the behavior of the latter toward Him; His gracious guidance of the history of the Patriarchs, and the promises given to them; their faith in Him in spite of all dangers, tribulations, and temptations; and, finally, the religious and moral contrasts with Hamitic (Egyptian and Canaanite) behavior.这是书的目的,在其宗教以及历史悠久的一面,描绘了神对人类的关系以及后者对他的行为,他对历史的始祖亲切指导,并承诺给予他们,他们的信念在他的所有危险,磨难和诱惑,尽管,以及最后,与含米特(埃及和迦南)的行为的宗教和道德的对比。

§ 15.§ 15。Religion of Genesis.宗教的起源。

Being a historical narrative, no formal explanations of its religious views are found in Genesis; but the stories it contains are founded on such views, and the author furthermore looks upon history as a means of teaching religion.作为一个历史叙述,其宗教观点没有找到正式的解释是在创世纪,但它包含的故事都是这样的观点成立,笔者还对历史看起来宗教作为一种教学手段。 He is a historian only in virtue of being a theologian.他是一个只有在作为一个神学家德历史学家。He inculcates religious doctrines in the form of stories.他灌输的故事形式的宗教教义。Instead of propounding a system he describes the religious life.而不是propounding他描述了一个系统的宗教生活。The book therefore contains an inexhaustible fund of ideas.这本书因此包含一个取之不尽,用之不竭的基金的想法。The most important among these, regarding God, the Creation, humanity, and Israel's Patriarchs, may be mentioned here.其中最重要的,对于神的创造,人类和以色列的始祖,可以在这里提及。

§ 16.§ 16。There is only one God, who has created heaven and earth (that is, the world), and has called all objects and living beings into existence by His word.只有一个上帝,谁创造了天地(即世界),并呼吁通过他的话语把存在的所有对象和众生。The most important point of the theology of Genesis, after this fundamental fact, is the intentional variation in the name of God.创世纪的神学最重要的一点,经过这一基本事实,是在上帝的名义故意变化。It is the most striking point of the book that the same God is now called "Elohim" and now "Yhwh."它是神的,同样是现在所谓的“耶洛因”,现在的书最突出的一点“耶和华”。In this variation is found the key to the whole book and even to the whole Pentateuch.在这种变化是找到了全书的关键,甚至对整个摩西五。It is not accidental; nor are the names used indifferently by the author, though the principle he follows can not be reduced to a simple formula, nor the special intention in each case be made evident.这不是偶然,也不是由作者用漠然的名字,虽然他原则如下不能沦为一个简单的公式,也不是在每一种情况下作出的特殊意图明显。

§ 17.§ 17。"Yhwh" is the proper name of God (= "the Almighty"; see Ex. iii. 12 et seq., vi. 2), used wherever the personality of God is to be emphasized. “耶和华”是神的正确名称(=“全能”;。看到前12页起三,六2),用于地方的神个性加以强调。Hence only such expressions are used in connection with "Yhwh" as convey the impression of personality, ie, anthropomorphisms.因此,只有这样的表达式用在与“耶和华”连接作为传达个性的印象,即anthropomorphisms。 Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, face, hand, heart are ascribed only to "Yhwh," never to "Elohim."眼睛,耳朵,鼻子,嘴,脸,手,心是认定只有“耶和华,”永不“耶洛因。”These anthropomorphisms are used merely to suggest the personal life and activity of God, and are not literal personifications, as is conclusively proved by the fact that phrases which would be actual anthropomorphisms-eg, "God sees with His eyes"; "He hears with His ears"; "one sees God's face" ("head," "body," etc.)-never occur.这些anthropomorphisms使用只是为了表明个人生活和上帝的活动,而不是字面人格化,因为是确凿的事实,这将是短语实际anthropomorphisms - 例如,“神与他的眼睛看到”事实证明,“他听到的他的耳朵“,”一看到上帝的脸“(”头“,”身体“等),永远不会发生。The expression "Yhwh's eyes" indicates divine knowledge of what may be seen through personal apperception; "Yhwh's ears," what may be heard; = "God's anger" indicates the reaction of God's moral nature against evil; "Yhwh's mouth" indicates the utterances of the God who speaks personally; "Yhwh's face" indicates immediate personal intercourse with the God who is felt to be present; "Yhwh's hand" indicates His sensible manifestations of power; "Yhwh's heart" indicates His thoughts and designs.表达“耶和华的眼睛”表示什么可通过个人领悟看到神圣的知识,“耶和华的耳朵,”什么可以听到; =“上帝之怒”表示上帝的反对邪恶的道德性的反应,“耶和华的口”指示言论在上帝亲自谁说话,“耶和华的脸”表示立即与谁是上帝的感觉是目前的个人交往,“耶和华的手”表明他的理智力量的表现,“耶和华的心”表示他的想法和设计。 The phrase "Yhwh, a personal God," characterizes fully the use of this name.短语“耶和华,个人上帝”的特点充分利用这一名称的使用。A person or a nation can have personal relations with the personal Yhwh only; and only He can plan and guide the fate of either with a personal interest.一个人或一个民族可以有个人耶和华只是个人关系,也只有他可以计划和指导与个人利益或命运。Yhwh is the God of history and of the education of the human race.耶和华是对历史和人类的教育神。Only Yhwh can exact a positive attitude toward Himself, and make demands upon man that are adequate, ie, moral: Yhwh is the God of positive morality.只有耶和华可以确切朝着自己的积极态度,并根据人的需求是足​​够的,即道德:耶和华是积极的道德神。A personal, inner life longing for expression can be organized into definite form and find response only if Yhwh be a personal, living God.一个个人,为表达内心生活的向往,可以组织成一定的形式,找到响应只有耶和华是个人,活着的上帝。Yhwh is the God of ritual, worship, aspiration, and love.耶和华是礼仪,祭祀,渴望和爱上帝。

§ 18.§ 18。"Elohim" is an appellative, and the general name for the divinity, the superhuman, extramundane being, whose existence is felt by all men-a being that possesses intelligence and will, exists in the world and beyond human power, and is the final cause of all that exists and happens. “莹”是一个通称,并为神的总称,是超人,extramundane之中,其存在是由所有的人,一个被认为拥有智慧和意志,在世界和超越人类力量的存在感觉,并最终导致所有存在和发生。 "Yhwh" is concrete; "Elohim" is abstract.“耶和华”是具体的,“莹”是抽象的。"Yhwh" is the special," Elohim" the general, God.“耶和华”是特殊的,“罗欣”一般,上帝。"Yhwh" is personal; "Elohim." “耶和华”是个人,“莹”。impersonal.人情味。Yet there is no other Elohim but Yhwh, who is "ha-Elohim" (the Elohim).然而,没有任何其他罗欣但耶和华,谁是“公顷莹”(耶洛因)。

The following points may be observed in particular:以下几点可以观察到,特别是:

(a) "Elohim," as genitive of a person, indicates that the latter has superhuman relations (xxiii. 6; similarly of an object, xxviii. 17, 22). (一)“耶洛因,”作为一个人的所有格,表示后者(xxiii. 6;同样的对象,二十八17,22)超人的关系。

(b) It also indicates ideal humanity (xxxiii. 10; comp. xxxii. 29). (b)它也表明人类理想(xxxiii. 10;赛三十二29)。

(c) "Elohim" expresses the fate imposed by a higher power. (三)“耶洛因”表达了一个更高的权力施加的命运。The statement "A person is prosperous" is paraphrased by "Elohim is with him," which is distinctly different from "Yhwh is with him."声明“一个人是繁荣”是转述的“耶洛因,是与他”,这是明显不同于“耶和华与他同在。”While the former indicates objectively a person's prosperity with regard to a single event, the latter expresses the higher intentions and consecutive plans of the personal God in regard to the person in question.前者表示客观方面的一个事件一个人的繁荣,后者体现了较高的意图和在考虑到有关人士的个人神连续计划。Abimelech says to Abraham, "Elohim is with thee in all that thou doest" (xxi. 22), while he says to Isaac, "Yhwh is with thee," and "thou art now the blessed of Yhwh" (xxvi. 28, 29).亚比米勒说,亚伯拉罕,“耶洛因是与你同在所有你的旨意”(xxi. 22),而他对以撒说,“耶和华是你的”,“你的艺术现在耶和华祝福”(xxvi. 28, 29)。For Abimelech had at first tried in vain to injure Isaac; but later he convinced himself () that evidently () it was the Yhwh worshiped by Isaac that designedly protected and blessed the latter.对于亚比米勒曾试图首先在徒劳地伤害以撒,但后来他自己确信(),它显然()它是由艾萨克崇拜是特意保护和祝福后者的耶和华。 Again, in xxi.再次,在二十一。 20: "And Elohim was with the lad"; for Ishmael did not belong to the chosen line, concerning which God had special plans.20:“和罗欣是与法援署”;为伊斯梅尔不属于所选择的路线,关于上帝有特殊计划。Yhwh, however, is always with Israel and its heroes (xxvi. 3, 28; xxviii. 15 [xxxii. 10, 13]; xlvi. 4; Ex. iii. 12; Num. xxiii. 21; Deut. ii. 7; xx. 1; xxxi. 8, 23; Josh. i. 5, 9, 17; iii. 7; Judges ii. 18; vi. 12, 16; I Sam. iii. 19; xvi. 18; xviii. 12, 14; xx. 13; II Sam. vii. 3, v. 10; I Kings i. 37; II Kings xviii. 7).耶和华,但是,总是与以色列和它的英雄(xxvi. 3,28;二十八15 [三十二10,13];四十六4;。防爆三12;。序号二十三21;申二7。 ; XX 1; XXXI 8,23;。乔希一5,9,17;三7;法官二18;六,12,16, 我心三19;十六18;。十八12 14,XX 13;二,三七三,五10;我国王岛37;二国王十八7)。Particularly instructive is Jacob's vow, xxviii.特别是启发是雅各布的誓言,二十八。20 et seq., "If Elohim will be with me . . . then shall Yhwh be my Elohim."20页起,“如果耶洛因将与我。然后应耶和华是我的耶洛因。” Adverse fate especially is, out of fear, euphemistically ascribed to the general Elohim, the impersonal God, rather than to Yhwh xlii.尤其是不良的命运,出于恐惧,委婉地归因而不是耶和华XLII一般耶洛因,非人格神。28).28)。

