Book of Hosea, Osee, הושע (Hebrew)书何西阿书

General Information一般资料

The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Minor Prophets in the Old Testament of the Bible.何西阿书的是,在圣经的旧约小先知书之一。Its name is taken from the prophet Hosea, who lived in the northern kingdom between 755 and 725 BC.它的名字取自先知何西阿,谁住在英国北部之间的755和725 BC。The book is divided into two parts.全书分为两部分。The first part (chaps. 1 - 3) tells the story of Hosea's marriage to an unfaithful wife.第一部分(chaps. 1 - 3)讲述了何西阿的婚姻故事一个不忠的妻子。Hosea used this personal tragedy as a parable of the relationship between God and Israel.何西阿用来作为上帝和以色列之间的关系比喻这种个人悲剧。In the second part (chaps. 4 - 14) the theme of unfaithfulness is developed.在第二部分(chaps. 4 - 14)的不忠的主题是发展。The prophet rebukes corrupt leaders and priests and chastises the Israelites for their superstition and idolatry. Hosea was the first biblical writer to use the imagery of marriage as an illustration of the relationship between God and his people.先知斥责腐败的领导人和他们的祭司和惩戒迷信和偶像崇拜的以色列人。 何西阿是第一圣经作家使用作为上帝和他的人民之间关系的说明,婚姻的图像。

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Bibliography 参考书目
JL Mays, Hosea, A Commentary (1969); G Cohen, and HR Vandermey, eds., Hosea and Amos (1981); JM Ward, Hosea, A Theological Commentary (1966).JL梅斯,评注(1969)何西阿,G科恩和HR Vandermey,EDS,何西阿和Amos(1981); JM区,何西阿,神学评论(1966)。

Book of Hosea, Osee何西阿书,Osee

Brief Outline简述

  1. Hosea's unhappy marriage and its results (1-3)何西阿的婚姻不幸福,其结果(1-3)
  2. Priests condone immorality (4)牧师纵容不道德(4)
  3. Israel's sin will be punished unless she repents (5)以色列的罪恶将受到惩罚,除非她忏悔(5)
  4. Israel's sin is thoroughgoing; her repentance half-hearted (6)以色列的罪,是彻底的,她的忏悔三心二意(6)
  5. Inner depravity and outward decay (7)内蒙古堕落和向外衰减(7)
  6. Nearness of Judgment (8)贴近审判(8)
  7. Impending calamity (9)即将发生的灾难(9)
  8. Israel's guilt and punishment (10)以色列的内疚和惩罚(10)
  9. God pursues Israel with Love (11)神追求与爱(11)以色列
  10. Exhortation to repentance, with promised restoration (12-14)劝勉悔改,恢复与承诺(12-14)


Advanced Information先进的信息

Hosea, salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name.何西阿,救赎,对Beeri儿子,对他的名字命名的预言书的作者。He belonged to the kingdom of Israel.他属于以色列王国。"His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6, etc.); by passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled the land, and 7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as our king." “他Israelitish原产地证明的奇特,粗糙,Aramaizing文辞,指着巴勒斯坦北部的一部分,由亲密的熟人,他与以法莲地方evinces(5:1,6:8,9; 12:12; 14 6,等);由像1:2,其中王国风格的土地,七时05分,其中Israelitish国王是我们的王指定通道“。The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription (Hos. 1: 1, 2).他的部期间(延长至约六十岁)表示,在上标(Hos. 1:1,2)。He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.他是以色列唯一的先知谁留下任何书面的预言。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Prophecies of Hosea何西阿预言

Advanced Information先进的信息

This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets."这本书中排名首位的“小先知。”以"The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations."他说:“何西阿位置的可能原因可能是他的神谕,它们的长度,其认真的语气,生动的陈述彻底的民族性格。” This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity.这是前圈养写的预言书最长的。Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's decline and fall.何西阿预言在以色列的历史上,以色列的衰亡时期黑暗和忧郁的时期。Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters.他们的罪孽对他们带来了巨大的民族灾难。"Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity." “他们的杀人和奸淫,其伪证罪和盗窃,他们的偶像崇拜和不虔诚,是一个忠实的谴责和讽刺的严重性。”He was a contemporary of Isaiah.他是当代的以赛亚。The book may be divided into two parts, the first containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation.全书可分为两部分,第一部分包括第1-3章,并象征性地代表了以色列根据图像偶像崇拜从婚姻关系借来的。

The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel.婚姻和通奸的数字是在旧约的著作之间的共同代表耶和华和以色列人民的精神关系。Here we see the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration.在这里,我们看到以色列和叛教的惩罚,其未来的忏悔​​,宽恕与恢复。The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of Hosea's discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy.第二部分,包含4-14,是何西阿的话语总结,与谴责,threatenings,嘱托,承诺,和充满怜悯的启示。Quotations from Hosea are found in Matt.从何西阿语录被发现在马特。2:15; 9:15; 12:7; Rom. 2:15,9:15,12:7;光盘。9:25, 26.9:25,26。There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places (Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16, comp. Hos. 10:8; Rom. 9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10, comp. Hos. 1:10, etc.).还有,此外,各种典故在其他地方给它(路加福音23:30;牧师6点16分,比赛居屋10时08;罗马书9时25分,26;彼前2:10,比赛。居屋1:10等)。 As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that "each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell."至于笔者的风格,曾有人说,“每个诗形式,就像一个葬礼丧钟沉重的代价为自己整。”"Inversions (7:8; 9:11, 13; 12: 8), anacolutha (9:6; 12:8, etc.), ellipses (9:4; 13:9, etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea (8:7; 9:15; 10:5; 11:5; 12:11)."“反演(七时08分,9点11,13,12:8),anacolutha(9:6; 12点08分,等),椭圆(9时04分,13点09分,等),paranomasias,并播放后话,都非常何西阿(8:7,9:15,10:5,11:5,12:11)的特点。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Osee Osee

Catholic Information天主教信息


Osee (Hôsheá'–Salvation), son of Beeri, was one of the Minor Prophets, and a subject of the Ephraimite Kingdom which he calls "the land", whose king is for him "our king", and the localities of which are familiar to him, while he speaks of Juda but seldom and does not even make mention of Jerusalem. Osee(Hôsheá'救赎),对Beeri儿子,其中一个小先知,以及对Ephraimite王国,他称之为“土地”,其国王对他来说是“我们的国王”,而这些都是地方主体熟悉他,而他讲的犹大,但很少甚至不提使耶路撒冷。


