Book of Job书的作业

General Information一般资料

The Book of Job, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is a complex wisdom writing that uses a blend of prose and poetry in dramatic form to explore the perennial problem of innocent suffering and God's justice.在约伯记,在圣经旧约,是一个复杂的智慧写在戏剧形式,它使用的散文和诗歌交融,探索无辜的痛苦和上帝的公义的长期问题。 The principal figure of the book is Job, a pious Jew afflicted with disease and stripped of all his goods.该书的主要数字是工作,一个虔诚的犹太人患有疾病和剥夺他的所有商品。The free and imaginative transformations of the Job figure are literarily and intellectually comparable to Shakespeare's treatment of Hamlet and Goethe's use of Faust.图中的就业自由和想象力的转换是文采和智力媲美莎士比亚的哈姆雷特和歌德的浮士德使用的治疗。The identity of the author, usually dated 600 - 400 BC, is completely unknown.作者的身份,通常给600 - 公元前400年,是完全陌生的。

Throughout the drama, Job asserts his innocence of wrong, thereby rejecting the traditional view that suffering is the result of sin.在整个戏剧,作业声称他的错无罪,从而否定了传统认为痛苦是罪恶的结果。The humble and patient Job who bears his sufferings as proofs of piety, however, becomes the raging and insistent Job pressing relentlessly for divine vindication in the dialogue that forms the main part of the book (chaps. 3 - 31).谦卑和耐心的工作谁承担作为虔诚证明他的痛苦,然而,成为肆虐和坚持工​​作迫切的神圣平反无情的对话,构成了本书的主要部分(chaps. 3 - 31)。The argument is pursued through three cycles of speeches in which Job's three friends - Eliphaz, Bilbad, and Zophar - chide the hero and he, in answering them, challenges God.该参数是通过三个追求的演讲中,约伯的三个朋友周期 - 以利法,Bilbad和Zophar - 骂的英雄,他在回答他们,挑战上帝。Job's final self defense and call upon the deity is answered by God's speech from a whirlwind in which Job is invited to trust in the divine omniscience and power.工作的最后自卫,并要求神呼叫回答神的工作中,从请相信在神圣的全知和电源旋风讲话。

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This direct experience of the mysteries of God leaves Job at peace with himself.这种对上帝的奥秘在离开直接经验与自己的和平工作。 Although no final solution to the problem is offered, the author clearly rejects traditional explanations of suffering.虽然没有最终解决的问题是提供的,作者明确地拒绝痛苦传统的解释。It is a moot point whether he offers a positive answer to questions about suffering and divine justice.这是一个有争议的问题,他是否提供了积极的回答关于苦难和神圣的公正问题。

The unity of the book is debated.该书的团结,是辩论。Many interpreters assign the prologue and epilogue to an earlier or later hand, and it is widely assumed that the poem on wisdom (chap. 28) and the speeches (chaps. 32 - 37) of a fourth friend (Elihu) inserted after the dialogues were added later, because they interrupt the flow of the argument.序幕和尾声分配到许多口译较早或较晚的手,它被广泛认为对智慧(28章)和演讲(chaps. 32 - 37)诗的第四个朋友(伊莱休)插入后的对话是后来添加的,因为他们打断的说法流。

Norman K Gottwald诺曼K哥特瓦尔德

Bibliography 参考书目
R Gordis, The Book of God and Man (1965); LD Johnson, Out of the Whirlwind: The Major Message of Job (1971); H Morris, Remarkable Record of Job (1988).ř Gordis,神与人(1965)图书; LD约翰逊,出了旋风:在工作的主要信息(1971年),H莫里斯,约伯骄人战绩(1988年)。

Book of Job书的作业

Brief Outline简述

  1. Prologue (1-2)序幕(1-2)
  2. Job's complaint (3)约伯的投诉(3)
  3. Debates between Job and three friends (4-31)辩论和三个朋友之间的工作(4-31)
  4. Speech of Elihu (32-37)伊莱休的讲话(32-37)
  5. Voice of God (38-41)神的声音(38-41)
  6. Job's submission and restoration (42)作业的提交和恢复(42)


Advanced Information先进的信息

Job, persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (qv).作业,迫害,一个阿拉伯族长是谁在乌斯(QV)土地居住。While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him.而在大繁荣的生活之中,他突然被压垮了他的下跌后疼痛一系列试验。Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity.他所有的痛苦之中,他认为他的诚信。Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before.上帝再一次访问了他的善良和丰富的令牌他甚至比他更大的繁荣享受过。He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11).他存活140年的试用期,并在一个良好的晚年,对千秋万代的完整性(以西结书14点14分,20)的例子,耐心的顺从下sorest灾害死亡(詹姆斯5时11分)。 His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.他的历史,到目前为止,它是已知的,记录在他的书。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Book of Job书的作业

Advanced Information先进的信息

A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book.一种意见存在很大的差异,以这本书的作者。From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon.从内部的证据,如情绪和语言的相似性在这些诗篇和箴言(见诗篇88和89),对流行的理念“智慧”和风格和组成字符,它应该是一些已经写在大卫和所罗门的时间。 Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22).也有人说这是自己写的作业,或以利户,或以赛亚书,或由摩西,谁是“学会了所有的埃及人的智慧,并在言行强大的”(徒7:22)或许更可能。 He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related.他在米店机会获得的相关事实的知识。 But the authorship is altogether uncertain.但作者是完全不确定的。As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest and sublimest poems in all literature.至于书的性格,这是一个历史诗,在所有文学最伟大sublimest诗之一。Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictious.就业是一个历史的人,地方和名字是真实的而不是虚构的。It is "one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-replenished storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive theology.这是“圣经的启发,一个天堂般的舒适性和指导,补充库,宗法圣经,神学和原始的最隆重的部分珍贵的古迹之一。

It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form. This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, BC 600 (Ezek. 14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Heb. 12:5; 1 Cor. 3:19). The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age.这是旧约什么书信向罗马人是新的。“这是一个戏剧性的叙事形式的说教,这本书显然是远在以西结书,公元前600(结14:14)天知道。它形成了我们的上帝和他的使徒们所使用的神圣经文的一部分,是指作为灵感字(希伯来书十二点05;林前3:19)的一部分,该书的主题是审判职业,其场合,性质,耐力和问题,它展示了和谐的启示的真理和上帝的交易,这被看作是一次莫测,公正,仁慈的,它显示了真正虔诚的祝福,甚至疼痛的苦难中,从而部长安慰和希望每一个年龄审判信徒。

It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16).这是一个多方面的指令书,是为主义盈利,为责备,更正,并在义指令(提摩太后书3:16)。It consists of, (1.) An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2).它包括,(1)在散文的历史介绍(章1,2)。(2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6).(2)解决方案的争论及其在诗歌,(章3-42:6)。Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends.约伯的desponding哀悼(章3)是在这三个之间进行的工作和他的三个朋友的对话课程,争论之际。The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of the controversy (22-27).第一个过程给出了争论开始(章4-14),第二个增长的争论(15-21)和第三的争议(22-27)的高度。This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly.其次是对的伊莱休讲话和耶和华的地址,工作的谦卑忏悔自己的错误和愚蠢(42:1-6),其次争议的解决方案。(3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15). (3)第三个部门是历史的结论在散文,(42:7-15)。Sir JW Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters." JW道森先生在“解释者”说:“它现在似乎是语言和神学的作业簿,可以更好地假设它是一个Minean [南沙特阿拉伯]摩西在米甸文学获得比在部分解释任何其他方式,这种观点也同意比任何自然对象的引用,挖掘艺术,以及其他事项其他更好的。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the books of the Old Testament, and the chief personage in it.其中的旧约的书籍,并在它的主要人士。In this article it is primarily the book which is treated.在这篇文章中它主要是它被视为书。As opportunity, however, occurs, and so far as is permissible, Job himself will be considered.为契机,然而,发生,所以尽量是允许的,作业自己会予以考虑。The subject will be discussed under the following heads:该主题将讨论在以下头:


In the Hebrew Bible Psalms, Proverbs, and Job are always placed together, the Psalms coming first, while Job is put between the other two or, at times, comes last.在希伯来文圣经诗篇,箴言,与工作始终放在一起,第一次来的诗篇,而其他工作之间的两个或两个,放在次,最后出现。The three books form a part of the Hagiographa (Kethubim), having sometimes the first place among the Hagiographa, while again they may be preceded by Ruth, or Paralipomenon, or Paralipomen with, Ruth (cf. lists in Ginsburg, "Introduction to Heb. Bible", London, 1897, 7).这三本书形成的Hagiographa(Kethubim)的一部分,有时有之间的Hagiographa首位,而他们又可能是前面的,露丝的露丝,或Paralipomenon,或Paralipomen(参见清单中金斯伯格,“希伯来书简介。圣经“,伦敦,1897年,7)。 In the Greek Bible and the Vulgate Job now stands before Psalms and follows directly after the historical books.在希腊文圣经和武加大工作目前停留在诗篇,并遵循历史书籍后,直接。The old Greek and the Latin manuscripts, however, assign it the most varied positions; see, for exemple, the list of Melito of Sardis, and that of Origen as given by Eusebius, "Hist. Eccle.", IV, iv, 26, and vi, 25 (in PG, XX., 398, 582).在古希腊和拉丁手稿,但是,它分配最多样化的职位;看到,例如,对撒狄梅利托名单,和奥利,据尤西比乌斯定“。组织胺Eccle”,四,四,26和VI,25(在PG,XX。,398,582)。 In the Syriac Bible Job is placed directly after the Pentateuch and before Josue (cf. the lists in Hodius, "De Bibliorum textibus", Oxford, 1705, 644 sqq.; Samuel Berger, "Hist. de la Vulgate", Paris, 1893, 331-39).在叙利亚文圣经作业后直接放置在摩西五前若苏埃(参看列出Hodius,“德Bibliorum textibus”,牛津,1705,644 SQQ;塞缪尔伯杰,“组织胺德拉武加大”,巴黎,1893年,331-39)。


(1) Historical Accuracy (1)历史准确性

Many look upon the entire contents of the book as a freely invented parable which is neither historical nor intended to be considered historical; no such man as Job ever lived.许多看待作为一个自由发明的寓言既不是历史,也不打算考虑历史书的全部内容,没有为这些人曾经生活工作。Catholic commentators, however, almost without exception, hold Job to have actually existed and his personality to have been preserved by popular tradition.天主教评论家,然而,几乎无一例外地举行招聘有实际存在和他的个性已被流行的传统保留下来。Nothing in the text makes it necessary to doubt his historical existence.在文中没有什么使我们有必要怀疑他的历史的存在。The Scriptures seem repeatedly to take this for granted (cf. Ezekiel 14:14; James 5:11; Tobit 2:12-15, according to the Vulgate - in the Greek text of Tobias there is no mention of Job).圣经一再似乎是理所当然的事(参以西结书14时14分,詹姆斯5点11;托比书2:12-15,根据武加大 - 在希腊文的托比亚斯没有工作提)这一点。All the Fathers considered Job an historical person; some of their testimonies may be found in Knabenbauer, "Zu Job" (Paris, 1886), 12-13.所有的父亲认为作业历史的人,他们的证词可能会发现一些在Knabenbauer,“组工”(巴黎,1886),12-13。 The Martyrology of the Latin Church mentions Job on 10 May, that of the Greek Church on 6 May (cf. Acta SS.' II, May, 494).对拉丁美洲教会Martyrology提到5月10日工作,即对希腊教会5月6日(参见文献SS。“二,五,494)。 The Book of Job, therefore, has a kernel of fact, with which have been united many imaginative additions that are not strictly historical.在约伯记,因此,有一个事实的内核,与已团结了许多没有严格的历史想象力的补充。 What is related by the poet in the prose prologue and epilogue is in the main historical: the persons of the hero and his friends; the region where be lived; his good fortune and virtues; the great misfortune that overwhelmed him and the patience with which lie bore it; the restoration of his Prosperity.什么是诗人相关的序幕和尾声是散文的主要历史:英雄和他的朋友的人,该地区居住的地方是,他的好运和美德;不堪重负的巨大不幸,他和耐心与之它位于孔,他的恢复繁荣。 It is also to be accepted that Job and his friends discussed the origin of his sufferings, and that in so doing views were expressed similar to those the poet puts into the mouths of his characters.这也是被接受的工作和他的朋友讨论了他的痛苦来源,而在这样做意见表达了类似的这些诗人到他的人物的口中放。 The details of the execution, the poetic form, and the art shown in the arrangement of the arguments in the dispute are, however, the free creation of the author.在执行过程中,诗的形式,并在争端中的参数显示的艺术安排的细节,但是,作者自由创作。The figures expressive of the wealth of Job both before and after his trial are imaginatively rounded.之前和之后对他的审判的数字的工作表现是想象力丰富圆润。Also in the narrative of the misfortunes it is impossible not to recognize a poetic conception which need not be considered as strictly historical.另外在叙述的不幸是无法不承认一个充满诗意的概念而不必为严格的历史考虑。The scene in heaven (i, 6; ii, 1) is plainly an allegory which shows that the Providence of God guides the destiny of man (cf. St. Thomas, "In Job").在天堂的场景(I,6;二​​,1)显然是一则寓言这表明上帝的上帝引导着人的命运(参见圣托马斯,“在工作”)。The manifestation of God (xxxviii, 1) generally receives a literal interpretation from commentators.神的表现(三十八,1)一般收到来自评论家的字面解释。St. Thomas, however, remarks that it may also be taken metaphorically as an inner revelation accorded to Job.圣托马斯,但是,它也可能被视为一种内在的启示比喻言论给予作业。

(2) Divine Authority of the Book(2)神权的图书

The Church teaches that the book was inspired by the Holy Spirit.教会教导我们,书是由圣灵的启发。Thus all that its author gives as historical fact or otherwise guarantees possesses unfailing Divine truth.因此,所有提交给它的历史事实作为担保或以其他方式拥有一贯的神圣真理。The question, however, arises, what does the book guarantee?现在的问题,但是,出现的时候,什么保证书?(a) Everything in prologue or epilogue that is the comment of the author is Divine truth; nevertheless, what is perhaps poetic ornament must not be confounded with historical verity or objective dogmatic precepts. (a)在序言或后记的一切,是作者的评论是神圣的真理,但是,什么是诗意的装饰品也许不能与历史真实性的或客观的教条戒律混淆。The same authority is possessed by the utterances assigned by the poet to God.拥有同样的权力是由上帝赋予的诗人话语。The like is true of the speeches of Eliu.象是真正的Eliu的发言。Some think the speeches of Eliu are to be judged just as are those of Job and his friends.有些人认为的Eliu的发言将被判断是一样的工作和他的朋友的。(b) The speeches of Job and his three friends have in themselves no Divine authority, but only such human importance as Job and his three friends are Personally entitled to. (二)工作讲话和他的三个朋友都没有在自己神圣的权力,而只是如工作和他的三个朋友人类重要的是个人享受。They have, however, Divine authority when, and in as far as, they are approved by the author expressly or tacitly.他们,然而,当神圣的权威,并在尽可能,它们是由作者通过明示或默许。In general, such tacit approbation is to be understood for all points concerning which the disputants agree, unless the author, or God, or Eliu, shows disapproval.一般来说,这种默契的赞许,是理解为所有涉及点其中争论者同意,除非作者或神,或Eliu,显示不满。Thus the words of Job have in large degree Divine authority, because the view be maintains against the three friends is plainly characterized by the author as the one relatively correct.这样的工作的话有很大程度的神圣权力,因为视图是保持对三个朋友显然是由作者描述为一个相对正确的。Yet much that the three friends say is of equal importance, because it is at least tacitly approved.然而,很多朋友说,这三个是同样重要,因为它至少是默许批准。St. Paul argues (1 Corinthians 3:19) from a speech of Eliphaz (Job 5:13) as from an inspired writing.圣保罗认为从以利法讲话(作业5:13)(林前3:19)从写作的启发。(c) In particular places, especially where descriptions of nature are given or other secular matters are referred to, the caution prescribed by the rules of hermeneutics should be observed. (c)在特别的地方,特别是在大自然的描述给予或其他世俗事务的被称为,通过解释学的规则所规定的应谨慎观察。


Apart from the prologue and epilogue, the Book of Job consists of a succession of speeches assigned to distinct persons.除序幕和尾声,有关职位书由一组分配给不同的人相继发言。There are six speakers: Yahweh, Eliu, Job, and Job's three friends, Eliphaz, Baldad, and Sophar.有六个扬声器:耶和华,Eliu,工作,和约伯的三个朋友,以利法,Baldad和Sophar。

