Epistle of James詹姆斯 书信

General Information一般资料

The Epistle of James, the first of the general letters (Catholic epistles) of the New Testament of the Bible, is an exhortation to Christian patience and obedience. The book, more a sermon than a letter, uses 54 imperatives in 108 verses to call its readers to responsible living that accords with what they profess.詹姆斯的书信中,一般信件的新约圣经(天主教书信)第一,是对基督教的耐心和服从劝告的书,更是一个比一个字母说教,用于108节54必要性调用它的读者负责的生活,与他们信奉协议。 Traditionally, James, "the Lord's brother," has been accepted as the author, which would date the book between AD 45 and 50 and would account for its primitive Christology.传统上,詹姆斯,“上帝的兄弟”,已被接受作为作者,这将在公元45日和50书,将占到其原始的基督。Some scholars, however, claim that it comes much later from the hand of another and date the book from late 1st century to early 2d century.一些学者,然而,声称它来晚得多从另一只手和日期从1世纪后期书2D世纪初。

Although accepted by the church from the 2d century, James was reluctantly admitted into the Protestant New Testament canon.虽然从2D世纪的教堂接受,詹姆斯勉强获准进入基督教新约教会。 Martin Luther rejected the book as "a right strawy epistle," because he thought that James contradicted Saint Paul's view of justification by faith alone. Paul, however, was emphasizing the inappropriateness of works for salvation whereas James spoke of works that issue from faith. For both, the essentials are the same, and both were probably dealing independently with a traditional topic of Jewish belief.马丁路德拒绝为书“的权利strawy书信”,因为他认为詹姆斯矛盾圣保罗因信单理由的看法。 保罗,然而,是强调为拯救工程的不当而詹姆斯从信仰的作品,问题发了言。在这两方面,要领是相同的,都可能被处理的犹太信仰传统的主题独立。

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Epistle of James书信詹姆斯

Brief Outline简述

  1. Comfort (1)舒适(1)
  2. Warnings against specific sins of which they are guilty, such as pride, favoring the rich, misuse of the tongue, believing in Faith without Works (2-4)警告针对特定的罪,他们是有罪的,如骄傲利于丰富,舌滥用,在没有信仰相信工程(2-4)
  3. Exhortation to patience in suffering and prayer.劝耐心痛苦和祈祷。(5)(5)


James詹姆斯

Advanced Information先进的信息

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistle of James书信詹姆斯

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1.) Author of, was James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. (1)作者的,是詹姆斯的少,主的弟弟,十二使徒之一。He was one of the three pillars of the Church (Gal. 2:9).他是教会的三大支柱(加拉太书2:9)之一。(2.) It was addressed to the Jews of the dispersion, "the twelve tribes scattered abroad." (2)这是给犹太人的分散“的十二个支派散落国外。”(3.) The place and time of the writing of the epistle were Jerusalem, where James was residing, and, from internal evidence, the period between Paul's two imprisonments at Rome, probably about AD 62.(3)的地点和时间的书信写作了耶路撒冷,在那里住詹姆斯,并从内部证据,与保罗的两个监禁在罗马大概在公元62期。(4.) The object of the writer was to enforce the practical duties of the Christian life. (4)的作家的目的是强制执行的基督徒生活中的实际职务。"The Jewish vices against which he warns them are, formalism, which made the service of God consist in washings and outward ceremonies, whereas he reminds them (1:27) that it consists rather in active love and purity; fanaticism, which, under the cloak of religious zeal, was tearing Jerusalem in pieces (1:20); fatalism, which threw its sins on God (1:13); meanness, which crouched before the rich (2:2); falsehood, which had made words and oaths playthings (3:2-12); partisanship (3:14); evil speaking (4:11); boasting (4:16); oppression (5:4).他说:“犹太人的罪恶,他警告他们反对是,形式主义,这使得在洗涤及离港仪式上帝的服务包括,但他提醒他们(1:27),它包括相当积极的爱和纯洁;狂热,这下对宗教狂热的外衣,被撕裂耶路撒冷件(1:20);宿命论,它扔在神(1:13)的罪;吝啬,这在丰富的(2:2)蹲在;谎言,才使词并宣誓玩具(3:2-12);党派(3:14);恶说(4:11);吹嘘(4:16);压迫(5:4)。

The great lesson which he teaches them as Christians is patience, patience in trial (1:2), patience in good works (1:22-25), patience under provocation (3:17), patience under oppression (5:7), patience under persecution (5:10); and the ground of their patience is that the coming of the Lord draweth nigh, which is to right all wrong (5:8)." "Justification by works," which James contends for, is justification before man, the justification of our profession of faith by a consistent life. Paul contends for the doctrine of "justification by faith;" but that is justification before God, a being regarded and accepted as just by virtue of the righteousness of Christ, which is received by faith.伟大的教训,他教他们作为基督徒的是耐心,耐心试验(1:2),在良好的工作耐心(1:22-25),在挑衅忍耐(3:17),在压迫耐心(5:7)根据迫害(5:10)耐心和他们耐心地是未来的主draweth近了,这是正确的都错了(5:8)“”理由的作品“,这为詹姆斯争辩。 是男人的理由之前,通过一致的生活的理由我们的信仰保罗争辩的专业主义“因信称义,”但在神面前的理由是,一个被视为和接受刚才的美德作为基督的义,这是收到的信念。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