According to the title of the book, Osee prophesied during the reign of Jeroboam II in Israel, and in the time of Ozias, Joatham, Achaz, and Ezechias, kings of Juda, hence from about 750 to 725 BC The title, however, is not quite satisfactory and does not seem to be the original one, or, at least, to have been preserved in its primitive form.根据书名,Osee预言在以色列的耶罗波安二世统治,并在Ozias,Joatham,Achaz和埃泽希亚什,国王的犹大,因此时间从大约公元前750至725题,但是,不太满意,似乎并没有被原单,或者至少,已经在其原始形式保存下来。 None of the historical allusions with which the prophecy is filled appears to be connected with any event later than the reign of Manahem (circa 745-735); there is nothing concerning the Syro-Ephraimite war against Juda, nor the terrible intervention of Tiglath-Pileser III (734-733).在与该预言充满历史典故似乎没有与任何事件迟于Manahem王朝(约公元前745-735)连接,没有什么关于对犹大Syro - Ephraimite战争,也不是可怕的干预Tiglath - Pileser III(734-733)。The era of the Prophet, therefore, if it is to be judged from his writings, ought to be placed about 750-735; he was perhaps contemporaneous with the closing years of Amos and certainly with the first appearance of Isaias.先知的时代,因此,如果它是从他的著作判断,应该放在约750-735,他也许是同时代与阿莫斯的最后几年和与伊萨亚斯首次亮相肯定。 The reign of Jeroboam II was marked by great and glorious external prosperity; but this prosperity contributed to make the political and religious decadence more rapid.耶罗波安二世统治的主要标志是伟大而光荣的外部繁荣,但这种繁荣作出贡献,使政治和宗教颓废更加迅速。Political dissolution was approaching.政治解体正在接近。Zachary, son of Jeroboam, was assassinated after a reign of six months.扎卡里,耶罗波安的儿子被暗杀后六个月统治。 His murderer, Sellum, retained the sceptre but one month, and was put to death by Manahem, who occupied the throne for ten years, 745-735.他的凶手,Sellum,保留了权杖,但一个月,并提出Manahem,谁占领了十几年的宝座,745-735死刑。 Israel was hastening to its ruin, which was to be completed by the taking of Samaria by Sargon (722).以色列加速其毁灭,这是由撒玛利亚由萨尔贡(722)以完成。


It always occupies the first place among the twelve minor prophets, most probably on account of its length.它总是占据了其中的十二小先知,最有可能就其长度占首位。In point of time Amos preceded it.在它之前的时间点阿莫斯。The book is divided into two distinct parts: cc.全书分为两个不同的部分:CC。i-iii, and cc.I - III,和CC。iv-xiv.IV - XIV。(a) In the first part, Osee relates how, by order of Jahve, he wedded Gomer, a "wife of fornications", daughter of Debelaim, in order to have of her "children of fornications":–symbols, on the one hand, of Israel, the unfaithful spouse who gave to Baal the homage due to Jahve alone; and, on the other, figures of the children of Israel, who in the eyes of Jahve, are but adulterous children. (a)在第一部分,涉及如何Osee,由Jahve秩序,他拘泥于歌篾,一个“fornications妻子”,对Debelaim女儿,才能有她的“孩子fornications”: - 符号,对一个另一方面,以色列,不忠配偶谁给了巴力的敬意,由于Jahve单独和,另一方面,对以色列的孩子,谁在Jahve的眼中,不过是通奸儿童的数字。 The outraged husband incites the children against their guilty mother, whom he prepares to punish: while for the children themselves is reserved a fate in keeping with their origin.在愤怒的丈夫犯煽动反对他们的母亲,他准备惩罚他们的孩子:为孩子而自己保留在原产地保持与他们的命运。The first is named Jezrahel–the reigning dynasty is about to expiate the blood shed by its ancestor Jehu in the valley of Jezrahel.第一个被命名为Jezrahel - 王朝统治即将赎其祖先的血液耶户棚中的Jezrahel山谷。 The second is a daughter, Lô-Ruhamah, "disgraced"–Jahve will be gracious no more to his people.第二个是女儿,罗Ruhamah,“灰头土脸”,Jahve将不再对他的亲切的人。The third is called Lô- 'Ammi, "not my people"–Jahve will no longer recognize the children of Israel as his people.三是所谓的卢“安米”,不是我的人“,Jahve将不再承认他的人对以色列的孩子。However, mercy will have the last word.然而,怜悯将有硬道理。Osee is commanded to receive Gomer again and to prepare her, by a temporary retirement, to renew conjugal intercourse–Israel was to prepare herself in captivity to resume with Jahve the relationship of husband and wife. Osee是指挥歌篾再次接受她,并编写,由一个临时退休,延长夫妻性交,以色列准备在囚禁自己恢复与Jahve的丈夫和妻子的关系。Is the marriage of Osee historical or purely allegorical?婚姻是Osee历史或纯粹的寓言?The hypothesis most in favour at present says that the marriage is historical, and the grounds for it are, (1) the obvious sense of the narrative; (2) the absence of any symbolical sense in the words Gomer and Debelaim; (3) that the second child is a daughter.在目前最有利的假设说,婚姻是历史的,它的理由是,(1)叙述明显的感觉;(2)中的任何字歌篾和Debelaim象征意义的情况下,(3)第二个孩子是个女儿。 It appears to us, however, with Davidson (Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", II, 421 sqq.) and Van Hoonacker, that the first reason is not convincing.这在我们看来,不过,与戴维森(黑斯廷斯,“快译通。的圣经”,第二,421 SQQ)和Van Hoonacker,认为第一个原因是没有说服力的。A careful reading of cc.一毫升仔细阅读。i-iii discloses the fact that the action is extremely rapid, that the events are related merely in order to express a doctrine, and, moreover, they appear to take place within the single time requisite to one or two speeches.I - III披露的事实,行动非常迅速,这些事件都与只是为了表达一种学说,而且,而且,他们似乎在单一时间内采取必要的一个或两个讲话的地方。And yet, if these events are real, a large part of the Prophet's life must have been spent in these unsavoury circumstances.然而,如果这些事件是真实的,是先知的生活的很大一部分必须已经花了这些令人不快的情况。And again, the names of the children appear to have been bestowed just at the time that their meaning was explained to the people.再次,孩子们的名字似乎已经赋予的,他们的意思解释给人民的时间而已。This is especially the case with regard to the last child: "Call his name, Not my people: for you are not my people …" Another reason for doubting this hypothesis is that it is difficult to suppose that God ordered His Prophet to take an unfaithful wife mearely with a view to her being unfaithful and bearing him adulterous children.这是特别是关于最后一个孩子的情况:“叫他的名字,不是我的人:你是不是我的人 ”另一个怀疑的理由是,这种假设是很难假设,上帝命令他的先知采取不忠实的妻子mearely,以她的不忠和轴承他通奸儿童观。And how are we to explain the fact that the prophet retained her notwithstanding her adultery till after the birth of the third child, and again received her after she had been in the possession of another?而我们如何解释这一事实先知保留她尽管她通奸,直到后的第三个孩子的诞生,并再次接受了她后,她曾在另一占有了? That the second child was a daughter may be explained by dramatic instinct, or by some other sufficiently plausible motive.这第二个孩子是个女儿的原因可能是戏剧性的本能,或通过其他充分合理的动机。There remain the names Gomer and Debelaim.仍然有名称篾和Debelaim。Van Hoonacker proposes as possible translations: consummation (imminent ruin), doomed to terrible scourges; or top (of perversity), addicted to the cakes of figs (oblations offered to Baal).凡Hoonacker建议尽可能翻译:完善(即将毁灭),注定要可怕的灾祸,或顶部(的反常),嗜无花果月饼(提供给巴力oblations)。 Nestle also translates Bath Debelaim by daughter of the cakes of figs, but in the sense of a woman to be obtained at a small price (Zeitsch. für alttest. Wissenschaft, XXIX, 233 seq.).雀巢公司也通过翻译对无花果月饼女儿浴Debelaim,但在一个女人的感觉是在一个很小的代价(Zeitsch.献给alttest。Wissenschaft,XXIX,233起)获得。 These are but conjectures; the obscurity may be due to our ignorance.这些只是猜测,在默默无闻,可能是由于我们的无知。 Certain it is at least that the allegorical meaning, adopted by St. Jerome, satisfies critical exigencies and is more in conformity with the moral sense.某些它至少该寓言的意义,通过圣杰罗姆,满足关键的迫切需要,是与道德意识更符合。The doctrinal meaning is identical in either case and that is the only consideration of real importance.该理论的意思是在两种情况下相同的,那就是真正重要的唯一考虑。