(1) Job (1)工作

The chief personage is Job.这位负责人士的工作。

(a) Name (一)名称

He is called the "persecuted one", that is, the one tempted by (personified) suffering, the one hard beset, the patient sufferer.他被称为“迫害一”,即是一个由(人格化)痛苦诱惑,一个硬困扰,病人患者。persecuted one", stand to XXX.--> It is no longer possible to decide whether the name was originally different and was later changed into the expressive form in folklore on account of Job's fate. Many commentators do not accept this explanation of the name.迫害一“,站到XXX .-->这是不可能再决定是否名字最初是不同的,后来到表现形式改变对就业的命运帐户民间传说,很多评论家不接受这个名称的解释。

(b) Age in which Job lived(b)在就业年龄的生活

According to the usual and well-founded assumption, Job lived long before Moses.根据通常的和有根据的假设,长期工作生活在摩西。This is shown by the great age he attained.这是所表现出的伟大时代,他实现。He was no longer young when overtaken by his great misfortune (xii, 12; xxx, 1); after his restoration he lived one hundred and forty years longer (xlii, 16).他不再年轻的时候他大不幸(十二,12; XXX,1);取代后,他恢复他住140年更长(四十二,16)。His wealth like that of the Patriarchs, consisted largely in flocks and herds (i, 3; xlii, 12).他喜欢财富的始祖,在很大程度上是由羊群和牛群(I,3,四十二,12)。The kesitah or piece of money mentioned in xlii, 11, belongs to patriarchal times; the only other places in which the expression occurs are Gen., xxxiii, 19, and Jos., xxiv, 32.该kesitah或在XLII,11,提到钱一块属于宗法时代,唯一出现在其中表达等地将军,三十三,19日,圣何塞,二十四,32。 The musical instruments referred to (xxi, 12; xxx, 31) are only those mentioned in Genesis (Gen. iv, 21; xxxi, 27): organ, harp, and timbrel.该乐器称为(XXI,​​12; XXX,31)仅在创世记(创四21;三十一,27)中提到的:机关,竖琴,及timbrel。Job himself offers sacrifice as the father of the family (i, 5), as was also the custom of the Patriarchs.招聘自己提供的家庭(I,5)的父亲牺牲,因为也是定制的始祖。An actual offering for sin in the Mosaic sense he was not acquainted with; the holocaust took its place (i, 5; xlii, 8).一种罪恶在实际意义上的马赛克提供他不​​熟悉,大屠杀发生的地方(我,5;四十二,8)。

(c) Religion of Job(三)宗教的工作

Job evidently did not belong to the chosen people.工作显然不属于所选择的人。He lived, indeed, outside of Palestine.他住,的确,外面的巴勒斯坦。He and the other characters betray no knowledge of the specifically Israelitic institutions.他和其他字符背叛没有对具体Israelitic机构的知识。Even the name of God peculiar to the chosen people, Yahweh, is carefully avoided by the speakers in the poetic part of the book, and is only found, as if accidentally, in xii, 9, and according to some manuscripts in xxviii, 28.即使是上帝的特有名称所选择的人,耶和华,是谨慎地避免在书的诗意部分扬声器,并且只发现,仿佛不小心,在十二,9,并根据在二十八,28部分手稿。 The sacrifice in xlii, 8, recalls the sacrifice of Balaam (Numbers 23:1), consequently a custom outside of Israel.在XLII,8,牺牲回顾了巴兰牺牲(民数记23点零一),因此,以色列自定义之外。For the solution of the problem of suffering the revelations made to the Patriarchs or even Moses are never referred to.为苦难作出的始祖,甚至从来没有提到摩西的启示解决问题的办法。Nevertheless Job and his friends venerated the one true God.然而工作和他的朋友崇敬一个真神。They also knew of the Flood (xxii, 16), and the first man (15:7, and Hebrews 31:33).他们也知道了洪水(二十二,16),和第​​一个男人(15:7,和希伯来书31:33)。

(d) Country in which Job lived(四)国家中工作生活

Job belonged to the "people of the East" (i, 3).工作属于“东人”(I,3)。Under this name were included the Arabian (Genesis 25:6) and Aramaean (Numbers 33:7) tribes which lived east of the Jordan basin and in the region of the Euphrates (Genesis 29:1).根据这个名字被列入阿拉伯(创25:6)和Aramaean(民数记33:7)部族居住在约旦盆地东部的幼发拉底河地区(创29:1)和。 Job seems to have been an Aramaean, for he lived in the land of Hus (i, I; Ausitis).工作似乎一直是Aramaean,为他在胡斯土地(I,I; Ausitis)居住。Hus, a man's name in Genesis, is always used there in close connection with Aram and the Aramaean (Genesis 10:23; 22:21; 36:28).胡斯,一个人在创世纪的名字,总是用有与亚兰和Aramaean(创世记10:23,22:21,36:28)密切相关。 His home was certainly not far from Edom where Eliphaz lived, and it must be sought in Eastern Palestine, not too far north, although in the region inhabited by the Aramaeans.他的家肯定以东不远处居住的地方以利法,它必须寻求巴勒斯坦在东,北不太远,但在该地区的阿拉姆人居住。It was located on the border of the Syro-Arabian desert, for it was exposed to the attacks of the marauding bands which wandered through this desert: the Chaldeans (i, 17) of the lower Euphrates and the Sabeans (i, 15), or Arabs.它位于对Syro - 阿拉伯沙漠边界,因为它是暴露在抢劫带它通过这个沙漠逛到攻击:中下幼发拉底河和萨比教徒迦勒(I,17)(I,15),或阿拉伯人。Many.许多。following an old tradition, place the home of Job in the Hauran, in the district of Naiwa (or Neve), which is situated about 36° East of Greenwich and in almost the same latitude as the northern end of Lake Genesareth.下面的一个老传统,放置在Hauran的人才招聘,在Naiwa区(或尼夫),大约是36 °的格林威治位于东和几乎与湖的北端Genesareth同一纬度。The location is possible, but positive proof is lacking.该位置是可能的,但缺乏积极证据。Some seek the home of Job in Idumea, others in the land of the Ausitai, who, according to Ptolemy (Geogr., V, xix, par. 18, 2), lived in Northern Arabia near the Babylon.一些寻求在Idumea的人才招聘,在Ausitai他人土地,谁,根据托勒密(Geogr.,V,十九,第18,2),在阿拉伯半岛北部靠近巴比伦生活。 The land of Hus is also mentioned in Jer., xxv, 20, and Lam., iv, 21.胡斯的土地也提到耶,二十五,20,和林,,四,21。In the first reference it is used in a general sense for the whole East; in the latter it is said that the Edomites live there.在第一次提到它是用在整个东一般意义上,在后者是说,以东人生活在那里。

(e) The Standing of Job(五)常务委员会工作

Job was one of the most important men of the land (i, 3; xxix, 25) and had many bondsmen (xxxi, 39).就业是土地(I,3;二十九,25)最重要的人物之一,有过不少bondsmen(三十一,39)。The same is true of the friends who visited him; in the Book of Tobias these are called "kings" (Tob., ii, 15, in Vulgate).同样是谁访问了他真正的朋友,在书的托比亚斯这些被称为“国王”(Tob.,二,15日,在武加大)。In the Book of Job also Job seems to be described as a king with many vassals under him (xxix).在约伯记工作似乎也为下他(十九)许多诸侯王的描述。That he had brothers and relations is seen in xix and in the epilogue.那他的兄弟关系,是出现在十九和尾声。

(f) Job and Jobab(六)工作和约巴

An appendix to the Book of Job in the Septuagint identifies Job with King Jobab of Edom (Gen. xxxvi, 33).向在七十约伯记附录认同王以东约巴(创三十六,33)工作。Nothing in the book shows that Job was ruler of Edom; in Hebrew the two names have nothing in common.在书中的任何说明,工作是以东的统治者,在希伯来文的两个名字没有任何共同之处。

(2) Eliphaz, Baldad and Sophar(2)以利法,Baldad和Sophar

The most important of Job's three friends was Eliphaz of Theman.其中最约伯的三个朋友重要的是Theman利法。The name shows him to be an Edomite (Genesis 36:11, 15).这个名字显示他是一个以东人(创36:11,15)。The Themanites of Edom were famous for their wisdom (Jeremiah 49:7; Obadiah 5; Baruch 3:22 sq.).以东的Themanites为他们的智慧(耶49:7;俄巴底5;巴鲁克3点22平方米)而闻名。Eliphaz was one of these sages (xv, 9).利法是这些先贤之一(十五,9)。He was far advanced in years (xv, 10), and much older than the already elderly Job (xxx, 1).他远远先进年(十五,10),远高于已经老人作业(XXX,1)旧。The second of Job's friends was Baidad the Suhite, who seems to have belonged to Northern Arabia, for Sue was a son of Abraham by Cetura (Genesis 25:2, 6).有关职位的朋友第二次是Baidad的Suhite,谁似乎都属于北方阿拉伯,对苏是一个由Cetura亚伯拉罕(创25:2,6)的儿子。 He may have been of the same age as Job.他可能已被作为作业相同的年龄。The third friend, Sophar, was probably also an Arabian.第三个朋友,Sophar,很可能也是一个阿拉伯。The Hebrew text calls him a Naamathite.希伯来文称他为Naamathite。Naama was a small town in the territory belonging to Juda (Joshua 15:41), but Sophar hardly lived there.纳马是一个属于犹大(约书亚15时41分)境内的小镇,但Sophar几乎住在这里。Perhaps the preferable reading is that of the Septuagint which calls Sophar always a Minaean; the Minaeans were an Arabian tribe.也许最好的阅读是七十这就要求Sophar总是Minaean的;的Minaeans是一个阿拉伯部落。 Sophar was far younger than Job (cf. Job's reply to Sophar, 12:11-12; 13:1-2). Sophar远远超过招聘年轻(见约伯的回答Sophar,12:11-12; 13:1-2)。

(3) Eliu (3)Eliu

Like Job, Eliu the Buzite was an Aramean; at least this is indicated by his native country, Buz, for Buz is closely connected (Genesis 22:21) with Hus.像工作,Eliu的Buzite是Aramean,至少这是表示对他的祖国BUZ,BUZ,是紧密联系在一起胡斯(创22时21分)。 Eliu was much younger than Sophar (xxxii, 6).Eliu远高于Sophar(三十二,6)年轻。

(4) Listeners(4)监听

Besides the speakers a large number of listeners were present at the discussion (xxxiv, 2, 34); some maintained a neutral position, as did Eliu at first.除了音箱的大批听众参加了讨论(三十四,2,34)目前,有些保持中立地位,并在第一Eliu。


The Book of Job consists of (1) a prologue in prose (1-2), (2) a poetic, main division (3-42:6), and (3) an epilogue also in prose (42:7-17).在约伯记包括:(1)序言中的散文(1-2),(2)诗意,主师(3-42:6),和(3)结尾也散文(42:7-17 )。

(1) The prologue narrates how, with the permission of God, a holy man Job is tried by Satan with severe afflictions, in order to test his virtue. (1)序幕叙述与神的权限如何,是一个神圣的人工作交由撒旦严重苦难,以检验他的美德。In succession Job bears six great temptations with heroic patience, and without the slightest murmuring against God or wavering in loyalty to him.在继承工作与英雄熊耐心six巨大诱惑,没有丝毫怨言对上帝的忠诚或对他摇摆不定。Then Job's three friends, Eliphaz, Baldad, and Sophar, come to console him.约伯的三个朋友,以利法,Baldad和Sophar,来安慰他。Their visit is to become the seventh and greatest trial.他们的访问是成为第七和最大的审判。

(2) The poetical, main division of the book presents in a succession of speeches the course of this temptation.(2)诗,书的主要部门的讲话中提出了这种诱惑当然继承。The three friends are fully convinced that trouble is always a result of wrongdoing.这三个朋友完全相信,问题始终是一个错误行为造成的。They consider Job, therefore, a great sinner and stigmatize his assertions of innocence as hypocrisy.他们认为作业,因此,一个伟大的罪人,诬蔑他为虚伪无罪断言。Job is hurt by the suspicion of his friends.工作是伤害了他的朋友怀疑。He protests that he is no evil-doer, that God punishes him against his deserts.他抗议说,他没有邪恶实干家,上帝惩罚他对他的沙漠。In the course of his speech he fails in reverence towards God, Who appears to him not unrighteous, but more as a severe, hard, and somewhat inconsiderate ruler than as a kind Father.在他发言时,他没有在对上帝,对他似乎没有谁不义的崇敬,但作为一个父亲不是作为一种严重的,硬,有点强人所难统治者更多。 Taking into consideration that the language is poetic, it is true that his expressions cannot be pushed too far, but the sharp reproofs of Eliu (xxxiv, 1-9, 36-37; xxxv, 16) and of Yahweh (Xxxviii, 2; xl, 3-9) leave no doubt of his sin.考虑到这是诗意的语言,这是事实,他的表情不能推得太远,但Eliu(三十四,1-9,36-37,三十五,16)的尖锐责备和耶和华(XXXVIII,2; XL,3-9)留下任何怀疑他的罪过。In answering his friends Job emphasizes that God indeed is accustomed to reward virtue and to punish wickedness (xxvii, 7-23; xxxi).在回答他的朋友们工作强调,神的确是习惯于凭奖励和惩罚邪恶(二十七,7-23;三十一)。He even threatens his friends with the judgment of God on account of their unfriendly suspicion (vi, 14; xiii, 7-12; xvii, 4; xix, 29).他甚至威胁与上帝对他们不友好怀疑帐户的判断(六,14;十三,7-12;十七,4;十九,29)他的朋友。He rightly proves, however violently, that in this world the rule has many exceptions.他正确地证明,但猛烈,在这个世界的规则有很多例外。Almost universally, he says, the wicked triumph and the innocent suffer (ix, 22-24, xxi, xxiv).几乎普遍,他说,邪恶的胜利和无辜者受害(九,22日-24日​​,二十一,二十四)。Yet for all this Job, like his friends, regards all suffering as a punishment for personal sins, although he does not, as his friends, consider it a punishment of gross sin.然而,这一切的工作,喜欢他的朋友,对于作为个人的罪处罚的所有痛苦,虽然他并不像他的朋友,认为这是一个严重的罪处罚。 Job looks upon the sufferings of the righteous as an almost unjust severity of God, which he inflicts for the slightest mistakes, and which the most virtuous man cannot escape (vii, 21; ix 30-21; X, 6, 13-14).作业看起来几乎不公正的神的严重性,他对其造成丝毫的错误,其中最仁者不能逃脱后,义人的痛苦(七,21;九30-21,X,6,13-14) 。The expressions of depression and irreverence uttered by Job are, besides, only venial sins, which human beings can never fully avoid.抑郁症和不敬的表达出自作业的,此外,只有venial罪孽,使人类永远无法完全避免的。Job himself says that his words are not to be taken too exactly, they are almost the involuntary expression of his pain (vi, 2-10, 26-27).工作自己说,他的话不采取过于准确,他们几乎是不由自主的表达他的痛苦(六,2-10,26-27)。 Many of his utterances the character of temptations in thought which force themselves out almost against the will, rather than of voluntary irreverence towards God, although Job's error was greater than he was willing to acknowledge.他的话语在思想的诱惑,迫使自己出来几乎对意志,而不是对神不敬自愿,虽然作业的错误比他更愿意承认的字符许多。 Thus Job bore all the tests triumphantly, even those caused by his friends.因此,所有的测试工作孔胜利,甚至他的朋友们造成的。No matter how terrible the persecutions of God might be, Job held fast to Him (vi, 8-10) and drew ever closer to Him (xvii, 9).无论多么可怕的可能是神的迫害,工作紧紧抱住他(六8-10),并提请更接近他(十七,9)。In the midst of his sufferings he lauds God's power (xxvi, 5-14) and wisdom (xxviii).在他的痛苦,他称赞神的力量(26,5-14)和智慧(二十八)之中。Satan, who had boasted that he could lead Job into sin against God (i, 11; ii, 5), is discredited.撒旦,谁曾夸口说,他将可能导致对上帝的罪(I,11;二,五)工作,是扫地。The epilogue testifies expressly to Job's faithfulness (xlii, 7-9).尾声证明明文约伯的忠诚(XLII,7-9)。After much discourse (iii-xxii) Job finally succeeds in silencing the three friends, although he is not able to convince them of his innocence.经过一番话语(III - XXII)工作终于成功地沉默了三个朋友,虽然他没能说服他的清白的。In a series of monologues (xxiii-xxxi), interrupted only by a short speech by Baldad (xxv), he once more renews his complaints (xxiii-xxiv), extols the greatness of God (xxvi-xxviii), and closes with a forcible appeal to the Almighty to, examine his case and to recognize his innocence (xxix-xxxi).在一系列的独白(XXIII - XXXI),打断了由Baldad(XXV)简短的发言而已,他再次重申他的指控(XXIII - XXIV),颂扬神(XXVI - XXVIII)伟大,并与关闭强行呼吁全能来,审查他的案件,并承认自己的清白(二十九,三十一)。At this juncture Eliu, a youth who was one of the company of listeners, is filled by God with the spirit of prophecy (xxxii, 18-22; xxxvi, 2-4).此时Eliu,青年谁是公司的听众之一,填补了上帝的预言精神(三十二,18-22;三十六,2-4)。In a long discourse he solves the problem of suffering, which Job and his friends had failed to explain.在长期的话语,他解决了痛苦的问题,工作和他的朋友们无法解释。He says that suffering, whether severe or light, is not always a result of sin; it is a means by which God tries and promotes virtue (xxxvi, 1-21), and is thus a proof of God's love for his friends.他说,苦难,是否严重或轻,是不是永远是罪的结果,它是一种手段,其中神尝试和促进美德(三十六,1-21),因而是上帝的爱为他的朋友证明。 The sufferings of Job are also such a testing (xxxvi, 16-21).约伯的苦难也是这样的测试(三十六,16-21)。At the same time Eliu emphasizes the fact that the dispensations of God remain inexplicable and mysterious (xxxvi, 22; xxxvii, 24).与此同时Eliu强调一个事实,即上帝的特许留莫名的神秘(三十六,22;三十七,24)。Yahweh speaks at the end (xxxviii-xlii, 6).耶和华在讲话结束时(三十八,四十二,6)。He confirms the statements of Eliu, carrying further Eliu's last thought of the inexplicability of the Divine decrees and works by a reference to the wonder of animate and inanimate nature.他证实了Eliu报表,进行进一步Eliu的神圣费解的最后一个念头法令和引用作品的动画和无生命的自然奇观。Job is severely rebuked on account of his irreverence; he confesses briefly his guilt and promises amendment in the future.作业是同声谴责他的不敬帐户上,他简要地交代自己的罪行,并承诺在未来的修订。