(d) As "Elohim" designates the universal ruler of the world, that term is used in ch. (四)由于“耶洛因”指定普遍统治者的世界,这个词用在CH。 the story of the Creation; but in order to designate this Elohim as the true God the word "Yhwh" is always addedin the following chapters (ii., iii.).在创作的故事,但为了指定为真神这耶洛单词“耶和华”始终是addedin以下章节(白介素,三)。(e) In so far as man feels himself dependent upon Elohim, whom he needs, the latter becomes his Elohim. (e)在迄今为止的人感到自己在耶洛因,他需要依赖的人,后者成为他的耶洛因。As the term "Elohim" includes the idea of beneficent power, this relation becomes, on the part of God, that of the omnipotent patron, and, on the part of man, that of the protégé, the one who needs protection and offers respect and obedience (xvii. 7, xxviii. 22).由于长期“罗欣”包括慈善力量的想法,这种关系变得,在上帝的一部分,在万能的靠山,并在人的一部分,这是门徒,谁需要保护,并提供有关与服从(xvii. 7,二十八22)。The same interpretation applies to "Elohim" followed by the genitive of a person.同样的解释适用于“耶洛因”,由一个人所有格后面。(f) Elohim is the religious meeting-ground between the believer in Yhwh and persons of a different faith (xiv. 22; xx. 13; xxi. 23; xxxix. 9; xli. 16, 25, 28, 32, 38). (六)罗欣是宗教信徒之间的耶和华和不同信仰的人(xiv. 22; XX 13; XXI 23; XXXIX 9;。XLI 16,25,28,32,38)会议地。(g) "Elohim" is the appellation of God used in connection with the person who is inclined toward Yhwh, but whose faith is not yet fully developed; for the one who is on the way to religion, as Melchizedek (ch. xiv.) and Abraham's servant (ch. xxiv.; comp. Jethro in Exodus and Balaam in Numbers; see §§ 28, 31). (七)“耶洛因”是上帝的称谓与谁是对耶和华的人倾向于连接使用,但其信仰是尚未充分开发,为一个谁上对宗教的方法是,如麦基洗德(章十四。 )和亚伯拉罕的仆人(章二十四;。排版忒在出埃及记和号码巴兰见§ § 28,31)。

(h) "Elohim" represents God for those whose moral perception has been blunted by sin (iii. 3, 5); from the mouths of the serpent and the woman instead of "Jahweh" is heard "Elohim"; they desire to change the idea of a living God, who says, "Thou shalt," into a blurred concept of an impersonal and indefinite God. (八)“莹”代表对于那些道德观念已经被罪(III. 3,5)钝神;从蛇和代替“亚威”女人的口中听到“莹”,他们渴望改变一个活着的上帝的想法,谁说:“汝等,”变成了一个客观和无限期上帝模糊的概念。 But the God who pronounces judgment is Yhwh (ch. ii., iii.; on Cain, ch. iv.; in connection with the Flood, vi. 3-8; the tower of Babel, xi. 5 et seq.; Sodom and Gomorrah, xviii. 19; Er and Onan, xxxviii. 7, 10).但上帝谁宣告判决耶和华(章二,三;上该隐,通道IV;。与洪水,六连接3-8;巴别塔,十一5及以下;。多玛和蛾摩拉,十八19; Er和俄南,三十八7,10)。(i) Although the personality of Elohim is indistinct, he yet is felt to be a moral power making moral demands.(一)虽然耶洛个性模糊,但他感到是一种道德力量,使道德要求。The moral obligation toward him is the negative virtue of the "fear of God," the fear of murder (xx. 11), unchastity (xxxix. 9), injustice (xlii. 18), and renunciation (xxii. 12).对他的道德义务是“神的恐惧”,担心谋杀(xx. 11),不贞洁(xxxix. 9),不公正(xlii. 18),并放弃(xxii. 12)负的美德。(k) "Elohim" also means the appearance of the Deity, and hence may be synonymous with "mal'ak."(十一)“莹”也指神的外观,因此可以等同于“mal'ak。”It may also designate an object of the ritual representing or symbolizing the Deity (xxxv. 2).它也可能指定的代表或象征着神(xxxv. 2)祭祀的对象。

§ 19.§ 19。"Elohim" is more explicitly defined by the article; "ha-Elohim," ie, "the Elohim" or "of the Elohim," is sometimes used to identify an "Elohim" previously mentioned (xvii. 18; comp. verse 17; xx. 6, 17; comp. verse 3). “耶洛因”更明确界定的文章,“公顷莹”,即“耶洛因”或“耶洛因,”有时被用来识别“耶洛因”前面提到的(xvii. 18;比赛第17节; XX 6,17;。比赛第3节)。The single, definite, previously mentioned appearance of an Elohim is called "ha-Elohim," being as such synonymous with "Mal'ak Yhwh" (xxii. 1, 3, 9, 11, 15), both speaking for Yhwh (verse 16; comp. xlviii. 15).单,明确的,前面提到的耶洛因外观被称为“HA -耶洛因,”因此与“Mal'ak耶和华”(xxii. 1,3,9,11,15)的代名词是,无论是对耶和华说(诗16;赛四十八15)。"Ha-Elohim," when derived from "Elohim," is a preparation for "Yhwh"; when derived from "Yhwh" it is a weakening of the idea of God (see §§ 31 et seq.). “夏莹,”当从派生“耶洛因,”是“耶和华”的准备,当从“耶和华”派生出来的是上帝的观念弱化(见§ § 31及以下)。Although these examples do not exhaust the different uses of these two names, they are sufficient to show the author's intentions.虽然这些例子不排气这两个名字的不同用途,它们足以显示作者的意图。

§ 20.§ 20。A rare term for "God" is "El Shaddai" (xvii. 1, xxviii. 3, xxxv. 11, xliii. 13, xlviii. 13; "Shaddai" in xlix. 25).为“上帝”一词,是难得的“厄尔尼诺Shaddai”(xvii. 1,二十八3,三十五11,四十三13,四十八13;。“Shaddai”在XLIX 25)。The usual translation and interpretation, "Almighty," is entirely unsupported.通常的翻译和解释,“全能”,是完全不支持。The term, when closely examined, means "the God of faith," ie, the God who faithfully fulfils His promises.这个词,仔细审查时,意思是“上帝的信仰”,即上帝谁忠实地履行他的诺言。Perhaps it also means a God of love who is inclined to show abundant love.也许这也意味着爱谁是倾向于显示丰富的爱。

§ 21.§ 21。God as a personal being is not only referred to in anthropomorphistic and anthropopathic terms, but He also appears to man and speaks with him.作为个人被上帝不仅是指在anthropomorphistic和拟人的条款,但他似乎还男子和他说话。Thus He speaks with Adam and Eve, Cain, Noah, Abraham, Hagar, Abimelech, Isaac, Jacob, and Laban.因此,他会讲该隐,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,夏甲,亚比米勒,以撒,雅各,拉班,与亚当和夏娃,But He appears only from the time of Abraham, and in different ways.但他似乎只从亚伯拉罕的时间,以不同的方式。An Elohim "appears" to Abimelech and Laban in a dream at night (xx. 3, xxxi. 24); a mal'ak Yhwh appears to Hagar (xvi. 7 et seq.), being called in verse 13 simply "Yhwh."一个罗欣“出现”,以亚比米勒和拉班在夜间梦(xx. 3,三十一24),一个mal'ak耶和华似乎夏甲(xvi. 7及以下),即在第13节简单的“耶和华叫。 “Yhwh appears to Abram (xii. 7, xv. 1); in a vision (xii. 1, 7) apparently accompanied by darkness, a pillar of smoke, and fire; in xvii.耶和华似乎艾布拉姆(xii. 7,十五1);显然是在黑暗中,一个支柱烟雾,火灾伴随着一个愿景(xii. 1,7),在十七。Yhwh, who is subsequently called "Elohim" (verses 9, 15, 19), appears, and then ascends (verse 22); in xviii.耶和华,谁是后来被称为“耶洛因”(诗句9,15,19),出现,然后登(诗22),在十八。 Yhwh appears in the form of three men who visit Abraham, but these speak as one Yhwh in verses 13, 17, 20, 26, and 33, who then leaves, while the two messengers go to Sodom.耶和华出现在三个人谁访问亚伯拉罕的形式,但这些说话作为一个耶和华在经文13,17,20,26和33,谁然后离开,而两名信使前往所多玛。 Yhwh appears to Isaac on a certain day (xxvi. 2), and again that night (verse 24).耶和华似乎艾萨克的某一天(xxvi. 2),并再次当晚(24节)。Jacob is addressed in a dream by Yhwh (xxviii. 12 et seq.).雅各布是解决在梦中被耶和华(xxviii. 12起。)In xxxi.在三十一。3 Yhwh speaks to Jacob; Jacob says (verse 11) that a mal'ak of Elohim appeared to him in a dream. 3耶和华对雅各说话;雅各布说(11节),一个耶洛mal'ak出现在梦中给他。In xxxv.在三十五。9 Elohim again appears to him, in reference to the nocturnal encounter with a "man" (xxxii. 14 et seq.), and ascends (xxxv. 13).9耶洛因再次显示了他,在参考了“人”(xxxii. 14起。)夜间遭遇,并登(xxxv. 13)。In xlvi.在四十六。2 Elohim speaks to him in a vision of the night.2耶洛因在谈到他的夜视。

Hence, the appearance of God means either a dream-vision, or the appearance of a messenger sent by God, who speaks in His name, and may therefore himself be called "Elohim of Yhwh."因此,上帝的出现意味着要么一个梦想,远见,或上帝,谁在他的名字讲派使者的出现,并可能因此自己被称为“耶和华耶洛因。”

§ 22.§ 22。"Mal'ak of God" signifies, in the first place, the fortunate disposition of circumstances (xxiv. 7, 40; comp. xlviii. 16), in which case it is parallel to "ha-Elohim," the divine guidance of human life; more often, however, it denotes the "angels" ("mal'akim"), messengers of God in human shape who carry His behests to men and who seem to enter and leave heaven through a gate (xxviii. 11); eg, "Yhwh's messenger" (xvi. 7, 11; xxii. 11, 15); "Elohim's messenger" (xxi. 17; in the plural, xix. 1, 15; xxviii. 12; xxxii. 2); or "ha-Elohim's messenger" (xxxi. 11).“神Mal'ak”表示,摆在首位,幸运的情况下的处置(xxiv. 7,40;。排版XLVIII 16),在这种情况下,它是平行的“公顷莹”的神圣指导人的生命,更多的时候,但是,它表示“天使”(“mal'akim”),在人形的上帝使者谁携带他的遗志,以男性和谁似乎进入和离开天堂通过一个门(xxviii. 11) ,例如,“耶和华的使者”(xvi. 7,11;二十二11,15);“耶洛因的使者”(xxi. 17;在复数,十九1,15;二十八12;三十二2);或“HA -耶洛因的使者”(xxxi. 11)。The "man" who wrestled with Jacob likewise seems to have been a mal'ak (xxxii. 25, 29, 31), and the men whom Abraham entertained and who saved Lot were also mal'akim (xviii., xix.). “人”谁按倒与雅各布同样似乎一直是mal'ak(xxxii. 25,29,31),亚伯拉罕和男人谁受理,谁保存地段也mal'akim(xviii.,十九)。According to the popular belief, it is disastrous to meet them (xvi. 13, xxxii. 31).据普遍认为,这是灾难性的,以满足他们(xvi. 13,三十二31)。On this point, more than on any other, the author seems to have followed popular ideas.在这一点上,比在任何其他的作者似乎都遵循流行的想法。