(b) The second part of the book is the practical and detailed application of the first. (二)一书的第二部分是第一个实际和详细的应用。Van Hoonacker divides it into three sections, each of which terminated with a promise of salvation (iv-vii, 1a … vii, 1b-xi … xii-xiv).凡Hoonacker分为三部分,每一部分,它有一个拯救的承诺(IV - VII,1A 七,1B喜 第十二至十四)终止它。We may accept this division if we also admit his ingenious interpretation of vi, 11-viii, 1a:–And yet Juda, I shall graft on thee a branch (of Ephraim) when I shall re-establish my people; when I shall heal Israel.我们可以接受这样的划分,如果我们还承认他的巧妙诠释了六,11八,1A: - 然而犹大,我会在你移植一个分支(以法莲)时,我会重新建立我的人,当我痊愈以色列。In the first section he speaks almost exclusively of religious and moral corruption.在第一部分,他几乎完全讲宗教和道德的腐败。The princes and especially the priests are chiefly responsible for this and it is on them that the punishment will principally fall; and as he speaks simply of the "house of the king" it would appear that the dynasty of Jehu still occupied the throne.诸侯,尤其是牧师的主要责任,并为此对他们的处罚将是主要下跌;和他讲简单的“王者之家”这样看来,对耶户王朝仍然占据了王位。 It is different in the following chapters.它在以下的章节不同。In vii, 1a- viii, the political and social disorders are especially emphasized.在七,1A至第八,政治和社会障碍的特别强调。 At home there are conspiracies, regicides, anarchy, while abroad alliances with foreign powers are sought.在国内有阴谋,regicides,无政府状态,同时与国外联盟是外国列强的追捧。No doubt Menahem was already reigning.毫无疑问梅纳海姆已经在位。And yet the religious disorders remained the principal object of the prophet's reprobation.然而宗教障碍仍是先知的非难的主要对象。And in spite of all, mercy ever retains its prerogatives.而在所有尽管如此,怜悯永远保持其特权。Jahve will gather together again some day His scattered children.Jahve将再次聚集有一天他的散居儿童。In the last section it is felt that the final catastrophe is close at hand; and, nevertheless, once again, love remains victorious.在最后一节是认为最后的灾难近在咫尺;和,然而,再一次,爱依然不胜。The book ends with a touching exhortation to the people to turn to God who on His part promises the most tempting blessings.该书结尾感人告诫人们转向上帝谁在他的部分承诺是最诱人的祝福。An epiphonema reminds at last every one that the good and the wicked shall receive the retribution each has merited.在最后的epiphonema想起每个人的好和坏,应领取的报应每个人都有值得。


St. Jerome has described in a few words the style of our Phrophet: "Osee commaticus est, et quasi per sententias loquens."圣杰罗姆形容三言两语我们Phrophet风格:“Osee commaticus EST,等准每sententias loquens”(PL, XXVIII, 1015.) An intense emotion overpowers the Prophet at the sight of his dying country. (PL,二十八,1015)。一股强烈的情绪压倒在他临死的国家的视线先知。He manifests this grief in short broken phrases with little logical sequence, but in which is revealed a tender and afflicted heart.他很少表现在逻辑顺序短碎语这悲痛,但在这揭示了招标和折磨的心。Unfortunately the notorious obscurity of the Prophet hides many details from our view; this obscurity is due also to many allusions which we cannot grasp, and to the imperfect condition of the text.不幸的是,臭名昭著的默默无闻的先知隐藏许多细节我们认为,这是由于默默无闻典故也很多,我们不能把握,以及对文本的不完善的条件。 The question has been raised as to whether we possess it at least in its substantial integrity.这个问题已经提出,我们是否具备,至少在其大量的完整性的。Some critics claim to have discovered two main series of interpolations; the first, of small extent, consists of texts relative to Juda; the second, which is of far greater importance, consists of the Messianic passages which, it is said, lie outside the range of the prophet's vision.一些批评者声称,他们发现两种插值主要系列,第一,小的程度,相对于犹大的文本组成,第二个,这远远更为重要的是,在其中,这是说弥赛亚段落组成,位于外范围先知的视野。 It is possible to detect several probable glosses in the first series: the second assertion is purely arbitrary.它可以探测到的第一个系列几个可能掩盖:第二个说法纯粹是随意的。The Messianic texts have all the characteristics of Osee's style; they are closely connected with the context and are entirely in accordance with his general doctrines.弥赛亚texts有Osee的风格的所有特征,它们是紧密相连的context,并且与他完全按照一般的理论。


It is fundamentally the same as that of Amos:–the same strict Monotheism, the same ethical conception which paves the way for the Beati pauperes and the worship which must be in spirit and in truth.这是从根本上为阿莫斯相同: - 同样严格的一神教,同样的伦理观念的铺平了道路,为Beati pauperes和崇拜必须在精神和诚实的方式。Only Osee lays much more stress on the idolatry which perhaps had been increased in the interval and was in any case better known to the Ephraimite Prophet than to his Judean predecessor.只有Osee平躺在这或许已经增加了时间间隔,在更好地了解朱迪亚比他的前任的Ephraimite先知任何情况下,更是偶像崇拜的压力。 And Amos had in return a much more extended historical and geographical horizon.和Amos了回报更为扩展的历史和地理的视野。Osee sees but the dying Israel. Osee但看到奄奄一息的以色列。His characteristic point of view is the bond between Jahve and Israel.他的观点是特征点和以色列之间Jahve债券。Jahve is the spouse of Israel, the bride of Jahve,–a profoundly philosophical and mystical image which appears here for the first time and which we find again in Jeremias, Ezechiel, Canticle of Canticles, Apocalypse, etc.Jahve是以色列的配偶,在Jahve新娘, - 一个深刻的哲学和神秘的形象,出现在这里的第一次,我们发现在赫雷米亚斯,Ezechiel再次,canticle的canticles,启示等。