(3) In the epilogue Yahweh bears witness in a striking manner to the innocence of His servant, that is to Job's freedom from gross transgression. (3)承担在后记中一个醒目的方式耶和华见证了他的仆人的清白,那就是工作从总越轨的自由。The three friends are commanded to obtain Job's intercession, otherwise they will be severely punished for their uncharitable complaints against the pious sufferer.这三个朋友吩咐要取得工作的调解,否则将受到严厉处罚虔诚的患者对他们的无情的投诉。Yahweh forgives the three at the entreaty of Job, who is restored to double his former prosperity.耶和华赦免在工作恳求,谁是他的前恢复到双繁荣的三个。

In his lectures on "Babel und Bibel" Delitzsch says that the Book of Job expresses doubt, in language that borders on blasphemy, of even the existence of a just the God.在关于“通天塔北达科Bibel”Delitzsch他的演讲说,约伯记的语言表达了怀疑,亵渎边界上,即使是公正的上帝的存在。 These attacks arise from an extreme view of expressions of despondency.这些攻击产生的沮丧表情的极端观点。Further, the assertions often heard of late that the book contains many mythological ideas prove to be mere imagination.此外,最近经常听到的断言,这本书包含了许多神话的想法被证明是单纯的想象。


(1)The poetic portion of the book may be divided into two sections: chs.(1)该书的诗意的部分可分为两个部分:CHS。iii-xxii and xxiii-xlii, 6.三,二十二和二十三,四十二,6。The first section consists of colloquies: the three friends in turn express their views, while to each speech Job makes a rejoinder.第一部分包括colloquies:依次三个朋友发表自己的意见,而对每次发言作业使得反驳。 In the second section the three friends are silent, for Baldad's interposition (xxv) is as little a formal discourse as Job's brief comments (xxxix, 34-35 and xlii, 2-6).在第二部分中的三个朋友都沉默了Baldad的干预(二十五),是少作为工作的(XXXIX,34-35和XLII,2-6)正式话语简短评论。 Job, Eliu, and Yahweh speak successively, and each utters a series of monologues.作业,Eliu,并先后耶和华说,每说出一个独白系列。The length of the two sections is exactly, or almost exactly, the same, namely 510 lines each (cf. Hontheim "Das Buch Job", Freiburg im Br., 1904, 44).这两个部分的长度是完全或几乎完全,一致的,即510行,每行(参见Hontheim“资本布赫作业”,弗赖堡的IM溴,1904年,44)。 The second division begins with the words: "Now also my words are in bitterness" (xxiii, 2; AV: "Even today is my complaint bitter").第二次分裂开始的话:“现在我的话也都在苦”(二十三,2; AV:“即使在今天,是我的投诉苦”)。This shows not only that with these words a new section opens, but also that the monologues were not uttered on the same day as the colloquies.这说明不仅用这句话打开新的一节,但也认为独白不是在与colloquies同一天发出了一声。The first monologue is evidently the opening of a new section, not a rejoinder to the previous speech of Eliphaz (xxii).第一独白显然是一个新的路段通车,而不是对以利法(二十二)演辞反驳。

(2) The colloquies are divided into two series: chs. (2)colloquies分为两个系列:CHS。iii-xiv and xv-xxii.III - XIV和XV - XXII。In each series Eliphaz, Baldad, and Sophar speak in turn in the order given (iv-v, viii, xi, and xv, xviii, xx), while Job replies to each of their discourses (vi-vii, ix-x, xii-xiv, xvi-xvii, xix, xxi).在每个系列以利法,Baldad和Sophar发言给予(IV - V,第八,​​第十一和第十五,十八,二十)的顺序依次,尽管工作对他们的话语回答每个(VI - VII,IX,X,第十二至十四,十六,十七,十九,二十一)。The first series, furthermore, is opened by a lament from Job (iii), and the second closes with a speech by Eliphaz in which he weakly reproaches Job (xxii - it is generally held that this chapter begins a new series), who rightly leaves this address unanswered.第一个系列,而且,是打开从作业(三)慨叹,第二个与由利法演讲结束,他弱责备作业(XXII - 人们普遍认为,这一章开始一个新的系列),谁正确离开这个地址得到答复。Each series contains seven speeches.每个系列包含七个演讲。In the first the friends try to convince Job of his guilt and of the necessity and good results of amendment.在首先的朋友试图说服他的内疚和修订的必要性和良好的效果作业。Eliphaz appeals to Revelation (iv, 12-21), Baldad to the authority of the Fathers 8-10), Sophar to understanding or philosophy (xi, 5-12).利法呼吁启示录(四,12-21),Baldad到8-10权威的父亲),Sophar理解或哲学(十一,5-12)。 Eliphaz lays weight on the goodness of God (v, 9-27), Baldad on His justice (viii, 2-7), Sophar on His all-seeing power and wisdom, to which Job's most secret sins were plain, even those which Job himself had almost forgotten (xi, 5-12).利法规定对神的善良(V,9-27)的重量,在他的正义Baldad(八,2-7),Sophar关于他的一切,看到力量和智慧,这工作最秘密罪被平原,即使是那些几乎忘记了自己的工作(十一,5-12)。 In the second series of speeches the friends try to terrify Job: one after the other, and in much the same form of address, they point out the terrible punishment which overtakes hidden sin.在演讲的第二个系列的朋友不妨一试恐吓工作:一前一后,在多形式的地址相同,他们指出这可怕的惩罚赶超隐藏的罪恶。During the first series of speeches Job's despondency continually increases, even the thought of the future bringing him no comfort (xiv, 7-22); in the second series the change to improvement has begun, and Job once more feels joy and hope in the thought of God and the future life (xvi, 18-22; xix, 23-28).在演讲的第一个系列工作的绝望不断增加,甚至未来的想法使他没有安慰(十四,7-22),在第二个系列的变化已经开始,以改善和作业再一次感到喜悦和希望想到上帝和未来的生活(十六18-22;十九,23-28)。

(3) The monologues may also be divided into two series.(3)独白也可以分为两大系列。 The first includes the monologues of Job, seven in number.第一类包括有关职位独白,在第七位。First Job repeats is complaint to God (xxiii-xxiv), asserts, however, in three speeches his unchangeable devotion to God by lauding in brilliant discourse the power (xxvi), justice (xxvii), and wisdom (xxviii) of the Almighty.第一份工作是重复投诉的神(二十三 - 二十四),断言,然而,他的讲话在三个不变的奉献在灿烂的话语称赞电源(XXVI),正义(二十七),和智慧的全能(二十八)上帝。Finally in three further speeches be lays his case before God, imploring investigation and recognition of his innocence: How happy was I once (xxix), how unhappy am I now (xxx), and I am not to blame for this change (xxxi).最后三个进一步奠定了他的发言是在神面前的情况下,恳求他是无辜的调查和确认:我曾经是多么幸福(二十九),我现在怎么不高兴(XXX),我不责怪这种变化(三十一) 。The second series contains the discourses of Eliu and Yahweh, also seven in number.第二个系列包含人数的Eliu和耶和华,也seven话语。In three speeches Eliu explains the sufferings which befall men.在三个讲话Eliu解释了其中的痛苦降临的人。Trouble is often a Divine instruction, a warning to the godless to reform (xxxii-xxxiii, 30), thus revealing the goodness of God; it is often simply a punishment of the wicked who are perhaps in no way bettered by it (xxxiii, 31-xxxv), thus revealing the justice of God.麻烦的是常常一个神圣的指令,不信神的警告的改革(三十二,三十三,30),从而揭示了上帝的善良,它往往是一个简单的恶人谁是由它做得更好也许没有办法处罚(三十三, 31 - XXXV),从而揭示了上帝的公义。

(4) Finally, troubles can also overtake the just as a trial which purifies and increases their virtue (xxxvi-xxxvii), thus revealing God's unfathomable wisdom. (4)最后,烦恼也只是作为一个超车的试验,净化和提高他们的美德(三十六,三十七)的,从而揭示神的深不可测的智慧。The following four utterances of Yahweh illustrate the inscrutableness, already touched upon by Eliu, of the Divine wisdom by dwelling upon the wonders of inanimate nature (xxxviii, 1-38), of the animal world (xxxviii, 39-xxxix), and especially by referring to the great monsters of the animal world, the hippopotamus and the crocodile (xl, 10-xli).以下四个耶和华的话语说明inscrutableness,动物世界已经触及了Eliu的住宅后,由无生命的大自然的奥妙神圣智慧(三十八,1-38),(三十八,39 XXXIX),特别是通过指的是动物世界的巨大怪物,河马和鳄鱼(XL,10 XLI)。He then closes with a rebuke to Job for expressing himself too despondently and irreverently concerning his sufferings, upon which Job confesses his guilt and promises amendment (xxxix, 31-xl, 9 and xlii, 1-6); it appears that xxxix, 31-xl, 9, should be inserted after xli.然后,他关闭,以表达自己的工作指责过于沮丧和不逊关于他的痛苦,在此基础工作交代他的罪行,并承诺修正案(三十九,31 - XL,第9和XLII,1-6),它似乎XXXIX,31 - XL,9,应插入后XLI。


The Book of Job is intended to give instruction.在约伯记是为了使指令。What it lays special stress on is that God's wisdom and Providence guide all the events of this world (cf. xxviii, xxxviii-xii).它所规定特别强调的是,神的智慧和静宜引导这个世界上所有的事件(见二十八,三十八,十二)。The main subject of investigation is the problem of evil and its relation to the Providence of God; particularly considered is the suffering of the upright in its bearing on the ends intended in the government of the world.该调查的主要议题是罪恶的问题及其与上帝的上帝;特别考虑的是在其对世界的政府打算在结束bearing直立的痛苦。 The Book of Job is further intended for edification, for Job is to us an example of patience.在约伯记目的是进一步熏陶,是对我们工作的一个耐心的例子。It is, finally, a book of consolation for all sufferers.这是最后,为所有患者安慰的书。They learn from it that misfortune is not a sign of hatred, but often a proof of special Divine love.他们学会了从它的不幸不是仇恨的标志,但往往是特别神圣的爱的证明。For the mystical explanation of the book, especially of Job as a type of Christ, cf.对于书的神秘解释,尤其是作为一个基督,CF型人才。Knabenbauer, "In Job", 28-32. Knabenbauer,“在工作”,28-32。


In his sufferings Job abandoned all hope for the restoration of health and good fortune in this world (xvii, 11-16; xxi).在他放弃了所有的痛苦工作的健康和在这个世界上好运(十七,11-16; XXI)恢复的希望。If he were to continue to hold to the hope of reward here Satan would not be defeated.如果他继续持有的奖励在这里希望撒旦不会被击垮。In the complete failure of all his earthly hopes, Job fastens his gaze upon the future.在他的所有尘世的希望彻底失败,作业系于他对未来的目光。In the argument of the first series of speeches Job in his depression regards the future world only as the end of the present existence.在演讲中招聘他的抑郁症方面的第一个系列的参数只能作为未来世界的本底存在。The soul indeed lives on, but all ties with the present world so dear to us are forever broken.灵魂确实住在,但与当今世界对我们如此珍惜的一切关系永远打破。Death is not only the end of all earthly suffering (ii, 13-19), but also of all earthly life (vii, 6-10), and all earthly joys (x, 21-22), with no hope of a return to this world (xiv, 7-22).死亡不仅是所有尘世的苦难(二,13-19)结束,但所有的尘世生活(七,6-10),以及所有的(x,21-22)尘世乐趣也没有了一回希望这个世界(十四,7-22)。 It is not until the second series that Job's thoughts on the future life grow more hopeful.它不是直到第二个系列,对未来生活工作的思想变得更加乐观。However, he expects as little as in the first discussion a renewal of the life here, but hopes for a higher life in the next world.不过,他预计在短短的第一次讨论了这里的生活重建,但在未来世界的更高生活的希望。As early as chapter xvi (19-22) his hope in the recognition of his virtue in the next world is strengthened.早在第十六章(19-22)他在他的美德,在未来世界的认同希望加强。It is, however, in xix (23-28) that Job's inspired hope rises to its greatest height and he utters his famous declaration of the resurrection of the body.它是,但是,在十九(23-28)认为工作的启发希望上升到其最大的高度和他说出他的身体复活著名的宣言。Notwithstanding this joyous glimpse into the future, the difficult problem of the present life still remained: "Even for this life how can the wisdom and goodness of God be so hard towards His servants?"尽管这在未来欢乐的一瞥,对现在的生活困难问题仍然存在:“即使这辈子怎么能神的智慧和善良是对他的仆人这么难?” Of this the complete solution, so far as such was possible and was included in the plan of the book, does not appear until the discourses of Eliu and Yahweh are given.这个完整的解决方案,就这样有可能,并在书的计划包括,没有出现,直到Eliu和耶和华的话语给出。Great efforts have been made by critics to alter the interpretation of ch.大的努力作出了批评,以改变通道的解释。xix, and to remove from it the resurrection of the body; the natural meaning of the words, the argument of the book, and the opinion of all early commentators make this attempt of no avail (cf. commentaries, as those of Knabenbauer, Hontheim, etc.; also the article "Eine neue Uebersetzung von Job xix, 25-27" in the "Zeitschrift f롴h. Theologie", 1907, 376 sqq.).十九,并删除它的身体复活了的话自然意义,书中的说法,和所有早期的评论家认为让这个没有用的尝试(参见评论作为Knabenbauer,Hontheim的,等;还有文章“Eine NEUE Uebersetzung冯作业第十九25-27”中的“(杂志)f롴H.神学”,1907年,376 SQQ)。See the commentaries for the doctrines of the Divine wisdom (xxviii), etc.见的神圣智慧的学说的评注(二十八)等。


Prologue and epilogue (i-ii; xlii, 7 sqq.) are regarded by many as not parts of the original work.序幕和尾声(I - II; XLII,7 SQQ)被视为由作为原始工作不许多部件。The prologue, though, is absolutely essential.的序幕,虽然是绝对必要的。Without it the colloquies would be unintelligible, nor would the reader know the end whether to believe the assertion of Job as to his innocence or not.没有它colloquies会不知所云,读者也不会知道到底是否相信以他的清白与否的作业断言。Upon hearing the rebukes of Eliu and Yahweh, he might be exposed to the danger of siding against Job.在听取了Eliu和耶和华的责骂,他可能会接触到对工作壁板的危险。Without the epilogue the close of the work would be insatisfactory, an evident humiliation of the righteous.没有尾声的工作密切将insatisfactory,一个明显的正义屈辱。For detailed treatment of this and kindred questions see Hontheim, op.对于这个问题详细的治疗和亲属看到Hontheim,同前。 cit.CIT。

