Inspiration的启示

General Information一般资料

Inspiration is the special influence of the Holy Spirit guiding certain persons to speak or write what God wanted communicated to others, without suspending their individual activity or personality (1Cor. 2:13; 2Tim. 3:16; 1Peter 1:10,11; 2Peter 1:19-21).启示是神圣的指导某些人说话或写什么上帝要传达给别人没有停止他们的个人活动或个性(歌林多前书2:13,精神特别的影响; 2Tim 3:16;彼得前书1:10,11;彼得后书1:19-21)。


Inspiration灵感

Advanced Information先进的信息

Inspiration was that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (RV, "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2 Tim. 启示是,非凡的或超自然的神的影响力赐予那些谁写的圣经,使他们的著作万无一失。(RV,“神的启发每个经文”),2添“圣经都是上帝所赋予的灵感”。 3:16.3:16。This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," ie, "breathed into by God" in such a sense that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind and will.这是所有的“神圣的著作,”在他们被天才或超自然的洞察力工程意识不正确的,但作为“theopneustic”,即“注入了神”中有这样一个作家是超自然的指导意义表示正是上帝打算他们表达了他心中的启示和意志。 The testimony of the sacred writers themselves abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary inspiration must be accepted.自己神圣的作家丰富的证词说明这个道理,如果他们的学说作为教师犯错,那么全体会议灵感主义必须接受。

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There are no errors in the Bible as it came from God; none have been proved to exist. Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. 圣经中有没有错误,因为它是由神而来,都没有被证明存在的困难和现象我们无法解释不是错误All these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God. The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God, for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the very manner and words in which it was originally given.所有这些旧约和新约书的启发, 我们不说,它们包含,但他们的神的话语。礼物的灵感呈现的作家为他的心灵沟通万无一失神的机关,将在很方式和文字在它最初定。As to the nature of inspiration we have no information.至于灵感的性质,我们没有任何信息。This only we know, it rendered the writers infallible.这只是我们知道,它提供的作家万无一失。They were all equally inspired, and are all equally infallible.他们都同样鼓舞,都同样万无一失。The inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their characters.神圣的作家的灵感并没有改变自己的角色。They retained all their individual peculiarities as thinkers or writers.他们保留了他们所有的思想家或作家个人的特殊性。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Inspiration of the Bible圣经的启示

Catholic Information天主教信息

The subject will be treated in this article under the four heads:该主题将被视为在这篇文章中下四个头:

I. Belief in Inspired books;一,信仰的启发书;

II. II。Nature of Inspiration;大自然的启示;

III. III。Extent of Inspiration;程度的灵感;

IV. IV。Protestant Views on the Inspiration of the Bible.在圣经的启示新教的意见。

I. BELIEF IN INSPIRED BOOKS一,信仰中的灵感书籍

A. Among the Jews答:在犹太人

The belief in the sacred character of certain books is as old as the Hebrew literature.在某些书籍的神圣性的信念是一样的希伯来文学的历史。Moses and the prophets had committed to writing a part of the message they were to deliver to Israel from God.摩西和先知曾致力于写作的消息,他们提供从神对以色列的一部分。Now the naby (prophet), whether he spoke or wrote, was considered by the Hebrews the authorized interpreter of the thoughts and wishes of Yahweh.现在naby(先知),他是否说话或写,被认为是由希伯来人的思想和愿望耶和华授权翻译。He was called, likewise, "the man of God," "the man of the Spirit" (Hosea 9:7).他被称为,同样,“神人”,​​“圣灵的人”(何西阿书9:7)。It was around the Temple and the Book that the religious and national restoratiion of the Jewish people was effected after their exile (see 2 Maccabees 2:13-14, and the prologue of Sirach in the Septuagint).它是围绕寺和认为,犹太人民的宗教和民族restoratiion被流放后生效(见2马加比2:13-14,以及西拉奇中译本序言)图书。 Philo (from 20 BC to AD 40) speaks of the "sacred books", "sacred word", and of "most holy scripture" (De vita Moysis, iii, no. 23).斐洛(从20年至公元40)谈到“圣书”,“神圣的字眼”,和“最神圣的经文”(德VITA Moysis,三,没有23段)。The testimony of Flavius Josephus (AD 37-95) is still more characteristic; it is in his writings that the word inspiration (epipnoia) is met for the first time.该弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫(公元37-95)证词仍更具特色,它在他的著作是这个词的灵感(epipnoia)是第一次遇到。 He speaks of twenty-two books which the Jews with good reason consider Divine, and for which, in case of need, they are ready to die (Contra Apion., I, 8).他谈到了22书其中有很好的理由认为犹太人神圣的,并为此,在需要的情况下,他们准备死(魂斗罗阿皮翁 ,我,8)。 The belief of the Jews is the inspiration of the Scriptures did not diminsh from the time in which they were dispersed throughout the world, without temple, without altar, without priests; on the contrary this faith increased so much that it took the place of everything else.犹太人的信仰是圣经的启示并没有从他们分散在世界各地,没有庙宇,没有祭坛没有牧师,时间diminsh,相反这个信念增加这么多,它采取了一切的地方其他。

B. Among the ChristiansB.在基督徒

The gospel contains no express declaration about the origin and value of the Scriptures, but in it we see that Jesus Christ used them in conformity with the general belief, ie as the Word of God.福音中不包含有关的起源和圣经的价值快件报关,但在这我们看到耶稣基督用在符合一般的信念,即是神的话,他们。The most decisive texts in this respect are found in the Fourth Gospel, v, 39; x, 35.在这方面最具有决定性的文本被发现在第四福音,V,39,X,35。The words scripture, Word of God, Spirit of God, God, in the sayings and writings of the Apostles are used indifferently (Romans 4:3; 9:17).圣经的话,神的话语,神,上帝的灵在谚语和使徒的著作,都采用漠然(罗马书4:3; 9:17)。St. Paul alone appeals expressly more than eighty times to those Divine oracles of which Israel was made the guardian (cf. Romans 3:2).圣保罗单独上诉明确超过80倍,其中以色列的那些被做了监护人(参罗马书3:2)神的神谕。This persuasion of the early Christians was not merely the effect of a Jewish tradition blindly accepted and never understood.这种早期的基督徒说服不只是一个犹太传统盲目接受和永远无法理解的效果。St. Peter and St. Paul give the reason why it was accepted: it is that all Scripture is inspired of God (theopneustos) (2 Timothy 2:16; cf. 2 Peter 1:20 21).圣彼得和圣保罗给它为什么被接受的原因:它是所有圣经是神(theopneustos)(提摩太后书2时16分; CF 2彼得前书1:20 21。)的启发。It would be superfluous to spend any time in proving that Tradition has faithfully kept the Apostolic belief in the inspiratiion of Scripture.这将是多余的花费在证明这一传统忠实地保留了在圣经inspiratiion使徒信仰任何时间。Moreover, this demonstaration forms the subject-matter of a great number of works (see especially Chr. pesch, "De inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae", 1906, p. 40-379).而且,这种demonstaration形成了大量的作品(见特别是人权委员会。佩施,“德inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae”,1906年,第40-379)标的物。It is enough for us to add that on several occasions the Church has defined the inspiration of the canonical books as an article of faith (see Denzinger, Enchiridion, 10th ed., n. 1787, 1809).这是足以让我们补充一点,几次教会定义为一个信仰的文章(见登青格,便览,第10版,N. 1787年,1809年)的规范书的灵感。Every Christian sect still deserving that name believes in the inspiration of the Scriptures, although several have more or less altered the idea of inspiration.每一个基督徒教派仍然值得这个名字相信在圣经的启示,虽然有几个有或多或少改变了灵感的想法。

C. Value of this BeliefC.价值这一信念

History alone allows us to establish the fact that Jews and Christians have always believed in the inspiration of the Bible.历史使我们能够建立单独的犹太人和基督徒一直在圣经启示相信的事实。 But what is this belief worth?但是,这是什么信念值多少钱?Proofs of the rational as well as of the dogmatic order unite in justifying it.的理性的证明,以及团结的教条式的顺序在辩解它。 Those who first recognized in the Bible a superhuman work had as foundation of their opinion the testimony of the Prophets, of Christ, and of the Apostles, whose Divine mission was sufficiently established by immediate experience or by history.这些谁首先在圣经认可的超人的工作已经成为他们的意见的先知见证基督,地基和使徒,其神圣的使命是通过直接经验或充分的历史成立。 To this purely rational argument can be added the authentic teaching of the Church.为了达到这个纯粹理性的争论可以加入教会的真实教学。A Catholic may claim this additional certitude without falling into a vicious circle, because the infallibility of the Church in its teaching is proved independently of the inspiration of Scripture; the historical value, belonging to Scripture in common with every other authentic and truthful writing, is enough to prove this.天主教会声称没有陷入恶性循环下降这一额外确定性,因为在其教学教会犯错误是证明了圣经的灵感独立;的历史价值,属于共同圣经与所有其他真实和诚实的写作,是足以证明这一点。