James詹姆斯

Catholic Information天主教信息

The questions concerning this epistle are treated in the following order:关于这封信的问题的处理顺序如下:

I. Author and Genuineness;一,作者和道地性;

II. II。Tradition as to the Canonicity;作为传统的正规;

III. III。Analysis and Contents of the Epistle;分析及书信的内容;

IV. IV。Occasion and Object;场合和对象;

V. To whom addressed;五,谁处理;

VI. VI。Style;风格;

VII.七。Time and Place of composition.时间和地点组成。

I. AUTHOR AND GENUINENESS一,作者和真实性

The author is commonly identified with the Lord's brother, the Bishop of Jerusalem (see ST. JAMES THE LESS; the view that the Lord's brother must be identified with James, the son of Alpheus, is by far the most probable).笔者通常是确定了主的弟弟,耶路撒冷主教(见圣雅各福群越少;认为主的弟弟必须与詹姆斯的河神的儿子鉴定认为,是迄今为止最有可能的)。 Internal evidence (contents of the Epistle, its style, address, date, and place of composition) points unmistakably to James, the Lord's brother, the Bishop of Jerusalem, as the author; he exactly, and he alone, fulfils the conditions required in the writer of the Epistle.内部证据(的书信内容,其风格,地址,日期,和构成发生)分明白无误地向詹姆斯,主的兄弟,耶路撒冷主教,作为作者,他准确的,他孤独,满足需要的条件作家的书信。 External evidence begins at a comparatively late date.外部证据开始在一个比较晚的日期。Some coincidences, or analogies, exist between the Epistle and the Apostolic Fathers (Clement of Rome, the Pastor Hermas, St. Justin, St. Irenæus; see Mienertz, "Der Jacobusbrief", Freiburg im Br., 1905, p. 55 sqq.).有些巧合,或类比,存在之间的书信与(克莱门特的罗马,牧师黑马,圣贾斯汀,圣irenæus使徒父亲,见Mienertz,“明镜Jacobusbrief”,弗莱堡溴,1905年,第55页SQQ。 。)The literary relation between the Epistle of James and the Epistle to the Romans is doubtful.詹姆斯之间的书信和书信向罗马文学的关系是值得怀疑的。Its later recognition in the Church, especially in the West, must be explained by the fact that it was written for Jewish Christians, and therefore not widely circulated among the Gentile Churches.它在特别是在西方教会,后来承认,必须解释的,它是写给犹太基督徒,因此没有得到广泛的外邦教会中流传的事实。 From the middle of the third century, ecclesiastical authors cite the Epistle as written by St. James, the brother of the Lord.从第三个世纪中叶,教会书信的作者引用由圣雅各福群,主的弟弟写的。See the testimonies in the section following.见下面一节中的证词。The greater number of the Fathers in the Western Church identify the author with James the Apostle.而更大的父亲在西方教会数确定与詹姆斯使徒的作者。In the Eastern Church, however, the authority of Eusebius and St. Epiphanius may explain some ecclesiastical doubts about the Apostolic origin of the Epistle, and consequently about its canonicity.在东堂,但尤西比乌斯和圣埃皮法尼乌斯机关可以解释有关的书信使徒教会的起源有些疑虑,因此有关其正规。