§ 23.§ 23。It appears from the foregoing that the conception of God found in Genesis is throughout a practical, religious one.看来,上帝的观念在创世纪发现整个实际,宗教之一,是从前述。God is treated exclusively with reference to His dealings with the world and with man, and to the interest that He takes in man's fate and behavior.上帝是治疗完全参照与世界和与人打交道,和他的兴趣,在人的命运和行为的发生。He guides, educates, and punishes.他引导,教导,严格查处。He assigns to the first of mankind a habitation in Eden, sets them a task, and commands them not to do a certain thing.他赋予人类在伊甸园居住第一,设置他们的任务,并命令他们不要做某些事情。When they break this command He punishes them; but even after that He cares for them.当他们打破这个命令他惩罚他们,但即使是他关心他们。Although punishing the murderer Cain, He affords him protection; the cruelties and unnatural sins of the generation of the Flood arouse His sorrow and anger; He humiliates the pride of the men who are planning to build a tower that shall reach to heaven; He utterly destroys with fire and brimstone the sinful generation of Sodom and Gomorrah.虽然惩治凶手该隐,他让他的保护;的残酷性和对洪水的产生不自然的罪引起他的悲哀和愤怒,他侮辱的男人谁正计划建立一个塔,应达到天堂自豪;他完全破坏与火和硫磺的所多玛和蛾摩拉罪恶的产生。 The punishments are either the natural consequences of sin-the first of mankind haverobbed the earth, which had willingly offered the fruit of its trees, hence it is cursed and paralyzed, and can no longer give its fruit freely, so long as Adam is living; Eve has succumbed to desire, hence she has become the slave of desire; Cain has defiled the earth by murder, hence he has deprived it of its strength-or they correspond exactly to the sins; eg, men build a tower in order to remain united, hence they are dispersed; Jacob wishes to rule his brother, therefore he must humiliate himself before that brother; he deceives, and is deceived in return; he dresses up in a goatskin in order to obtain a blessing fraudulently, therefore he is terribly deceived and plunged in sorrow through a goatskin; Judah advises the sale of Joseph as a slave, therefore he himself is forced to offer himself as a slave.该处罚是任自然后果罪,第一人类haverobbed地球,这已自愿提供其树上的果子,因此它是诅咒和瘫痪,不能再给予其果实自由,只要亚当生活;除夕已屈服于欲望,因此她已成为欲望奴隶;该隐已经玷污了谋杀地球,因此他已经失去了它的实力,否则他们完全对应的罪,例如,男人建立一个塔,以保持团结,因此他们是分散的,雅各布希望统治他的弟弟,因此他必须在此之前,羞辱自己的弟弟,他欺骗,并在返回欺骗,他在山羊皮服装在为了获得祝福欺诈,因此他可怕的欺骗和陷入悲痛通过羊皮;犹大建议作为从约瑟的销售,因此他本人被迫提供一个奴隶。

God, on the other hand, is pleased with the pious, with Enoch and Noah, and especially with Abraham's unshakable faith (xv. 6); his righteousness and justice, which he recommends to his children and household (xviii. 19); his implicit obedience, which is ready to make the supreme sacrifice (xxii. 12, 16).神,另一方面,很高兴同与以诺和挪亚虔诚,特别是与亚伯拉罕的不可动摇的信仰(xv. 6),他的正气和正义,他建议他的孩子和家庭(xviii. 19),他的隐式的服从,这是准备作出最大牺牲(xxii. 12,16)。For Abraham's sake God saves Lot (xix. 19); blesses Abraham's son Isaac (xxvi. 5), his children, and his children's children; protects them through all dangers; prevents others from doing evil to them (xii. 17, xiv., xv., xx. 3, xxvi., xxxi. 24); and leads them in a marvelous manner.对于亚伯拉罕的上帝为了节省地段(xix. 19);祝福亚伯拉罕的儿子以撒(xxvi. 5),他的孩子,和他的孩子的孩子;保护他们通过所有的危险,防止做邪恶他们(xii. 17,十四人。 ,十五,二十三,二十六,三十一24);。。,并导致他们在一个奇妙的方式。He gives commands to men, and binds them to Himself by covenants and promises.他给命令男人,并结合公约,并承诺由他们自己。 They are the objects of His designs, as they are His work.他们是他的设计的对象,因为他们是他的工作。

§ 24.§ 24。The Creation.创建。

The entire universe is the work of God; this proposition is the necessary consequence of the idea of God as found in Genesis and the Pentateuch and in the whole Bible generally.整个宇宙是上帝的工作,这个命题是神在创世纪的摩西五和整个圣经一般认为的想法必然结果。From this arises doubtless the author's belief that God created the world out of nothing.由此产生无疑作者的信仰,上帝创造了什么世界。He does not say how this primal act of creation was accomplished.他没有说是如何创造的原始行为完成。In the beginning the earth was a desolate watery chaos ("tohu wa bohu"), over which the spirit of God brooded, and which God divided into heaven and earth and arranged and peopled in six days.在开始的地球是一个荒凉的水汪汪的混乱(“tohu WA博湖”),通过它上帝的精神反复思量,和神分为天地和安排,并在六天内有人居住。The living beings are created in an orderly sequence, proceeding from the inorganic to the organic, from the incomplete to the complete, man being the crown.众生是建立在一个有序的序列,从无机到有机,从不完善到完善,男子被冠。In the beginning God creates light together with time and the day.起初,神创造了光与时间的一天。The outer firmament separates the waters above and below it; then when the lower waters recede the land appears; the earth produces grass and trees; and plants and animals are created, each "after its kind," and endowed with the faculty of propagating within their kind in their respective elements.外面的天空分开上面和下面的水,然后在较低的水退去的土地出现;地球产生草地和树木以及植物和动物的创建,每一个“后的那种”,赋予了传播学院内他们那种在各自的要素。 Every organic being, therefore, is endowed with a nature of its own, which the Creator intends it to keep by pairing only with its own kind.每一个有机之中,因此,被赋予它自己的性质,它的创造者打算只保留其自己的一种配对。The lights that God has fixed in the firmament serve to separate the day from the night; they shall be for "signs, periods, seasons, and years," and shall give light to the earth.而上帝在苍穹固定灯为独立于当天晚上,他们应为“标志,时间,季节和年”,并应给予轻到地球。The sun is the greater light, that rules the day; the moon is the lesser light, that rules the night.太阳是更大的光,规则的一天;月亮是较小的光,规则的夜晚。

§ 25.§ 25。The Creation is, in the judgment of God, good in particular, and very good in general, ie, fit for life, commensurate to its purpose, salutary, harmonic, and pleasing.创新是,在神的审判,好特别,很一般的好,即适合生活,相称,其目的,有益的,谐波,以及赏心悦目。The book expresses an optimistic satisfaction and pleasure in the world, a lively veneration for God's arrangements and the peculiar dignity of each being as determined by God.书中表达了乐观的满意度和在世界上的快感,为上帝的安排,活泼的崇拜和被上帝所决定的每一个特殊的尊严。The simplicity, sublimity, depth, and moral grandeur of this story of the Creation and its superiority to every other story dealing with the subject are universally recognized.而简单,崇高,深度,和本的创作,其优势与其他每个故事的主题处理故事的寓意是举世公认的伟大。

§ 26.§ 26。Humanity.人类。

Man, the crown of Creation, as a pair including man and woman, has been made in God's image.人,作为万物之灵的,包括男人和女人对,已经取得了神的形象。God forms the first man, Adam, out of earth ("adamah").上帝形式的第一人,亚当走出地球,(“adamah”)。This indicates his relation to it in a manner that is fundamental for many later laws.这表明他的方式,为许多后来的法律基本关系到它。Man is a child of the earth, from which he has been taken, and to which he shall return.人是地球的孩子,而他已采取和他应返回。It possesses for him a certain moral grandeur: he serves it; it does not serve him.它具备了他一定的道德宏伟:他服务,而是它不为他服务。He must include God's creatures in the respect that it demands in general, by not exploiting them for his own selfish uses.他必须包括在尊重神的造物,它要求在不利用一般由为自己的自私的使用它们。Unlawful robbery of its gifts (as in paradise), murder, and unchastity anger it, paralyze its power and delight in producing, and defile it.其礼物(如天堂),谋杀和抢劫,即属违法不贞洁愤怒,瘫痪其权力在生产和喜悦,和玷污它。God breathed the breath of life into the nostrils of man, whom He formed out of earth.神注入了人,形成了地球人,他的鼻孔出生命的气息。Therefore that part of him that is contrasted with his corporeal nature or supplements it-his life, soul, spirit, and reason-is not, as with the animals, of earthly origin, existing in consequence of the body, but is of divine, heavenly origin.因此,这部分的他,与他的肉体性或补充对比它 - 他的生命,灵魂,精神和理性,并非如尘世的起源与动物,在身体的后果存在,但神的是,天上的原产地。Man is "toledot" (ii. 4) of heaven and earth.人是“toledot”(白介素4)天地。The creation of man also is good, in the judgment of God; the book, therefore, is cognizant of nothing that is naturally evil, within man or outside of him.人的创造也是好的,在神的审判;书,因此,是没有认识到的自然是邪恶的人或他在外面。After God has created man, He says: "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him" (ii. 18).上帝创造了人之后,他说:“这是不好的,该名男子应单独,我会让他成为帮助满足他”(白介素18)。In order that man may convince himself that there is no being similar to him among all the creatures that have been made, God brings all the animals unto Adam, that he may name them, ie, make clear to himself their different characteristics.为了那个男人可以说服自己,有没有被类似他在所有已经取得的动物,上帝把所有的动物所不欲,亚当,他可能他们的名字,即明确自己的不同特点。 Hence man, looking for a being like unto himself among the animals, finds language.因此男人,对于一个像你们自己被动物中寻找,发现语言。God thereupon creates woman out of the rib of man, who gladly recognizes her as bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh.于是上帝创造的女人出了人,谁乐意承认他的骨他的肉和肉骨头她的肋骨。"Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh"; meaning that the mature man may and shall leave the paternal house, where he has been merely a dependent member of the family, and, urged by the longing for a sympathetic being that will supplement him, shall live with the woman of his choice, and found with her a family of his own, where the two shall be combined in an actual and a spiritual unity. “因此,人要离开他的妻子他的父亲和他的母亲,并应劈开:他们要成为一体”,意思是成熟的男人可能,并应离开父亲的房子,在那里他一直只是一个从属会员家庭,并敦促所向往的同情将被补充他,将生活与他所选择的女人,与她的家人对他自己,从此两人应在实际相结合,并找到一种精神的统一。 In this passage the relation between man and woman is expressed, and also the nature of marriage, which is a life partnership in which one helps and supplements the other.在这段话的男人和女人之间的关系是表达,也是婚姻,这是一个生活的伙伴关系,其中一个帮助和补充的其他性质。Procreation is not its purpose, but its consequence.生育是不是它的目的,但其后果。God has given to man, as to all living beings, the faculty of multiplying.上帝给了人类,因为所有的众生,在乘以任教。