II. II。NATURE OF INSPIRATION大自然的启示

A. Method to be followed答:应遵循的方法

(1) To determine the nature of Biblical inspiration the theologian has at his disposal a three fold source of information: the data of tradition, the concept of inspiration, and the concrete state of the inspired text. (1)要确定圣经启示性的神学家已经在他掌握的信息三折来源:传统概念的灵感,而灵感的文字具体状态的数据。If he wishes to obtain acceptable results he will take into account all of these elements of solution.如果他想获得可接受的结果,他将考虑所有这些元素的解决方案。Pure speculation might easily end in a theory incompatible with the texts.纯粹的投机可能很容易结束的理论与文本不符。On the other hand, the literary or historical analysis of these same texts, if left to its own resources, ignores their Divine origin.另一方面,这些相同的文字文学或历史的分析,如果任其自己的资源,忽略了他们的神圣的起源。 Finally, if the data of tradition attest the fact of inspiration, they do not furnish us with a complete analysis of its nature.最后,如​​果传统的数据证明的灵感事实上,他们不提供一份完整的分析,其性质我们。Hence, theology, philosophy, and exegesis have each a word to say on this subject.因此,神学,哲学和训诂学的每一个字地说这个问题。Positive theology furnishes a starting point in its traditional formulae: viz., God is the author of Scripture, the inspired writer is the organ of the Holy Ghost, Scripture is the Word of God.积极神学furnishes在其传统的公式出发点:即,上帝是圣经的作者,作家的灵感,是圣灵的器官,圣经是神的话语。Speculative theology takes these formulæ, analyses their contents and from them draws its conclusions.投机神学需要这些公式,分析其内容,并从中吸取其结论。In this way St. Thomas, starting from the traditional concept which makes the sacred writer an organ of the Holy Ghost, explains the subordination of his faculties to the action of the Inspirer by the philosophical theory of the instrumental cause (Quodl., VII, Q. vi, a. 14, ad 5um).这样圣托马斯,从传统的概念,使神圣的作家的圣灵机关开始,解释了他的院系服从的启发者由器乐事业的哲学理论(Quodl.,第七行动,问:六,A. 14,广告5um的)。However, to avoid all risk of going astray, speculation must pay constant attention to the indications furnished by exegesis.但是,为了避免所有的风险误入歧途,投机一定要经常注意的注释提供的指示。

(2) The Catholic who wishes to make a correct analysis of Biblical inspiration maust have before his eyes the following ecclesiastical documents: (a) "These books are held by the Church as sacred and canonical, not as having been composed by merely human labour and afterwards approved by her authority, nor merely because they contain revelation without error, but because, written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, they have God for their author, and have been transmitted to the Church as such." (2)天主教谁愿意做一个正确的圣经启示maust分析已在他眼前以下教会文件:(一)“这些书是持有的神圣和规范教会,而不是仅仅为具有被人类劳动的组成事后批准了她的权威,也仅仅是因为它们包含没有错误的启示,而是因为,在圣灵的灵感写的,他们有他们的作者神,并已转交因此教会。“ (Concil. Vatic., Sess. III, const. dogm, de Fide, cap. ii, in Denz., 1787).(Concil. Vatic。,SESS三,常量。dogm,去国际棋联,帽。二世Denz, ,1787)。(b) "The Holy Ghost Himself, by His supernatural power, stirred up and impelled the Biblical writers to write, and assisted them while writing in such a manner that they conceived in their minds exactly, and determined to commit to writing faithfully, and render in exact language, with infallible truth, all that God commanded and nothing else; without that, God would not be the author of Scripture in its entirety" (Encycl. Provid. Deus, in Dena., 1952). (二)“圣灵自己,用他的神力,激起和推动了圣经的作家来写,并协助他们,而在这样的方式写作,他们在头脑中构想准确,并决心致力于书面忠实,和呈现在确切的语言与犯错的真理,所有的神吩咐,什么也不做,没有说,上帝不会在其全部圣经的作者“(Encycl. Provid杀出,在德纳,1952年)。

B. Catholic ViewB.天主教查看

Inspiration can be considered in God, who produces it; in man, who is its object; and in the text, which is its term.灵感也算是上帝,谁生产它,在人,谁是它的对象,并在文中,这是其任期。

(1) In God inspiration is one of those actions which are ad extra as theologians say; and thus it is common to the three Divine Persons. (1)在神的启示的做法,可以作为神学家说,额外的广告之一,因此它是常见的三个神圣的人。However, it is attributed by appropriation to the Holy Ghost.然而,由于它是由拨款圣灵。it is not one of those graces which have for their immediate and essential object the sanctification of the man who received them, but one of those called antonomastically charismata, or gratis datae, because they are given primarily for the good of thers.它不是一个人青睐这对于他们立即和基本对象的人谁接待了他们圣洁的,但所谓antonomastically charismata,或无偿datae其中之一,因为它们主要用于thers好给。Besides, inspiration has this in common with every actual grace, that it si a transitory participation of the Divine power; the inspired wirter finding himself invested with it only at the very moment of writing or when thinking about writing.此外,与每一个灵感在实际宽限期共同点,那它州市的神圣权力过渡的参与;的启发wirter发现自己与它的投资只在非常时刻,或写在谈到写作思维。

(2) Considered in the man on whom is bestowed this favour, inspiration affects the will, the intelligence and all the executive faculties of the writer. (2)在该人是赞成的人赋予这个考虑,灵感影响的意志,智慧和所有的作家行政学院。(a) Without an impulsion given to the will of the writer, it cannot be conceived how God could still remain the principal cause of Scripture, for, in that case, the man would have taken the initiative. (一)在不给予的作家将an冲动,也不能设想如何上帝可能仍然是圣经的主要根源,因为,在这种情况下,这名男子会采取主动。Besides that the text of St. Peter is peremptory: "For prophecy came not by the will of man at any time: but the holy men of God spoke, inspired by the Holy Ghost" (2 Peter 1:21).除此之外,圣彼得是强制性的文字:“对于预言来不被人将在任何时间,但神的圣洁的人发言,由圣灵的启发”(彼得后书1:21)。 The context shows that there is question of all Scripture, which is a prophecy in the broad sense of the word (pasa propheteia graphes).上下文表明,是所有经文,这是在广泛意义上的字(PASA propheteia graphes)预言的问题。According to the Encyclical Prov.据省通谕。Deus, "God stirred up and impelled the sacred writers to determine to write all that God meant them to write" (Denz., 1952).杀出,“神搅动起来,推动了神圣的作家,以确定写入所有上帝意味着他们写”(Denz.,1952)。Theologians discuss the question whether, in order to impart this motion, God moves the will of the writer directly or decides it by proposing maotvies of an intellectual order.神学家讨论的问题,即以传授这项议案,神移动的作家将直接或决定,提出的一个知识分子为了maotvies它。At any rate, everybody admits that the Holy Ghost can arouse or simply utilize external influences capable of acting on the will of the sacred writer.无论如何,每个人都承认,圣灵可以调动或者干脆利用对神圣的作家将有能力行事的外部影响。According to an ancient tradition, St. Mark and St. John wrote their Gospels at the instance of the faithful.根据一个古老的传统,圣马克及圣约翰写在他们的忠实实例福音。