(2) Many also regard ch.(2)许多人还认为通道。xxvii, 7-23, as a later addition; in this passage Job maintains that the wicked suffer in this world, while elsewhere he has declared the contrary.二十七,7-23作为后来此外;保持在这一段工作的恶人在这个世界上受苦,而在其他地方,他已宣布相反。The answer is: Job teaches that God is accustomed even in this world to reward the good in some measure and to punish the wicked.答案是:工作教导,神是即使在这个世界上习惯于以奖励在一定程度上好的和惩罚恶人。In other passages he does not deny this rule, but merely says it has many exceptions.在其他段落,他不否认这条规则,而只是说,它有许多例外。Consequently there is no contradiction.因此不存在矛盾。[See above, IV (2).] Besides it may be conceded that Job is not always logical. [见上面,四(2)]除了可能承认,工作并不总是合乎逻辑的。At the beginning, when his depression is extreme, he lays too much emphasis on the prosperity of the godless; gradually he becomes more composed and corrects earlier extreme statements.在开始的时候,当他的抑郁症是极端的,他规定对不信神的繁荣过于强调,逐步他变得更冷静,纠正了先前极端发言。 Not everything that Job says is the doctrine of the book.并非所有工作说的是书的教义。[See above, II (2).] [见上面,二(2)。]

(3) Many regard ch.(3)许多人认为通道。xxviii as doubtful, because it has no connection with what goes before or follows and is in no way related to the subject-matter of the book.二十八为可疑,因为它没有用什么去之前或之后连接和相关的书标的物没有丝毫关系。 The answer to this is that the poet has to show how the suffering of Job does not separate him from God, but, against the intent of Satan, drives him into closer dependence on God.这个问题的答案是,诗人,以展示有关职位的苦难并没有分开上帝他,但是,对撒旦的意图,驱动器将接近他对神的依赖。Consequently he represents Job, after his complaints (xxiii-xxv), as glorifying God again at once, as in xxvi-xxvii, in which Job lauds God's power and righteousness.因此他所代表的职位,在他的投诉(XXIII - XXV),再次为荣耀上帝一次在二十六,二十七,其中作业赞扬上帝的力量和正义。The praise of God is brought to a climax in xxviii, where Job extols God's power and righteousness.神的赞美,是带来了二十八,在作业颂扬神的力量和义高潮。After Job has thus surrendered himself to God, he can with full confidence, in xxix-xxxi, lay his sorrowful condition before God for investigation.作业完成后也因此自首上帝,他可以满怀信心,在二十九,三十一,奠定他在神面前作调查悲哀的条件。Consequently xxviii is in its proper place, connects perfectly with what precedes and follows, and harmonizes with the subject-matter of the book.因此XXVIII在适当的地方,完全用什么连接之前,遵循,并与书标的物相协调。

(4) Many regard the description of hippopotamus and crocodile (xl, 10-xli) as later additions, because they lack connection with xxxix, 31-xl, 9, belonging rather to the description of animals in xxxix.(4)许多方面说明河马和鳄鱼(XL,10 XLI)作为以后添加,因为他们缺乏与三十九,31 - XL,9连接,属于相当的动物XXXIX描述。In reply it may be said that this objection is not without force.在回答可以说,这反对不是没有力量。Who ever agrees with the present writer in this opinion need only hold that xxxix, 31-xl, 9, originally followed xli.谁曾经与现在的作家同意这个意见中认为,三十九只需要31 - XL,9,原本跟着四十一。The difficulty is then settled, and there is no further reason for considering the splendid description of the two animals as a later insertion.困难的是当时解决,也没有考虑作为以后插入的两种动物精彩描述的进一步原因。

(5) There is much disagreement as to the speeches of Eliu (xxxii-xxxvii). (5)有作为的Eliu的发言(三十二,三十七)大的分歧。With the exception of Budde, nearly all Protestant commentators regard them as a later insertion, while the great majority of Catholic investigators rightly defend them as belonging to the original work.随着布德外,几乎所有的基督教评论家认为他们以后的插入,而天主教的调查,绝大多数正确地捍卫属于他们原来的工作。The details of this discussion cannot be entered upon here, and the reader is referred to the commentaries of Budde and Hontheim.本次讨论的细节后,不能进入这里,读者提到布德和Hontheim的评论。The latter sums up his long investigation in these words: "The section containing the speeches of Eliu has been carefully prepared by the poet and is closely and with artistic correctness connected with the previous and following portions. It is united with the rest of the book by countless allusions and relations. It is dominated by the same ideas as the rest of the poem. It makes use also of the same language and the same method of presentation both in general and in detail. All the peculiarities exhibited by the author of the argumentative speeches are reproduced in the addresses of Eliu. The content of this portion is the saving of the honour of Job and is essential as the solution of the subject of discussion. Consequently there is no reason whatever for assuming that it is an interpolation; everything is clearly against this" (Hontheim, op. cit., 20-39. Cf. also Budde, "Beitr䧥 zur Kritik des Buches Hiob", 1876; Knabenbauer, "In Job").他的这些话了长时间的调查后总结:“一节载有Eliu的发言,经过精心准备的诗人,并正密切与艺术的正确性,并与以前的以下部分,是连接美国与书的其余部分由无数的典故和关系,它主要是由作为诗的其余部分相同的想法,它利用了相同的语言和在一般和详细演示文稿相同的方法也全部由作者的特殊性表现议论文的发言转载在Eliu的解决了这部分内容是有关职位的荣誉保存,并作为对讨论的主题解决方案的重要原因,因此也没有任何理由相信它是一个插值;。一切这显然​​是针对“( 。Hontheim,同上,20-39比照也布德,”Beitr䧥楚Kritik DES Buches Hiob“,1876年; Knabenbauer,”在工作“)。Anyone who desires to consider the speeches of Eliu as a later addition must hold, by the teaching of the Church, that they are inspired.任何人谁渴望考虑以后的Eliu除了必须持有的发言,由教会教学,他们的启发。

(6) There is in general no reason whatever for considering any important part of the book either large or small as not belonging to the original text. (6)一般是没有理由考虑任何书或大或不属于原文小的重要组成部分什么的。Equally baseless is the supposition that important portions of the original composition are lost.同样毫无根据的是,原来的重要组成部分丢失的假设。


The most important means for judging the Massoretic Text are the old translations made directly from the Hebrew: the Targum, Peshito, Vulgate, Septuagint, and the other Greek translations used by Origen to supplement the Septuagint.判断massoretic文本的最重要手段是老翻译了,直接从希伯来文:在Targum,Peshito,武加大,译本,以及奥利用于补充其他译本希腊翻译。 with the exception of the Septuagint, the original of all these translations was essentially identical with the Massoretic Text; only unimportant differences can be proved.随着译本外,所有这些翻译原来基本上是相同的massoretic文本,只有不重要的差异可以证明。On the other hand, the Septuagint in the form it had before Origen, was about four hundred lines, that is one-fifth shorter than the Massoretic Text.另一方面,在形成之前奥利了七十,约400线,即五分之一以上的massoretic文本短。Origen supplied what was lacking in the Septuagint from the Greek translations and marked the additions by asterisks.奥利提供什么是在七十缺乏从希腊翻译和星号标志的补充。Copyists generally omitted these critical signs, and only a remnant of them, mixed with many errors, has been reserved in a few manuscripts.抄写员一般都省略了这些关键的迹象,只有残余其中,有许多错误的混合,已经在一些手稿保留。Consequently knowledge of the old form of the Septuagint is very imperfect.因此在旧形式的septuagint知识是非常不完善。 The best means now of restoring it is the Copto-Sahidic translation which followed the Septuagint and does not contain Origen's additions.现在最好的办法是恢复它的Copto - Sahidic翻译遵守了七十和不包含渊源的补充。 This translation was published by Ciasca, "Sacrorum Bibliorum fragments Copto-Sahidica" (2 vols., Rome, 1889), and by Amelineau in "Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology", IX (1893), 409-75.这个翻译出版了Ciasca,“Sacrorum Bibliorum片段Copto - Sahidica”(2卷,罗马,1889年),以及Amelineau中,第九章(1893),409-75“的圣经考古学学报”。Hatch and Bickell claim that the shorter text of the Septuagint is in general the earlier one, consequently that the present Massoretic Text is an expansion of a shorter original.哈奇和Bickell声称,该译本在较短的文字一般是较早的一个,因此,目前的massoretic文本是一个较短的原始扩张。 Nearly all other investigators hold the opposite, that the Septuagint was produced by cutting down an original which varied but little from the Massoretic Text.几乎所有的其他研究者持相反,该译本是由砍伐的massoretic文本从一个原始而各有不同,但很少产生。This was also Bickell's view in earlier years, and is the real state of the case.这也是Bickell在早年的意见,是案件的真实情况。To avoid repetition and discursive statements, the translators of the Septuagint omitted much, especially where the reading seemed doubtful, translation difficult, the content anthropomorphic, unworthy of Job, or otherwise objectionable.为了避免重复和话语报表时,本译本的译者略多,尤其是在阅读似乎令人怀疑,翻译难度较大,拟人化的内容,对工作不值得,或其他不恰当的。 In doing this the translation frequently disregards the fundamental principle of Hebrew poetry, the parallelism of the lines.在这一过程中的翻译经常无视希伯来诗歌,对线并行的基本原则。In brief the critical value of the Septuagint is not great; in almost all instances the Massoretic Text is to be preferred.在简短的septuagint临界值不是很大,在几乎所有情况下,massoretic文本将被优先考虑。Taken altogether, the Massoretic has preserved the original form of the consonantal text fairly well, and needs but a moderate amount of critical emendation.两者加起来,已保存的massoretic辅音文字的原始形态相当不错,但和需求的关键校正适量。The punctuation (vowel signs and accents), it is true, frequently requires correction, for the punctuators did not always lightly understand the often difficult text; at times also words are not properly divided.标点符号(元音符号和重音符号),这是事实,经常需要更正,为标点符号并不总是轻易理解往往难以文本;有时还词不正确划分。


Chapters iii-xlii, 6, are poetical in form.第三章 - XLII,6,在形式上诗意。This part of the book consists of about 102O lines.这书的部分包括约102O线。The verses, which do not always correspond with the Massoretic verses of our editions, are generally divided into two clauses or lines which are parallel in content.的诗句,这并不总是与我们的对应版本的massoretic诗句,一般分为两个条款或线,在内容平行。There are also a number of verses, about sixty, of three clauses each, the so-called triplets.也有数量的诗句,大约六十三个条款的每一个,所谓的三胞胎。It is an unjustifiable violence to the text when a critic by removing one clause changes these triplets into couplets.这是一个不合理的暴力文本时,通过去除一个子句批评家变成对联这些三胞胎。The verses form the twenty-eight speeches of the book which, as already stated, make four series of seven speeches each.诗歌形式的书里面,如前所述,提出四点七发言每个系列的28演讲。The speeches are divided, not directly into lines, but into strophes.的发言,划分,而不是直接进入线路,但进入strophes。It is most probable that the speeches formed from strophes often, perhaps always follow the law of "choral structure" discovered by Father Zenner.这是最可能从strophes形成的发言的时候,也许始终遵循“合唱结构”由父亲真兰发现的规律。That is, the speeches often or always consist of pairs of strophes, divided by intermediate strophes not in pairs.也就是说,讲话经常或总是通过不包括在对中间strophes划分的strophes对。The two strophes forming a pair are parallel in content and have each the same number of lines.这两个strophes形成一对平行的内容和各自的行数相同。For a further discussion of this subject see Hontheim, op.有关此问题的进一步讨论,见Hontheim,同前。cit.CIT。Investigators are not agreed as to the construction of the line.调查人员不同意以该线的建设。Some count the syllables, others only the stresses, others again the accented words.有人算音节,只有讲别人,别人再次重音字。 It would seem that the last view is the one to be preferred.这似乎是最后一个视图是要首选之一。There are about 2100 lines in the Book of Job, containing generally three, at times two or four, accented words.大约有2100线在约伯记,有时含有两个或四个一般有三种,重音字。Besides the commentaries, cf.除了评论,比照。Gietmann, "Parzival, Faust, Job" (Freiburg im Br., 1887); Baumgartner, "Gesch. d. Weltliteratur", I (Freiburg im Br., 1901), 24 sqq.Gietmann,“Parzival,浮士德,工”(弗莱堡溴,1887年);鲍姆加特纳,“Gesch D. Weltliteratur”,我(弗赖堡IM溴,1901年),24 SQQ。One peculiarity of the author of Job is his taste for play upon words; for example, ch.其中一名作者的工作特点是他在文字游戏的味道,例如,甲烷。xxi contains a continuous double meaning.XXI包​​含一个连续的双重意义。


The author of the book is unknown, neither can the period in which it was written be exactly determined.该书的作者是未知的,也不能在它被写入时期恰好确定。Many considered the book the work of Job himself or Moses.许多人认为书中的作业自己或摩西的工作。It is now universally and correctly held that the book is not earlier than the reign of Solomon.人们现在普遍认为,正确的书是不早于所罗门统治。On the other hand it is earlier than Ezechiel (Ezekiel 14:1-20).另一方面它比Ezechiel(以西结书14:1-20)更早。For it is the natural supposition that the latter gained his knowledge of Job from the Book of Job, and not from other, vanished, sources.它是自然的假设,后者获得了从约伯记他的工作知识,并从其他消失,来源没有。It is claimed that allusions to Job have also been found in Isaias, Amos, Lamentations, some of the Psalms, and especially Jeremias.据称,到作业典故也已在伊萨亚斯,阿莫斯,悲叹,一些诗篇,特别是赫雷米亚斯发现。Many Catholic investigators even at the present time assign the book to the reign of Solomon; the masterly poetic form points to this brilliant period of Hebrew poetry.许多天主教的调查,即使在分配到所罗门统治的书目前,诗歌形式的巧妙点,这希伯来诗歌的辉煌时期。The proofs, however, are not very convincing.的证据,但是,并不是很有说服力。Others, especially Protestant investigators, assign the work to the period after Solomon.其他人,尤其是新教的调查,分配工作后,所罗门时期。They support this position largely upon religious historical considerations which do not appear to have much force.他们的支持很大程度上取决于宗教历史因素没有出现能有多大的力量这一立场。

Publication information Written by Joseph Hontheim.出版信息写的约瑟夫Hontheim。Transcribed by F. Gilles Beaudet, fsc.转录由F.吉尔博德特,FSC。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Full bibliographies are to be found in CORNELY, Introductio in UT libros sacros, II (2nd ed., 1897), ii, 71 sqq., and in the commentaries of DILLMANN and BUDDE, cf.全部书目要在CORNELY,在UT libros sacros,II(第2版,1897年),二,71 SQQ。Introductio,并在Dillmann和布德,比照评论发现。also the various Introductions to the Scripture, as GIGOT (1906); TROCHON (1886); KAULEN (4th ed., 1899); CORNELY (2nd ed., Paris, 1897); further the articles on Job in the theological and Biblical encyclopedias.还介绍到的各种经文,作为GIGOT(1906年); TROCHON(1886年);考伦(第4版,1899年); CORNELY(第二版,巴黎,1897年);进一步加强在神学和圣经百科全书上作业的文章。Of the large number of commentaries on Job the following may be mentioned.对大量的工作评论如下可能被提及。Catholic: WELTE (1849); KNABENBAUER (Paris, 1886), HONTHEIM (1904).天主教:WELTE(1849); KNABENBAUER(巴黎,1886年),HONTHEIM(1904年)。Non-Catholic: DELITZSCH (2nd ed., 1876); DILLMANN (4th ed., 1891); DAVIDSON in Cambridge Bible (1895); BUDDE (1896); DUHM (1897); WIGHT AND HIRSCH, A Commentary on the Book of Job from a Hebrew Manuscript in the University Library, Cambridge (1905).非天主教:DELITZSCH(第二版,1876年); DILLMANN(第4版,1891年);在剑桥圣经戴维森(1895年);布德(1896年); DUHM(1897)怀特和Hirsch,一份关于图书评论工作从在大学图书馆,剑桥(1905年)希伯来文手稿。Among special works mention may be made of: BICKELL, De indole ac ratione versionis Alexandrinae in interpretando libro Jobi (1862); IDEM, Carmina Vet.其中提到的特殊工程,可制成:BICKELL,德吲哚AC理由versionis在interpretando libro苡(1862)Alexandrinae;同上,布兰兽医。。metrice (18S2); GIETMANN, De re Metrica Hebraeorum (1880); VETTER, Die Metrik des Buches Job (1897); BEER, Text des Buches Hiob untersucht (1897); ROGER, Eschatologie des Buches Job (1901); POSSELT, Der Verfasser der Eliureden (1909).metrice(18S2); GIETMANN,德重Metrica Hebraeorum(1880),模具Metrik DES Buches作业(1897年)VETTER;啤酒,文字DES Buches Hiob untersucht(1897年);罗杰,Eschatologie DES Buches作业(1901年); POSSELT,DER Verfasser DER Eliureden(1909年)。