§ 27.§ 27。God gives to man dominion over the earth and over all living beings.上帝给人类统治了地球和对所有众生。The food of the first man consists solely of the fruits of the field, that of the animals being grass (i. 29).第一个男人的食物只包括该领域的成果,对被草(一29)动物。His occupation is to cultivate and watch over the Garden of Eden (ii. 15), the only restriction placed upon its enjoymentbeing that he shall not eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.他的职业是培养和在伊甸园(白介素15),唯一的限制后,其enjoymentbeing他不得吃的对善恶知识树上的果子放在花园观看。 In the Garden of Eden men go naked and know no shame; this feeling is aroused only after they have broken God's command, and then He makes them garments of skins to cover their nakedness.在伊甸园花园去裸体男人,知道没有羞耻,这感觉是引起后,才打破了上帝的命令,然后他使他们的皮肤服装,以支付他们的下体。

§ 28.§ 28。All men on earth are descended from the first pair, Adam and Eve, and are therefore also of the image of God.地球上所有的人都是从第一对祖先,亚当和夏娃,因此神的形象也。This statement expresses the unity of the whole human race.这句话表达了全人类的团结。Man is a created being, made in the image of God, and all men are related: these doctrines are among the most fundamental and weighty of the whole Bible.人是受造物,在神的形象被造,和所有的人都有关:这些学说中最根本和整个圣经份量的。

The branch descended from Cain, the fratricide, the eldest son of the first pair, is the founder of civic and nomadic culture.从该隐后裔的分支,是同室操戈,第一次对长子,是公民和游牧文化的创始人。The branch descended from Seth develops along religious lines: from Elohim (Seth, in iv. 25) through ha-Elohim (Enoch, in v. 22) to Yhwh (Noah, in vi. 8).从塞特的后裔分支的发展以及宗教界线:从耶洛因(。塞思,在四25)通过公顷莹(伊诺克,在诉22)耶和华(诺亚,在六8)。 But punishment has been made necessary on account of Adam's sin; the human race must be destroyed on account of its cruelties and excesses.但是,惩罚已经取得了必要的亚当的罪帐户;人类必须根据其残酷行为和过激帐户销毁。 A new race begins with Noah and his sons, and God promises that He will neither curse the earth again, nor destroy all living beings, but that, on the contrary, "seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease" (viii. 22).一个新的种族开始与挪亚和他的儿子,上帝的承诺,他既不会再次诅咒大地,也摧毁一切众生,但是,与此相反,“种子时间和收获,冷和热,夏季和冬天,昼夜不得停止“(viii. 22)。He blesses Noah and his family, that they may multiply and fill the earth and be spiritually above the animals.他祝福挪亚和他的家人,他们可能乘并填写地球和精神上以上的动物是。He permits men to eat meat, but forbids them to eat blood, or meat with the blood thereof.他允许男子吃肉,但禁止他们吃的血与血,或肉类。God will demand the blood (life) of every man or animal that spills it.神将要求每个人或动物的血液溢出它(生活)。"Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed" (ix. 6).“Whoso sheddeth人的血,他的血的人应是棚”(ix. 6)。God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants, promising them that He will not again send a general flood upon the earth, and instituting the rainbow as a token thereof (ch. ix.).神进入到一个与诺亚和他的后裔立约,答应他们,他将不会再发送后,地球一般的洪水,以及建立一个标记及其(章九)彩虹。 The God whom all the Noachidæ worship is Elohim (ix. 1, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17), Yhwh being worshiped by Shem and his descendants.所有的人神崇拜的Noachidæ罗欣(ix. 1,7,8,12,16,17),耶和华被崇拜的闪和他的后裔。 All the peoples dispersed over the earth are grouped as descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.所有人民对地球分散分组为闪,含,雅弗的后裔。The genealogy of these peoples which the author draws up in ch.这些作者在书中所人民在CH族谱。x.X.according to the ethnographic knowledge of his time, finds no parallel in its universality, which includes all men in one bond of brotherhood.根据他的时间人种学知识,发现它的普遍性,包括在一个兄弟债券所有人不平行。In this way have originated the peoples that shall be blessed in Abraham.通过这种方式起源认为应在亚伯拉罕祝福人民。

§ 29.§ 29。Israel's Patriarchs.以色列的始祖。

Terah, the descendant of Shem and Eber, has three sons, one of whom, Abraham, is destined by God for momentous events.他拉,闪和希伯的后代,有三个儿子,其中,亚伯拉罕之一,是由上帝注定的重大事件。He shall leave his home; and God says to him: "I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed" (xii. 2-3).他将离开他的家,和上帝对他说:“我会让你一个伟大的民族,我会祝福你,使你的名为大,你必是一个祝福:我会保佑他们,保佑你,诅咒他,curseth你和你将在地球上所有的家庭的祝福“(xii. 2-3)。God often repeats the promise that Abraham's descendants shall be as numerous as the stars in heaven and as the sand on the seashore (xv. 5, xxii. 17); that He will make him a father of many nations, and cause him to be exceedingly fruitful; that kings and nations shall be descendants of him and Sarah (xvii. 5, 6, 16); that he shall become a great people; that all nations of the earth shall be blessed in him (xviii. 18, xxii. 18); and that his descendants shall receive the entire land of Canaan as a hereditary possession (xiii. 14 et seq., xv. 7, xvii. 18).上帝常常重复的承诺,亚伯拉罕的子孙应在天上的沙子像无数的星星在海边(xv. 5,22 17);,他将让他父亲的许多国家,并导致他被极其富有成果的,也就是说国王和国家应为他和莎拉(xvii. 5,6,16)的后裔,他将成为一个伟大的民族,是地球的所有国家应在他(xviii. 18,22福地。 18)和他的子孙应接受作为一个世袭藏(xiii. 14页起,十五7,十七18),整个土地的迦南。。But before all this comes to pass Israel shall be sorely oppressed for four hundred years as servants in a strange land, after which they shall go out with rich possessions, and God shall judge their oppressors (xv. 13 et seq.).但在这一切来通过以色列应缺阵为400年的公务员被压迫在一个陌生的土地,之后他们将前往具有丰富的家当了,上帝应判断其压迫者(xv. 13起。)In confirmation of these promises God enters twice into a covenant with Abraham: the first time (xv. 18 et seq.) as an assurance that his descendants shall possess Canaan; and the second time, before Isaac's birth, as a sign that He will be their God.在确认这些承诺上帝两次进入到一个与亚伯拉罕立约:作为保证,他的后代应具备迦南第一次(。xv. 18及以下)和第二次,前艾萨克的诞生,作为一个标志,他将作他们的神。In token thereof God changes Abram's and Sarai's names into "Abraham" and "Sarah" (), combining His own name with theirs, and institutes the circumcision of all the men of Abraham's household and their male descendants as an eternal sign of the covenant between Himself and Abraham.在令牌及其神改变亚伯兰的和为“亚伯拉罕”和“莎拉”()结合他们自己的名字,和研究所的所有男人的亚伯拉罕的家庭和她们的男性后代作为与公约的永恒标志割礼撒莱的名字自己和亚伯拉罕。 Abraham acknowledges Yhwh (xiv. 22), builds altars to Him (xii. 7, 8; xiii. 18); calls upon His name (xii. 8, xiii. 4, xxi. 33); shows an invincible faith in His promises, whatever present circumstances may be; is ready for the greatest sacrifice; and proves himself, by his human virtues-his helpfulness, unselfishness, hospitality, humanity, uprightness, dignity, and love of peace-worthy of divine guidance.亚伯拉罕承认耶和华(xiv. 22),建造祭坛,以他(xii. 7,8;十三18);在他的名字(。xii. 8,十三4,二十一33)要求;显示了不可战胜的信念在他的承诺,无论目前的情况而定;是最大的牺牲准备,并证明他的人类美德 - 他乐于助人,无私奉献,热情好客,人道,正直,尊严,和平值得爱自己神圣的指导。

§ 30.§ 30。Of Abraham's two sons Ishmael shall be blessed, and become the father of twelve princes and the progenitor of a great people (xvi. 10, xvii. 20, xxi. 18).亚伯拉罕的两个儿子以实玛利应得天独厚,成为十二个王子和一个(xvi. 10,十七20,21。18)伟大的人祖的父亲。 Ishmael himself becomes an archer, lives in the wilderness, and marries an Egyptian woman (xxi. 20 et seq.).伊斯梅尔自己成为一个射手,在旷野的生活,而结婚的埃及妇女(xxi. 20起。)But the one to inherit the promises and the land is Isaac (xvii. 21, xxi. 12), Sarah's son.但是,一个继承的承诺和土地是艾萨克(xvii. 21,21。12),萨拉的儿子。Therefore his father chooses for him a wife from among his own relations (ch. xxiv.).因此,他的父亲为他选择从他(章二十四)自己关系的妻子。God renews to him the promises given to Abraham (xxvi. 3, 24).上帝再次给他给亚伯拉罕(xxvi. 3,24)的承诺。Isaac is truly the son of his great father, though he has a somewhat passive nature.艾萨克是真正伟大的父亲,他的儿子,尽管他已经有点被动的性质。He also builds an altar to Yhwh, and calls upon His name (xxvi. 2).他还建立了一座坛给耶和华,并呼吁他的名字(xxvi. 2)调用。