What becomes of human liberty under the influence of Divine inspiration?什么样的人的自由变成了神的启示下的影响?In principle, it is agreed that the Inspirer can take away from man the power of refusal.原则上,它是一致认为,启发者可以从人的权力拒绝了。In point of fact, it is commonly admitted that the Inspirer, Who does not lack means of obtaining our consent, has respected the freedom of His instruments.在事实来看,它是普遍承认,启发者,谁不缺乏获得我们同意的手段,有尊重他的工具的自由。An inspiration which is not accompanied by a revelation, which is adapted to the normal play of the faculties of the human soul, which can determine the will of the inspired writer by motives of a human order, does not necessarily suppose that he who is its object is himself conscious of it.一个并非由一个启示,这是适应了人的灵魂,它可以由一个人决定的动机是为了激发作家的正常发挥院系将伴随着灵感,并不一定想,他是谁的对象是他自己意识到这一点。 If the prophet and the author of the Apcoalypse know and say that their pen is guided by the Spirit of God, other Biblical authors seem rather to have been led by "some mysterious influence whose origin was either unknown or not clearly discerned by them."如果先知和Apcoalypse笔者所知,并说,他们的笔是由上帝的精神为指导,而其他圣经作者似乎已被领导的“某种神秘的影响,其起源是未知或由他们没有清楚看到。” (St. Aug., De Gen. ad litt., II, xvii, 37; St. Thomas II-II, Q. clxxi, a. 5; Q. cixxiii, a.4). (圣8月,德创广告利特,二,十七,37;圣托马斯II - II,问clxxi,A. 5,问:cixxiii,A.4)。However, most theologians admit that ordinarily the writer was conscious of his ow inspiration.然而,大多数神学家承认,一般的作家是他的灵感OW意识。From waht we have just said it follows that inspiration does not necessarily imply exstasy, as Philo and, later, the Montanists thought.从我们刚才说如下的灵感并不一定意味着exstasy,作为斐洛和后来的Montanists思想。 It is true that some of the orthodox apologists of the second century (Athenagoras, Theophilus of Antioch, St. Justin) have, in the description which they give of Biblical inspiration, been somehat influenced by the ideas of divination then current amongst the pagans.诚然,在第二个世纪的正统的辩护士一些(哥拉,西奥菲勒斯的安提阿,圣贾斯汀)在描述他们的圣经启示给,被somehat通过占卜的想法,其中包括目前的异教徒的影响。 They are too prone to represent the Biblical writer as a purely passive intermediary, something after the style of the Pythia.他们太容易表示为一个纯粹被动的中介圣经的作家,后皮提亚风格的东西。Nevertheless, they did not make him out to be an energumen for all that.然而,他们并没有让他出去是一个为所有energumen。The Divine intervention, if one is conscious of it, can certainly fill the human soul with a certain awe; but it does not throw it into a state of delirum.神的干预,如果一个人意识到这一点,当然可以填补具有一定的敬畏人的灵魂,但它不会引发成delirum状态。

(b) To induce a person to write is not to take on oneself the responsibility of that writing, more especially it is not to become the author of that writing. (二)以诱使人写上自己是不走的,写作的责任,更特别是它不成为该写作者。If God can claim the Scripture as His own work, it is because He has brought even the intellect of the inspired writer under His command.如果上帝可以声称他本人工作的圣经,那是因为他带来了他的命令下,即使是作家的启发智力。However, we must not represent the Inspirer as putting a ready amde book in the mind of the inspired person.但是,我们不能把代表作为在启发人的心灵准备amde书的启发者。Nor has He necessarily to reveal the contens of the work to be produced.也没有透露他一定要生产工作的contens。No matter where the knowledge of the writer on this point comes from, whether it be acquired naturally or due to Divine revelation, inspiration has not essentially for its object to teach somethin new to the sacred writer, but to render him capable of writing with Divine authority.无论身在何处的作家在这一点上的知识从何而来,无论是收购或由于自然神的启示,灵感也没有本质为对象,教导新的事端,以神圣的作家,但令他与神的写作能力权威。 Thus the author of the Acts of the Apostles narrates events in which he himself took part, or which were related to him.因此,在使徒行传作者叙述的事件中,他亲自参加,或涉及到他。It is highly probable that most of the sayings of the Book of Proverbs were familiar to the sages of the East, before being set down in an inspired writing.这是极有可能对箴言书的说法大多是熟悉的东方的圣贤,然后被设置在一个灵感写下来。God, inasmuch as he is the principal cause, when he inspires a writer, subordinates all that writer's cognitive faculties so as to make him accomplish the different actions which would be naturally gone through by a man who, first of all, has the design of composing a book, then gets together his materials, subjects them to a critical examination, arranges them, makes them enter into his plan, and finally brands them with the mark of his personality -- ie his own pecualiar style.神,生死时刻,他是主要的原因,当他激励作家,下属所有作家的认知能力,使他完成了这将是自然上升了一个人谁,首先,具有设计,通过不同的动作撰写的书,然后一起得到他的材料,科目他们进行严格审查,并安排他们,使他们进入他的计划,最后品牌与他的个性标志他们 - 也就是他自己的pecualiar风格。The grace of inspiration does not exempt the writer from personal effort, nor does it insure the perfection of his work from an artistic point of view.宽限期的灵感并不免除个人努力的作家,也不保证从艺术的角度来看,他的工作尽善尽美。The author of the Second Book of Machabeees and St. Luke tell the reader of the pains they took to document their work (2 Maccabees 2:24-33; Luke 1:1-4).而在Machabeees和圣路加二书的作者告诉了他们的痛苦了他们的工作文件(2马加比2:24-33,路加福音1:1-4)读卡器。 The imperfections of the work are to be attributed to the instrument.工作的不完善,应归于仪器。God can, of course, prepare this instrument beforehand, but, a the time of using it, He does not ordinarily make any change in its conditions.神当然可以,该仪器事先准备,但是,一个使用它的时候,他通常不作出任何在其条件的变化。When the Creator applies His power to the faculties of a creature outside of the ordinary way, he does so in a manner in keeping with the natural activity of these faculties.当造物主适用于他的权力之外的普通方法的生物系,他这样做在一个与这些学院天然活性保存方式。Now, in all languages recourse is had to the comparison of light to explain the nature of the human intelligence.现在,在所有的语言诉诸时,已在光比较来解释人类智力的本质。That is why St. Thomas (II-II, Q. clxxi, a. 2; Q. clxxiv, a. 2, ad 3um) gives the name of light or illumination to the intellectual motion communicated by God to the sacred wirter.这就是为什么圣托马斯(II - II,问clxxi,A. 2,问:clxxiv,A. 2,广告3um)给出了照明灯或名称的智力议案上帝沟通的神圣wirter。After him, then, we may say that this motion is a pecualir supernatural participation of the Divine light, in virtue of which the writer conceives exactly the work that the Holy Ghost wants him to write.在他之后,那么,我们可以说,这项议案是pecualir超自然参与的神圣光美德,其中作家设想正是圣灵的工作,要他写。 Thanks to this help given to his intellect, the inspired writer judges, with a certitude of Divene order, not only of the opportuneness of the book to be written, but also of the truth of the details and of the whole.对给予他的智力,这个灵感的作家法官的帮助下,用确定性的Divene秩序,不仅是要写入书opportuneness,但细节的真相和整个也。 However, all theologians do not analyse exactly in the same manner the influence of this light of inspiration.但是,所有的神学家不以同样的方式分析正是这种灵感光的影响。(c) The influence of the Holy Ghost had to extend also to all the executive faculties of the sacred writer -- to his memory, his imagination, and even to the hand with which he formed the letters.(三)圣灵的影响力也不得不延长到所有神圣的作家行政学院 - 他的记忆,他的想象力,甚至到了手,使他形成了字母。 Whether this influence proceed immediatley from the action of the Inspirer or be a simple assistance, and, again, whether this assistance be positive or merely negative, in any case everyone admits that its object is to remove all error from the inspired text.这是否影响立即着手从启发者是一个简单的动作或援助,并再次,这是否是正面的援助或只是消极的,在任何情况下,每个人都承认,其目的是消除所有的错误文字的灵感。 Those who hold that even the words are inspired believe that it also forms an integral part of the grace of inspiration itself.那些谁认为连话都相信,它也启发形成一个优雅的灵感本身的组成部分。However that may be, there is no denying that the inspiration extends, in one way or aother, and as far as needful, to all those who have really cooperated in the composition of the sacred test, especially to the secretaries, if the inspired person had any.但是,这种可能,但无可否认的灵感延伸,以某种方式aother,并尽可能needful,所有那些谁拥有真正的神圣考作文合作,特别是对秘书,如果鼓舞人有任何。 Seen in this light, the hagiographer no longer appears a passive and inert instrument, abased as it were, by an exterior impulsion; on the contrary, his faculties are elevated to the service of a superior power, whihc, although distinct, is none the less intimately present and interior.从这个角度看,hagiographer不再出现被动和惰性文书,自卑,因为它是由一个外部冲动;相反,他的院系都提升到了一个优越的电力服务,其中,虽然不同的,是没有的少密切当前和内饰。 Without losing anything of his personal life, or of his liberty, or even of his spontaneity (since it may happen that he is not conscious of the power which leads him on), man becomes thus the interpreter of God.如果没有他的个人生活失去什么,或他的自由,甚至他的自发性(因为它可能会发生,他是不是权力,使他的意识),从而成为人类的神翻译。 Such, then is the most comprehensive notion of Divine inspiration.这样的话,是神圣的灵感最全面的概念。St. Thomas (II-II, Q., cixxi) reduces it to the grace of prophecy, in the broad sense of the word.圣托马斯(II - II,问,cixxi)降低到预言的宽限期,在广义上的字。