A. The Ancient Alliance答:古代联盟

Jahve has taken to Himself His spouse by redeeming her out of the bondage of Egypt. Jahve采取了自己的救赎埃及奴役她走出他的配偶。He has united Himself to her on Sinai.他团结自己,以她的西奈半岛。The bride owed fidelity and exclusive love, trust, and obedience to the spouse; but alas!新娘欠高保真和排他性的爱,信任和服从的配偶,但很可惜!how has she observed the conjugal compact?她是如何观察夫妻紧凑?Fidelity.–She has prostituted herself to the Baals and Astartes, degrading herself to the level of the infamous practices of the Canaanite high places. Fidelity.,她卖淫自己的巴力和Astartes,有辱自己的迦南人高的地方,臭名昭著的实践水平。She has worshipped the calf of Samaria and has given herself up to every superstition.她崇拜的撒马利亚牛犊,并给予自己最多每迷信。No doubt she has also paid homage to Jahve, but a homage wholly external and carnal instead of the adoration which must be above all things internal and which He Himself exacts: "With their flocks, and with their herds they shall go to seek the Lord, and shall not find him…" (v, 6).毫无疑问,她还参拜Jahve,而是一个完全外部的敬意和崇拜,而不是必须高于一切事物内部的,而他自己需要付出肉体:在他们的羊群“,并与他们的牛群,他们应去寻求主,并没有找到他 “(五,六)。"For I desire mercy and not sacrifice: and the knowledge of God more than holocausts" (vi, 6).“因为我喜爱怜恤,不牺牲:和神的知识超过大屠杀”(六,6)。Trust has failed in like manner.信托未能像方式。Costly alliances were sought with other nations as though the protection of the spouse were not sufficient:–"Ephraim hath given gifts to his lovers (viii, 9). He hath made a covenant with the Assyrians, and carried oil into Egypt" (Vulgate, xii, 1).昂贵的联盟都寻求与其他国家好像配偶保护是不够的 - “莲赐给他的礼物,情人(八,九)他所造与亚述立约,并进行石油进入埃及。”(武加大,十二,1)。The very favours which she has received from Jahve in her ingratitude she ascribes to false gods.非常赞成,她已收到来自Jahve在她忘恩负义,她归咎给假神。She said: "I will go after my lovers, that gave me my bread, and my water, my wool, and my flax" (Vulgate, ii, 5).她说:“我会去后我的恋人,这给了我面包,我的水,我的羊毛,亚麻和我”(武加大,二,五)。Obedience:–All the laws which govern the pact of union have been violated: "Shall I write to him [Ephraim] my manifold laws which have been accounted as foreign" (viii, 12).服从: - 所有的法律,管辖协议的工会受到侵犯:“要我写信给他[埃弗拉伊姆]我多方面的已占到外国法律”(八,12)。It is a question here at least primarily of the Mosaic legislation.这是一个问题,这里的马赛克立法至少为主。Osee and Amos in spite of contrary opinion knew at least in substance the contents of the Pentateuch. Osee和Amos在相反的意见,尽管知道,至少在物质的pentateuch的内容。Anarchy is therefore rife in politics and religion: "They have reigned but not by me: they have been princes, and I knew not: of their silver, and their gold they have made idols to themselves" (viii, 4).无政府状态,因此在政治和宗教盛行:“他们统治,但不是由我:他们已经王子,我不知道:他们的银,他们的黄金,他们作出了自己的偶像”(八,4)。

The root of all these evils is the absence of "knowledge of God" (iv-v) for which the priest especially and the princes are to blame, an absence of theoretical knowledge no doubt, but primarily of the practical knowledge which has love for its object.所有这些罪恶的根源是“神的知识”的情况下(IV - V),特别是对其中牧师和王子是罪魁祸首,对理论知识的情况下毫无疑问的,但主要的实用知识,有爱它的对象。It is the absence of this practical knowledge chiefly that Osee laments.这是本实用的知识缺乏,主要是Osee感叹。The Prophet employs yet another symbol for the bond of union.先知员工还为工会债券另一个符号。He sets forth in some exquisite lines the symbol of the chosen son.他阐明在一些所选择的儿子象征精致线条。Jahve has given birth to Israel by redeeming it out of the bondage of Egypt.Jahve已经孕育了以色列的救赎埃及奴役出来。 He has borne it in his arms, has guided its first feeble steps and sustained it with bonds of love; he has reared and nourished it (xi, 1 sq.) and the only return made by Ephraim is apostasy.他已经证明它抱在怀里,一直指导其第一微弱的步骤,并持续与债券爱它,他已饲养和滋养它(十一,1平方米),唯一的回报是由以法莲了叛教。 Such is the history of the covenant.这就是该公约的历史。The day of retribution is at hand; it has even dawned in anarchy, civil war, and every kind of scourge.天的报应就在眼前,它甚至已经处于无政府状态,内战,每一种恍然大悟的祸害。The consummation is imminent.完善已迫在眉睫。It would seem that repentance itself would be unable to ward it off.它似乎忏悔本身将无法抵御它。As later Jeremias, so now Osee announces to his people with indescribable emotion the final ruin: Jezrahel "Disgraced".至于后来赫雷米亚斯,所以现在Osee宣布对他的人民的情感与难以言表的最后废墟:Jezrahel“名誉扫地”。 "Not my people."“不是我的人。” The children of Israel are about to go into exile, there they "shall sit many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without altar, and without ephod and without teraphim" (iii, 4).以色列的孩子即将远走他乡,在那里,他们“应坐很多天没有国王,没有王子,没有牺牲,没有祭坛,没有以弗得,没有teraphim”(三,四)。 National authority shall come to an end and public national religion will be no more.国家机关应告一段落化和国家的宗教不会再有。