§ 31.§ 31。Isaac's sons are twins; Esau, the elder, scorns the rights of the first-born, leaving them to Jacob (xxv. 34).以撒的儿子是双胞胎,以扫,老,藐视的第一个出生的权利,使他们对雅各布(xxv. 34)。Esau is a hunter, whose fate it is to live by the sword and be subject to his brother, though in time he will throw off his yoke (xxvii. 40).以扫是一个猎人,他们的命运是生活用剑,并接受他的弟弟,虽然在时间他会甩开他的枷锁(xxvii. 40)。He is also called "Edom," and subsequently lives in the land of that name in the mountainous region of Seir.他也被称为“以东”,并在随后的,在西珥山区名土地生活。He is loved by his father, but Rebekah loves Jacob; and when Esau marries a Canaanite woman, Isaac, deceived by a trick, blesses Jacob, who, before he sets out for Haran, receives from his father Abraham's blessing also (xxviii. 4).他爱他的父亲,但利百加爱雅各和以扫时迦南女子结婚,以撒,由欺骗伎俩,祝福雅各布,谁之前,他规定了哈兰,从他的父亲亚伯拉罕的祝福也收到(xxviii. 4 )。Jacobattains to right relations with God only after mistakes, trials, and struggles. Jacobattains与神权关​​系后,才错误,审判和斗争。He knows Yhwh, whose hand he has seen in his father's life (xxvii. 20); he recognizes Him in the divine appearance (xxviii. 16); but he has not experienced God in his own life.他知道耶和华,他的手在他父亲的生活发生了(xxvii. 20),他承认在神圣的外观(xxviii. 16)他,但他并没有在他自己的生活经历神。

God has not yet become his God; hence he avoids the name of Yhwh so long as he is in a strange country (xxx. 2; xxxi. 7, 9, 42, 53; xxxii. 3); but the narrator does not hesitate to say "Yhwh" (xxix. 31; xxxi. 3; xxxviii. 7, 10), that name being also known to Laban (xxx. 27, 30) and his daughters (xxix. 32 et seq., xxx. 24).上帝还没有成为他的神,因此他避免了耶和华的名字,只要他在一个陌生的国家(xxx. 2; XXXI 7,9,42,53;。三十二3),但叙述者不犹豫说“耶和华”(xxix. 31;三十一3;。XXXVIII 7,10),这个名字也被称为向拉班(xxx. 27,30)和他的女儿(xxix. 32页起,XXX 24。) ,Not until a time of dire distress does Jacob find Yhwh, who becomes for him Elohim when the vow turns to a prayer.直到一个可怕的危难之时不雅各布找到耶和华,谁成为他耶洛当誓言变成了祈祷。He has overcome Elohim, and himself receives another name after he hasamended his ways (ie, has gained another God), namely, "Israel," ie, "warrior of God."他克服了耶洛因,和他本人获得另一个名字后,他hasamended他的方式(即获得了另一个神),即“以色列”,即“神的战士。” God now gives him the same promises that were given to Abraham and Isaac (xxxv. 11 et seq.), and Jacob builds an altar to God ("El"), on which he pours a drink-offering.现在上帝给他的是给亚伯拉罕和以撒(xxxv. 11页起),雅各构建一个以神的祭坛(“厄尔尼诺”),他倒上一杯饮料,提供同样的承诺。Similarly he brings offerings to the God of his father when he leaves Canaan to go with his family to Egypt, God promising to accompany him and to lead his descendants back in due time.同样,他带来的产品,以他父亲的神,当他离开迦南与他的家人去埃及,神答应陪他,带领他的后代在适当的时候回来。Jacob finds the name of Yhwh again only on his death-bed (xlix. 18).雅各发现了耶和华的名字再次只在他的死亡床(xlix. 18)。

§ 32.§ 32。With Jacob and his twelve sons the history of the Patriarchs is closed; for the seventy persons with whom Jacob enters Egypt are the origin of the future people of Israel.随着雅各布和他的十二个儿子的始祖历史是封闭的与谁雅各进入埃及是以色列的未来人的起源70人。God does not appear to Jacob's sons, nor does he address them.上帝似乎并不雅各布的儿子,他也没有解决这些问题。Joseph designedly avoids the appellation "Yhwh"; he uses "Elohim" (xxxix. 9; xl. 8; xli. 16, 51, 53; xlv. 5, 9; xlviii. 9; 1. 25; "ha-Elohim," xli. 25, 28, 32; xlii. 18 [xliv. 16]; xlv. 9; and the Elohim of his father," xliii. 23). The narrator, on the other hand, has no reason for avoiding the word "Yhwh," which he uses intentionally (xxxix. 2, 3, 5). Yhwh takes a secondary place in the consciousness of Israel while in Egypt, but becomes all-important again in the theophany of the burning bush. The book prescribes no regulations for the religious life. The Patriarchs are represented in their family relations. Their history is a family history. The relations between husband and wife, parents and children, brother and sister, are displayed in pictures of typical truthfulness, psychologic delicacy, inimitable grace and loveliness, with an inexhaustible wealth of edifying and instructive scenes.约瑟夫特意避免了称谓“耶和华”,他用“以罗欣”(xxxix. 9; XL 8; XLI 16,51,53; XLV 5,9; XLVIII 9; 1 25;“HA -莹, “四十一25,28,32; XLII 18 [XLIV 16]。XLV 9;和他的父亲罗欣,” 四十三23)解说员,另一方面,也没有回避这个词的原因“耶和华”,他有意使用(xxxix. 2,3,5)。耶和华发生在以色列的意识,而在埃及次要地位,而是成为所有重要的燃烧的灌木丛theophany再次,这本书没有规定对于宗教生活的规定。始祖的代表在他们的家庭关系,他们的历史是一部家族史。夫妻之间的关系,父母与子女,兄弟姐妹,都是在典型的真实性,心理精致,独特的优雅图片显示和可爱,有启发性和指导性的场景取之不尽,用之不竭的财富。

§ 33.§ 33。Scientific Criticism.科学的批判。

Since the time of Astruc (1753) modern criticism has held that Genesis is not a uniform work by one author, but was combined by successive editors from several sources that are themselves partly composite, and has received its present form only in the course of centuries; its composition from various sources being proved by its repetitions, contradictions, and differences in conception, representation, and language.由于时间的阿斯特吕克(1753)现代批评,认为起源不是一个统一的工作由一个作者,但本身是由几个部分组合连续编辑源相结合,并已收到仅在几个世纪当然有其存在形式,它的成分不被其重复,矛盾和观念的差异,代表性和语言不同来源的证明。 According to this view, three chief sources must be distinguished, namely, J, E, and P. (1) J, the Jahvist, is so called because he speaks of God as "Yhwh" In his work (chiefly in the primal history, ch. i.-xi., as has been asserted since Budde) several strata must be distinguished, J1, J2, J3, etc. (2) E, the Elohist, is so named because down to Ex.根据这种观点,三个主要来源必须加以区分,即,J,E和P(1)J,在Jahvist,是所谓的,因为他对神说,作为“耶和华”在他的工作(主要是在原始的历史,CH。i.-xi.,因为一直以来主张布德)一些阶层必须加以区分,J1,J2,J3等(2)E,在Elohist,如此命名是因为到前。 iii.三。he calls God "Elohim."他呼吁上帝“耶洛因。”A redactor (RJE) at an early date combined and fused J and E, so that these two sources can not always be definitely separated; and the critics therefore differ greatly in regard to the details of this question.阿早日修订者(RJE)合并和融合J和E,使这两个来源往往不能绝对分开,以及不同方面的批评,因此大大地对这个问题的细节。 (3) P, or the Priestly Codex, is so called on account of the priestly manner and tendencies of the author, who also calls God "Elohim."(3)P,或祭司法典,是所谓对祭司的方式和作者,谁也呼吁上帝倾向帐户“耶洛因。”Here again several strata must be distinguished, P1, P2, P3, etc., though only P2 is found in Genesis.在这里再次几个阶层必须加以区分,P1,P2,P3等,虽然只有P2是在创世纪发现。After another redactor, D, had combined Deuteronomy with JE, the work so composed was united with P by a final redactor, who then enlarged the whole (the sequence J, E, D, P is, however, not generally accepted).再过修订者,D,有结合乙脑申命记,所以组成的工作是团结与P由最后redactor,谁再扩大了整个(序列J,E,D,P,然而,一般不接受)。 Hence the present Book of Genesis is the work of this last redactor, and was compiled more than one hundred years after Ezra.因此,本书的成因是这最后redactor的工作,并汇编成以斯拉超过百年。The works of J, E, and P furnished material for the entire Pentateuch (and later books), on whose origin, scope, time, and place of composition see Pentateuch.的J,E,和P的作品布置在整个摩西五(和后来的书籍)材料,在其原产地,范围,时间和地点的组成见摩西五。

As it would take too much space to give an account of all the attempts made to separate the sources, the analysis of only the last commentator, namely, of Holzinger, who has made a special study of this question, will be noted.因为这会耗费太多的空间给了所有向独立的来源,只有最后评论员分析,即对Holzinger,谁作出了这个问题的专题研究,试图帐户,会注意到。 In his "Einleitung zum Hexateuch" he has given a full account of the labors of his predecessors, presenting in the "Tabellen" to his work the separation into sources laid down by Dillmann, Wellhausen, Kuenen, Budde, and Cornill.他在“导论ZUM Hexateuch”他给了他充分考虑前人的劳动,在“Tabellen”他的工作将所规定Dillmann,豪森,Kuenen,布德和Cornill下来源分离呈现。 The commentary by Gunkel (1901) is not original as regards the sources.由贡克尔(1901)的评注是不是原来至于来源。

§ 34.§ 34。see Analysis of the Sources.看到源分析。"a" and "b" denote respectively the first and second half of the verse; α, β, γ, etc., the smaller parts; * ="worked over"; "s" added to a letter means that the matter contains elements belonging to R or J or E or to the latter two ; "f" = " and the following verse " or "verses."“a”和“B”分别表示的诗句上半年和下半年,α,β,γ等,规模较小的部分; * =“工作了”,“S”加一个字母表示此事包含元素属于R或J或E或到后两者,“F”=“和下面的诗句”或“的诗句。”