II. II。TRADITION AS TO CANONICITY传统,给正规

In the first centuries of the Church the authenticity of the Epistle was doubted by some, and amongst others by Theodore of Mopsuestia; it is therefore deuterocanonical.在第一世纪教会的书信的真实性被怀疑一些,和西奥多的摩普绥提亚在其他之中,它是因此次经。It is wanting in the Muratorian Canon, and because of the silence of several of the Western Churches regarding it, Eusebius classes it amongst the Antilegomena or contested writings (Hist. eccl., III, xxv; II, xxiii); St. Jerome gives the like information (De vir. ill., ii), but adds that with time its authenticity became universally admitted.它是希望在穆拉多利佳能,而且由于它的关于西方教会几个沉默,尤西比乌斯类之间的Antilegomena或有争议的著作(Hist.传道书,三,二十五;二,二十三),它提供了圣杰罗姆之类的信息(德VIR。生病。​​,II),但补充说,随着时间的推移变得普遍承认它的真实性。 In the sixteenth century its inspired nature was contested by Erasmus and Cajetan; Luther strongly repudiated the Epistle as "a letter of straw", and "unworthy of the apostolic Spirit", and this solely for dogmatic reasons, and owing to his preconceived notions, for the epistle refutes his heretical doctrine that Faith alone is necessary for salvation.在十六世纪的启发性质有争议的伊拉斯谟和Cajetan;路德强烈批判为“信稻草”,和“使徒的精神不值得”,这纯粹为教条的原因,因为他的先入之见的书信,他的书信驳斥异端学说,信仰仅是必要的救赎。 The Council of Trent dogmatically defined the Epistle of St. James to be canonical.安理会的遄达教条明确了圣雅各福群书信要规范。As the solution of this question of the history of the canonicity of the Epistle depends chiefly on the testimony of the ancient Fathers, it remains to be seen whether it is quoted by them as Scripture.由于这种对历史的正规书信问题的解决主要取决于古父亲的证词,这还有待观察它是否是由他们援引圣经。(a) In the Latin Church it was known by St. Clement of Rome (before AD 100), the Pastor Hermas (about AD 150), St. Irenæus (125?-202?, 208), Tertullian (d. about 240), St. Hilary (d. 366), St. Philaster (d. 385), St. Ambrose (d. 397), Pope Damasus (in the canon of about AD 382), St. Jerome (346-420), Rufinus (d. 410), St. Augustine (430), and its canonicity is unquestioned by them. (一)在拉丁美洲教会它被称为圣克莱门特的罗马(公元100年之前),牧师黑马(约公元150),圣爱任纽(125℃-202?,208),良(d.约240 ),圣希拉里(四366),圣Philaster(四385),圣刘汉铨(四397),教皇达玛斯(在大约公元382佳能),圣杰罗姆(346-420), Rufinus(卒于410),圣奥古斯丁(430),其正规是毋庸置疑的他们。(b) In the Greek Church, Clement of Alexandria (d. 217), Origen (d. 254), St. Athanasius (d. 373), St. Dionysius the Areopagite (about AD 500), etc., considered it undoubtedly as a sacred writing. (b)在希腊教会,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(四217),奥利(四254),圣亚他那修(四373),圣修斯的Areopagite(约公元500年)等,认为它无疑作为一个神圣的写作。 (c) In the Syrian Church, the Peshito, although omitting the minor Catholic Epistles, gives that of St. James; St. Ephraem uses it frequently in his writings. (c)在叙利亚教会,Peshito,虽然省略了轻微的天主教教会中,给出了圣雅各福群说,圣Ephraem使用它经常在他的著作。Moreover, the most notorious heretics of Syria recognised it as genuine.此外,叙利亚最臭名昭著的异端承认它作为真实的。Thus we find that Nestorius ranked it in the Canon of Sacred Books, and James of Edessa adduces the testimony of James, v, 14.因此,我们发现,涅斯排在圣书佳能它和埃德萨詹姆斯举出的詹姆斯​​,V,14证词。The Epistle is found in the Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Arabic, and Armenian versions.在书信中发现的科普特人,Sahidic,埃塞俄比亚,阿拉伯语,亚美尼亚语版本。Although, therefore, the canonicity of the Epistle of St. James was questioned by a few during the first centuries, there are to be found from the very earliest ages, in different parts of the Church, numerous testimonies in favour of its canonicity.虽然,因此,在圣雅各福群正规书信是由几个质疑在第一世纪,有必须从最早的年龄在不同地区的教会,在正规的青睐,其众多的证词,发现。 From the end of the third century its acceptance as inspired, and as the work of St. James, has been universal, as clearly appears from the various lists of the Sacred Books drawn up since the fourth century.从第三个世纪末的启发,作为圣雅各福群验收工作,已得到普及,为清楚显示从四世纪以来吸引了圣书的各种名单。

III. III。ANALYSIS AND CONTENTS OF THE EPISTLE分析及书信内容

The subjects treated of in the Epistle are many and various; moreover, St. James not infrequently, whilst elucidating a certain point, passes abruptly to another, and presently resumes once more his former argument; hence it is difficult to give a precise division of the Epistle.在书信的主题是治疗许多不同,此外,圣雅各福群并不罕见,同时阐明了某一点,突然传递到另一个,目前他的前恢复once更多参数,因此,很难给出一个确切的划分的书信。 It is doubtful whether the sacred writer intended any systematic arrangement of subject; indeed, it is more probable that he did not, for in the Hebrew Sapiential Books of the Old Testament, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiasticus, to which the present Epistle may in many ways be likened, the order in which the moral sentences stand does not seem to suggest any connection between them.这是令人怀疑的神圣作家打算受到任何系统的安排,事实上,它更可能是他没有为在旧约,箴言,传道书,Ecclesiasticus,希伯来语智斗书籍,其中目前可在许多书信方法是比喻,订单中的道德判决的立场似乎并没有提出任何它们之间的连接。 It will therefore be more expedient to give a simple enumeration of the subjects treated in the Epistle:因此,它将是更快捷,让一个在书信处理的科目简单列举:

Inscription (i, 1); persecutions are to be borne with patience and joy (2-4); wisdom must be asked of God with confidence (5-8); humility is recommended (9-11); God is not the author of evil but of good (12-18); we must be slow to anger (19-21); not faith only, but also good works are necessary (22-27).铭文(I,1);迫害要耐心和喜悦(2-4)承担;智慧必须问神有信心(5-8);谦卑建议(9-11),神是不是作者但邪恶的好(12-18),我们一定要慢愤怒(19-21),不信而已,而且好的作品是必要的(22-27)。 Against respect of persons (ii, 1-13); another exhortation to good works (14-26).对人(二1-13)的尊重;另一个(14-26)优秀作品告诫。Against the evils of the tongue (iii, 1-12); against envy and discord, 13-18.对舌头的罪恶(三,1-12);对嫉妒和纷争,13-18。Against wars and contentions (iv, 1-3); against the spirit of this world and pride (4-10); against detraction (11-13a); against vain confidence in worldly things (13b-16).反对战争和争论(四,1-3);反对世间万物白白信心(13B - 16);对这个世界的精神和骄傲(4-10);对谗言(11 - 13A)。Against the rich that oppress the poor (v, 1-6); exhortation to patience in the time of oppression (7-11), and to avoid swearing (12); of the anointing of the sick (13-15); of prayer (16); we must have at heart the conversion of sinners (19-20).对富人的欺压穷人(V,1-6);劝勉的压迫时间(7-11),以耐心,避免宣誓就职(12)的病人(13-15)恩膏;的祈祷(16),我们必须在心有灵犀的罪人(19-20)转换。

This enumeration shows that St. James inculcates especially: patience and perseverance in adversity, temptations, and persecutions; the necessity of good works, mercy, and charity.此枚举显示,圣雅各福群灌输,特别是:耐心和在逆境中,诱惑,和迫害毅力;的优秀作品,怜悯和施舍的必要性。 For the question of apparent opposition between St. James and St. Paul with regard to "faith and works" see EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS.对于圣雅各福群之间的明显对立和圣保罗方面问题“的信念和作品”看书信向罗马人。

IV. IV。OCCASION AND OBJECT场合和对象

A. OccasionA.场合

St. James seems to have been moved to write his Epistle on witnessing that the first fervour of the Jewish Christians had grown cold, and that, owing to various causes, both external and internal, a certain spirit of discouragement had declared itself amongst them.圣雅各福群似乎已经转移到写上看到的是,第一个犹太基督徒的热情冷了他的书信增长,而且,由于种种原因,外部和内部的某些精神沮丧宣布他们中间本身。

(1) External Causes.(1)外部原因。The new Christian converts found themselves at first the object of the indifference only of their fellow townsfolk, the greater number of whom still remained in unbelief; but this attitude very soon changed to one of hostility and even persecution.新的基督教徒在第一次发现的冷漠对象只是他们的同胞乡亲,更多的人仍然在保持自己不信,但这种态度很快转为敌对之一,甚至迫害。 These early converts, belonging as they mostly did to the poorer classes, found themselves oppressed by the wealthy unbelievers; some were refused employment, others were denied their wages (v, 4); at other times they were mercilessly dragged before the tribunals (ii, 6); they were persecuted in the synagogues, and were, besides, reduced to extreme want and even starvation (ii, 15-17).这些早期的转换,因为它们大多属于没有给贫困阶层,发现自己被压迫的富裕不信,有的被拒绝就业,其他人被剥夺了他们的工资(V,4);在其他时间他们在法庭上被无情地拖(二6),他们被迫害的犹太教堂,并,此外,要减少到极端,甚至饥饿(二,15-17)。

(2) Internal Causes.(2)内部原因。In the midst of these trials the faith of many began to languish (ii, 14, 20, 26), and the evil ways they had abandoned at their conversion were gradually indulged in once more.在这些试验当中的许多信仰开始憔悴(二,14,20,26),以及他们在自己的转换方式逐渐摒弃邪恶的再次姑息迁就。Thus it came to pass that the poor were despised in the sacred assemblies (ii, 1-9); there were breaches of brotherly charity (ii, 7); some arrogated to themselves the office of teacher who were unfitted (iii, 1, 13); many were guilty of detraction and other sins of the tongue (iii, 1-12; iv, 11-13); there were contentions and lawsuits (iv, 1-2); some indulged in swearing (v, 12); others neglected assiduous prayer (v, 13, 17-18); pride and vainglory were yielded to (iv, 6-10); even some of the sacred rites seem to have been overlooked (v, 14-16).因此过了,穷人都在(二,1-9)神圣的集会所不齿;有兄弟的慈善机构违反(二,7);一些僭取了教师办公室​​谁是unfitted(三,1, 13),许多人的诽谤和舌头的其他罪(三,1-12有罪;四,11-13);有争论和诉讼(四,1-2),有的沉迷宣誓就职(V,12) ;人忽视的刻苦祈祷(V,13,17-18);骄傲和虚荣是屈服于(四,6-10);甚至是神圣的仪式部分似乎被忽视了(V,14-16)。Such were the evils that the Epistle sought to remedy.这些是邪恶的书信寻求补救。