B. The New CovenantB.新盟约

Yet the love of Jahve will change even this evil into a remedy.然而,Jahve爱会改变,甚至把这种罪恶补救。The unworldly princes now separated from the people, will no longer draw them into sin.现在从人分离的unworldly诸侯,将不再吸引他们入罪。The disappearance of the external national religion will cause the idolatrous sacrifices, symbols, and oracles to disappear at the same time.外部国家宗教的消失会导致偶像崇拜的牺牲,符号和神谕消失在同一时间。And the road will be open to salvation; it will come "at the end of days".而道路将开放得救,它会“在天结束”。Jahve cannot abandon forever His chosen son.Jahve永远不能放弃,他选择了儿子。At the very thought of it He is filled with compassion and his heart is stirred within him.在很想到这一点,他充满了同情,他的心是在他搅拌。Accordingly after having been the lion which roars against his guilty people He will roar against their enemies, and His children will come at the sound of His voice from all the lands of their exile (xi, 10 sq.).因此后一直是狮子对他有罪的人,他将反对他们的敌人吼,他的孩子们怒吼会在他的声音从他们的流亡所有土地的声音(十一,10平方米)。 It will be, as it were, a new exodus from Egypt, Juda will be reinstated and a remnant of the tribe of Ephraim shall be joined with him (vi, 11- vii, 1a).这将是,因为它是一个新的外流,从埃及,犹大将恢复和对以法莲族残余应与他加入(六,11 - 七,1A)。"The children of Israel shall return and shall seek the Lord their God, and David their king" (iii, 5). “以色列的儿童应当返还,并应寻求耶和华他们的神,他们的王大卫”(三,五)。The new alliance shall never be broken: it shall be contracted in justice and in righteousness, in kindness and in love, in fidelity and knowledge of God.新联盟将永远不会被打破:它应当在合同正义和正气,在善良和爱的保真度和对上帝的认识。There shall be reconciliation with nature and peace among men and with God.须有与自然和人之间的和平与神和解。Prosperity and unlimited extension of the people of God shall come to pass, and the children of this new kingdom shall be called the sons of the living God.繁荣和人民的上帝无限延伸自通,而这个新王国的儿童应被称为是永生神的儿子。Great shall be the day of Jezrahel (the day when "God will sow"); (ch. ii), ch.大应是Jezrahel(一天当“上帝会播下”)天;(章二),甲烷。i, 1-3 (Vulgate, i, 10-ii, 1) ought likely to be set at the end of ch.我,1-3(武加大,我,10 - II,1)应该有可能将在年底的通道设置。ii.II。Cf.比照。Condamin in "Revue biblique", 1902, 386 sqq.Condamin在“歌剧biblique”,1902年,386 SQQ。This is an admirable sketch of the Church which Christ is to found seven and a half centuries later.这是一个令人钦佩的素描教会基督是发现七个半世纪以后。The doctrine of Osee, like that of Amos, manifests a transcendence which his historical and religious surroundings cannot explain.该学说的Osee,像阿莫斯认为,这体现a超越他的历史和宗教的环境无法解释。Digitus Dei est hic. Digitus业会EST嗝。

Publication information Written by Jean Calès.出版信息让Calès书面。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录由WGKofron。With thanks to Fr.随着神父感谢。 John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.约翰Hilkert和圣玛丽教堂,美国俄亥俄州阿克伦城天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Among Catholic commentaries cf.在比照天主教评论。especially VAN HOONACKER, Les douze petits prophètes (Paris, 1908).尤其是VAN HOONACKER,莱斯杜兹petits prophètes(巴黎,1908年)。Among Protestant works HARPER, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea (Edinburgh, 1905), a commentary of Liberal tendencies.在新教工程哈珀,关于Amos和何西阿关键和训诂评注(爱丁堡,1905年),是自由倾向的评论。

Book of Hosea何西阿书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息


-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Contents and Analysis.内容和分析。

Time of Composition.时间组成。

-Critical View:临界查看:

Authenticity and Integrity of the Book.真实性和完整性的图书。

Importance for Israel's Religious Development.重要性以色列的宗教发展。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The contents of the book may be summarized as follows: Part i., ch.书的内容可概括如下:第一部分,甲烷。i.-iii.-Two symbolical actions:一,III. - 两个象征性的动作:

(a) At the command of Yhwh, Hosea takes to wife an adulterous woman, as a symbol of the people of Israel, who have deserted their God and must be punished for their desertion, but who will be restored to Yhwh's favor after a time of probation. (一)在耶和华的命令,Hosea所需的妻子通奸的女子,由于以色列的人,谁也抛弃他们的上帝,而且必须为他们擅离职守惩罚的象征,但谁就会得到恢复后,一时间耶和华的青睐缓刑。

(b) At the further command of Yhwh, Hosea is once more married to his former, unfaithful wife, as a symbol of the enduring love of Yhwh for His people in spite of their faithlessness. (二)在耶和华进一步命令,何西阿是再次结婚,他的前,不忠的妻子,作为耶和华为他的人民的持久爱情的象征,尽管在他们的不忠。