§ 35.§ 35。Objections.反对。

Serious objection may be brought to this analysis of sources on the following grounds: (1) It is unsupported by any external proof whatever; there is no authentic information showing that the Pentateuch, or Genesis in particular, was compiled from various sources, much less have any such sources been preserved in their original form.可能带来的严重反对这种基于以下理由来源分析:(1)它是由任何外部证明任何不支持,不存在真实的信息显示,五经,或创世纪,特别是从各种来源汇编,更有任何这类资料在其原来的形式保存下来。 (2) Hence the critics must rely solely upon so-called internal evidence.(2)因此,批评者必须完全依赖所谓的内部证据。But the subjective state of mind with which the final decision rests is unstable and deceptive.但主观心理状态与它的最终决定权是不稳定的和欺骗性。It is hazardous to apply modern criteria and rules of composition and style to such anancient and peculiar work, whose origin is entirely unknown.这是危险运用现代标准和成分和作风等anancient和特殊的工作,完全是未知的,其原产地规则。(3) Even if it be demonstrated that Genesis has been compiled from various sources, yet the attempt to trace the origin of each verse and of each part of a verse will never meet with success; the critics themselves confess that the process of combination was a most complicated one. (3)即使它被证明成因已编制从各种来源,但试图跟踪每节和每一个诗的一部分起源永远不会满足与成功;批评自己承认的结合过程最复杂的。(4) If the contradictions and repetitions said to be found in the book really existed, this would not necessarily prove that there had been more than one author; for the literatures of the world furnish numerous similar examples. (4)如果矛盾和重复说是在书中发现确实存在,这并不一定证明,曾有过一个以上的作者,为世界文学提供了许多类似的例子。The existence of such repetitions and contradictions, however, has never been demonstrated.这种重复和矛盾的存在,但是,从来没有得到证明。

(5) The theory of sources is at best a hypothesis that is not even necessary; for it is based on a total misconception of the dominant ideas, tendencies, and plan of the book.(5)理论的来源是最好的一个假设,甚至没有必要,因为它是对的主导思想,倾向和计划书总有误解所致。Its upholders have totally misconceived the theology of Genesis; transforming the interchange of the name of God, which is the soul of the book, into an external criterion for distinguishing the different authors.它的李家已完全错误的创世纪神学;转化为区分不同作者的外部条件的神,这是书的灵魂名称交换。 They have not understood the reason for the variation in the use of and , which in itself is a proof of uniform composition; and they have, therefore, missed a second fundamental idea, namely, that implied in the genealogies and their intimate relation to the Israelitic concept of the family.他们没有理解为在使用变化和,这本身就是一个统一的组成证明的原因,以及他们,因此,错过了第二个基本理念,即,在族谱和他们的亲密关系隐含的Israelitic概念的家庭。 In criticizing the unequal treatment of the various portions of the material, the theory misconceives the different degrees of their importance for the author.在批评材料的各个部分不平等的待遇,他们的理论misconceives为作者的重要性程度不同。Difference in treatment is proof, not of different authors, but of different subjects and of the different points of view in one author.差别待遇是证明,而不是不同的作者,但不同的主题和作者的一个观点的不同点。(6) This would also explain the variations in the language of different passages. (6)这也说明在不同的段落语言的变化。But criticism on this point runs in a circle, diversity of sources being proved by differences of language, and vice versa.但在这一点上批评运行在一个圆圈,由不同的语言,反之亦然证明来源的多样化。(7) The separation into sources in particular is based on numberless exegetic errors, often of the most obvious kind, showing not only a misconception of the scope and spirit of the book, and of its mode of narration, but even of the laws of language; and this separation is in itself the greatest barrier to a correct insight into the book, in that it encourages the student to analyze difficult passages into their sources instead of endeavoring to discover their meaning. (7)为在特定源分离是基于无数exegetic错误,往往是最明显的实物展示的不仅是书的范围和精神的误解,以及其叙事模式,但即使是法律的语言,而​​这种分离本身就是最大的障碍,成书的正确认识,因为它鼓励学生分析到其来源,而不是努力去发现它们的意义困难的段落。

§ 36.§ 36。Notwithstanding all these objections, however, it can not be denied that various portions of Genesis palpably convey the impression of difference in origin and a corresponding difference in conception; but as the impression that the work gives of having been uniformly planned in every detail is still stronger, the explanation given in § 2 is here repeated; namely, Genesis has not been compiled from several sources by one redactor or by several redactors, but is the work of one author, who has recorded the traditions of his people with due reverence but independently and according to a uniform plan.尽管所有这些反对意见,但是,不能否认的成因各个部分palpably传达的起源,并在相应的不同概念的区别的印象,但作为的印象是工作有被均匀地在每一个细节仍是计划让做强,在§ 2中给出的解释是这里重复;即创世纪并没有被编译从几个来源由一个或几个redactor的编纂,而且是一个作者,谁记录了应有的崇敬他的人民的传统工作,但独立并根据统一的计划。 Genesis was not compiled from various books.创世纪未编制各种书籍。

§ 37.§ 37。Historical Criticism.历史的批评。

The historicity of the Book of Genesis is more or less denied, except by the representatives of a strict inspiration theory.对历史性的创世记或多或少否认,但通过严格的灵感理论的代表。Genesis recounts myths and legends.创世记叙述神话和传说。It is generally admitted that the primal story is not historical (ch. i.-xi.); but critics vary in ascribing to the stories of the Patriarchs more or less of a historical foundation.人们普遍承认,原始故事并不历史(章i.-xi.),但批评者指称,以一个在历史基础的始祖或多或少的故事有所不同。 For details see the articles under their respective names; here only a summary can be given:有关详细信息参见它们各自的名称的文章,这里只是一个摘要可以得到:

(a) The story of the Creation can not be historically true, for the reasons (一)的创作故事,不能真实历史,为的原因

(1) that there can be no human traditions of these events;(1)可以有这些事件没有人类传统;

(2) its assumption of a creation in six days, with the sequence of events as recounted, contradicts the theories of modern science regarding the formation of the heavenly bodies during vast periods of time, especially that of the earth, its organisms, and its position in the universe. (2)它假设一个在六天内创造与作为叙述事件的顺序,违背了现代科学的理论,关于天体在很多时间段的形成,特别是地球,它的生物,它的在宇宙中的位置。 The popular view of Genesis can not be reconciled with modern science.创世纪流行的观点无法调和与现代科学。The story is a religio-scientific speculation on the origin of the world, analogous to the creation-myths found among many peoples.这个故事是对世界的起源religio科学猜测,类似于许多国家的人民之间的发现创造,神话。 The similarities to the Babylonian creation-myth are most numerous and most striking.到巴比伦创造的神话相似之处最多,最引人注目的。The extent of its dependence on other myths, the mode of transmission, and the age and history of the tradition and its adaptation are still matters of dispute.其在其他神话,传输模式,而年龄和传统的历史和适应的依赖程度仍然有争议的问题。

(b) The story of the Garden of Eden (ch. ii., iii.) is a myth, invented in order to answer certain questions of religion, philosophy, and cultural history. (二)的伊甸园(章二,三。)花园是一个神话故事,为了发明回答宗教,哲学的一些问题,和文化历史。Its origin can not be ascertained, as no parallel to it has so far been found.它的起源已无从稽考,因为没有给它平行迄今被发现。

(c) The stories of Cain and Abel and the genealogies of the Cainites and Sethites are reminiscences of legends, the historical basis for which can no longer be ascertained.(三)该隐和亚伯的故事和对Cainites和Sethites族谱是传说的回忆,历史基础,可不再追究。 Their historical truth is excluded by the great age assigned to the Sethites, which contradicts all human experience.他们的历史真相是排除分配给Sethites,这违背所有人类经验的伟大时代。A parallel is found in the ten antediluvian primal kings of Babylonian chronology, where the figures are considerably greater.并行存在于原始的十个老古董巴比伦国王的年代,这里的数字是相当大。

(d) The story of the Flood is a legend that is found among many peoples. (四)洪水的故事是一个被许多国家的人民之间找到传说。It is traced back to a Babylonian prototype, still extant.这是追溯到巴比伦的原型,仍尚存。It is perhaps founded on reminiscences of a great seismic-cyclonic event that actually occurred, but could have been only partial, as a general flood of the whole earth, covering even the highest mountains, is not conceivable.这也许是建立在一个伟大的抗震气旋事件实际发生的回忆,但本来只是局部的,作为一般洪水的整个地球,甚至包括最高的山,是不可以想象的。

(e) The genealogy of peoples is a learned attempt to determine genealogically the relation of peoples known to the author, but by no means including the entire human race; this point of view was current in antiquity, although it does not correspond to the actual facts. (五)人民家谱是一个教训试图确定genealogically已知笔者人民的关系,但绝不包括整个人类的手段,这种观点是目前在古代,虽然它不符合实际事实。

(f) The stories of the Patriarchs are national legends.(F)的始祖是国家的故事传说。Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and his sons are idealized personifications of the people, its tribes, and families; and it can not now be ascertained whether or not these are based on more or less obscure reminiscences of real personages.亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各和他的儿子是理想化的人,其部落和家庭的人格化,以及它现在不能确定是否这些都是根据真实人物或多或少模糊的回忆。 In any case, these legends furnish no historically definite or even valuable information regarding the primal history of the people of Israel.在任何情况下,这些传说没有提供明确的历史,甚至有价值的信息关于以色列人民原始的历史。 The whole conception of the descent of one people from one family and one ancestor is unhistorical; for a people originates through the combination of different families.而对于一个人从一个家庭和一个祖先血统的整个概念是文保,对于一个人通过不同的家庭组合起源。It has also been maintained that the stories of the Patriarchs are pale reflections of mythology or nature-myths.也有人认为,对始祖的故事是神话或自然神话苍白反射。