(3) Considered in its term, inspiration is nothing else but the biblical text itself. (3)在其长期考虑,灵感是没有别的,但经文本身。This text was destined by God, Who inspired it, for the universal Church, in order that it might be authentically recognized as His written word.该文本是注定的上帝,谁启发它,为普世教会,为了真实,这可能是因为他的文字识别。This destination is essential.这个目标是至关重要的。Without it a book, even if it had been inspired by God, could not become canonical; it would have no more value than a private revelation.没有它的书,即使它已被神的启发,不能成为典范,它会不会超过一个私人的启示价值。That is why any writing dated from a later period than the Apostolical age is condemned ipso facto to be excluded from the canon.这就是为什么比使徒时代后期给任何文字是谴责事实本身是从佳能排除。The reason of this is that the deposit of the public revelation was complete in the time of the Apostles.这个原因是公众存款的启示在使徒的时间完成。they alone had the mission to give to the teaching of Christ the development which was to be opportunely suggested to them by the Paraclete, John 14:26 (see Franzelin, De divina Traditione et Scriptura (Rome, 1870), thesis xxii).只有他们有任务给基督的教学的发展,这是可适时地提出了圣灵,约翰14时26分(见Franzelin,德divina Traditione等圣经(罗马,1870年),论文二十二)给他们。Since the Bible is the Word of God, it can be said that every canonical text is for us a Divine lesson, a revelation, even though it may have been written with the aid of inspiration only, and without a revelation properly so called.因为圣经是神的话语,可以说,每一个规范的文本我们是一个神圣的教训,一个启示,即使它可能已与灵感的援助只写,没有所谓正确的启示。 For this cause, also, it is clear that an inspired text cannot err.对于这项事业,也很清楚,一个灵感文字不能犯错误。That the Bible is free from error is beyond all doubt, the teaching of Tradition.圣经是从错误的自由是毫无疑问,传统的教学。 The whole of Scriptural apologetics consists precisley in accounting for this exceptional prerogative.整个的圣经护包括在这个特殊的特权会计precisley。Exegetes and apologists have recourse here to considerations which may be reduced to the following heads:解经和辩护士求助于这里可归纳为以下元首的考虑:

the original unchanged text, as it left the pen of the sacred writers, is alone in question.原来不变的文本,因为它离开了神圣的作家笔下,是单独的问题。

As truth and error are properties of judgment, only the assertiions of the sacred writer have to be dealt with.正如真理与谬误的判断属性,只有神圣的作家assertiions必须要处理。If he makes any affirmation, it is the exegete's duty to discover its meaning and extent; whether he expresses his own views or those of others; whether in quoting another he approves, disapproves, or keeps a silent reserve, etc.如果他作出任何的肯定,它是注释家的责任,发现它的意义和范围;他是否表达自己的意见或其他人,无论他在引述另一核准,不赞成,或保持沉默储备等。

The intention of the writer is to be found out according to the laws of the language in which he writes, and consequently we must take into account the style of literatur he wished to use.该作家的意图是要根据发现的语言中,他写道,因此我们必须考虑的literatur风格,他希望使用的法律。 All styles are compatible with inspiration, because they are all legitimate expressions of human thought, and also, as St. Augustine says (De Trinitate, I, 12), "God, getting books written by men, did not wish them to be composed in a form differing from that used by them."所有样式与灵感兼容,因为它们是人类思想的一切合法的表达式,而且,正如圣奥古斯丁说(德Trinitate,I,12),“上帝,得到由男人写的书,不希望他们组成的形式从他们所用的不同。“ Therefore, a distinciton is to be made between the assertion and the expression; it is by means of the latter that we arrive at the former.因此,要distinciton之间的断言和表达了,它由后者意味着我们是在抵达前。

These general principles are to be applied to the different books of the Bible, mutatis mutandis, according to the nature of the matter contained in them,the special purpose for which their author wrote them, the traditional explanation which is given of them, the traditional explanation which is given of them, and also according to the decisions of the Church.这些一般原则是适用于不同的圣经书籍,比照,根据其中所含物质的性质,特殊目的而它们的作者写了他们,传统的解释是,他们给出的传统解释这是给他们,并根据教会的决定。

C. Erroneous Views Proposed by Catholic Authors天主教作者提出C.错误观点

(1) Those which are wrong because insufficient.(1)那些因为错误的不足。

(a) The approbation given by the Church to a merely human writing cannot, by itself, make it inspired Scripture.(一)由教会只给一个人的写作的认可不能由本身,使之启发圣经。The contrary opinion hazarded by Sixtus of Siena (1566), renewed by Movers and Haneberg, in the nineteenth centruy, was condemned by the Vatican Council.与此相反的意见由Sixtus锡耶纳(1566)新的推动者和Haneberg在十九世纪,hazarded被谴责梵蒂冈会议。 (See Denz., 1787). (见Denz。,1787)。

(b) Biblical inspiration even where it seems to be at its minimum -- eg, in the historical books -- is not a simple assistance given to the inspired writers to prevent him from erring, as was thought by Jahn (1793), who followed Holden and perhaps Richard Simon.(二)圣经的启示,即使它似乎是在其最小 - 例如,在历史书籍, - 不是简单的援助给予灵感的作家,以防止他犯错误的,因为是由雅恩(1793),认为谁其次,或许理查德霍顿西蒙。In order that a text may be Scripture, it is not enough "that it contain revelation without error" (Conc. Vatic., Denz., 1787).为了使文本可经文,这是不够的“,它含有没有错误的启示”(Conc. Vatic。,Denz。,1787)。

(c) A book composed from merely human resources would not become an inspired text, even if approved of, afterwards, by the Holy Ghost. (三)从单纯的人力资源组成的书会不会成为一个灵感的文本,即使批准,事后由圣灵。This subsequent approbation might make the truth contained in the book as credible as if it were an article of the Divine Faith, but it would not give a Divine origin to the book itself.这可能使后续的认可所载可信的书就好像它是一个神圣的信条真理,但它不会给一个神圣的起源书本身。Every inspiration properly so called is antecedent, so much so that it is a contradiciton in terms to speak of a subsequent inspiration.所谓正确的灵感,是每一个前因,以至于它是一个术语来谈论以后的灵感contradiciton。This truth seems to have been lost sight of by those moderns who thought they could revive-at the same time making it still less acceptable -- a vague hypothesis of Lessius (1585) and of his disciple Bonfrère.这个道理似乎已失去了by那些现代人谁想到他们能恢复,在同一时间making它仍难以接受的景象 - 一个Lessius(1585)和他的弟子Bonfrère模糊的假说。

(1) Those which err by excess(1)那些过剩ERR

A view which errs by excess confounds inspiration with revelation.一种观点是由过剩的困惑与启示灵感出错。We have just said that these two Divine operations are not only distinct but may take place separately, although they may also be found together.我们刚才说,这两个神圣的行动不仅是不同的,但可能发生的分开,虽然他们可能也被发现一起。As a matter of fact, this is what happens whenever God moves the sacred writer to express thoughts or sentiments of which he cannot have acquired knowledge in the ordinary way.由于事实上,这是每当发生什么神移动神圣的作家表达的思想或他不能在普通的方式获得知识的情绪。There has been some exaggeration in the accusation brought against early writers of having confounded inspiration with revelation; however, it must be admitted that the explicit distinction between these two graces has become more and more emphasized since the time of St. Thomas.目前已对有混淆的灵感与启示早期作家带来的指控有些夸张,但是,它必须承认,这两者之间的区分明确的青睐,成为自圣托马斯的时间越来越多的重视。 This is a very real progress and allows us to make a more exact psychological analysis of inspiration.这是一个很现实的进步,使我们能够更精确的灵感心理分析。

III. III。EXTENT OF INSPIRATION范围的启示

The question now is not whether all the Biblical books are inspired in every part, even in the fragments called deuterocanonical: this point, which concerns the integrity of the Canon, has been solved by the Council of Tent (Denz., 784).现在的问题不在于是否所有的圣经书籍激发了每一个部分,即使在所谓次经的片段:这一点,这关系到佳能的完整性,已经由帐篷理事会(Denz.,784)解决。 but are we bound to admit that, in the books or parts of books which are canonical, there is absolutely nothing, either as regards the matter or the form, which does not fall under the Divine inspiration?但我们不得不承认,在书籍或书是典型的部分,也绝对没有,无论是作为有关事项或形式,它不属于神的启示?