Book of Job书的作业

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息


Complaint and Rejoinders.投诉和答辩状。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Speeches of Elihu.演讲的伊莱休。

-Critical View:临界查看:

The Doctrine of Retribution.的报应主义。

Job's Replies.约伯的回复。

Composition of the Book.组成的书。

Second and Third Dialogues.第二次和第三次对话。

Later Additions and Changes in the Text.后来添置和文本的变化。

Textual Criticism.考据学。


Complaint and Rejoinders.投诉和答辩状。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

A dramatic poem in forty-two chapters, the characters in which are Job, his wife (mentioned only once, ii. 9), his three friends-Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar-Elihu, and God (see Drama, Hebrew).一个在42章戏剧性的诗,人物,而所工作,他的妻子(只提到一次,二9),他的三个朋友,以利法,比勒达和Zophar,以利户,神(见戏剧,希伯来文)。 Ch.CH。i.-ii.: Prologue, describing Job's prosperity, its disappearance,and the calamities sent upon him at the suggestion of Satan.i.-ii.:序幕,描述职位的繁荣,它的消失,并呼吁他发送了撒旦的建议的灾难。Ch.CH。iii.: Job's complaint.三:工作的投诉。He curses the day he was bron; wishes he had died immediately after birth; thinks death preferable to a life of misfortune.他咒骂的一天,他是支气管,希望他出生后立即死亡,认为死亡的最好的不幸生活。Ch.CH。iv.-v.: Reply of Eliphaz. iv.-v.:以利法的回复。He declares that a truly righteous man is never afflicted; that a man sometimes thinks himself just, though he is unjust: hence his complaint.他宣称,真正正义的人是从来没有折磨,有时候,一个人认为自己只是,虽然他是不公正的:因此他的投诉。He exhorts Job to turn to God in sincerity, who will surely restore him to well-being.他告诫工作转向神的诚意,谁一定会恢复他的福祉。Ch.CH。vi.-vii.: Job resumes his complaint.VI. - VII:求职简历投诉。His afflictions are greater than he can bear; his sole desire is to die at once, all his friends having deserted him.他的苦难大于他所能承受的,他唯一的愿望就是死一次,他的所有朋友们不必抛弃了他。He relates his sufferings, and reproaches God, who takes delight in torturing him.他叙述他的痛苦,并责备上帝,谁发生在折磨他的喜悦。Ch.CH。viii.: Reply of Bildad.八:对比勒达回复。He reproaches Job for his injustice toward God, declaring that if he were really upright, God would not have so afflicted him, and that the prosperity of the wicked, of which Job complains, is unstable.他责备他对神不公作业,宣称如果他真的是正直,神就不会这么折磨他,那是恶人,其中就业抱怨,繁荣是不稳定的。 Ch.CH。ix.-x.: Job represents God as a capricious tyrant, who lets His hand fall on both the just and the unjust.ix.-x.:作业表示为反复无常的暴君,让谁上都公正和不公正的,他的手落在上帝。He maintains that God knows that he is not wicked, and yet tortures him.他认为,上帝知道,他不是邪恶的,却又折磨他。Ch.CH。xi.: Zophar, in reply, accuses Job of wickedness, for which he is being punished, and exhorts him to repent.十一:Zophar,答辩,指责邪恶工作,为此他被处罚,并力劝他悔过。Ch.CH。xii-xiv.: Job declares that he is as wise as his friends and that he needs not their counsel.第十二至十四:就业宣称他是明智的,因为他的朋友,他需要的不是他们的律师。God is ruler, and therefore he complains directly to Him of the prosperity of the wicked and of the suffering of the righteous.上帝是统治者,因此他抱怨直接的恶人繁荣和正义的痛苦他。God, the Omnipotent, ought not to bring under judgment so frail a creature as man.神,无所不能,不应该把人下判断,所以身体虚弱的生物。Ch.CH。xv.: Eliphaz replies; Job's own words prove his guilt.十五:以利法的答复;招聘自己的话证明他有罪。He repeats the assertion that the prosperity of the wicked is not of long duration.他重复断言的是,邪恶的繁荣是不长的时间。

Ch. CH。xvi-xvii.: Job again accuses God of injustice.十六,十七:工作再次指责不公正的神。Ch.CH。xviii.: Bildad confirms his friends' assertion that the wicked, in spite of present prosperity, will come to a bad end.十八:比勒达证实他的朋友的说法,即恶人,尽管在今天的繁荣,将来到一个好结果的。Ch.CH。xix.: Job accuses his friends of being unjust toward him, laments that now he has none to whom he may go for comfort: God persecutes him, his friends and acquaintances have abandoned him, even his wife turns against him.十九:工作对他的指责是不公正的他的朋友,感叹说,现在他已经没有任何人,他可能会去安慰:神迫害他,他的朋友和熟人都抛弃了他,甚至他的妻子对他打开。 Ch.CH。xx.: Zophar makes the same reply as Bildad in ch.XX:Zophar使得同样的答复,如CH比勒达。xviii., but in other words.十八,,但在其他的话。Ch.CH。xxi.: Job refutes his friends' assertions, maintaining that only the wicked prosper, that they spend their lives in pleasure and pass swiftly to the grave.二十一:作业驳斥他的朋友的说法,认为只有邪恶的繁荣,他们花费在他们的生活和快乐传递迅速的坟墓。Even if misfortune overtakes their children, the wicked have departed, and will know it not.即使不幸赶超他们的子女,恶人已离开,并知道它不是。Ch.CH。xxii.: Eliphaz asserts that God has no profit in man's righteousness, only man himself profits by it; that Job is being punished for his manifold sins. 。XXII:利法声称,神没有在人的义利,只有人由它自己的利润;的工作正在为他的多方面的罪处罚。He again exhorts Job to repentance, telling him that therein he will prosper at last.他再次告诫工作悔改,告诉他,其中他将在最后繁荣。

Ch. CH。xxiii.-xxiv.: Job complains that, not knowing the abode of God, he can not bring his case directly before Him.xxiii. - XXIV:工作抱怨说,不知道上帝的居处,不能把他​​的情况下直接在他面前。Then, changing his theme, he describes the perverseness of the wicked and marvels that God, who sees everything, does not check them.然后,改变自己的主题,他介绍了邪恶和奇迹,上帝,谁看到的一切,不检查他们乖张。Ch.CH。xxv.: Bildad rejoins that man has no right to complain, as he can not be perfect.二十五:比勒达再结合那个男人没有权利抱怨,因为他不可能十全十美。Ch.CH。xxvi.-xxxi.: Job, after declaring to Bildad that he knows well that God is omnipotent and omniscient, cites a parable, maintaining that he is upright and a stranger to wickedness. xxv​​i. - XXXI:工作后,宣布对比勒达,他深知,上帝是无所不能,无所不知,举了个比喻,认为他是一身正气,对邪恶的陌生人。The wicked are destined to destruction, and will not profit in their great wealth.恶人是注定要毁灭,也不会在他们的利润巨大财富。 In ch.在CH。xxviii.二十八。he exalts wisdom, and contrasts, in the two following chapters, his present condition with his former prosperity.他高举智慧,和对比,在以下两章,他与他的前繁荣的现状。Formerly, he was respected and beloved by all for his generosity and his charitable deeds, and the wicked feared his power.以前,他尊重和他的慷慨和他的慈善事迹所有心爱的,并担心他的邪恶力量。Now, he is mocked by the meanest, by the outlawed; he again speaks harshly against God.现在,他是嘲笑的最卑鄙,由被取缔,他再次严厉地对上帝说话。He describes his generosity and his uprightness, calling upon God to witness it.他形容他的慷慨和他的正气,在神呼吁见证它。

Speeches of Elihu.演讲的伊莱休。

Ch. CH。xxxii.-xxxvii.: Elihu's speeches.xxxii. - XXXVII:伊莱休的讲话。Seeing that Job's three friends remained silent, unable to answer him, Elihu takes their place.眼看约伯的三个朋友保持沉默,不能回答他,以利户需要他们的地方。He had remained silent because the others were older; but being now convinced that wisdom is not in years, he assumed the duty of replying to Job.他一直保持沉默,因为其他都是老年人,但现在被认为智慧是不来,他承担了答复工作职责。The chief points of Elihu's speeches are that God is never wrong, that calamity is a warning from God to man to repent, that God, who neither profits in man's righteousness nor suffers in his sins, always chastises the wicked and rewards the righteous.在伊莱休的讲话的主要点是,上帝是永远没有错,那灾难是从神到人悔改的警告,即上帝,谁也不在人的义利,也不在他的罪受苦,总是惩戒恶人和奖励的正义。

Ch. CH。xxxviii.-xxxix.xxxviii. - XXXIX。are theophanous; they present a cosmographical sketch and take the form of questions addressed to Job by God, who speaks to him out of the whirlwind.是theophanous,他们提出一个cosmographical草图,并采取提问的方式解决由神到作业,谁给他讲出来的旋风。 They tell of the creation of earth, seas, light, darkness, snow, hail, rain, the heavens, and the celestial bodies; the habits of the wild goat, the unicorn, the peacock, the ostrich, the horse, and the eagle are spoken of in passages of great beauty.他们告诉地球,海洋,光,黑暗,雪,冰雹,雨,天空和天体创造;野生山羊,麒麟,孔雀,鸵鸟,马,鹰和习惯是口语中的大美人通道。 Ch.CH。xl.-xli.: Continuation of God's address with a brief reply from Job.xl. - XLI:上帝的地址延续了由作业简短的回应。These two chapters describe the nature and habits of the hippopotamus ("behemoth") and the whale ("leviathan").这两章描述了河马(“巨兽”)和鲸鱼(“利维坦”)的性质和习惯。Ch.CH。xlii.: Epilogue; after a short speech from Job declaring his repentance, an account of his restoration to his former state of prosperity is given.四十二:尾声,从作业后,宣布他的忏悔,恢复了他的帐户,他的繁荣前的状态给出简短讲话。The sublime grandeur of the final theophany, the simple directness of the narrative portions, and the imaginative coloring of the soul-problems raised in the book make it, regarded merely as literature, the most striking production of the Hebraic genius.最终theophany,对部分简单直接的叙述,而在书中提出的反省问题想象力的崇高庄严使其着色,视为文学天才的希伯来最引人注目的生产只。 See Job, Biblical Data.ECM Sel.见工作,圣经Data.ECM SEL。

-Critical View:临界查看:

The poem which is contained in Job iii.而这是在招聘三所载的诗。1-xlii.1,四十二。6, exclusive of later interpolations, discusses a religious problem which could scarcely have been formulated in the early period of the Israelitic people; for it presupposes a high spiritual development and a maturity of judgment which are acquired by a people only after great trials and sore tribulations. 6,后来插值排他性,讨论宗教问题,几乎已经可以在Israelitic人初期制定的,它预示着一个高精神的发展和成熟度的判断是收购后,才由一个人的伟大试验和疼痛磨难。 This view excludes all the earlier opinions which assign the date of the composition of the poem either to the patriarchal age (so Eichhorn, Jahn, Bertholdt, Haneberg, and others), or to the time of Moses (BB 15a), of David (Herder), of Solomon (Schlottmann, Haevernick, and Hahn), and even of Hezekiah (Ewald).这种观点不包括所有先前的分配意见大卫的诗组成的日期或者向父系年龄(所以艾希霍恩,雅恩,Bertholdt,Haneberg等),或向摩西(BB 15A)时,(赫尔德),所罗门(Schlottmann,Haevernick,和哈恩)和希西家(埃瓦尔德),即使。

The special problem discussed in Job concerns the justice of the divine government of the world.特别在工作中讨论的问题关系到世界的神圣政府正义。It could have been formulated only after the principles of that justice had been announced in Deuteronomy; according to which earthly happiness was promised as a reward to the faithful followers of the Law and of Yhwh, and earthly misfortune was heldup as a punishment to the recalcitrant (Deut. xxviii.-xxx.).这本来是制定后,才正义的原则已在申命记宣布,据这尘世的幸福是作为对法律和耶和华的忠实追随者的奖励承诺,和地上的不幸是作为对顽抗的处罚heldup (申命记xxviii. - XXX)。Hence the poem must have been composed after the promulgation of the Deuteronomic code.因此,诗必须已组成后颁布的Deuteronomic代码。And the question as to God's dealings with His world must have become paramount at a time when experience directly contradicted the principles laid down in that code.而作为他的世界与神的交往已成为最重要的问题必须在规定相矛盾时体验直接在该代码的原则时间。After the reforms of Josiah (622 BC) Israel undoubtedly had a right to unalloyed happiness.经过约西亚的改革(622 BC)以色列无疑有向非合金幸福的权利。Instead there came a succession of catastrophes: the defeat of Megiddo (609), and the Babylonian exile (587), by which the congregation of the Lord in Israel in particular was most deeply smitten.而是出现了连续的灾难:在米吉多(609)失败,巴比伦流亡(587),其中在以色列主尤其是最深刻的击打众。

Merx, Stickel, Reuss, Dillmann, Hirzel, Hitzig, and Ley (in "Studien und Kritiken," 1898, pp. 34-70) assume the seventh century BC as the date of composition; Gesenius, Vatke ("Biblische Theologie," i. 563), and Duhm ("Das Buch Hiob," p. ix.) place it as late as the fifth century; while Budde ("Das Buch Hiob," p. xiv.) assigns it even to the year 400.MERX,Stickel,罗伊斯,Dillmann,Hirzel,希齐格和莱伊(在“家庭研究UND Kritiken,”1898年,页34-70)承担作为组成之日起公元前七世纪,Gesenius,Vatke(“Biblische神学” ,一563),和Duhm(“资本布赫Hiob,”第IX)把它作为作为第五个世纪末;而布德(“资本布赫Hiob,”第XIV)赋予它甚至到了400年。 But the question involved in the poem must have become imperative, not when righteous Israel was pitted against the heathen evil-doers (as in Hab. i. 2-5, ii. 4), but when the oppressed Israelitic congregation presented a violent contrast to its wicked oppressors who were joined by traitors to their own religion and people.但在诗中所涉及的问题必须成为当务之急,而不是当正义以色列对异教徒的恶人(如民政事务局,一2-5,二,四)进站,但是当被压迫Israelitic众提出了猛烈的对比其谁被叛徒加入到自己的宗教和人民邪恶的压迫者。 This contrast is found in the Exile, but still more markedly perhaps at the time of the Maccabees, when Israel was persecuted by Antiochus Epiphanes (2d cent. BC).这种反差是发现在流放,但也许更明显在马加时间,当以色列被安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯(2D以上。BC)迫害。The same designations are applied to him in the Book of Job as are found, according to advanced critical views, in the Psalms.同样的名称应用到他的工作作为发现图书,根据先进的批评意见,在诗篇。On the one hand there are the "resha'im" (Job xx. 5 et seq., xxi. 7 et seq., 16 et seq.); the "po'ale awen" (xxxi. 3); the "'ariẓim" (xxvii. 13); the "ḥanef" (xxvii. 8); the "'awwal" (xxix. 17); the "'ashir" (xxvii. 19), etc.; on the other, the "ẓaddiḳim" (xxii. 19); the "ebyonim" (xxiv. 4); and the "'aniyye areẓ" (xxiv. 4b); comp.一方面是有“resha'im”(5及以下职位XX,XXI 7页起,16页起。);的“po'ale阿文”(xxxi. 3)在“' ariẓim“(xxvii. 13);的”ḥanef“(xxvii. 8);的”'伊斯兰外交部长会议“(xxix. 17)的”'ashir“(xxvii. 19)等,另一方面,在”ẓaddiḳi​​m “(xxii. 19);的”ebyonim“(xxiv. 4),以及”'aniyye AREZ“(xxiv. 4B);比赛。"'ani weebyon" (xxiv. 14 et seq.); "yashar" (xxiii. 7); "naḳi" (xxvii. 17), etc. Many catastrophes had been recently witnessed falling upon great nations (xii. 23); eg, when the Assyrians were vanquished by the Babylonians, and the latter in turn by the Persians.“'ANI weebyon”(xxiv. 14起。);“亚沙尔”(xxiii. 7),“NAKI”(xxvii. 17)等许多灾难后,最近出现了伟大的民族下降(xii. 23);例如,当被亚述人,巴比伦人,并在后者又由波斯人征服。It had indeed become a matter of daily occurrence to witness countries given into the hands of evil-doers, and to see Yhwh mock at the despair of the innocent (ix. 23, 24) and to behold the triumph of the wicked (xxi. 7 et seq.).它确实成为每天发生的事,见证到恶人的手给国家,看在无辜的绝望(ix. 23,24)耶和华模拟,并看哪,恶人的胜利(xxi. 7页起)。The doom of the evil-doer (xv. 20 et seq.) is described in terms which seem to allude to the fate of Alexander Jannæus.该邪恶实干家(xv. 20起。)厄运中介绍了这方面似乎暗示了亚历山大Jannæus的命运。The language of the speeches in the Book of Job, the late Hebraic words recurring in it (comp. Barth, "Beiträge zur Erklärung des Buches Hiob," 1876, p. 4; Stade, "Lehrbuch der Hebr. Grammatik," 1879, p. 12), and the many Aramaisms (comp. Budde, "Beiträge zur Kritik des Buches Hiob," 1876, p. 141) and Arabisms (comp. Stade, lc pp. 12 et seq.) all point to a comparatively late time.而在约伯记的发言语言,已故的希伯来词反复出现在它(comp.巴特,“Beiträge楚Erklärung DES Buches Hiob,”1876年,第4页,体育场,“Lehrbuch DER黑布尔Grammatik,”1879年,第12页),和许多Aramaisms(comp.布德,“Beiträge楚Kritik DES Buches Hiob,”1876年,第141页)和Arabisms(comp.体育场,立法会第12页起)都指向一个比较晚时间。