Commentaries: Calvin, In Librum Geneseos Commentarius, ed.评:卡尔文在Librum Geneseos Commentarius,ED。Hengstenberg, Berlin, 1838; J. Gerhard, Commentarius Super Genesin, Jena, 1637; Von Bohlen, Die Genesis Historisch-Kritisch Erläutert, Königsberg, 1832; Friedrich Tuch, Halle, 1838; 2d ed.韩斯坦堡,柏林,1838年的J.格哈德,Commentarius超级Genesin,耶拿,1637;冯波伦,模具创Historisch - Kritisch Erläutert,康尼斯堡,1832年,弗里德里希TUCH,哈雷,1838; 2版。(Arnold and Merx), 1871; CF Keil, Leipsic, 1878; Franz Delitzsch, Neuer Commentar zur Genesis, 1887; M. Kalisch, 1858; A. Knobel, revised by Dillmann 1892; JP Lange, 2d ed., 1877; E. Reuss, La Bible, pt.(阿诺德和MERX),1871; CF KEIL,Leipsic,1878年,弗朗茨Delitzsch,诺伊尔Commentar楚创世纪,1887年,M. Kalisch,1858; A.克诺贝尔,由Dillmann 1892年修订; JP兰格,第2版,1877;,E 。罗伊斯,香格里拉圣经,PT。iii., 1897; EH Brown, 1871 (Speaker's Commentary); R. Payne Smith (Ellicot's Commentary, 1882); GI Spurrell, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis, 1887; M. Dods, The Book of Genesis, 4th ed., 1890; A. Tappehorn, Erklärung der Genesis (Roman Catholic), 1888; Strack, in Kurzgefasster Commentar (Strack-Zöckler), 1894; Holzinger, in Kurzer Handcommentar, ed.三,1897年; EH布朗,1871年(议长的评论); R.佩恩史密斯(Ellicot的评注,1882年); GI Spurrell,对创世纪,1887年图书希伯来文字说明; M. DODS,而创世记,第4版,1890; A. Tappehorn,Erklärung之成因(罗马天主教),1888;施特拉克,在Kurzgefasster Commentar(施特拉克- Zöckler),1894; Holzinger,在Kurzer Handcommentar,编辑。Marti, 1898; H. Gunkel, in Handkommentar zum AT ed.马蒂,1898年,H.贡克尔,在AT版Handkommentar ZUM。 Nowack, 1901. Nowack,1901年。Criticism: Astruc, Conjectures surles Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses' Est Servi pour Composer le Livre de la Gènèse, Brussels, 1753; Karl David Ilgen, Die Urkunden des Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs, etc.: I. Urkunden des Ersten Buches von Moses, Halle, 1798; F. Bleek, De Libri Geneseos Origine Atque Indole Historica, Bonn, 1836;批评:阿斯特吕克,猜想surles Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses“市盈率Servi倒​​作曲家乐Livre德拉杰尼斯,布鲁塞尔,1753;卡尔大卫伊尔根,模具Urkunden DES Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs等:一,Urkunden DES Ersten Buches冯摩西,哈雷, 1798年,F. Bleek,德Libri Geneseos Origine Atque吲哚史馆,波恩,1836年;

I. Stähelin, Kritische Untersuchungen über die Genesis, Basel, 1830; H. Hupfeld, Die Quellen der Genesis und die Art Ihrer Zusammensetzung, Berlin, 1853 (this work laid the foundation for the modern theory of sources, ie, the compilation of Genesis from three independent works);一斯斯塔埃林,Kritische Untersuchungen黚死成因,巴塞尔,1830年,H.霍普菲,模具Quellen UND DER创模艺术Ihrer Zusammensetzung,柏林,1853年(这项工作奠定了现代理论的来源,即创世纪的编制基础由三个独立的工程);

E. Böhmer, Liber Geneseos Pentateuchicus, Halle, 1860 (first graphical distinction of the sources by means of different type); idem, Das Erste Buch der Thora, Uebersetzung Seiner Drei Quellenschriften und Redactionszusätze mit Kritischen, Exegetischen, und Historischen Erörterungen, ib.E. Böhmer,LIBER Geneseos Pentateuchicus,哈雷,1860年(第一个来源的图形区分由不同类型的手段);同上,达斯Erste布赫DER Thora,Uebersetzung围网渔船DREI Quellenschriften UND Redactionszusätze麻省理工学院Kritischen,Exegetischen,UND Historischen Erörterungen,兴业。1862; T. Nöldeke, Untersuchungen zur Kritik des AT Kiel, 1809; J. Wellhausen, Die Composition des Hexateuchs, in Jahrbücher für Deutsche Theologie, xxi., xxii., reprinted 1885, 1889, 1893; Karl Budde, Die Biblische Urgeschichte, Giessen 1883; Kautzsch and Socin, Die Genesis mit Aeusserer Unterscheidung der Quellen, Freiburg-in-Breisgau, 1888, 1891; DW Bacon, Pentateuchical Analysis, in Hebraica, iv.1862年,T. Nöldeke,Untersuchungen楚Kritik DES AT基尔,1809; J.豪森,模具组成DES Hexateuchs,在Jahrbücher献给德意志神学,二十一,二十二,重印1885年,1889年,1893年;。卡尔布德,模具Biblische Urgeschichte,吉森1883年; Kautzsch和Socin,模具创MIT Aeusserer Unterscheidung DER Quellen,弗赖堡,在布赖斯高,1888年,1891年; DW培根,Pentateuchical分析,Hebraica,四。216- 243, v. 7-17: The Genesis of Genesis, Hartford, 1892; EC Bissell, Genesis Printed in Colors (transl. from Kautzsch-Socm), Hartford, 1892; EI Fripp, The Composition of the Book of Genesis, 1892; CI Ball, Genesis, 1896 (critical text in colors in SBOT ed. Haupt).216 - 243,诉7-17:在创世纪创世纪,哈特福德,1892年,欧共体比斯尔,成因印刷颜色(从Kautzsch - Socm transl.),哈特福德,1892年,EI弗里普,而在创世记组成, 1892年,CI球,创世纪,1896年(在SBOT版颜色的关键文字豪普特)。

Compare also the introductions to the Old Testament by Kuenen, Cornill, Strack, Driver, and König, and to the Hexateuch by Holzinger, 1893, and Steuernagel, 1901; A. Westphal, Les Sources du Pentateuque, Paris, 1888, 1892; WE Addis, The Documents of the, Hexateuch Translated and Arranged in Chronological Order, 1893, 1898; IE Carpenter and G. Hartford Battersby, The Hexateuch, 1900.比较还介绍了旧约的Kuenen,Cornill,施特拉克,驱动程序和柯尼希,并通过Holzinger,1893年,和Steuernagel,1901年Hexateuch; A.韦斯特法尔,莱斯来源杜Pentateuque,巴黎,1888年,1892年,我们亚的斯亚贝巴,对,Hexateuch翻译和时间顺序,1893年,1898年安排的文件; IE卡彭特和G.哈特福德巴特斯,的Hexateuch,1900。Anti-Criticism: CH Sack, De Usu Nominum, Dei et in Libro Geneseos, Bonn, 1821; H. Ewald, Die Composition der Genesis Kritisch Untersucht, Brunswick, 1823 (subsequently retracted for the greater part by the author);反批评:CH麻袋,德乌苏Nominum公司,业会等在Libro Geneseos,波恩,1821; H.埃瓦尔德,模具组成之成因Kritisch Untersucht,不伦瑞克,1823(后来的大部份由作者缩回);

EW Hengstenberg, Die Authentie des Pentateuchs, Berlin, 1836, 1839 (i. 181-414 contains an epoch-making proof of the meaning and intentional use of the names of God); M. Drechsler, Die Einheit und Echtheit der Genesis, 1838 (including Nachweis der Einheit und Planmässigkeit der Genesis); FH Ranke, Untersuchungen über den Pentateuch, Erlangen, 1834-40; IH Kurtz, Die Einheit der Genesis, 1846; C. Keil, Ueber die Gottesnamen im Pentateuch, in Zeitschrift für Lutherische Theologie und Kirche, 1851, pp. 215-280; J. Halévy, Recherches Bibliques, i. EW韩斯坦堡,模具Authentie DES Pentateuchs,柏林,1836年,1839年(一181-414包含的神的名字的含义和故意使用划时代的证明); M.德雷克斯勒,模具Einheit UND Echtheit之成因,1838 (包括Nachweis DER Einheit UND Planmässigkeit之成因); FH兰克,Untersuchungen黚巢穴摩西五,埃尔兰根,1834至1840年; IH库尔茨,模具Einheit之成因,1846; C. KEIL,Ueber死Gottesnamen IM摩西五,在(杂志)献给Lutherische神学UND Kirche,1851年,第215-280; J. Halévy,Recherches Bibliques岛1895; WH Green, criticism of Harper, in Hebraica, v., vi., vii.; idem, The Unity of Genesis; EC Bissell, The Pentateuch, Its Origin and Structure, pp. 410-475, New York, 1885 (includes a voluminous bibliography on the Pentateuch). 1895年,WH绿色,哈珀批评,Hebraica,五,六,七;同上,在创世纪统一;欧共体比斯尔,摩西五,其来源和结构,页410-475,纽约,1885年(包括对大量的五参考书目)。 BJBJ

-Critical View:临界查看:

Genesis forms part of the Hexateuch.创世纪形式的Hexateuch的一部分。As such it is regarded by the critical schools as a composite work, containing data from P and JE, the latter a history which, itself a combination of two distinct compilations-one, northern or Israelitish, E; the other, southern or Judean, J-tells in detail and in popular style the story of Israel from the beginning of things to the completed conquest of Canaan.因此,它被视为是关键学校作为一个综合的工作,包括从P和乙脑,后者数据的历史,本身是两个不同的汇编一,北部或Israelitish,E相结合;另一方面,南部或朱迪亚, J -告诉详细和流行风格,以色列从事物开始到完成征服迦南的故事。In addition to these elements, some independent material is distinguished from that ascribed to the sources named; and editorial comments (R) and changes have been separated in the critical analysis.除了这些因素,一些独立的材料是区别于冲高的来源命名的;和编辑评论(R)和变化已经在关键的分析分开。There is practical unanimity among critics with regard to the character of P and what must be assigned to him.其中有关于P的性格,什么必须分配给他的批评者实际一致。Elements.元素。

The P elements in Genesis consist of a series of interconnected genealogies, uniform in plan, and always prefaced by the introductory phrase "These are the generations of."在创世纪的P元素包括一系列相互关联的族谱,在计划制服系列,并始终由引导语开头“这是几代人。”Connected with them is a scheme of Chronology around which a few historical glosses are grouped.与他们连接的一个年表计划围绕这几个历史美化进行分组。In fuller detail the stories of Abraham's covenant and his purchase of a burialplace at Hebron are elaborated.在更全面详细的亚伯拉罕的约,他的一个在希伯伦burialplace购买故事阐述。The accounts of Creation (see Cosmogony) and of the Flood are also given fuller treatment.创作(见宇宙起源)和洪水的账目也处理得更好。It would thus seem that P presupposes acquaintance with and the existence of a history or histories of the Patriarchs and of the times preceding theirs.因此,这将与P似乎预示着熟人和一个历史或始祖历史和时代的前面他们的存在。P is thus a work of a student aiming to present certain ideas and emphasizing certain conclusions. P是这样一个以目前的某些思想,并强调某些结论,学生的工作。He traces the origin of Israel and his descendants as the one family chosen from among all the children of Adam.他追溯了以色列和他的后裔,从各亚当的孩子选择一个家庭出身。He lays particular stress on the religious institutions; eg, the Sabbath ordained by God Himself at the completion of the week of Creation; the command to abstain from partaking of blood; the covenant of circumcision; and the purity of the Israelitish stock (contrast Esau's marriages with Jacob's).他平躺在宗教机构特别强调,例如,在安息日由上帝命定在创作星期完成;命令放弃血圣餐;割礼的盟约,以及对Israelitish股票纯度(对比度以扫的婚姻与雅各布的)。