A. Inspiration of the Whole Subject MatterA.启示全体标的物

For the last three centuries there have been author-theologians, exegetes, and especially aplogists -- such as Holden, Rohling, Lenormant, di Bartolo, and others -- who maintained, with more or less confidence, that inspiration was limited to moral and dogmatic teaching, excluding everything in the Bible relating to history and the natural sciences.在过去的三个世纪有过作者,神学家,解经,特别是aplogists - 如霍顿,Rohling,Lenormant,二Bartolo,和其他人 - 谁保持着或多或少的信心,这灵感是有限的道德和教条式的教学,不包括在圣经中一切有关历史和自然的科学。They think that, in this way, a whole mass of difficulties against the inerrancy of the bible would be removed.他们认为,在这种方式,对圣经无误的困难群众将全部被删除。but the Church has never ceased to protest against this attempt to restrict the inspiration of the sacred books.但教会从来没有停止过,抗议这一企图限制的神圣书籍的灵感。This is what took place when Mgr d'Hulst, Rector of the Institut Catholique of paris, gave a sympathetic account of this opinion in "Le Correspondant" of 25 Jan., 1893.这是发生在经理D' ​​Hulst,在巴黎天主教学院的校长,给在“乐通讯员”的1893年1月25日的这一意见同情帐户。The reply was quickly forthcoming in the Encyclical Providentissimus Deus of the same year.得到的答复是迅速在通谕Providentissimus同年杀出即将出版。In that Encyclical Leo XIII said:在这通谕利奥十三世说:

It will never be lawful to restrict inspiration merely to certain parts of the Holy Scripture, or to grant that the sacred writer could have made a mistake.它永远不会是合法的,限制的灵感只是圣经的某些部分,或授予的神圣的作家可能犯了一个错误。Nor may the opinion of those be tolerated, who, in order to get out of these difficulties, do not hesitate to suppose that Divine inspiration extends only to what touches faith and morals, on the false plea that the true meaning is sought for less in what God has said than in the motive for which He has said it.也可对这些意见是不能容忍的,谁,为了得到这些困难了,不要犹豫,假设神的启示的范围只涉及到什么信仰和道德上的虚假请求,真正的含义是不寻求,神说比的动机是他说了出来。 (Denz., 1950) (Denz.,1950)

In fact, a limited inspiration contradicts Christian tradition and theological teaching.事实上,在有限的灵感违背基督教传统和神学教学。

B. Verbal InspirationB.口头启示

Theologians discuss the question, whether inspiration controlled the choice of the words used or operated only in what concerned the sense of the assertions made in the Bible.神学家讨论的问题,控制了灵感是否使用或在什么有关圣经中的意义所作的断言经营的用词。In the sixteenth century verbal inspiratiion was the current teaching.在十六世纪口头inspiratiion是当前教学。 The Jesuits of Louvain were the first to react against this opinion.鲁汶的耶稣会是第一个对这个意见作出反应。They held "that it is not necessary in order that a text be Holy Scripture, for the Holy Ghost to have inspired the very material words used."他们认为,“这不是为了必要的,文字是神圣的经文,为圣灵启发了非常重大的话使用。” The protests against this new opinion were so violent that Bellarmine and Francisco Suárez thought it their duty to tone down the formula by declaring "that all the words of the text have been dictated by the Holy Ghost in what concerns the substance, but differently according to the diverse conditiions of the instruments."针对这一新的见解是如此暴力的抗议活动是贝拉明和Francisco苏亚雷斯认为是他们的责任,宣布“所有的文字字已被圣灵支配的物质关心的语气下来的公式,但根据不同这些文书的。多样化conditiions“ This opinion went on gaining in precision, and little by little it disentangled itself from the terminology which it had borrowed from the adverse opinion, notably from the word "dictation."这一意见获得了在精度,并一点一点从它迎刃而解了它借用了不利的意见,特别是从词术语本身“听写”。Its progress was so rapid that at the beginning of the nineteenth century it was more commonly taught than the theory of verbal inspiration.它的进展如此之快,在十九世纪初,它是较为普遍比口头灵感理论授课。Cardinal Franzelin seems to have given it its definite form.红衣主教Franzelin似乎对此给予其一定的形式。During the last quarter of a century verbal inspiration has again found partisans, and they become more numerous every day.在一个世纪的最后一个季度口头灵感再次发现游击队员,他们每天都变得越来越多。However, the theologians of today, whilst retaining the terminology of the older school, have profoundly modified the theory itself.然而,今天的神学家,同时保留了旧学校的术语,都深刻地修改了理论本身。They no longer speak of a material dictation of words to the ear of the writer, nor of an interior revelation of the term to be employed, but of a Divine motion extending to every faculty and even to the powers of execution to the writer, and in consequence influencing the whole work, even its editing.他们不再谈论材料听写的单词来的作家,也不是一个要长期聘用耳朵内部的启示,而是一种神圣的运动延伸到每一个教师,甚至执行的作家的权力,在后果影响整个工作,甚至它的编辑。 Thus the sacred text is wholly the work of God and wholly the work of man, of the latter, by way of instrument, of the former by way of principal cause.因此,神圣的文字是完全的神的工作和工作的人全是后者,由仪器方式,由主要的原因方式前者。Under this rejuvenated form the theory of verbal inspiration shows a marked advance towards reconcilation with the rival opinion.在这个充满活力构成了口头灵感理论显示了与对手的意见走向和解台阶。From an exegetical and apologetical point of view it is indifferent which of these two opinions we adopt.从训诂的角度和apologetical点是漠不关心这两种意见,我们采纳。All agree that the characteristics of style as well as the imperfections affecting the subject matter itself, belong to the inspired writer.大家都同意的风格特征以及不完善影响标的物本身,属于灵感的作家。As for the inerrancy of the inspired text it is to the Inspirer that it must be finally attributed, and it matters little if God has insured the truth of His Scripture by the grace of inspiration itself, as the adherents of verbal inspiration teach, rather than by a providential assistance.至于它的启发文字无误是必须的,它最终归结启发者,它无关紧要,如果被保险人的神,他的灵感圣经本身恩典真理,作为口头灵感教的信徒,而不是由天赐的协助。

IV. IV。PROTESTANT VIEWS ON THE INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE关于圣经的灵感新教VIEWS

A. At the Beginning of the ReformationA.在开始的改革

(1) As a necessary consequence of their attitude towards the Bible, which they had taken as their only rule of Faith, the Protestants were led at the very outset to go beyond the ideas of a merely passive inspiration, which was commonly received in the first half of the sixteenth century. (1)由于他们对圣经​​,他们作为自己的信仰唯一的规则采取的态度的必然结果,导致的新教徒在一开始就超越了只是被动的灵感,这是常用于收到意见上半年十六世纪。 Not only did they make no distinction between inspiration and revelation, but Scripture, both in its matter and style, was considered as revelation itself.他们不仅使灵感和启示之间没有区别,但圣经,无论在物质和风格,被视为启示本身。In it God spoke to the reader just as He did to the Israelites of old from the mercy-seat.在这神交谈读者只是像他那样从施恩座的老以色列人。Hence that kind of cult which some protestants of today call "Bibliolatry."因此,那种今天所说的邪教组织,一些新教徒“Bibliolatry。”In the midst of the incertitude, vagueness, and antinomies of those early times, when the Reformation like Luther himself, was trying to find a way and a symbol, one can discern a constant preoccupation, that of indissolubly joining religious belief to the very truth of God by means of His written Word.在该incertitude,模糊性,以及这些早期二律背反当中,当自己喜欢路德宗教改革,试图找到一种方法,一种象征,可以看出一个恒定的当务之急,即不可分割的加入宗教信仰非常真相神通过他写​​的词的意思。 The Lutherans who devoted themselves to composing the Protestant theory of inspiration were Melanchthon, Chemzitz, Quenstedt, Calov.路德会谁潜心创作的灵感新教理论是梅兰希顿,Chemzitz,Quenstedt,Calov。 Soon, to the inspiration of the words was added that of the vowel points of the present Hebrew text.很快,到了灵感的话是由本希伯来文的元音点。This was not a mere opinion held by the two Buxtorfs, but a doctrine defined, and imposed under pain of imprisonment, and exile, by the Confession of the Swiss Churches, promulgated in 1675.这不是一个单纯的意见由两个Buxtorfs举行,而是一个主义的定义,并规定根据疼痛的监禁,流放由瑞士1675年颁布的教堂,忏悔。 These dispositions were abrogated in 1724.这些部署是于1724年废止。The Purists held that in the Bible there are neither barbarisms nor solecisms; that the Greek of the New Testament is as pure as that of the classical authors.在纯粹主义者认为,在圣经既没有barbarisms也不solecisms;的是,新约希腊一样的古典作家的纯洁。 It was said, with a certain amount of truth, that the Bible had become a sacrament for the Reformers.有人说,具有一定的真理,圣经已经成为改革者圣餐。