From the references to many Egyptian matters, Hitzig has assumed that Egypt was the home of the poet; but the passages referring to the hippopotamus and crocodile may be suspected to be later interpolations.从许多埃及事项参考,希齐格承担,埃及是诗人的家;但通道指的是河马和鳄鱼可能被怀疑要晚插。The Egyptian mines (xxviii. 1-11) were known in Palestine, as were also the swift ships of the Nile (ix. 26), the papyrus-rolls (xxxi. 36; comp. viii. 11), the war-horse (xxxix. 19), and the pyramids (AV "desolate places"; iii. 14).埃及地雷(xxviii. 1-11)被称为在巴勒斯坦,也对尼罗河(ix. 26),纸莎草,卷(xxxi. 36;赛八11)快速船,战争马(xxxix. 19)和金字塔(AV“荒凉的地方”;三14)。From "them that go by the way" (xxi. 29), also, much may have been learned of foreign countries.从“他们的方式去”(xxi. 29),另外,很多可能已经学到了国外。The poet himself may have joined caravans (vi. 15-19); the descriptions of the sufferings of the pious in Israel indicate that he also had suffered (xi. 15, 19a; vii. 1-3).诗人自己可能已经加入大蓬车(VI. 15-19);对以色列虔诚的痛苦的描述表明,他也遭受了(xi. 15,19A;七1-3)。He wrote his poem with his heart's blood (Duhm).他写了他的心脏的血液(Duhm)他的诗。

The Doctrine of Retribution.的报应主义。

It had become necessary to assail the popular doctrine that obedience to the Law would be rewarded, and its transgression punished.它已成为必要攻击的流行理论,服从法律将得到相应的回报,其侵处罚。For both of these principles were interpreted in an entirely external way: reward meaning a long and pleasant life (Ex. xx. 12; Lev. xxvi. 3 et seq.), and punishment misfortune and an early death (Deut. xxviii. 20 et seq.; Lev. xxvi. 15 et seq.; Gen. ii. 17 et seq.).对于这些原则都被解释在一个完全外部方式:奖励的意义和愉快的长寿命(。。出埃及记二十12;列弗XXVI 3及以下)和惩罚不幸和早期死亡(申二十八20及以下;列弗XXVI 15及以下;。将军二第17页起)。The leper especially was considered to be smitten by God; hence the term "nega'" (= "blow"; Lev. xiii. 22) for leprosy.在麻风病人特别是被认为是由神击打,因此称为“负”“(=”吹“;。列弗十三22)的麻风病。The sufferings of the law-abiding Israelite or of the righteous seemed therefore irreconcilable with Yhwh's justice and truthfulness; for He smote him who deserved praise, and punished where He had promised a reward.对守法的以色列人或义人的痛苦,因此似乎与耶和华的正义和真实性不可调和的,因为他击打他谁值得赞誉,并受到惩罚的地方,他曾许诺的奖励。

The ancient doctrine of retribution is developed at great length by Job's three friends.古老的报应主义是由发达国家在约伯的三个朋友连篇累牍。According to it God shows His anger by inflicting suffering; He turns from man as from an enemy (xiii. 24, xix. 11); looks at him angrily (vii. 19a, xiv. 6a, xvi. 9); smites him with His hand (xiii. 21b, xix. 21); makes him afraid by His terrors (ix. 34, xiii. 21b, xxiii. 16); covers him with darkness (xix. 8b); stands in his way (iii. 23); overwhelms him with His power (ix. 12, 13, 19a; xxiii. 6); pierces him with His arrows (vi. 4, xvi. 14); punishes him with His scourge (ix. 23).据这表明他的神的愤怒造成的痛苦,他从人轮流从敌人(xiii. 24,十九11);看着他愤怒地(vii. 19A,6A第十四,十六9);惩击他与他的手(xiii. 21B,十九21);让他由他的恐惧(ix. 34,十三21B,二十三16。)恐怕;占地面积黑暗(xix. 8B)他,用他的方式站(III. 23 );压垮与他的权力(ix. 12,13,19A他;二十三6);刺穿他与他的箭(VI. 4,十六14);惩罚与他的灾祸(ix. 23)他。The poet introduces also the imagery of the prison (vii. 12, xiii. 27, xiv. 16), the net (xix. 6), the storm (ix. 17, xxx. 22), and an army assailing an unfortunate captive (x. 17, xvi. 13, xix. 12), who in the end succumbs (xxx. 12 et seq.).诗人还介绍了监狱的图像(vii. 12,十三27,十四16),净(xix. 6),风暴(ix. 17,XXX 22),以及军队调戏一个不幸的俘虏(十17,十六13,十九12),到底是谁屈从(xxx. 12页起)。He vainly questions how he may have incurred the inscrutable anger of God (x. 2, xiii. 23).他徒劳地问题他怎么可能招致了神(十2,十三23)高深莫测的愤怒。The burning pain will not let him rest (xxx. 17).燃烧的痛苦不会让他休息(xxx. 17)。Imagery from the animal world is also used (x. 16).从动物世界图像也使用(十16)。God's hostility calls up fear of further visitation (ix. 18, x. 13-15, xxx. 23) and despair because of the unending misery (ix. 11 et seq., xxiii. 15 et seq.), so that the prayer for a short respite (vii. 16-19, x. 20, xiv. 6) is interwoven with the cry for death (vi. 9, 10; vii. 15).神的敌意,因为调用的无休止的苦难(ix. 11页起,二十三15起。)担心进一步探视(ix. 18,十13〜15,XXX 23)和绝望,这样的祈祷很短的喘息(。vii. 16-19,十20,十四6)是交织在一起的死亡哭(VI. 9,10;七15)。

Added to all these sufferings of the stricken one is the bitterness of seeing that his enemies as well as his friends heartlessly consider him to be a sinner branded by God (xvii. 6).添加到所有这些受灾one痛苦的是看到他的敌人以及他的朋友无情地认为他是由神(xvii. 6)品牌的罪人苦。His enemies snatch at the opportunity to vent their malice on him (xvi. 10 et seq., xxx. 1-14); his servants and followers refuse him obedience (xix. 15, 16); his wife and children, as well as relatives and friends, abandon him (xii. 4; xix. 13-14, 17-19, 21 et seq.).他的敌人抢夺的机会发泄对他的恶意(xvi. 10页起,XXX 1-14),他的​​仆人和他的追随者拒绝服从(xix. 15,16),他的妻子和子女,以及亲戚和朋友,放弃他(xii. 4;。十九13-14,17-19,21及以下)。His guilt is assumed as a matter of course, and no one thinks of doubting it; otherwise God would have to be accused of injustice-an accusation that would be the most grievous blasphemy (iv. 7, viii. 3).他有罪假定为理所当然,没有人怀疑它认为的,否则上帝会成为不公正,指控这将是最严重的亵渎(iv. 7,八3)被告。 Hence it becomes the imperative duty of the sufferer to find out, by a frank examination of his past life and thoughts, inwhat way he has sinned.因此,它成为该患者必须找出责任由他过去的生活和想法坦诚检查,inwhat方式他已经犯了罪。For there must be some guilt (iv. 18-19, xv. 14-16, xxv. 4-6)-this must be assumed a priori in order to explain the suffering (viii, 11, xxii. 5 et seq.).对于必须有一些内疚(iv. 18-19,十五14-16,二十五4-6),这必须是先验假设,以解释的痛苦(八,11,22,5起。) 。If the sufferer admits his guilt God will forgive him (v. 17-27, viii. 5-7, xi. 13-19, xxii. 21-30); but if he obstinately persists in declaring that he is innocent he adds another grievous sin to his former guilt, and his punishment will increase accordingly (xi. 4, xv. 13, xxii. 3-4).如果患者承认自己有罪上帝会原谅他(五17-27,八5-7,十一13-19,22 21-30。),但如果他硬是在宣布他是无辜的坚持,他又增加了严重的罪过他的前罪,他的处罚将相应增加(xi. 4,十五13,22,3-4)。

Job's Replies.约伯的回复。

In answer to all these arguments of his friends Job insists, in the first place, that the sufferer has the right to complain (vi. 5-7).在回答所有这些工作参数坚持他的朋友们,摆在首位,即患者有权投诉(VI. 5-7)。He points out the heartlessness to which their doctrine leads; for instead of comforting the sufferer in his pain, they reprove him for his alleged sins (vi. 14-22).他指出了无心向领导,他们的学说;的安慰,而不是在他的痛苦的患者,他们谴责他所称的罪他(VI. 14-22)。 But it is cheap wisdom to repeat the ancient doctrine of divine retribution in all sorts of variations and to apply these to an unfortunate man (xii. 2-3, xiii. 2, xix. 2-5).但它是便宜的智慧,重复的各种变化的古老神圣的报应学说,并应用这些到一个不幸的人(xii. 2-3,十三2,十九2-5)。 Although the supreme power of God makes it impossible to rebel against His blows, the justice of His decrees is not thereby proved (ix. 2-21, 30-35; x. 15-17; xii. 14; xiii. 3; xix. 6 et seq.; xxi. 31).虽然上帝至高无上的权力使其无法反抗他的打击,他的法令正义并不因此而证明(ix. 2-21,30-35,十15-17,十二14;十三3;十九(六)及以下;二十一31)。Experience shows that in the catastrophes of nature the perfect and the wicked are alike smitten by God (ix. 22-23); and it often happens that the wicked live prosperously to the end of their days (xii. 6; xxi. 7-15, 32 et seq.), being made the judges of right and wrong (ix. 24), although occasionally the ancient doctrine of retribution brought them to the bar of justice (xix. 29).经验表明,在自然灾害的完善和恶人都是一样的神(ix. 22-23)重拳出击,而且往往出现蓬勃恶人活到他们的天结束(xii. 6; XXI 7 - 15,32页起),正在对与错(ix. 24)法官,虽然偶尔古老的报应主义带来了他们的正义吧(xix. 29)。

But no power on earth can take away the feeling of innocence from the sinless sufferer, or force him to declare himself guilty against his better convictions (x. 6, 7; xiii. 18 et seq.; xvi. 17; xxvii. 5, 6; xxxi. 1 et seq.).但世界上没有任何力量可以拿走了从患者清白无罪的感觉,或强迫他宣布自己对他更好的信念犯(十六,七,十三18及以下;。十六17;。XXVII 5, 6; XXXI 1页起)。He has the right to appeal to God's judgment, as being superior to the condemnation his friends pretend to see in his present misfortunes (xii. 4, xiii. 7-10, xvi. 18-20, xix. 17).他有权利呼吁上帝的判断,作为是优于谴责他的朋友假装看到他现在的不幸(xii. 4,十三7-10,十六18-20,十九17)。 It is useless to say that no man is clean in the eyes of God (xiv. 4); for even according to that argument it is incomprehensible why the comparatively just person should be most heavily stricken and the worst evil-doers go unpunished (vii. 21, xiii. 26, xiv. 17).这是没用的说,没有人是在神(xiv. 4)眼部的清洁;即使按照这样的说法是比较难以理解,为什么刚刚人受灾最重的应该是与最坏恶人逍遥法外(七21,十三26,十四17)。

The negative result reached by these arguments of the Book of Job may be stated as follows: What hitherto has been called divine justice is merely the display of the omnipotence of God.的负面结果由约伯记这些参数达到可表示如下:什么一直被称为神圣的正义只不过是神的无所不能的显示。 His decisions are devoid of all moral qualities, and are pronounced indifferently, as blessings or as curses, upon all men, upon the good and the bad alike.他的决定是所有道德素质缺乏,而且明显冷淡,因为祝福或诅咒,要求所有男性后,好和坏的一致好评。In the same way men are prosperous or unhappy according to the fortuitous events of their lives, quite independently of their ethical qualities.以同样的方式男子繁荣或不满根据他们的生活,相当独立的道德素质的偶然事件。 The gifts of fortune and the strokes of calamity are in no wise connected either with God's justice or with man's moral nature.幸运的礼物和灾难的笔画是不是与神的公义或人的道德性质有关的任何明智的。

But as these arguments deprived the divine omnipotence, as manifested in the world, of all ethical quality the danger arose of excluding this quality altogether from the divine nature, and of actually destroying the attribute of justice in God.但由于这些参数剥夺了神无所不能,表现为在世界上所有的道德品质,产生的危险排除从这种品质完全神性,和实际破坏了司法神的属性。 Hence the poet attempted to rehabilitate the latter in a round-about way, succeeding, however, only by means of a postulate.因此,诗人试图恢复在一个迂回的方式后,获得了成功,但是,只有通过一个假设的手段。He declares that many of the phenomena of nature are indeed the manifestations of an omnipotence that overwhelms man by the terrors of its sublimity (xxvi. 6-14), but that this is not the only thing that nature declares of God.他宣称,对大自然的许多现象确实是一个无所不能的压倒了其崇高的恐惧(xxvi. 6-14)人的表现,但是这不是唯一的自然神的宣告。The marvelous law and order of those phenomena, of nature and the multiplicity and curious modes of life of her creatures, are also the manifestations of a hidden wisdom, to which man simply must submit.奇妙的法律和秩序的现象的性质,多样性和生物的生活,她好奇的模式,也是一个隐藏的智慧的表现,给这名男子只是必须提交。