Contents and Analysis.内容和分析。

Part ii., ch.第二部分,甲烷。iv.-xiv.-Hosea's prophetic sermon on the sinful and idolatrous people of Israel.iv. - xiv.,何西阿的对以色列的罪恶和偶像崇拜的人先知讲道。Announcement of the ruin that shall overtake Israel, now become morally and religiously degraded through the fault of its priests (iv. 1-14).在废墟的应超越以色列公告,现在已经成为道德和宗教退化通过其祭司故障(iv. 1-14)。To this is added a warning to Judah (iv. 15-18).为了这增加了犹大警告(iv. 15-18)。Judgment is pronounced on the priests and the rulers who have led the people into sin, bringing upon them the inevitable punishment (v. 1-7).判决宣告的牧师和统治者谁导致入罪的人,给他们带来了不可避免的处罚(第1-7)。Description of the ruin that shall 书何西阿书几篇文章。信息来源,以便更深入地了解宗教科目。"> upon Ephraim and Judah, which even the Assyrian king will not be able to turn away: Hosea in a vision anticipates its coming (v. 8-15).在废墟的应在以法莲和犹大,即使是亚述国王将无法转身离开来描述:何西阿在远景预测其未来(五8-15)。The exhortation to repentance (vi. 1-3); Yhwh's answer censuring the inconstancy of the people (vi. 4-7); the moral degradation of Israel, and especially of its priests (vi. 8-11); the rulers are made responsible for the sins of the people, because they rejoice therein instead of preventing them, and because, despite the national distress, they continue in their spirit of revelry and revolt (vii.1-16).在劝勉悔改(VI. 1-3);耶和华的回答指责人民的世态炎凉(VI. 4-7);以色列的道德堕落,尤其是它的祭司(VI. 8-11);统治者为人民作出的罪孽负责,因为他们感到高兴,而不是阻止他们当中,因为,尽管国家危难,他们继续在自己的狂欢和反抗精神(VII.1 - 16)。Renewed announcement of judgment upon Israel for its impiety, its idolatry, and its leagues with foreign nations; the punishment to be in the form of exile, into which the Israelites shall be led in spite of their fenced cities (viii. 1-14).再次要求以色列宣布的判决为不虔诚,其偶像崇拜,并与外国的联赛,处罚将在流亡的形式,到其中的以色列人应当在其围起来的城市,尽管LED(viii. 1-14) 。In the distant land of exile they shall eat the bread of mourners, instead of rejoicing like the heathen over rich harvests and vintages (ix. 1-6), as a punishment for disregarding the warnings of the Prophets, who were persecuted even in the house of God (ix. 7-9).在遥远的流放地,他们必吃面包的悼念,而不是像过丰富的收成和葡萄酒(ix. 1-6)异教徒大喜,作为漠视先知,谁是即使是在受迫害的警告处罚神的家(ix. 7-9)。As they turned from Yhwh in the wilderness, so they must now go into exile because of their idolatry, since Yhwh will cast them away (ix. 10-17).当他们从耶和华变成在旷野,所以他们现在必须进入,因为他们的偶像崇拜流亡,因为耶和华会投他们离开(ix. 10-17)。 Their ingratitude for Yhwh's love, as shown in their idolatry, must be punished by the destruction of the altars and images of Samaria (x. 1-8).他们对耶和华的爱在他们的偶像崇拜所示,忘恩负义,必须予以处罚的祭坛和撒马利亚(十1-8)图像的破坏。Israel's sins in general, prevalent among the people from olden times, deserve bitter punishment (x. 9-15).以色列的罪一般,其中有来自古代的人普遍,值得痛苦的惩罚(十9-15)。In spite of Yhwh's loving care, they have ever been faithless to Him (xi. 1-7); therefore punishment will not be delayed: it will not, however, destroy, but purge them, leaving a remnant, Yhwh's infinite pity overcoming His anger (xi. 8-11).在耶和华的亲切关怀尽管如此,他们从未移情别恋到他(xi. 1-7),因此不会被处罚延迟:不会,但是,破坏,但清除它们,留下残,耶和华的无限怜悯他克服愤怒(xi. 8-11)。An examination of Israel's early history shows that Israel, as well as Judah, has always been faithless to Yhwh, its guilt being all the heavier in view of Yhwh's loving care (xii. 1-15).是以色列的早期历史研究表明,以色列,以及犹大,一直移情别恋到耶和华,认罪被所有的耶和华的亲切关怀(xii. 1-15)查看较重。Because of Israel's idolatry Yhwh must destroy Israel's power and glory (xiii. 1-11); the sins of the people demand pitiless punishment, which, however, will not utterly destroy them (xiii. 12-xiv. 1).由于以色列的偶像崇拜耶和华要毁灭以色列的力量和荣耀(xiii. 1-11);人民的无情惩罚罪恶的需求,其中,但不会完全摧毁他们(xiii. 12十四1)。An appeal to Israel to return to Yhwh, and a promise of forgiveness to the repentant people (xiv. 2-10).对以色列呼吁回归耶和华,以及宽恕的承诺(xiv. 2-10)悔改的人。

Time of Composition.时间组成。

-Critical View:临界查看:

The nature of Hosea's prophecies shows that he appeared at a time when the kingdom of Israel, which reached the zenith of its power under Jeroboam II.在何西阿的预言性质表明,他在​​当时出现的时候,以色列王国,达到其权力顶峰下耶罗波安二。(782-741 BC), had begun to decline (c. 750 BC).(782-741年),已经开始下降(约公元前750年)。The first part of the book, more particularly (ch. i.-iii.), dates from this time; for, according to i.这本书,更特别(。ch.岛- III)的第一部分,日期从这个时候,因为,按一4, the crime of Jehu had not yet been atoned, it being avenged only after the murder (743 BC) of Zachariah, son of Jeroboam II.4,耶户罪行尚未赎,它仅被谋杀后,撒迦利亚(743年),耶罗波安二儿子报了仇。Hosea, however, continued his prophetic activity after the death of Jeroboam II., the period that marked the decline of the Northern Kingdom.何西阿,然而,继续后,他的预言耶罗波安二世逝世的活动。的时期,标志着北方王国的下降。 This becomes evident especially from the passage vii.这将成为明显的,特别是从通过七。2, referring to the usurpers who were supplanted by their successors at short intervals (comp. II Kings xv. 10-14).2,指的是谁是其继任者取代在(comp.二世国王十五。10-14)短的时间间隔篡夺。But nothing in the book itself, much less the statement in the superscription (part of which certainly is spurious) to the effect that he prophesied in the days of King Hezekiah, justifies the assumption that he lived to see the expedition of Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (745-728 BC) against Pekah of Israel (734 BC); for at that time a large part of the inhabitants of northern Israel and of the land east of the Jordan were led away captive by the Assyrians (II Kings xv. 29 et seq.), while, according to vi.但没有在书本身,更不声明中上标(其中一部分肯定是虚假的),大意是他在国王希西家的日子预言,证明假设他活到看到Tiglath - pileser远征亚述(745-728 BC)对以色列比加(734 BC),对于当时的以色列北部和东部的约旦土地的居民中有相当一部分领导的亚述人掳(二十五国王29。及以下),同时,根据六。8 and xii.8和第十二。12, Gilead still belonged to the kingdom of Israel.12,基列仍属于以色列王国。Hence the second part of the book (ch. iv.-xiv.) must have been written between 738 and 735 BC, the "terminus a quo" of this prophecy being the year 738, because in that year King Menahem of Israel (741-737) was obliged to pay tribute to Assyria (II Kings xv. 17 et seq.).因此,本书的第二部分(章iv. - XIV)必须已被写入738和735 BC之间的“总站a现状”这个被预言738年,因为在那年以色列国王梅纳海姆(741 -737)不得不赞扬亚述(二国王十五,17页起)。In agreement with this assumption it is evident that Hosea borrowed from Amos, since the expression "bet awen" (iv. 15; v. 8; x. 5, 8) could have been derived only from Amos v. 5, and viii.按照这一假设协议很明显,何西阿借用阿莫斯纳曼,因为表达“赌阿文”(iv. 15; 8节;十,5,8)本来只能从阿莫斯5节,和第八而得。14 is probably derived from Amos i.14可能是来自阿莫斯岛14 et seq.14起。

Authenticity and Integrity of the Book.真实性和完整性的图书。

The authenticity of Hosea's prophecies is evidenced by their eminently individualistic and subjective character, consistently maintained throughout.在何西阿的预言的真实性是其突出的个人主义和主观的性格可见一斑,始终保持整个。Various additions, however, seem to have crept into the original text.各种增加,但是,似乎已经到原始文字蹑手蹑脚。The enumeration of the four kings of Judah-Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah-is certainly spurious, Hosea being thereby made a contemporary of Isaiah.而犹大-乌西雅,约坦,亚哈斯,希西家,肯定是虚假的,何西阿被从而提出了以赛亚当代四大天王枚举。In the text itself, also, there appear various distinct interpolations.在文本本身,也有各种不同的插值出现。The passage i.在通过一7, indeed, seems to be a Judaic addition, referring to the saving of Jerusalem from the hands of the Assyrians by Hezekiah in 701 BC It has been objected that Judah was really less guilty in comparison with Israel, and could therefore be set up as a contrast, implying not a delay of judgment, but an intensification of it. 7,的确,似乎是一个犹太此外,指的是从亚述人手中节省希西家的耶路撒冷在公元前701一直反对,认为这是在犹大与以色列相比真是太内疚,因此也可以设置为一个对比,这意味着没有延迟的判断,但它的一个激化。