(2) In the seventeenth century began the controversies which, in course of time, were to end in the theory of inspiration now generally accepted by Protestants. (2)开始于十七世纪的争论当中,在时间的过程中,要结束在目前普遍接受的灵感理论新教徒。The two principles which brought about the Reformation were precisely the instruments of this revolution; on the one side, the claim for every human soul of a teaching of the Holy Ghost, which was immediate and independent of every exterior rule; on the other, the right of private judgment, or autonomy of individual reasoning, in reading and studying the Bible.这两个原则,对改革带来的是正是这场革命的手段;对一个方面,每一个圣灵,这是直接和每个独立的教学​​外治人类灵魂的要求,另一方面,在私人判断,推理或个人自主的阅读和研究圣经的权利。 In the name of the first principle, on which Zwingli had insisted more than Luther and Calvin, the Pietists thought to free themselves from the letter of the Bible which fettered the action of the Spirit.在第一原则的名称,其上茨温利曾坚持比路德和加尔文多,虔诚主义者认为自由从圣经的束缚的精神行动信自己。A French Huguenot, Seb.法国胡格诺派,勒布。Castellion (d. 1563), had already been bold enough to distinguish between the letter and the spirit; according to him the spirit only came from God, the letter was no more than a "case, husk, or shell of the spirit." Castellion(卒于1563),已经敢于区分的文字和精神,根据他的精神只能从神来了,信不过是多“的情况下,果壳,或精神的外壳。”

The Quakers, the followers of Swedenborg, and the Irvingites were to force this theory to its utmost limits; real revealation -- the only one which instructs and sanctifies -- was that produced under the immediate influence of the Holy Ghost.贵格会,对斯韦登伯格的追随者,而Irvingites被强迫这个理论的最大限额,实际revealation - 唯一的指示和成圣 - 是在圣灵的直接影响产生的。While the Pietists read their Bible with the help of interior illumination alone, others, in even greater numbers, tried to get some light from philological and historical researches which had received their decisive impulse from the Renaissance.虽然虔诚主义阅读与室内照明单独帮助他们圣经,别人,甚至更大的数字,试图得到一些从语言学和历史的收到了文艺复兴时期的决定性研究的光脉冲。 Every facility was assured to their investigations by the principle of freedom of private judgment; and of this they took advantage.每一个设施是保证他们的调查由私人判断自由的原则,以及为此,他们采取了优势。The conclusions obtained by this method could not be fatal to the theory of inspiration by revelation.用这种方法得到的结论不能致命的灵感理论的启示。In vain did its partisans say that God's will had been to reveal to the Evangelists in four different ways the words which, in reality, Christ had uattered only once; that the Holy Ghost varied His style accoring as he was dictation to Isaias or to Amos -- such an explanation was nothing short of an avowal of the ability to meet the facts alleged against them.白白做了游击队员说,天意已透露,在四个当中,在现实中,基督uattered只有一次的话不同方式的福音,是圣灵不同他的风格根据,因为他听写伊萨亚斯或阿莫斯 - 这样的解释是没有任何一个的能力,以满足对他们所指称的事实avowal短。As a matter of fact, Faustus Socinus (d. 1562) had already held that the words and, in general, the style of Scripture were not inspired.由于事实上,浮士德Socinus(草1562)已举行的话,在一般情况下,圣经的风格并没有启发。Soon afterwards, George Calixtus, Episcopius, and Grotinus made a clear distinction between inspiration and revelation.此后不久,乔治Calixtus,Episcopius和Grotinus之间做了明确区分灵感和启示。According to the last-named, nothing was revealed but the prophecies and the words of Jesus Christ, everything else was only inspired.根据最后的命名,什么也没有透露,但预言和耶稣的话,一切只是启发。Still further, he reduces inspiration to a pious motion of the sould {see "Votum pro pace Ecclesiae" in his complete works, III (1679), 672}.进一步,他减少了灵感,一个虔诚的议案能{见“Votum亲步伐,该书”在他的全集,III(1679),672}。The Dutch Arminian school then represented by J. LeClerc, and, in France, by L. Capelle, Daillé, Blondel, and other, followed the same course.荷兰的阿民念主义的学校,然后由J.勒克莱尔,并在法国,由L.卡佩勒,Daillé,布隆代尔,和其他代表,遵循相同的过程。 Although they kept current terminology, they made it apparent, nevertheless, that the formula, "The Bible is the Word of God," was already about to be replaced by "The Bible contains the Word of God."虽然他们保持当前的术语,使他们明显,不过,该公式,“圣经是神的话语,”已经即将被取代“圣经包含神的话语。”Morever, the term word was to be taken in an equivocal sense.Morever,术语词是在一个意义上采取模棱两可。

B. Biblical RationalismB.圣经理性

In spite of all, the Bible was still held as the criterion of religious belief.在所有尽管如此,圣经仍持有的宗教信仰标准。To rob it of this prerogative was the work which the eighteenth century set itself to accomplish.为了抢这个特权的工作,这是十八世纪为自己来完成。In the attack then made on the Divine inspiration of the Scriptures three classes of assailants are to be distinguished.在攻击随即对圣经三个歹徒类加以区别神的启示。

(1) The Naturalist philosophers, who were the forerunners of modern unbelief (Hobbes, Spinoza, Wolf); the English Deists (Toland, Collins, Woolston, Tindal, Morgan); the German Rationalists (Reimarus, Lessing); the French Encyclopedists (Voltaire, Bayle) strove by every means, not forgetting abuse and sarcasm, to prove how absurd it was to claim a Divine origin for a book in which all the blemishes and errors of human writings are to be found. (1)自然主义哲学家,谁是现代不信(霍布斯,斯宾诺莎,狼)的先驱;的(托兰,柯林斯,伍尔斯顿,Tindal,摩根)英国自然神论者;的(Reimarus,莱辛)德国理性主义,法国Encyclopedists(伏尔泰,培尔)百般努力,不要忘记虐待和嘲讽,证明它是多么荒谬的要求书,所有的瑕疵和错误的人的著作要找到一个神圣的起源。

(2) The critics applied to the Bible, the methods adopted for the study of profane authors.(2)适用于圣经的批评,该方法通过了亵渎作者的研究。They, from the literary and historic point of view, reached the same conclusion as the infidel philosophers; but they thought they could remain believers by distinguishing in the Bible between the religious and the profane element.他们从文学和历史的角度来看,达到了为异教徒的哲学家同样的结论,但他们认为他们可以留在圣经区分宗教和世俗元素的信徒。 The latter they gave up to the free judgment of historical criticism; the former they pretended to uphold, but not without restrictions, which profoundly changed its import.后者放弃了他们的历史批评的自由判断,前者他们假装坚持,但并非没有限制,这深刻地改变了它的进口。According to Semler, the father of Biblical Rationalism, Christ and the Apostles accommodated themselves to the false opinions of their contemporaries; according to Kant and Eichborn, everything which does not agree with sane reason must be regarded as Jewish invention.据塞姆勒,理性主义的圣经,基督和照顾自己,他们同时代的虚假意见的使徒父亲,据康德和艾希博恩,一切不同意理智的原因必须被视为犹太人的发明。 Religion restricted within the limits of reason -- that was the point which the critical movement initiated by Grotius and LeClerc had in common with the philosophy of Kant and the theology of Wegscheider.宗教限制在理性的限度 - 这是关键的一点,运动发起的格老秀斯和勒克莱尔与康德哲学和神学的Wegscheider共同点。The dogma of plenary inspiration dragged down with it, in its final ruin, the very notion of revelation (A. Sabatier, Les religions d'autorité et la religion de l'espirit, 2nd ed., 1904, p. 331).本次全体会议的教条灵感拖累有了它,在其最后废墟,很概念的启示(A.萨巴蒂尔,莱斯宗教D' autorité ET LA宗教DE L' espirit,第二版,1904年,第331页)。