Composition of the Book.组成的书。

The author of the Book of Job incorporated the folk book into his work in a manner still showing traces of the component parts.该法团在仍然显示的各个组成部分的痕迹地将他的工作的民间书约伯记的作者。 The use of this preexisting material very cleverly placed the problem outside of Palestine, thereby excluding the possible objection of orthodox theology that such a case-a perfectly righteous man persecuted by Yhwh-could not occur in Israel.这个已经存在的材料的使用非常巧妙地放在外面的巴勒斯坦问题,从而排除了反对正统神学的可能,这样的情况下,一个完全由迫害耶和华义人,也不会发生在以色列。 Yhwh, moreover, did not inflict the suffering; it was inflicted by Satan with Yhwh's permission.耶和华,而且,没有造成的痛苦,它是由撒但造成与耶和华的许可。The problem is discussed in a disputation between Job-who like a leper sits on the dust-heap (Ar. "mazbalah") outside the nomad village (on the separation of lepers see II Chron. xxvi. 21)-and his three friends who, according to the folk-book, come to comfort him (ii. 11).问题是讨论之间的争议与工作就像一个麻风病人谁坐在上的灰尘堆外的牧民村(对麻风病人分离见二专栏。XXVI 21)和他的三个朋友(Ar.“mazbalah”)谁,根据民间的书,来安慰他(白介素11)。In the body of the book, however, they bring no comfort, but heap the bitterest accusations upon Job.在书体,但是,他们带来不舒适,但堆在工作最激烈的指责。Job opens the discussion with the ancient cry of all sufferers (iii., Hebr.): "O, that I had never been born! and since I was brought into the world, why could I not, even in the hour of birth, have found the eternal rest of Sheol" (comp. Sophocles, "(Edipus Coloneus," line 1225: τὸ μὴ φῦναι τὸν ἅπαντα νικᾷ λόγον; Eccl. iv. 2-3); and in his questionings at the end of this monologue (iii. 26 et seq.) he formulates the problem as to the cause of this inexplicable suffering. The friends defend the views of the orthodox doctrine of retribution, according to which all suffering is a punishment for some sin; while Job defends the views of the clear conscience, which knows itself to be free from sin, and declares his suffering to be inexplainable from the Old Testament point of view. The discussion is held in a threefold series of dialogues (iv.-xxxi.), in each of which Job alternates once with each of the three friends. Hence arises the following scheme, aside from the additions to be discussed later on: First series of dialogues: Eliphaz (iv.-v.); Job (vi-vii.); Bildad (viii.); Job (ix.-x.); Zophar (xi.); Job (xii-xiv.). Second series: Eliphaz (xv.); Job (xvi.-xvii.); Bildad (xviii.); Job (xix.); Zophar (xx.); Job (xxi.). Third series: Eliphaz (xxii.); Job (xxiii.-xxiv.); Bildad (xxv.-xxvi. 5-14); Job (xxvi. 1-4, xxvii. 2-23, xxviii.-xxxi.); Zophar; Job (not in Hebrew text in the Masoretic arrangement). The third series of dialogues especially has been altered by interpolations. The beginning of Bildad's speech (xxv. 1-6) has been separated from the portion continuing it (xxvi. 5-14). It is followed by Job's answer (xxvi. 1-4; xxvii. 2-6; xxix. 1-6, 19, 20, 7-11, 21-23, 12, 13, 15-17, 24, 25, 14, 18; xxx. 1-24, 26-31; xxxi. 1-20; xxx. 25; xxxi. 21-23, 38-40, 24-37, 40; for this arrangement see C. Siegfried," The Book of Job," critical ed., especially pp 42 et seq., Leipsic and Baltimore, 1893).工作打开了与所有患者古代哭(III.,黑布尔)讨论:“O,我从来没有出生,因为我是融入世界带来的,为什么我没有,甚至在出生时,已经找到了阴间永恒的休息“(comp.索福克勒斯,”(Edipus Coloneus,“行1225:τὸμὴφῦναιτὸνἅπαντανικᾷλόγον;传道书四2-3),并于本月底在questionings独白(。 。三,26页起),他制定了以这种莫名的痛苦导致问题的朋友捍卫正统的报应主义的观点,根据所有的痛苦是一些罪恶的惩罚;而保卫工作的意见清澈的良心,它知道自己是从罪的自由,并声明他的痛苦,从旧约的观点来看inexplainable的讨论举行了对话三倍系列(iv. - XXXI),在每个一旦与三个朋友每个作业交替出现的,因此除了增加下列计划,以在后面讨论:对话第一系列:以利法(iv.-v.);作业(vi-vii.);比勒达(八),作业(ix.-x.); Zophar(xi.);作业(xii-xiv.)第二系列:以利法(xv.);作业(xvi. - XVII);比勒达(xviii.) ;作业(xix.); Zophar(xx.);作业(xxi.)第三系列:以利法(xxii.);作业(。xxiii. - XXIV);比勒达(。xxv. - 26 5-14);工作(xxvi. 1-4,二十七2-23,xxviii. - XXXI。); Zophar;作业(不希伯来语安排在马所拉文本)的对话,第三个系列,尤其是已被插值改变了比勒达的开始。讲话(xxv. 1-6)已脱离继续它(xxvi. 5-14)的一部分,是由作业的回答后(xxvi. 1-4;二十七2-6;。XXIX 1-6,19 ,20,7-11,21-23,12,13,15-17,24,25,14,18,XXX 1-24,26-31;三十一1-20; XXX 25;三十一21。 -23,38-40,24-37,40;看到这样安排C.齐格弗里德,他说:“约伯记”,关键ED,尤其是42页及以下,Leipsic和巴尔的摩,1893年)。

These speeches do not present a direct, continuous train of thought developing or elaborating some central idea.这些发言不存在直接的,思想的发展或制订一些中心思想连续培养。The art and power of Semitic rhetoric consistrather in the rich elaboration of a single thought expressing the same idea in a varied profusion of imagery (comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] i. 5-10; Franz Delitzsch, "Gesch. der Jüdischen Poesie," pp. 21 et seq., Leipsic, 1836).在艺术和力量,在一个单一的表达了丰富多样的影像同样的想法(comp. Ecclus [西拉奇]一5-10思想丰富的阐述反犹言论consistrather;。弗兰兹Delitzsch,“Gesch DER Jüdischen POESIE, “第21页起,Leipsic,1836)。In general it may be said that Eliphaz represents on the whole the proof of authority, basing his arguments on a vision (iv. 12-21).在总体上可以说,总体上以利法的权威代表证明,立足于一个愿景(iv. 12-21),他的论点。Bildad appeals chiefly to experience, which proves the truth of the doctrine of divine retribution (viii. 8 et seq., xviii. 5-21).比勒达呼吁主要经验,这证明了神圣的报应主义真理(viii. 8页起,十八,5-21)。Zophar argues with all the fervor of religious conviction and appeals to the divine decision (xi. 5 et seq.). Zophar认为所有的宗教信念和神圣的决定(xi. 5起。)上诉的热情。

It appears from Job's speeches that, overawed by the veneration clinging to the old sacred doctrine of retribution (xii. 12), he at first does not dare to proclaim his innocence, of which he is so firmly convinced.看来,由抱住老神圣的报应主义(xii. 12)崇拜震住了,他起初不敢宣称自己的清白,而他是如此坚定地相信,从工作的讲话。He begs his friends to grant him the right to complain (vi. 2-13); not to refuse him the comfort he had expected from them (vi. 14-21), nor to attack him so mercilessly (vi. 24-27).他乞求他的朋友给他的申诉权(VI. 2-13),不拒绝他,他从他们(VI. 14-21)预期的舒适性,也没有攻击他,所以无情地(VI. 24-27 )。He points out that experience shows only that the misfortunes befalling men are manifestations of God's omnipotence, and that because His decisions are strong enough to overcome all resistance it does not necessarily follow that they are just (ix., xii. 7-25).他指出,经验表明只有不幸降临的男人是上帝的全能表现,因为他的决定是强大到足以克服一切阻力,并不一定表示他们只是(ix.,十二,7-25)。 He therefore boldly asks the reason for his suffering (xiii. 18-23).因此,他大胆地要求为他痛苦的原因(xiii. 18-23)。

Second and Third Dialogues.第二次和第三次对话。

In the second dialogue Job develops the thought that while in some cases God's judgment is in accordance with the old doctrine of retribution (xxi. 16-21), very frequently just the opposite happens, as appears in the undisturbed good fortune of the wicked (xxi. 7-15, 22-34).在第二次对话工作发展的思想,虽然在某些情况下,神的审判与报应旧学说(xxi. 16-21)的规定是非常频繁正好相反的情况,如在不受干扰的恶人造化出现(二十一,7-15,22-34)。He persists, moreover, even more strongly in declaring his innocence, appealing to the judgment of God, who apparently is so hostile to him, but whose justice will ultimately induce Him to become the avenger (go'el) of that innocence (xvi. 17-19, xix. 25-27).他仍然存在,而且,更强烈地在声明自己的清白,呼吁上帝的判决,显然是谁如此仇视他,但他们的正义将最终导致他成为该无罪复仇者(go'el)(xvi. 17-19日,十九。25-27)。

In the third dialogue, as the friends begin to weaken in their attacks, Job emphasizes the impossibility of contending with such an opponent as God.在第三次对话,作为朋友开始削弱他们的攻击,工作强调了这样一个神与对手抗衡是不可能的。Of course Job must outwardly succumb; but even against God he will maintain his right, and is willing to prove it, if God will appear and answer (xxvii. 1-6, xxxi.).当然,工作必须表面上屈从,但即使是上帝,他将保持对他的权利,并愿意证明这一点,如果上帝将出现,并回答(xxvii. 1-6,三十一)。The discussion is ended by Yhwh's appearance in the storm (xxxviii.-xxxix. 30, xl. 1-5).讨论结束了耶和华在风暴外观(xxxviii. - XXXIX 30,XL。1-5)。Yhwh reminds Job of the limitations of human nature, and Job, humbly admitting them, no longer seeks an answer to his question.耶和华我想起了人性的局限作业和工作,虚心承认他们,不再寻求对他的问题的答案。

Later Additions and Changes in the Text.后来添置和文本的变化。

In the course of time various interpolations were made in the text of the poem.在时间的过程中进行了各种插值在诗的文字。These comprise: (1) a number of passages that have been placed among the foot-notes in the edition by Siegfried mentioned above; (2) the parallel texts, so called because they are parallel developments of the corresponding passages in the genuine text; eg, as vii.这些包括:(1)对已跻身脚票据放置在齐格弗里德版由上述段落数;(2)平行文,所谓的,因为他们是在真正的文本对应的通道并行发展;例如,作为第七。 1-10; x.1-10;十。18-22; xii.18-22;十二。 4-6; xiv.4-6;十四。1, 2; xiii.1,2;十三。28; xiv.28;十四。5, 7-12, 14, 18-22; xvii. 5,7-12,14,18-22;十七。11-16; xl.11-16; XL。 6-32; xli.6-32; XLI。 1-26, xlii.1-26,四十二。 1-6; (3) corrections and revisions of Job's speeches made for the purpose of harmonizing them with the orthodox doctrine of retribution (these revisions include xii. 7-10 [11, 12 as glosses], 13-25; xiii. 11; xxi. 16-18; xxiv. 13-24; xxvii. 7-23); (4) passages containing a polemic against the ideas expressed in the poem (xxviii. 1-28 and the so-called speeches of Elihu, xxxii.-xxxvii.). 1-6;(3)更正和工作的讲话修订的协调与正统的报应主义(这些修改包括十二他们的目的,取得7-10 [11,敷衍了事12],13-25;十三11。 ;二十一16-18;二十四13-24;二十七7-23);(4)段落包含对在诗中所表达的思想论战(xxviii. 1-28和伊莱休,三十二所谓的讲话.-三十七)。Ch.CH。xxviii.二十八。rejects the effort to fathom the divine wisdom and to discover the rule of its workings, these being regions into which human understanding and empiric knowledge can not penetrate.拒绝努力参透神的智慧,并发现其运作规则,这些地区被人类认识到其中的知识和经验无法穿透。Speculation here must give way to faith.投机在这里必须让位给信仰。The fear of Yhwh ("yir'at Adonai"; xxviii. 28), that is, religion, and the departure from evil ("sur me-ra'"), that is, morality, take the place of science, which here has reached the end of its resources.对耶和华(“yir'at阿多奈”;二十八28)恐惧,那就是宗教,从恶(“河畔ME - RA'”),也就是道德出发,采取科学的地方,在这里已经达到了其资源的结束。

The speeches of Elihu contradict the fundamental teachings of the genuine poem of Job, according to which it is impossible that the righteous should suffer, all pain being a punishment for some sin.伊莱休的讲话相矛盾的是真正的诗的工作的根本教义,根据它是不可能的,应该受到正义的,所有的疼痛正在为一些罪恶的惩罚。 Elihu, however, assumes that suffering may be decreed for the righteous for pedagogic reasons, as a protection against greater sin, and for moral betterment (xxxiii. 17 et seq., 28-30).伊莱休,但是,假定痛苦可能下令对正义的理由,对教学更大的罪恶的保护,改善和道德(xxxiii. 17页起,28-30)。How little these Elihu speeches come into the general scheme of the poem is shown by the fact that Elihu is not mentioned either in the prologue or in the epilogue, being entirely ignored by Yhwh in the latter.如何这些小伊莱休成诗一般的计划来讲话是伊莱休所表现出的是没有提到无论是在序言或后记,是完全由耶和华忽视了后者的事实。 They have been defended as genuine by Umbreit, Stickel, Schlottmann, and Budde (1876; and in his commentary [1896], especially pp. xxxv.-xxxviii.).他们一直捍卫真正的Umbreit,Stickel,Schlottmann和布德(1876年和在他的评论[1896年],特别是第xxxv. -三十八)。On Studer's criticism in "Jahrb. für Protestantische Theologie" (1875, pp. 688 et seq.; 1877, pp. 545 et seq.) and in "Das Buch Hiob für Geistliche und Gebildete Laien" (1881) comp.在斯图特在“Jahrb献给Protestantische神学。”批评(1875年,第688页起;。1877年,第545页起),在“资本布赫Hiob献给Geistliche UND Gebildete莱恩”(1881年)比赛。Budde, "Beiträge zur Kritik des Buches Hiob," pp. 77 et seq.布德,“Beiträge楚Kritik DES Buches Hiob”,页77起。

Textual Criticism.考据学。

The textual criticism of Job must rest on the Masoretic text (see Baer, "Liber Jobi," 1875).考据学的工作必须建立在马所拉文本(见Baer的,“LIBER苡,”1875年)。As Lagarde has pointed out ("Anmerkungen zur Griechischen Uebersetzung der Proverbien," 1863, pp. 1 et seq.), that text goes back to a single original manuscript, so that nothing in regard to textual corrections is gained by a collation of manuscripts.由于拉加德指出(“Anmerkungen楚Griechischen Uebersetzung DER Proverbien,”1863年,第1页起),这些文字可以追溯到一个原稿,以便在关于什么是文字上的修正所获得的手稿整理。The recently discovered Babylonian Bible manuscripts are important only for the history of the vocalization and accentuation of the Biblical text (comp. Harkavy and Strack, "Katalog der Hebräischen Bibelhandschriften der K. Bibliothek in St. Petersburg," 2 parts, 1875).最近发现的巴比伦圣经手稿是重要的只为发声和圣经的文本(comp. Harkavy和施特拉克,“Katalog DER Hebräischen Bibelhandschriften DER K. Bibliothek在圣彼得堡,”2件,1875年)重读历史。 Jerome, who in his version of Job closely followed the Hebrew, calls for little notice (comp. Hupfeld, "Beleuchtung Dunkler Stellen in der Alttestamentlichen Textgesch." in "Studien und Kritiken," 1830, pp. 1571 et seq.; Nowack, "Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die Alttestamentliche Textkritik," Göttingen, 1875).杰罗姆,谁在他的作业版本紧随其后的希伯来文,要求很少的通知(comp.霍普菲,在“家庭研究UND Kritiken,”1830年,第1571页起“Beleuchtung Dunkler Stellen在DER Alttestamentlichen Textgesch。”; Nowack, “死Bedeutung DES海欧纳莫斯献给死Alttestamentliche Textkritik,”哥廷根,1875)。


The Septuagint version, being a very free rendering of the Book of Job (comp. Bickell, "De Indole ac Ratione Versionis Alexandrinæ in Interpretando Libro Jobi," 1862), must be used very cautiously; yet it can not be denied that it contains many traces of the correct reading (comp. A. Merx, "Das Gedicht von Hiob," 1891; C. Siegfried, "The Book of Job," 1893).该译本的版本,身为约伯记(comp. Bickell,“德吲哚AC理由Versionis Alexandrinæ在Interpretando Libro苡,”1862年)非常自由的渲染,必须使用非常谨慎,但也不能否认它包含正确的阅读(; C.齐格弗里德,他说:“约伯记”,1893年comp. A. MERX,“资本Gedicht冯Hiob,”1891年)的许多痕迹。For the Targum of Job see W. Bacher in "Monatsschrift," xx.对于工作Targum看到W.巴切尔在“月刊,”XX。208-223.208-223。The Syriac translation ("Peshiṭta") may also be consulted, but as it was corrected after the Septuagint, its agreement with the latter does not mean much textually.叙利亚文翻译(“培熹托”),也可能是协商,但因为它是更正后的译本,它与后者的协议文本上没有多大的意义。 For the Arabic translation of the poem by Saadia Gaon see I. Cohn, Altona, 1889; "ŒuvresComplètes de R. Saadia Gaon," v. (ed. Bacher), Paris, 1899.对于诗的萨蒂娅Gaon看到一科恩,阿尔托纳,1889年阿拉伯语翻译,“ŒuvresComplètes德河萨蒂娅Gaon,”诉(编辑巴切尔),巴黎,1899年。 Emendations of the poem must often be based on conjecture.诗Emendations必须经常根据的猜想。

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, M. Seligsohn, Emil G. Hirsch, Carl Siegfried执行委员会的编辑委员会,M. Seligsohn,埃米尔赫斯基G.卡尔齐格弗里德