B. Object B.对象

St. James wrote his Epistle for a moral purpose, and addressed his co-religionists as their pastor, in his quality of Bishop of Jerusalem, in order: (1) to exhort them to constancy in the faith in spite of the persecutions and trials they were undergoing, and to give them comfort in their tribulations; (2) to correct the abuses and extirpate the evils amongst them, by urging them to make their conduct conformable to their faith, and by earnestly reminding them that faith alone would not save them unless they added good works.圣雅各福群写了一个道德目的,他的书信,并解决他们的牧师他的教友,在他的主教质量耶路撒冷,以便:(1)在叮咛他们坚贞的信念在迫害和考验,尽管他们是经历,并给予他们在他们的苦难舒适;(2)纠正滥用和消灭他们之中的罪恶,敦促他们,使他们的行为顺应性他们的信仰,并认真提醒他们,信仰本身不能保存他们补充说,除非他们的优秀作品。

V. TO WHOM ADDRESSED五,为谁ADDRESSED

St. James wrote his Epistle for the Jewish Christians outside Palestine, who, for the greater part, were poor and oppressed.圣雅各福群说巴勒斯坦以外的犹太基督徒,谁,为了更大的一部分,是穷人和被压迫他的书信。This we gather with certitude from the inscription (i, 1), and from various indications in the text.这是我们收集与确定性的题词(I,1),并在文中从各种迹象。A. The words, i, 1, "to the twelve tribes" can mean the whole Jewish nation; but the words following, "which are scattered abroad", designate clearly the Jews of the Dispersion.答的话,我,1,“到十二个支派”可能意味着整个犹太民族,但下面的话“,这是国外散”,指定明确的分散的犹太人。 The Jews in Palestine, surrounded by Gentiles, were not considered as "scattered abroad".在巴勒斯坦的犹太人,外邦人所包围,被不被视为“海外散”。That he addressed the Jewish Christians only becomes evident by the fact that the author styles himself "the servant of God, and of our Lord Jesus Christ", and by this title he indicates clearly that he writes to the disciples of Christ only.他讨论了犹太人基督徒只变得明显的是,作者的风格自己是“神的仆人,和我们的主耶稣基督”,并通过这个称号,他清楚地表明,他只写了基督的门徒。

B. That the readers were Jewish appears still more evidently from the Epistle itself. B.这是犹太人的读者似乎更明显的书信本身。St. James takes for granted that those whom he addressed were well versed in the writings of the Old Testament.圣雅各福群理所当然地认为那些人,他解决了远在旧约的著作精通。Moreover, he calls them not only his "brethren", which name taken by itself does not remove all doubt, but he so clearly shows them to be Christians that it is incomprehensible how any critics understand unconverted Jews to be the "brethren" to whom the Epistle was written.此外,他呼吁他们不要只是他的“兄弟”,这本身采取的名称不排除一切怀疑,但他这样清楚地表明他们是基督徒,这是不可理解如何理解未转换的任何批评犹太人是“兄弟”给谁写的书信。 Thus in i, 18, he writes to those whom God "of his own will hath begotten by the word of truth, that they might be some beginning of his creature"; in ii, 1, he admonishes them as follows: "My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory with respect to persons"; in ii, 7, he refers to them when he writes of "the good name [of Christ] that is invoked upon you"; in v, 7, they are to be patient "until the coming of the Lord"; etc. Further proof is afforded by the date of composition.因此,在我18,他写信给那些人神“,他自己将祂所独生子由真理的道,他们可能是他的一些生物的开始”,在二,1,他告诫如下这些:“我的兄弟,有尊重的人不是我们的主耶稣基督荣耀的信念“,在二,7日,他提到他们时,他写道:”好名字[基督]被调用后,你“,在五,7 ,他们要有耐心“,直到主来了”,等等。进一步证明是由组成的日期负担得起。

C. The context does not reveal who were the particular Jewish converts, to whom the Epistle was addressed.C的情况下不透露谁是犹太人的特殊转换,以书信是写给谁的。We gather, however, that St. James appeals to certain Christians, labouring under the stress of particular circumstances, in order to warn them against special perils; no one will easily admit that the vices against which he inveighs and the errors which he condemns were to be met with in each and every community of Jewish converts.我们收集,但是,圣雅各福群呼吁某些基督徒,劳动特殊情况下的压力,以提醒他们对特别危险,没有人会轻易承认的恶习对他inveighs和错误,他谴责了要达到在每个犹太人转换每一个社区。 Therefore the conclusion that he addressed some particular Churches forces itself upon our minds.因此,结论是他解决一些特殊的教会势力在我们的头脑本身。As, according to the most probable opinion, the Epistle was not written later than about AD 50, we may conclude that it was written to some of the Churches of Syria or of another country not far distant from Jerusalem.为,按照最可能认为,不写书信是晚于公元50,我们可以得出结论,这是写信给叙利亚或其他国家不远处遥远的耶路撒冷教会一些。