(3) These philosophical historical controversiers about Scriptural authority caused great anxiety in religious minds. (3)这些关于圣经的权威哲学历史controversiers引起了极大的不安宗教思想。There were many who then sought their salvation in one of the principles put forward by the earlly Reformers, notably by Calvin: to wit, that truly Christian certitude came from the testimony of the Holy Spirit.有许多谁然后寻求他们的原则之一得救提出的earlly改革者,特别是通过卡尔文:也就是说,真正的基督教确定性来自于圣灵的见证。 Man had but to sound his own soul in order to find the essence of religion, which was not a science, but a life, a sentiment.男子的声音,而是他自己的灵魂,以便找到了宗教的本质,这是不是科学,而是一种生活,一种情感。Such was the verdict of the Kantian philosophy then in vogue.这就是康德哲学的判决则流行。It was useless, from the religious point of view, to discuss the extrinsic claims of the Bible; far better was the moral experience of its intrinisc worth.这是无用的,从宗教角度,讨论圣经的外在要求;好得多是其intrinisc价值道德体验。The Bible itself was nothing but a hostory of the religious experiences of the Prophets, of Christ and His Apostles, of the Synagogue and of the Church.圣经本身只不过是对先知的宗教经验hostory,基督和他的门徒,在犹太教堂和教会。Truth and Faith came not from without, but sprang from the Christian conscience as their source.真理和信仰不是来自没有,但是从他们的源基督徒的良心扑去。Now this conscience was awakened and sustained by the narration of the religious experiences of those who had gone before.现在,这个良知被唤醒,并通过对这些谁去了以前的宗教经验的叙述持续。What mattered, then, the judgment passed by criticism on the historical truth of this narration, if it only evoked a salutary emotion in the soul?什么要紧的话,判断通过对这一叙述历史事实的批评,如果只是引起了有益的情感中的灵魂?Here the useful alone was true.在这里,有用的​​单独是真实的。Not the text, but the reader was inspired.没有文字,但读者的启发。Such, in its broad outlines, was the final stage of a movement which Spener, Wesley, the Moravian Brethren, and, generally, the Pietists initiated, but of which Schleiermacher (1768-1834) was to be the theologian and the propagator in the nineteenth century.这样,在其广泛的轮廓,这是一个Spener,韦斯利,在摩拉维亚弟兄们,和一般的虔诚主义者发起的运动的最后阶段,但其中施莱尔马赫(1768年至1834年)是成为神学家和的传播者十九世纪。

C. Present ConditionsC.现状

(1) The traditional views, however, were not abandoned without resistance. (1)传统的观点,但是,没有人没有放弃抵抗。A movement back to the old idea of the theopneustia, including verbal inspiration, set in nearly everywhere in the first half of the nineteenth century.一个运动回到了theopneustia旧观念,包括口头灵感,将在十九世纪上半叶几乎无处不在。This reaction was called the Réveil.这种反应被称为觉醒。Among its principal promoters must be mentioned the Swiss L. Gaussen, W. Lee, in England, A. Dlorner in Germany, and, more recently, W. Rohnert.在其主要发起人必须提到瑞士属杉,西李,英国,德国Dlorner A.,以及最近,W. Rohnert。their labours at first evoked interest and sympathy, but were destined to fail before the efforts of a counter-reaction which sought to complete the work of Schleiermacher.他们的劳动在第一诱发兴趣和同情,但注定要失败的前反反应,试图完成施莱尔马赫工作所作的努力。it was led by Alex, Vinet, Edm.它率领由Alex,VINET,电火花。Scherer, and E. Rabaud in France; Rich.舍雷尔和E Rabaud在法国;丰富。Rothe and especially Ritschl in Germany; ST Coleridge, FD Maurice, and Matthew Arnold in England. Rothe特别是里奇尔在德国ST科尔里奇,FD莫里斯,在英格兰和马修阿诺德。According to them, the ancient dogma of the theopneustia is not to be reformed, but given up altogether.据他们介绍,该theopneustia古教条不进行改革,但完全放弃。In the heat of the struggle, however, university professors like E. Reuss, freely used the historical method; without denying inspiration they ignored it.在斗争的热量,但是,像E.罗伊斯大学教授,自由使用的历史方法,没有否认的灵感,他们忽略了它。

(2) Abstracting from accidental differences, the present opinion of the so-called progressive Protestants (who profess, nevertheless, to remain sufficiently orthodox), as represented in Germany by B. Weiss, RF Grau, and H Cremer, in England by W. Sanday, C. Gore, and most Anglican scholars, may be reduced to the following heads: (a) the purely passive, mechanical theopneustia, extending to the very words, is no longer tenable. (2)抽象意外差异,所谓的(谁信奉,不过,为了保持足够的正统)本意见逐步新教徒在德国为代表的B.魏斯,射频格劳和H Cremer,在英国,由W 。桑迪,C.戈尔,最圣公会学者,可归纳为以下元首:(一)纯粹被动的,机械theopneustia,延伸到极言,不再是站不住脚的。(b) Inspiration had degrees: suggestion, direction, elevation, and superintendency. (二)有度的启示:建议,方向,高度,以及监管局。All the sacred writers have not been equally inspired.所有神圣的作家没有得到同样的启发。(c) Inspiration is personal that is, given directly to the sacred writer to enlighten, stimulate, and purify his faculties.(三)灵感是个人,即直接给予神圣的作家开导,刺激,净化他的学院。This religious enthusiasm, like every great passion, exalts the powers of the soul; it belongs, therefore, to the spiritual order, and is not merely a help given immediately to the intellect.这种宗教的热情,像每一个伟大的激情,高举灵魂的权力,它属于,因此,精神秩序,不仅是对智力立即给予的帮助。 Biblical inspiration, being a seizure of the ntire man by the Divine virtue, does not differ essentially from the gift of the Holy Spirit imparted to all the faithful.圣经的灵感,身为ntire男子被扣押的神圣的美德,从本质上没有区别的传授给所有的信徒圣灵的恩赐。(d) It is, to say the least, an improper use of language to call the sacred text itself inspired. (四)是,至少可以说,一个语言使用不当调用神圣文本本身的启发。At any rate, this text can, and actually does, err not only in profane matters, but also in those appertaining more or less to religion, since the Prophets and Christ Himself, notwithstanding His Divinity, did not possess absolute infallibility.无论如何,这个文本就可以了,其实呢,犯错不只是在亵渎事项,而且在那些附属物或多或少宗教,因为先知和基督自己,尽管他的神性,不具备绝对犯错误。 (Cf. Denney, A Dict. of Christ and the Gospels, I, 148-49.) The Bible is a historical document which taken in its entirety contains the authentic narrative of revelation, the tidings of salvation. (见丹尼,一个快译通。基督和福音,我,148-49。)圣经是一个历史文件,其中包含的全部采取的启示真实的叙述,救恩的福音。(c) Revealed truth, and, consequently, the Faith we derive from it are not founded on the Bible, but on Christ himself; it is from Him and through Him that the written text acquires definitely all its worth. (三)揭示的真理,和,因此,我们从它的信仰上没有获得圣经成立,但在基督本人,而是从他并通过他是绝对的书面文本获得所有它的价值。But how are we to reach the historical reality of Jesus -- His teaching, His institutions -- if Scripture, as well as Tradition, offers us no faithful picture?但我们如何达到耶稣的历史现实 - 他的教学中,他的机构 - 如圣经,以及传统,为我们提供了没有忠实的图片?The question is a painful one.现在的问题是一个痛苦的。To establish the inspiration and Divine authority of the Bible the early Reformers had substituted for the teaching of the Church internal criteria, notably the interior testimony of the Holy Spirit and the spiritual efficacy of the text.要建立激励和神圣的圣经权威的早期改革者们对教会的内部标准的教学,特别是在圣灵和精神疗效的文本内部的证词代替。Most Protestant theologians of the present day agree in declaring these criteria neither scientific nor traditional; and at any rate they consider them insufficient.现今大多数的新教神学家同意在宣布这些标准既不科学也不传统,以及无论如何他们认为这些不足。(On the true criterion of inspiration see CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES.) They profess, consequently, to supplement them, if not to replace them altogether, by a rational demonstration of the autheticity and substantial trustworthiness of the Biblical text. (在真正的灵感标准见圣经佳能)他们信奉,因此,以补充他们,如果不是要取代通通,由该autheticity和圣经的文字相当守信理性论证。The new method may well provide a starting-point for the fundamental theology of Revelation, but it cannot supply a complete justification of the Canon, as it has been so far maintained in the Churches of the Reformation.这种新方法可能会提供一个基本的启示神学的出发点,但它不能提供一个完整的佳能的理由,因为它已经在迄今为止的改革教会维护。 Anglican theologians, too, like Gore and Sanday, gladly appeal tot he dogmatic testimony of the collective conscience of the universal Church; but, in so doing, they break with one of the first principles of the Reformation, the autonomy of the individual conscience.圣公会神学家,也像戈尔和桑迪,他高兴地呼吁TOT的普世教会教条式的集体良知的证词,但在这样做,他们用的改革,对个人良心自治的首要原则逐一击破。