The theory has been advanced that P is based on J, his story of Creation presupposing the use of historical and traditional material collected in J. On the whole, this may be admitted; but it is also plain that for the P account of the Creation and the Flood Babylonian sources and information were drawn upon.该理论已被先进的P是对J,他预先假定在整体J.收集的历史和传统材料的使用创作的故事,这可能被录取的,但它也清楚表明,为创造P帐户和洪水巴比伦来源和资料借鉴。 The theology of P is of a high order.P的神学是相当之高。God is One; He is supramundane.神是一位,他是supramundane。Creation is a transcendental, free act of the Absolute Creator (hence ).创新是一个先验的,绝对的造物主(因此)自由的行为。In history are revealed a divine plan and purpose.在历史上都发现了神的计划和目的。God communicates His decrees directly without the intervention of angels or dreams, and without recourse to theophanies.上帝传达他的法令没有直接的天使或梦想的干预,在不诉诸theophanies。He is Elohim for Noah, El Shaddai for Abraham, and Yhwh for Israel.他是耶洛的诺亚,萨尔瓦多为亚伯拉罕Shaddai,耶和华和以色列。 Anthropomorphisms are few and inoffensive.Anthropomorphisms很少,无害的。This theology reveals the convictions and reflections of a late epoch in Israel's religious and historical development.这揭示了神学在以色列的宗教和历史发展的时代晚期的信念和思考。JE, after the elimination of P, presents an almost unbroken narrative.流行性乙型脑炎,消除后的P,提出了一个几乎完整的叙述。 In the earlier chapters J alone has been incorporated; E begins abruptly in Gen. xx.在前面的章节已被纳入单独J,E突然开始在将军XX。It is a moot point whether E contained originally a primeval history parallel to that now preserved in Genesis from J. That of the latter, as incorporated in the pre-Abrahamic chapters, is not consistent throughout; especially do the account of the Flood, the fragments of a genealogy of Seth, and other portions suggest the use of traditions, probably Babylonian, which did not originally form part of J.这是一个有争议的问题是否E所载原本是前无古人的原始​​保存到现在,从J.在创世记这后者,因为在前期亚伯拉罕章注册成立的,是不是贯穿始终,特别是做好洪水帐户,一塞特家谱,和其他部分片段建议使用的传统,大概巴比伦,这最初没有形成J.部分


JE, as far as Genesis is concerned, must be regarded as compilations of stories which long before their reduction to written form had been current orally among the people.流行性乙型脑炎,就起源而言,必须被视为是很久以前他们减少书面形式已口头当前人民内部的故事汇编。These stories in part were not of Canaanitish-Hebrew origin.部分这些故事是不是Canaanitish - 希伯来语的起源。They represent Semitic and perhaps other cycles of popular and religious tales ("Sagen") which antedate the differentiation of the Semitic family into Hebrews, Arabs, etc., or, migrating from one to the other of the Semitic groups after their separation, came to the Hebrews from non- Semitic peoples; hence the traces of Babylonian, Egyptian, Phenician, Aramaic, and Ishmaelitish influence.他们代表了流行和宗教故事(“Sagen”),它早于成希伯来人,阿拉伯人等,分化的犹太人家庭,或从一到迁移后的分离犹太人团体的其他犹太人,也许还有其他的周期,来了对非犹太人的希伯来民族,因此在巴比伦,埃及,Phenician,阿拉姆语和Ishmaelitish影响的痕迹。 Some of the narratives preserve ancient local traditions, centered in an ancient religious sanctuary; others reflect the temper and exhibit thecoloring of folk-tales, stories in which the rise and development of civilization and the transition from pastoral to agricultural life are represented as the growth and development of individuals.在叙述一些保留古老的地方传统,在一个古老的宗教圣殿为中心,其他人反映的脾气和民间故事展览thecoloring,故事中的崛起和田园生活的发展,以农业文明过渡的代表作为增长和发展的个人。 Others, again, personify and typify the great migratory movements of clans and tribes, while still others are the precipitate of great religious changes (eg, human sacrifices are supplanted by animal ones).其他人,再次,人格化和typify的氏族和部落大迁徙运动,而有的则是有很大的(例如,人类的牺牲是由动物的取代)的宗教变化沉淀。 The relations and interrelations of the tribes, septs, and families, based upon racial kinship or geographical position, and sometimes expressive of racial and tribal animosities and antipathies, are also concreted in individual events.的关系和部落,septs,基于种族和家庭亲属关系或地理位置,有时种族和部落的仇恨和反感表现的基础上,相互关系也concreted在个别事件。 In all this there is not the slightest trace of artificiality.在所有这一切没有丝毫的矫揉造作的痕迹。This process is the spontaneous assertion of the folk-soul ("Volksseele").这个过程是民俗的灵魂(“Volksseele”)自发的断言。These traditions are the spontaneous creation of popular interpretation of natural and historical sentiments and recollections of remote happenings.这些传统,是对自然和历史情绪和远程发生的事情的回忆自发创造流行的解释。The historical and theological interpretations of life, law, custom, and religion in its institutions have among all men at one time taken this form.生活,法律,习俗,宗教的历史和神学的诠释在其机构中所有的人在同一时间采取这种形式。The mythopeic tendency and faculty are universal.该mythopeic趋势和教员都具有普遍性。The explanations of names which exhibit signs of being the result of intentional reflection, are, perhaps, alone artificial.其中展出的名字被故意反思的结果标志的解释,是,也许,仅仅是人为的。


Naturally, in the course of oral transmission these traditions were modified in keeping with the altered conditions and religious convictions of the narrators.当然,在这些传统的口头传输过程进行了修改与改变条件和叙述者宗教信仰一致的。Compiled at a time when literary skill had only begun to assert itself, many cycles of patriarchal histories must have been current in written form prior to the collections now distinguished by critics as E and J. Criticism has to a great extent overlooked the character of both of these sources as compilations.而当时的文学技巧只有开始发威时编译,许多家长制的历史周期必须是书面形式之前,现在目前作为E和J.批评批评杰出的藏品已在很大程度上忽略了这两个字符作为汇编这些来源。 It has been too free in looking upon them as works of a discriminating litterateur and historian.它一直在寻找对他们太自由作为一个文学家和历史学家的作品歧视。P may be of this nature, but not J and E. Hence any theory on the literary method and character of either is forced to admit so many exceptions as to vitiate the fundamental assumption. P可能是这种性质,但不是J和E.因此,任何关于文学的方法和任何性质的理论是被迫承认这么多的例外,以抑损基本假设。In E are found traits (elaborations, personal sentiment) ascribed exclusively to J; while J, in turn, is not free from the idiosyncrasies of E.在E被发现性状(阐述,个人情绪)冲高专门J;而J,反过来,是不是从E的特质自由

Nor did R (the editor, editors, or diaskeuasts) proceed mechanically, though the purely literary dissection on anatomical lines affected by the higher criticism would lead one to believe he did.也没有R(编辑器,编辑,或diaskeuasts)进行机械地,虽然由上级批评,受影响的纯文学解剖解剖线将导致人们相信他做到了。 He, too, had a soul.他也有一个灵魂。He recast his material in the molds of his own religious convictions.他改写了他自己的宗教信念的模具的材料。The Midrashic method antedates the rabbinical age.该Midrashic方法antedates犹太教年龄。This injection of life into old traditional material unified the compilation.这样的生活到老传统材料注入统一编制。 P's method, rightly regarded as under theological intention ("Tendenz"), was also that of R. Hence Genesis, notwithstanding the compilatory character of its sources, the many repetitions and divergent versions of one and the same event, the duplications and digressions, makes on the whole the impression of a coherent work, aiming at the presentation of a well-defined view of history, viz., the selection of the sons of Israel as the representative exponents of Yhwh's relations to the sons of Adam, a selection gradually brought about by the elimination of side lines descended, like Israel, from the common progenitor Adam, the line running from Adam to Noah-to Abraham-to Jacob = Israel. P的方法,正确地视为下神学意图(“Tendenz”)一样,也是创世纪R.因此,尽管其来源,许多重复和不同版本的同一事件,重复和离题编纂的性格,使得在一个连贯的工作在一个历史的明确看法演示目的,整体印象,即,对以色列的儿子,作为耶和华的关系的代表指数选择到亚当的儿子,选择逐步所带来的侧面线条消除约后裔,如以色列从共同祖先亚当,线运行从亚当到,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,雅各=以色列。

Later Additions.后来添置。

Chapter xiv.第十四章。has been held to be a later addition, unhistorical and belonging to none of the sources.已被认为是一后来此外,文保和归属感的来源没有。Yet the story contains old historical material.然而,故事包含古老的历史材料。The information must be based on Babylonian accounts (Hommel, "Alt-Israelitische Ueberlieferung," p. 153, speaks of an old Jerusalem tradition, and Dillmann, in his commentary, of a Canaanitish tradition; see Eliezer); the literary style is exact, giving accurate chronological data, as would a professional historian.这些信息必须根据巴比伦帐户(HOMMEL,“ALT - Israelitische Ueberlieferung,”第153页,耶路撒冷的一个老传统说话,和Dillmann,在他的评论,一个Canaanitish传统,见埃利泽);文学风格的确切,给准确的年代数据,将一个专业的历史学家。 The purpose of the account is to glorify Abraham.该帐户的目的是为了美化亚伯拉罕。Hence it has been argued that this chapter betrays the spirit of the later Judaism.因此,一直认为,这章背叛了后来的犹太教精神。Chapter xlix., the blessing by Jacob, is also an addition; but it dates from the latter half of the period of the Judges (K. Kohler, "Der Segen Jacob's").章XLIX,由雅各福,也是除,但它从法官的后半期(K.科勒,“明镜色根雅各布的”)的日期。The theory that the Patriarchs especially, and the other personages of Genesis, represent old, astral deities, though again advanced in a very learned exposition by Stucken ("Astral Mythen"), has now been generally abandoned.EGH该理论认为,始祖特别是与创世纪的其他人士,代表老,星界神,虽然再次通过Stucken(“星际Mythen”)了解到的论述非常先进,目前已被普遍abandoned.EGH

Benno Jacob, Emil G. Hirsch本诺雅各布,埃米尔赫斯基G.

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

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