And, again, since Hosea's descriptions of the future contain no allusion to a Messianic king of David's line, speaking merely of Yhwh and Israel without any intermediary, it has been assumed that any references to the Messianic hopes were added by a later Judaic hand, including the passages ii.而且,再次,由于未来何西阿的描述包含任何暗示了大卫的路线救世主国王,说没有任何中介仅仅是耶和华和以色列,它已被认为任何救世主的希望引用由以后的犹太教的手说:包括通道二。 1-3 and iv.1-3和第四。15a, the words "and David their king" in iii.15A中,“和他们的王大卫”在III。5, and "without a king, and without a prince" in iii.5,“没有国王,没有王子”在III。4.4。Although such interpolations are perfectly possible a priori, there are certain difficulties in admitting them.虽然这种插值是完全可能的先天,也有承认他们一定的困难。Thus, the passage ii.因此,通过二。1-3 could only have been misplaced from its original position as a speech of Hosea, and have become corrupted. 1-3只可能被放错位置,从它作为何西阿讲话原来的位置,并已成为损坏。In fact, the assumption of Kuenen and others that the words were originally added to ii.事实上,在Kuenen和其他假设的话是最初添加到二。25, smooths away the greatest difficulty.25,平滑掉的最大困难。And the further objections, that, according to this assumption, ii.而进一步的反对,认为,根据这个假设,II。25 and ii, 2b-3 do not dovetail, and that ii.25和II,2B - 3不配合,而且二。3, compared with ii. 3,比二。25, could never have been the end of a longer speech, are answered by the assumption that it was only after this transposition that the text was changed in order to make a better ending, such secondary emendations being often traceable. 25,决不可能一直是一个较长的讲话结束时,都回答了假设,这是换位后,这只是文字的改变,以创造更美好的结局,这样往往被追溯到二次emendations。

The other alleged interpolations, also, are somewhat doubtful.另据称插值,也有点怀疑。For instance, the expression "David, their king" (iii. 5a) finds its parallel in the repetition of "Yhwh" in 5b (in place of the which might have been expected), although this also may be a secondary emendation.例如,表达“大卫,他们的王”(III. 5A)发现在“耶和华”的5B(在可能已经预料地方)重复其并行,虽然这也可能是次要的校正。Grave objections might also be brought against the assertion that in iv.严重反对也可能被控告的断言,在第四。15a, if Hosea had been the author of this passage, Judah ought to have been the one addressed. 15A,如果何西阿一直是这段话的作者,犹大应该被一个解决。Finally, the authenticity of viii.最后,八真实性。14 has been doubted on account of the resemblance to Amos ii.14已被怀疑在向阿莫斯II相似帐户。4 et seq.; but, as it may be taken for granted that Hosea was acquainted with the prophecies of Amos (see above), there is no reason whatever to set aside viii. 4及以下;但是,因为它可能会想当然地认为是何西阿与阿莫斯(见上文)熟悉的预言,没有任何理由任何预留八。14 as an interpolation. 14插值。

Importance for Israel's Religious Development.重要性以色列的宗教发展。

Amos and Hosea elevated the religion of Israel to the altitude of ethical monotheism, being the first to emphasize again and again the moral side of Yhwh's nature.阿摩司和何西阿升高以色列宗教伦理一神教的高度,率先一再强调的耶和华的自然道德的一面。Israel's faithlessness to Yhwh, which resisted all warnings, compelled Him to punish the people because of His own holiness; and these two prophets, recognizing that fact, were forced to the conclusion that Yhwh would not only punish Israel for the sake of His holiness, but would even allow Israel to perish in order to maintain the supremacy of His moral law.以色列的不忠,以耶和华,这抵制所有的警告,迫使他惩罚,因为他自己的圣洁的人,以及这两个先知,承认这一事实,是被迫的结论是耶和华不仅会惩罚他的圣洁而以色列,但甚至让以色列灭亡,以保持他的道德法律至上。 While Amos lays stress chiefly on justice and righteousness as those elements of the religious consciousness most acceptable to God, Hosea considers infidelity as the chief sin, of which Israel, the adulterous wife, has been guilty against her loving husband, Yhwh; and over against this he sets the unquenchable love of Yhwh, who, in spite of this infidelity, does not cast Israel away forever, but will take His people unto Himself again after the judgment.虽然阿摩司重在公平和正义的压力,主要是作为宗教意识最能接受神的元素,何西阿认为不忠的首席罪,其中以色列,通奸的妻子,一直对她的爱有罪的丈夫,耶和华;和对危害这一点,他设置了耶和华难以抑​​制的爱,谁,尽管在此不忠,不投永远离开以色列,但会后他的人所不欲,自己的判断了。