VI. VI。STYLE STYLE

The style is sententious, figurative, often poetical, and may be compared to that of the Prophetical and Sapiential Books of the Old Testament.的风格是简洁的,形象化,经常诗,并可能比对旧约的预言和智斗的书籍。It is rapid, betrays emotion, and is not wanting in those vehement outbursts of feeling customary with the writers of that period, and which so powerfully set the force of the argument before the reader.它是快速,背叛情感,而不是在感觉与那个时期的作家的习惯,并因此有力地设置在读者面前爆发激烈争论迫使那些想。It has already been noticed that the different sentences of the Epistle may be divided into hemistichs of parallel meaning; this is quite in keeping with the distinctly Hebraic style of the whole Epistle; it is a well known fact that the classical period is not found in Hebrew, but that the short members of a proposition are continually in juxtaposition.它已经注意到,在书信的不同句子可能会变成平行的意义hemistichs划分,这很符合整个书信明显希伯来风格是一致的,它是一个众所周知的事实,古典时期中没有找到希伯来文,但对一个命题的短成员在并列不断。

VII.七。TIME AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION时间和地点组成

A. Time A.时间

The Epistle was probably written about AD 47.可能是写的书信约公元47。The reference to the persecutions (ii, 6) is in the present tense, and indicates a stage of suffering which has not yet receded into the past of history.到迫害参考(二,六)在目前的紧张,并指出其中的痛苦阶段,尚未进入历史过去退去。Now, in AD 44 the Churches of Judea were exposed to the persecution inflicted by Herod Agrippa, in which James, the son of Zebedee, was murdered (Acts 12:1 sqq.).现在,在公元44犹太的教堂被暴露在希律阿格里帕,其中詹姆斯,西庇太的儿子被谋杀(使徒12点01 SQQ)遭受的迫害。 Moreover, the author could not have written after the Council of Jerusalem (AD 51), where James acted as president, without some allusion to his decision unanimously accepted (Acts 15:4 sqq.).此外,笔者也没有写在耶路撒冷议会(公元51),其中詹姆斯担任总统,如果没有某种一致接受他的决定(使徒15点04 SQQ)典故。Another indication also derived from indirect internal evidence, is an allusion to the hungry and naked poor (of Jerusalem, ii, 15 sqq.); they suffered probably from the famine foretold by Agabus (Acts 11:28-30), and usually identified with one mentioned by Josephus (Antiq., XX, ii, 5), AD 45.从内部也间接证据得出的另一个迹象,是一种赤裸裸的饥饿和贫困(耶路撒冷,二,15 SQQ)典故,它们可能是由遭受饥荒的亚迦布(徒11:28-30)预言,通常确定由约瑟夫(Antiq.,XX,二,五),公元45提及的。

B. Place of CompositionB.地点组成

The Epistle was probably written by St. James in Jerusalem; this we may conclude from the study of the life of the author (see SAINT JAMES THE LESS), and this opinion finds favour with nearly all its critics.可能是写的书信在耶路撒冷的圣詹姆斯,这我们可以从作者的学习生活结束(见圣詹姆斯以下),并发现这种观点与几乎所有的批评者的青睐。

Publication information Written by A. Camerlynck.出版信息A. Camerlynck书面。Transcribed by Christopher Nantista.转录由克里斯托弗Nantista。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Consult Introductions to the New Testament.咨询介绍新约。It will suffice to indicate some recent commentaries and special studies in which the earlier bibliography is mentioned.这将足以表明最近的一些评论和专题研究,其中前面提到的书目。CATHOLIC WORKS:-ERMONI IN VIGOUROUX, Dict.天主教作品:VIGOUROUX,快译通,ERMONI。de la Bible, s.vv.德拉圣经,s.vv.Jacques (Saint) le Majeur, Jacques (Saint) le Mineur, Jacques (Epître de Saint); JACQUIER, Histoire des livres de Nouveau Testament (Paris, 1909); MEINERTZ, Der Jacobusbrief und sein Verfasser in Schrift und Ueberlieferung (Frieburg im Br., 1905); CALMES, Epître catholiques, Apocalypse (Paris, 1905); VAN STEENKISTE-CAMERLYNCK, Commentarius in Epistolas Catholicas (Bruges, 1909).雅克(圣)乐MAJEUR,雅克(圣)乐Mineur,雅克(Epître德圣); JACQUIER,Histoire DES里弗约德风格(巴黎,1909年); MEINERTZ,DER Jacobusbrief UND盛Verfasser在Schrift UND Ueberlieferung(Frieburg IM溴,,1905年); CALMES,Epître CATHOLIQUES,启示(巴黎,1905年); VAN STEENKISTE - CAMERLYNCK,在Epistolas Catholicas Commentarius(布鲁日,1909年)。 NON-CATHOLIC WORKS:-LIPSIUS, Die apocryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden (Braunschweig, 1883-1890); SPITTA, Der Brief des Jacobus (Göttingen, 1896); MAYOR, The Epistle of St. James (London, 1892); IDEM in HASTINGS, Dict.非天主教务:- LIPSIUS,模具apocryphen Apostelgeschichten UND Apostellegenden(不伦瑞克,1883年至1890年);施皮塔,德简介DES雅各(哥廷根,1896年);市长,圣雅各福群书信(伦敦,1892年); IDEM在黑斯廷斯,快译通。of the Bible, s.vv.圣经,s.vv.James and James, The General Epistle of; PLUMPTRE, The General Epistle of St. James (Cambridge, 1901); EMMETT in HASTINGS-SELBIE, Dict.詹姆斯和詹姆斯,一般书信的; PLUMPTRE,在圣雅各福群一般书信(剑桥,1901年);在黑斯廷斯,SELBIE埃米特,快译通。of the Bible, sv James, Epistle of.圣经,SV詹姆斯的书信。