(3) The position of liberal Protestants (ie those who are independent of all dogma) may be easily defined.(3)(即那些谁是所有教条独立)自由派新教徒的位置可能很容易界定。The Bible is just like other texts, neither inspired nor the rule of Faith.圣经只是像其他文字,也不是没有信仰的启发规则。 Religious belief is quite subjective.宗教信仰是相当主观的。So far is it from depending on the dogmatic or even historical authority of a book that it gives to it, itself, its real worth.迄今它从一本书的教条,甚至权威的历史根据,它给了它本身,其真正的价值。When religious texts, the Bible included, are in question, history -- or, at least, what people generally believe to historical -- is largely a product of faith, whcih has transfigured the facts.当宗教经文,圣经包括,问题是,历史 - 或者,至少,人们普遍认为,以历史 - 主要是信仰的产物,具有理想化的事实。The authors of the Bible may be called inspired, that is endowed with a superior perception of religious matters; but this religious enthusiasm does not differ essentially from that which animated Homer and Plato.圣经的作者可称为灵感,这是与宗教事务上级赋予的看法,但这种宗教热情没有区别,基本上是从动画荷马和柏拉图。This is the denial of everything supernatural, in the ordinary sense of the word, as well in the Bible as in religion in general.这是一切超自然的否定,在这个词的一般意义上说,在圣经中,以及在一般的宗教。Nevertheless, those who hold this theory defend themselves from the charge of infidelity, especially repudiating the cold Rationalism of the last century, which was made up exclusively of negations.然而,那些谁持这种理论保卫自己的不忠负责,特别是否定了上世纪寒冷的理性,这是由清一色的否定。They think that they remain sufficiently Christian by adhering to the religious sentiment to which Christ ahs given the most perfect expression yet known.他们认为,他们仍然坚持到足够的宗教情绪,以基督AHS给予最完美的体现还不得而知基督徒。Following Kant, Schleiermacher, and Ritschl, they profess a religion freed from all philosophical intellectualism and from every historical proof.继康德,施莱尔马赫,并里奇尔,他们自称来自智主义哲学的历史证明,从每一种宗教中解脱出来。Facts and formulae of the past have, in their eyes, only a symbolic and a transient value.事实和过去的公式有,在他们眼里,只有象征性的和暂时性的价值。Such is the new theology spread by the best-known professors and writers especially in Germany -- historians, exegetes, philologists, or even pastors of souls.这就是新神学的最知名的教授和作家,特别是在德国蔓延 - 历史学家,注释者,语言学家,甚至灵魂牧师。We need only mention Harnack, HJ Holtzmann, Fried.我们只需要提及哈尔纳克,HJ HOLTZMANN,油炸。Delitzsch, Cheyne, Campbell, A. Sabatier, Albert and John Réville. Delitzsch,进益,坎贝尔,A.萨巴蒂尔,阿尔贝和约翰Réville。it is to this transformation of Christianity that "Modernism", condemned by the Encyclical Pascendi Gregis, owes its origin.它是基督教的转型,这个“现代主义”,由通谕Pascendi Gregis谴责,欠它的起源。

In modern Protestantism the Bible has decidely fallen from the primacy which the Reformation had so loudly conferred upon it.在现代基督教的圣经决然已从改革的其中有这么大声赋予它的首要地位。The fall is a fatal one, becoming deeper from day to day; and without remedy, since it is the logical consequence of the fundamental principle put forward by Luther and Calvin.秋天是一个致命的一个,成为更深的每一天,并没有补救办法,因为它是合乎逻辑的结果基本原则提出路德和卡尔文前进。 Freedom of examination was destined sooner or later to produce freedom of thought.考试自由注定迟早要产生思想的自由。 (Cf. A. Sabatier, Les religions d'autorite et la religion de l'espirité, 2nd ed., 1904, pp. 399-403.) (参见A.萨巴蒂尔,莱斯宗教D' autorite ET LA宗教DE L' espirité,第二版,1904年,页399-403。)

Publication information Written by Alfred Durand.出版信息书面由Alfred杜兰德。Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie.转录由贝丝STE - 玛丽。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

CATHOLIC WORKS.-FRANZELIN, Tractatus de divina traditione et scriptura (2nd ed., Rome, 1875), 321-405; SCHMID, De inspirationis bibliorum vi et ratione (Louvain, 1886); ZANECCHIA, Divina inspiratio Sacrae Scripturae (Rome, 1898); Scriptor Sacer (Rome, 1903); BILLOT, De inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae (Rome, 1903); CH.天主教WORKS. - FRANZELIN,逻辑哲学论德divina traditione等圣经(第二版,罗马,1875),321-405;施密德,德inspirationis bibliorum VI等理由(鲁汶,1886年); ZANECCHIA,Divina inspiratio Sacrae Scripturae(罗马,1898 ); Scriptor Sacer(罗马,1903年); BILLOT,德inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae(罗马,1903年); CH。 PESCH, De inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae (Freiburg im Br., 1906); LAGRANGE in Revue Biblique (Paris, 1895), p.佩施,德inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae(弗赖堡IM溴,1906年); LAGRANGE在歌剧Biblique(巴黎,1895年),第(London,6 Nov., 1897, to 5 Feb., 1898); HUMMELAUER, Exegetisches zur Inspirationsfrage (Freiburg im Br., 1904); FONCK, Der Kampf um die Warheit der heil. (伦敦,1897年11月6日,到1898年2月5日);胡梅劳尔,Exegetisches楚Inspirationsfrage(弗赖堡IM溴,1904年);方克,DER奋斗嗯死Warheit DER万岁。Schrift seit 25 Jahren (Innsburck, 1905); DAUSCH, Die Schrifitnspiration (Freiburg im Br., 1891); HOLZHEY, Die Inspiration de heil.Schrift seit 25 Jahren(Innsburck,1905年); DAUSCH,模具Schrifitnspiration(弗赖堡IM溴,1891年); HOLZHEY,模具的启示DE万岁。Schrift in der Anschauung des Mittelaters (Munich, 1895); CH.Schrift在DER Anschauung DES Mittelaters(慕尼黑,1895年); CH。PESCH, Zur neuesten Geschichte der Katholischen Inspirationslehre (Freiburg im Br., 1902)佩施,祖尔neuesten历史馆DER Katholischen Inspirationslehre(弗赖堡IM溴,1902年)

PROTESTANT WORKS.-GUSSEN, Theopneustic (2nd ed., Paris, 1842), tr.新教WORKS. - GUSSEN,Theopneustic(第2版,巴黎,1842年),TR。Pleanry Inspiration of Holy Scripture; LEE, Inspiration of Holy Scripture (Dublin, 1854); ROHNERT, Die Inspiration, der heil, Schrift und ihre Bestreiter (Leipzig, 1889); SANDAY, The oracles of God (London, 1891); FARRAR, The Bible, Its meaning and Supremacy (London, 1897); History of Interpretation (London 1886); A Clerical Symposium on Inspiration (London, 1884); RABAUD, Histoire de la doctrine de l inspriaation dans les pays de langue francaise depuis la Reforme jusqu a nos jours (Paris, 1883). Pleanry启示圣经;李,圣经(都柏林,1854年)的灵感; ROHNERT,模具的启示,DER万岁,Schrift UND ihre Bestreiter(莱比锡,1889年),桑迪,神的神谕(伦敦,1891年);法勒,的,它的意义和霸权(伦敦,1897年)圣经;历史的解释(伦敦1886年);关于文书的启示研讨会(伦敦,1884年); RABAUD,Histoire德拉主义DE升inspriaation DANS LES支付DE LANGUE法兰西depuis LA Reforme jusqu a NOS乐之日(巴黎,1883)。



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