Emil G. Hirsch, Victor Ryssel埃米尔G.赫希,维克托Ryssel

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。


F. Hitzig, Die Zwölf Kleinen Propheten Erklärt (No. 1 of Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zum AT), 4th ed., by H. Steiner, Leipsic, 1881; CF Keil, Biblischer Commentar über die Zwölf Kleinen Propheten (in the Keil and Delitzsch series of Bible commentaries) ib.F.希齐格,模具Zwölf Kleinen Propheten Erklärt(号Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载ZUM 1 AT),第4版,由H.施泰纳Leipsic,1881; CF KEIL,Biblischer Commentar黚死Zwölf Kleinen Propheten(在Keil和Delitzsch一系列的圣经评论)IB。1881; Orelli, Ezechiel und die Zwölf Kleinen Propheten (vol. v. of Kurzgefasster Commentar zu den Schriften, des A. und NT), Nördlingen, 1888; Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten Uebersetzt mit Noten, in Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, No. 5, Berlin, 1892; Nowack, in Nowack's Handkommentar zum AT iii.1881; Orelli,Ezechiel UND死Zwölf Kleinen Propheten(卷的Kurzgefasster Commentar族巢穴Schriften诉,德A. UND NT),Nördlingen,1888年,豪森,模具Kleinen Propheten Uebersetzt MIT Noten的,在Skizzen UND Vorarbeiten,第5号,柏林,1892年; Nowack,在Nowack的AT三Handkommentar ZUM。4, Göttingen, 1897; Simson, Der Prophet Hosea, Uebersetzt und Erklärt, Hamburg and Gotha, 1851; A. Wünsche, Der Prophet Hosea Uebersetzt und Erklärt mit Benutzung der Targumim und der Jüdischen Ausleger Raschi, Aben Esra und David Kimchi, Leipsic, 1868; Töttermann, Die Weissagung Hoseas bis zur Ersten Assyrischen Deportation, i.-vi. 4,哥廷根,1897年; Simson的,DER先知何西阿,Uebersetzt UND Erklärt,汉堡和哥达,1851年,A. Wünsche,DER先知何西阿Uebersetzt UND Erklärt麻省理工学院Benutzung DER Targumim UND DER Jüdischen Ausleger Raschi,阿本ESRA UND大卫泡菜,Leipsic, 1868; Töttermann,模具Weissagung Hoseas二楚Ersten Assyrischen驱逐出境,i.-vi.3, Helsingfors, 1879; Nowack, Der Prophet Hosea, Berlin, 1880; TK Cheyne, Hosea, with Notes and Introduction, Cambridge, 1884 (reprinted 1889); FFP Valeton, Amos en Hosea, Nimeguen, 1894; De Visser, Hosea, de Man des Geestes, Utrecht, 1886; Houtsma, in Theologisch Tijdschrift, 1875, p.3,赫尔辛福斯,1879; Nowack,明镜先知何西阿,柏林,1880年,传统知识进益,何西阿,与债券和引进,剑桥,1884(重印1889年); FFP Valeton,阿莫斯EN何西阿,Nimeguen,1894年,德维瑟,何西阿,德曼DES Geestes,乌得勒支,1886年; Houtsma,在Theologisch Tijdschrift,1875年,第55; Oort, ib.55;奥尔特,兴业。 1890, pp. 345 et seq., 480 et seq.; J. Bachmann, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen, ch. 1890年,第345页起,480及以下;。J.巴赫曼,Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen,CH。i.-vii., Berlin, 1894; Billeb, Die Wichtigsten Sätze der Alttestamentlichen Kritik vom Standpunkt der Propheten Hosea und Amos aus Betrachtet, Halle, 1893; Patterson, The Septuaginta Text of Hosea Compared with the Masoretic Text, in Hebraica, vii.一,七,柏林,1894年; Billeb,模具Wichtigsten Sätze DER Alttestamentlichen Kritik VOM Standpunkt DER Propheten何西阿UND阿莫斯AUS Betrachtet,哈雷,1893年,帕特森对何西阿Septuaginta文本与马所拉文本相比,在Hebraica,七。190 et seq.; P. Ruben, Critical Remarks upon Some Passages of the Old Testament, iv.-xi., London, 1896.EGHV Ry. 190及以下; P.鲁本,后旧约,iv.-xi.,伦敦,1896.EGHV Ry的一些段落严厉批评。

Hosea, the Prophet何西阿,先知

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

Hosea must have been a citizen of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and must have remained there permanently during the period of his prophetic activity; for "the land" (i. 2) means Israel, and "our king" (vii. 5) the king of the Northern Kingdom.何西阿必须一直是以色列的北方王国的公民,而且必须有在那里停留期间,他的预言永久活动期间,为“土地”(一,2)指以色列,“我们的国王”(vii. 5)在北方王国国王。According to the superscription of the book, Hosea was the son of Beeri, and, from what he says (i.-iii.) about his marriage, he had a wife who was faithless to him.根据书上标,何西阿是Beeri儿子,从他所说的话(一 - 三)关于他的婚姻,他有一个妻子移情别恋谁是他的。When she fled from his house, he had to redeem her from the person into whose hands she had given herself.当她从他家逃走,他不得不赎回从人到她的手给了她自己。It has been assumed by some that this account has no historical basis, being merely an allegory.据承担一些该帐户没有历史根据,是仅仅是一个寓言。It is not, however, correct to maintain that the narrative is an allegory merely because the names can be interpreted allegorically, "Gomer the daughter of Diblaim" evidently meaning "destruction in consequence of idolatry" ( = properly, "cakes of figs," which according to iii 1 [] were offered as an oblation).它不是,但是,正确的主张,是一个寓言叙事仅仅因为名字可以解释比喻,“歌篾的Diblaim女儿”显然,意思是“毁灭的偶像崇拜的后果”(=不当,“无花果蛋糕”而根据三1 []被提供作为祭品)。There seems also to be intended an assonance with "Shomron bat Efrayim."似乎也有意要与谐音“Shomron的蝙蝠Efrayim。”The narrative must be regarded as historical, and the faithlessness of the woman as a fact.叙述必须被视为历史,以及作为一个女人不忠的事实。Hosea, however, knew nothing of her character at the time of his marriage, on the contrary, it was made manifest to him only afterward, as if through a special intervention of God, in order to serve to the prophet as a symbol of Israel's unfaithfulness to the Lord.何西阿,但是,知道在他结婚时她的性格无关,相反,它使舱单他只后,仿佛穿越了上帝的特殊干预,以作为以色列的象征先知不忠的主。 Other views derived from the Book of Hosea-for instance, that of Ewald, that the prophet was obliged to retire to Judah on account of the increasing hostility toward him, and that he there wrote his book, or that he belonged to the caste of priests-lack support, as do the stories concerning the prophet found in the later Jewish and the Christian traditions.从何西阿书所得的其他意见,例如,认为埃瓦尔德,即先知被迫退休,对他的敌意越来越帐户犹大,他有写他的书,或者说他属于种姓牧师,缺乏支持,因为这样做有关的故事在后来的犹太教和基督教的传统中找到先知。 For example, "Yuḥasin," 12a identifies with (I Chron. v. 6), and assumes that Hosea belonged to the tribe of Benjamin-an assumption entirely impossible on historical grounds, as the addition in I Chron.例如,“Yuḥasin,”12A认同(一专栏。诉6),并假定何西阿属于部落的本杰明,假设完全不可能的,因为历史原因,在我专栏此外,。 v. 5 shows.五,5所示。According to the Christian tradition, Hosea was a native of Beelmoth (Ephraem Syrus) or Belemoth (pseudo-Epiphanius and Isidorus) or Belemon (pseudo-Dorotheus), and belonged to the tribe of Issachar; while, according to Jerome, the prophet was a native of Beth-shemesh The Jewish tradition says ("Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," p. 19) that he died at Babylon, and that his body, having been carried by a camel to Safed in upper Galilee, was buried there.根据基督教传统,何西阿是一个Beelmoth(Ephraem Syrus)或Belemoth(伪埃皮法尼乌斯和Isidorus)或Belemon(伪Dorotheus)人,以及属于以萨迦支派;同时,根据杰罗姆的先知的伯示麦本土犹太传统说(“Shalshelet公顷,卡巴拉,”第19页)他死在巴比伦,他的身体,有被般地在上加利利Safed的开展,是埋在那里。 All these stories are, however, historically worthless.EGHV Ry.所有这些故事,然而,历史worthless.EGHV Ry的。

Emil G. Hirsch, Victor Ryssel埃米尔G.赫希,维克托Ryssel

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

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