Saint James the Just圣詹姆斯刚

Orthodox Information东正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息可能不是在相信其他文章的学术质量。由于很少有正统学术文章已被翻译成英文,我们不得不依赖于作为源东正教的Wiki,由于维基百科集合不注明作者姓名的文章,而且基本上任何人都可以自由地编辑或改变他们的任何文章(同样没有任何的改变是什么或谁改变了它的指示),我们有顾虑,但为了我们的主题包括在一些正统的角度介绍,我们发现有必要做到这一点。至少到实际的学术正统的希腊文本从原稿翻译!)

Saint James the Just, also called James Adelphos and James the Brother of Our Lord (died AD 62), was the first Bishop or Patriarch of Jerusalem.圣詹姆斯公正,也称为詹姆斯Adelphos和詹姆斯对我们的主(死于公元62)兄弟,是第一个主教或主教耶路撒冷。 According to the Protoevangelion of James, James was the son of Joseph - along with the other 'brethren of the Lord' mentioned in the scripture—from a marriage prior to his betrothal to Mary.根据詹姆斯Protoevangelion,詹姆斯是约瑟的儿子 - 连同经文中提到,从结婚前,他对玛丽订婚的其他“主的弟兄”。He wrote an epistle which is part of the New Testament.他写了一封书信这是新约的一部分。St. James is commemorated on October 23; on December 26 and also on the first Sunday after the Nativity, along with David the King and St. Joseph; and on January 4 among the Seventy Apostles.圣雅各福群为纪念10月23日,12月26日,也是在耶稣诞生后的第一个星期日,随着大卫国王和圣若瑟,并于1月4日之间七十使徒。 Contents目录

Name名称

Eusebius, quoting from Hegesippus, writes that James was "called the Just by all from the time of our Savior to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James."尤西比乌斯,从Hegesippus报价,写道:詹姆斯是“只要从我们的救主到现在一天的时间都呼吁,因为有许多孔詹姆斯的名字。”

He is called Adelphos (Greek "brother").他被称为Adelphos(希腊语“兄弟”)。Jesus's 'brothers'—James as well as Jude, Simon, and Joses—are mentioned in Matthew 13:55, Mark 6:3, Luke 6:14, and by Paul in Galatians 1:19.耶稣的“brothers' - 詹姆斯以及犹大,西门,Joses,在马太福音13:55,马可福音6时03分,卢克6点14分,和保罗在加拉太书1时19分提到。

Life生活

Jerome, De Viris Illustribus, quotes Hegesippus' account of James from the fifth book of his lost Commentaries:杰罗姆,德Viris Illustribus,报价从他失去了评第五册Hegesippus“詹姆斯的帐户:

"After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees." “经过使徒,詹姆斯主的弟弟姓在耶路撒冷的教会就写了头,很多确实是叫詹姆斯,这一次是他母亲的子宫神圣,他喝了没有酒也不浓酒,吃无肉,从未剃膏或与本人或沐浴软膏,他独自有进入至圣所的特权,因为他的确没有用亚麻和羊毛外衣,但走进寺庙单独和代表人民祈祷,他的膝盖insomuch已获得了驰名的骆驼“膝盖的硬度。”

Paul further describes James as being one of the persons the risen Christ showed himself to (I Corinthians 15:3-8); then later in I Corinthians, mentions James in a way that suggests James had been married (9:5); and in Galatians, Paul lists James with Cephas (better known as Peter) and John, as the three "pillars" of the Church, and who will minister to "the circumcised" (that is the Jews) in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the Gentiles (2:9, 2:12).保罗进一步描述为幸福的人复活的基督表明自己一个詹姆斯(哥林多前书15:3-8);后来在哥林多前书,提到詹姆斯的方式,暗示詹姆斯已经结婚(9:5);和在加拉太书,保罗列出矶法(彼得更好地为已知)和约翰詹姆斯的三个“支柱”的教会,谁还会部长到“割礼”在耶路撒冷(即犹太人),而保罗和他的同伴将部长向外邦人(2:9,2:12)。

Acts provides clear evidence that James was an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem.行为提供了明确的证据表明,詹姆斯是在耶路撒冷的基督教社区的重要人物。When Peter, having miraculously escaped from prison, must flee Jerusalem, he asks that James be informed (12:17).当彼得,奇迹般地从监狱逃出后,必须逃离耶路撒冷,他要求詹姆斯通知(12:17)。When the Christians of Antioch are concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved, they send Paul and Barnabas to confer with the church there, and it is James who utters the definitive judgment (15:13ff).当安提阿的基督徒来说,究竟需要外邦基督徒受割礼才能得救,他们发送保罗和巴拿巴赋予与教会那里,这是詹姆斯说出谁的权威判断(15:13 FF)。When Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is James to whom he speaks, and who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself (21:18).当保罗在耶路撒冷到达交付的钱,为信徒有提高,这是詹姆斯的人,他说话了,谁坚持认为,保罗仪式净化自己(21:18)。 A debated passage, often characterized as a Christian interpolation, in Josephus' Jewish Antiquities, records his death in Jerusalem as having occurred after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Clodius Albinus took office (Antiquities 20,9)—which has thus been dated to AD 62.一个争论不休的通道,常作为基督教插值的特点,在约瑟夫“犹太古物,在耶路撒冷为有记录他的死亡发生在检察Porcius非斯都死亡,但上任前克洛迪乌斯阿尔比努斯(古物20,9) - 这也因此一直到公元62年。The high priest Ananus took advantage of this lack of imperial oversight to assemble a council of judges who condemned James "on the charge of breaking the law," then had him executed by stoning.大祭司Ananus注意到了这个帝国缺乏监督的优势,组建了一支由法官理事会谁谴责詹姆斯“对违法收费”,然后让他执行了死刑。 Josephus reports that Ananus' act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder, and offended a number of "those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City, and strict in their observance of the Law," who went as far as meeting Albinus as he entered the province to petition him about the matter.约瑟夫说Ananus“行为被广泛视为略高于司法谋杀多,得罪了一些报道”谁被认为是最公正的,在市人,在其严格遵守法律,“谁去远作为会议阿尔比努斯他进入省上访对此事他。 Their agitations led to Ananus being deposed as high priest.他们鼓动导致被废黜Ananus为大祭司。

Eusebius, while quoting Josephus' account, also records otherwise lost passages from Hegesippus (see links below), and Clement of Alexandria (Historia Ecclesiae, 2.23).尤西比乌斯,而引用约瑟夫“帐户,也记录从Hegesippus(见下面的链接),否则失去了通道,和亚历山大(Historia,该书,2.23)克莱门特。 Hegesippus' account apparently varied from what Josephus reports: the Pharisees, upset at St. James' teachings, first threw him from the summit of the Temple in Jerusalem, then stoned him, and at last broke his skull with a fuller's club. Hegesippus“账户显然是从什么变化约瑟夫报告:法利赛在圣雅各福群心烦的教诲,首先抛出从他在耶路撒冷圣殿首脑会议,然后用石头打死他,终于打破了更充分的俱乐部他的头骨。

The Protevangelion of James (or Infancy Gospel of James), a work of the 2nd century, also presents itself as written by James.詹姆斯的Protevangelion(或婴儿詹姆斯福音),是二世纪的工作,也提出了自己的詹姆斯写的。

Hymns赞美诗

Troparion (Tone 4) [1]Troparion(音4)[1]

As the Lord's disciple you received the Gospel, O righteous James;作为主的门徒收到了福音,O正义的詹姆斯;
As a martyr you have unfailing courage;作为烈士你不懈的勇气;
As God's brother, you have boldness;作为上帝的兄弟,你有胆量;
As a hierarch, you have the power to intercede.作为一个教主,你有权力说情。
Pray to Christ God that our souls may be saved.祈求基督上帝,我们的灵魂可能会被保存。

Kontakion (Tone 4)集祷颂(音4)

When God the Word, the Only-begotten of the Father,当神的话语,父的独生子,
Came to live among us in these last days,来到我们中间生活在这些最后的日子,
He declared you, venerable James, to be the first shepherd and teacher of Jerusalem他宣布你,可敬的詹姆斯,成为第一个牧羊人和耶路撒冷教师
And a faithful steward of the spiritual Mysteries.而一个神秘的精神忠实的管家。
Therefore, we all honor you, O Apostle.因此,我们所有的荣誉你,O使徒。

External links外部链接

Apostle James, of the Seventy, the Brother of the Lord, January 4 (OCA)使徒詹姆斯,七十,主的兄弟,1月4日(OCA)
Apostle James, the Brother of the Lord, October 23 (OCA)使徒詹姆斯,主的10月23日(OCA)兄弟
Righteous James the Brother of the Lord, along with Joseph the Betrothed, and David the King, December 30 (OCA)正义詹姆斯兄弟主,随着约瑟的未婚妻,和大卫国王12月30日(OCA)
James the Apostle, brother of Our Lord (GOARCH)詹姆斯的使徒,我们的主的弟弟(GOARCH)
"The martyrdom of James, the brother of the Lord" Quotes from lost writings of Hegesippus in Eusebius.他说:“殉难詹姆斯,主的兄弟”行情来自于尤西比乌斯Hegesippus失去著作。
Flavius Josephus Antiquities of the Jews Book 20, Chapter 9弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫古物犹太人的书20章,第9



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