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。


Commentaries: For the earlier exegesis, Rosenmüller, Scholia in Vetus Testamentum, v.; and the commentaries and introductions to the OT For modern views compare especially H. Ewald, 1836; 2d ed.评:对于早期训诂学,Rosenmüller,在Vetus Testamentum,诉Scholia,以及评论和介绍对于现代OT比较意见,尤其是H.埃瓦尔德,1836; 2版。1854; L. Hirzel, 1839; 2d ed. 1854年,L. Hirzel,1839; 2版。by I. Olshausen, 1852; 3d ed.由一Olshausen,1852;三维版。1869; 4th ed.1869年,第4版。 by A. Dillmann, 1891; Ferdinand Hitzig, 1874; A. Klostermann, Hiob, in Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.由A. Dillmann,1891年,费迪南德希齐格,1874年,A. Klostermann,Hiob,在赫尔佐格,豪克,实时百科全书。viii.八。97-126; K. Budde, 1896; B. Duhm, 1897.97-126; K.布德,1896年; B. Duhm,1897年。Translations with commentaries: A. Merx, 1871; G. Studer, 1881; E. Reuss, Das Alte Testament, 1892-1894; idem, Vortrag über das Buch Hiob, 1888; G. Hoffmann, 1891; F. Baethgen, in Kautzsch, Die Heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments, 2d ed.; idem, Hiob: Deutsch mit Anmerkungen für Ungelehrte, 1898; Friedrich Delitzsch, Das Buch Hiob, Leipsic, 1902.评翻译:; G.斯图特,1881; E.罗伊斯,达斯阿尔特约,1892-1894; A. MERX,1871年同上,Vortrag黚DAS布赫Hiob,1888; G.霍夫曼,1891年,在Kautzsch F. Baethgen, ,模具Heilige Schrift DES Alten约,2版;同上,Hiob:德语MIT Anmerkungen献给Ungelehrte,1898年,弗里德里希Delitzsch,达斯布赫Hiob,Leipsic,1902年。 For problems in the Book of Job, J. Meinhold, Das Problem des Buches Hiob, in Neue Jahrb.对于在约伯记,J. Meinhold,达斯问题DES Buches Hiob在NEUE Jahrb,存在的问题。für Deutsche Theologie, 1892, pp. 63 et seq.; I. Ley, Die Probleme im Buche Hiob, in Neue Jahrb.献给德意志神学,1892年,第63页起;一莱伊,模具Probleme IM布车Hiob,在NEUE Jahrb。 für Philologie und Pädagogik, 1896, pp. 125 et seq.献给Philologie UND教育学,1896年,第125页起。For special questions on composition, I. Grill, Zur Kritik der Composition des Buches Hiob, Tübingen, 1890; TK Cheyne, Job and Solomon, 1887; Duhm, as above; L. Laue, Die Composition des Buches Hiob, 1895.有关组成特殊问题,一烧烤,祖尔Kritik DER组成DES Buches Hiob,蒂宾根大学,1890年,传统知识进益,工作和所罗门,1887年; Duhm,如上; L.劳厄,模具组成DES Buches Hiob,1895年。

For textual criticism, G. Bickell, Kritische Bearbeitung des Jobdialogs, in Wiener Zeitschrift für Kunde des Morgenlandes, vi.对于考证,G. Bickell,Kritische Bearbeitung DES Jobdialogs,在维纳(杂志)献给坤德宫Morgenlandes,六。137-147, 241-257, 327-334; vii. 137-147,241-257,327-334;七。1-20, 153-168; idem, Dichtungen der Hebräer, ii., 1882; idem, Das Buch Job nach Anleitung der Strophik und der Septuaginta, Vienna, 1894; P. Vetter, Die Metrik des Buches Hiob, in Biblische Studien, ed.1-20,153-168;同上,Dichtungen DER Hebräer,二,1882年;同上,达斯布赫工作nach Anleitung DER Strophik UND DER Septuaginta,维也纳,1894年,P. Vetter,模具Metrik DES Buches Hiob,在Biblische(研究),编辑。Bardenhewer, ii.巴登黑韦尔,II。 4, Freiburg, 1897; H. Grimme, Metrisch-Kritische Emendationen zum Buche Hiob, in Theol. 4,弗赖堡,1897年,H.格力莫,Metrisch - Kritische Emendationen ZUM布车Hiob,在Theol。 Quartalschrift, lxxx. Quartalschrift,LXXX。295-304, 421-432; lxxxi. 295-304,421-432;捌拾。112-118, 259-277; O. Voigt, Einige Stellen des Buches Hiob, 1895; I. Ley, in Studien und Kritiken, 1895, pp. 635 et seq.; G. Bär, Der Text des Buches Hiob, 1895; idem, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1896, pp. 297 et seq.EGHCS112-118,259-277; O.福格特,Einige Stellen DES Buches Hiob,1895;一莱伊,在家庭研究UND Kritiken,1895年,第635页起; G.酒吧,德文本DES Buches Hiob,1895;同上,在体育场的(杂志),1896年,第297等seq.EGHCS


Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息


-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Opinions as to Date.意见以日期。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Job's Generosity.约伯的慷慨。

-Critical View:临界查看:

Composite Nature of Book of Job.综合性质的招聘书。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Titular hero of the Book of Job.英雄的名义对约伯记。He was a native of Uz, rich, very pious, and upright, and he had seven sons and three daughters.他是乌斯,丰富,非常虔诚,正直的人,他有七个儿子和三个女儿。His sons used to make a feast in their houses, one each day; and at the end of the week Job would bring seven holocausts, according to the number of his sons, thinking perhaps that the latter, while feasting, had committed sins (Job i. 1-5).他的儿子来使他们的房子盛宴,每天各一个,并在一周工作的结束将带来seven大屠杀,按照他的儿子的数目,心想也许是后者,则灯红酒绿,犯了罪(作业一1-5)。

One day in the heavenly council, in consequence of a question asked by God, Job's piety was discussed by the accuser Satan, who maintained that if Job should be stricken with calamity he would certainly sin.一个在天上议会一天,由神问了一个问题的结果,工作的虔诚讨论了原告撒旦,谁坚持认为,如果工作应与遭受灾难,他一定会犯罪。 Satan, having received permission to deal with Job as he pleased, first brought poverty on him by causing all his cattle to be stolen; then he caused the death of all Job's children.撒旦,在得到允许用作业处理为他高兴,他首先提出在贫困使他所有的牛被窃取,那么他所造成的一切工作的儿童死亡。 But Job did not sin.但工作没有犯罪。On the contrary, he declared God's act to be just, saying, "The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away" (ib. i. 6-22).相反,他宣称上帝的行为,只是说:“耶和华了,和耶和华带走”(同上一6-22)。At a second gathering of the "sons of God" Satan obtained permission to afflict Job's own person.在一个“神的儿子”第二次聚会撒旦获准折磨招聘自己的人。He accordingly smote him with a most painful disease (elephantiasis ?); still Job did not complain.因此,他击打一个最痛苦的疾病(象皮病?)他,还是工作没有抱怨。Even when his wife advised him to curse God and die, he replied that he had to accept evil at His hands, just as he had received good (ib. ii. 1-10).甚至在他妻子劝他诅咒上帝,死了,他回答说,他不得不接受他的恶手,就像他收到了良好的(ib.二1-10)。Three friends came to condole with him, and stayed with him seven days and seven nights in silence (ib. ii. 11-13), after which began the colloquies between him and his friends that form the text of the Book of Job.三个朋友来慰问他,留他在沉默七天,七夜(ib.二11-13),之后,开始他和他的朋友colloquies,形成了对约伯记文本。

Finally, God restored Job to his former state, giving him twice as much as he had before, even fourteen sons.最后,上帝对他的恢复工作前的状态,给他的两倍多,他收到了,甚至fourteen儿子。 The daughters, however, born to him after his restoration were only three in number.女儿,然而,他出生后,他恢复了在数量上只有三个。Job lived 140 years after this and saw four generations (ib. xlii. 10-17).工作生活140年这之后,看到四代(同上四十二。10-17)。 He is mentioned by Ezekiel (Ezek. xiv. 14, 20) with Noah and Daniel as among the three most righteous men.他提到以西结与挪亚和丹尼尔(结十四14,20)为三间最正直的人。See Job, Book of.EGHM Sel.请参阅作业,图书of.EGHM SEL。

Opinions as to Date.意见以日期。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Owing to the importance of the Book of Job, the Talmudists occupied themselves frequently with its chief character.由于对约伯记的重要性,Talmudists占领自己经常与它的主要特点。One of the amoraim expressed his opinion in the presence of Samuel b.该亚摩兰一个表达了他对塞缪尔B.存在意见Naḥmani that Job never existed and that the whole story was a fable (BB 15a).Naḥmani的工作根本不存在,而且整个故事是一个寓言故事(BB 15A)。An opinion couched in similar words and pronounced by Simeon ben Laḳish was interpreted to mean that such a person as Job existed, but that the narratives in the drama are inventions (Gen. R. lvii.).横卧在类似的话和Simeon本Laḳish突出的意见是解释为这样一个工作的人存在,但在剧中的叙述是发明(将军河LVII)。 Apart from these utterances all of the rabbis took it for granted that Job existed, but they differed widely as to the epoch in which he lived and as to his nationality, two points of discussion closely connected.除了这些言论的拉比所有想当然地认为就业存在,但他们普遍认为不同的时代,他的生活和他的国籍,两天的讨论点紧密相连。 Every one of the Talmudists inferred Job's epoch and nationality from an analogy between two Biblical words or sentences.每Talmudists one推断从两个词或句子比喻圣经约伯的时代和国籍。According to Bar Ḳappara, Job lived in the time of Abraham; according to Abba b.据酒吧Ḳappara,工作生活在亚伯拉罕的时间,据阿爸湾Kahana, in the time of Jacob, he having married Dinah, Jacob's daughter (ib.; BB 15b; comp. additions in Targ. Yer. to Job ii. 9).Kahana,在雅各的时间,他有结婚黛娜,雅各的女儿(同上,BB 15B;。比赛在塔尔格也门里亚尔补充作业二9)。R. Levi said that Job lived in the time of Jacob's sons; and he also said, in the name of Jose b. R.利维说,工作中的雅各的儿子居住的时间,而且他还表示,在圣何塞湾的名字,Ḥalafta, that Job was born when Jacob and his children entered Egypt and that he died when the Israelites left that country.Ḥalafta,出生时的作业雅各和他的孩子进入埃及,他去世时,以色列人离开该国。Job consequently lived 210 years (comp. Rashi on Ex. xii. 40).因此工作生活210年(comp.对前。十二,40 Rashi)。When Satan came to accuse the Israelites of being idolaters, God set him against Job, whence Job's misfortunes (Gen. R. lc).当撒但来指责以色列人拜偶像,神作对工作,何处约伯的不幸(将军河LC)他。This opinion is supported by the statement that Job with Jethro and Balaam was consulted by Pharaoh as to the means of reducing the number of the children of Israel and that Job was stricken with calamity because he had remained silent (Sanh. 106a; Soṭah 11a).这种意见是支持的,与叶忒罗和巴兰工作是由法老咨询,以减少对以色列的儿童人数的手段,而一份工作是在灾难灾区,因为他一直保持沉默的声明(Sanh. 106A;Soṭah11A) 。It may be mentioned that this legend is narrated differently in the "Sefer ha-Yashar" (section "Shemot," p. 110a, ed. Leghorn, 1870) as follows: At first Job, who was one of Pharaoh's eunuchs and counselors, advised Pharaoh to have every male child murdered (Ex. i. 16).这可能是传说中提到,这是叙述中的“之书公顷亚沙尔”(节“Shemot,”第110A,编里窝那,1870年)如下不同:在第一份工作,谁是法老的太监和辅导员之一,劝老王有每个男性儿童遇害(出一16)。 Afterward Pharaoh, having had a dream which prognosticated the birth of a helper, again consulted Job.后来老王,有过一个梦想的prognosticated了一个帮手的诞生,再次征询作业。The latter answered evasively: "Let the king do as he pleases" ("Sefer ha-Yashar," lcp 111a).后者回答闪烁其词:“让国王做他喜欢”(“之书公顷亚沙尔,”LCP 111A)​​。Levi b.列维B.Laḥma also held that Job lived in the time of Moses, by whom the Book of Job was written. Laḥma还认为,工作生活在摩西时代,由谁约伯记写。Some of the rabbis even declare that the one servant of Pharaoh who feared the word of God (Ex. ix. 20) was Job (Ex. R. xii. 3).在拉比有的甚至声明说,一名佣人谁害怕法老的神(出埃及记九,20)词作业(例如:R.十二3)。Raba, specifying the time more accurately, said Job lived in the time of the spies who were sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (BB 15a).拉巴,指定时间更准确,说工作中的摩西谁被送往探讨迦南(BB 15A)土地间谍生活的时间。According to these rabbis, Job was a Gentile-an opinion which is elsewhere expressed more fully, in that Job is said to have been a pious Gentile or one of the prophets of the Gentiles (ib. 15b; Seder 'Olam R. xxi.).根据这些拉比,就业是一个外邦人安这是其他地方更充分地表达了这一工作,意见据说是一个虔诚的外邦人或外邦人的先知(同上15B之一;家宴“奥兰R. XXI。 )。Other tannaim place Job variously in the reign of Saba, in that of the Chaldees, and in that of Ahasuerus.其他tannaim地方工作不同地在萨巴王朝在迦勒底的,并在亚哈随鲁王的。R. Johanan and R. Eleazar both declared that Job was one of those who returned from the Captivity and that his bet ha-midrash was at Tiberias (Yer. Soṭah v. 8; BB lc; Gen. R. lc). R.约哈难和R.埃莱亚萨工作都宣布谁是那些从圈养返回之一,他的赌注公顷米德拉士在太巴列(Yer.Soṭah诉8; BB立法会;将军河LC)了。 It is said in BB (ib.) that these tannaim necessarily considered Job an Israelite; but R. Hananeel (ad loc.) has in his text, "All the Tannaim and Amoraim, with the exception of the one who placed Job in the time of Jacob, were of opinion that Job was an Israelite" (comp. also Gen. R. lc).据说,在BB(同上),这些tannaim必然考虑的作业是以色列人,但R. Hananeel(。广告同上)在他的文本,“所有的tannaim和亚摩兰,在一个谁放置在工作异常雅各的时间,都是认为工作是一个以色列人“(comp.也将军河LC)。

Job is prominent in haggadic legends.作业是传说中的haggadic突出。His prosperity is thus described: Samuel b.他的繁荣是如此描述:塞缪尔B。Isaac said: "He who received a 'peruṭah' from Job prospered in his affairs."以撒说:“谁获得就业的”peruṭah“在他的事务蓬勃发展起来。”Jose b.何湾Ḥanina inferred from Job i. Ḥanina推断作业一10 that Job's goats could kill wolves; and R. Johanan inferred from Job i. 10个职位的山羊能杀死狼;和R.约哈难推断作业一14 that God gave Job a foretaste of the bliss of paradise (BB 15b).14,上帝给了作业中的天堂(BB 15B)预示的幸福。Satan, seeing Job's extraordinary prosperity, was filled with envy and therefore began in the councils of heaven to disparage Job's piety.撒旦,看到工作的非凡繁荣,充满了羡慕,因此在天上的议会开始贬低约伯的虔诚。

According to the Targum Yerushalmi (Job i. 6, ii. 1) the two councils of heaven took place respectively on Rosh ha-Shanah and Yom Kippur.据Targum耶路莎米(伯一6,二,1)天上的两个市政局分别发生在犹太公顷Shanah和赎罪日。When the messenger told Job that the Sabeans had seized his oxen, he armed his men and prepared to make war upon them.当信使告诉作业的萨比教徒已没收了他的牛,他手下的武装,并准备作出对他们的战争。But the second messenger came, telling him that a fire from heaven had destroyed his sheep, and he then said: "Now I can do nothing" (Lev. R. xvii. 4).但第二信使来了,告诉他从天上火毁坏了他的羊,他接着说:“现在我也没有办法”(利未记R.十七4)。The wind that blew down his house was one of the three great winds whose power was sufficient to destroy the world (Gen. R. xxiv. 4).风是吹了他的房子是三的权力足以毁灭世界(将军河XXIV 4)大风之一。Job was stricken by Satan with fifty different plagues (Ex. R. xxiii. 10).工作遭受了撒旦与五十(出埃及记R.二十三10)不同的瘟疫。 His house was filled with a bad smell, and Job sat down on a dunghill.他的房子是充满了难闻的气​​味,和作业坐在一个粪堆下来。His flesh was filled with worms which made holes in his body and began to quarrel with one another.他的肉体充满了蠕虫在他的身体洞,并开始​​互相争吵。Job thereupon placed every worm in a hole, saying: "It is my flesh, yet you quarrel about it' (Ab. RN, ed. Schechter, p. 164; comp. Kohler, Testament of Job, v. 6-8, in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 264-295). Job's sufferings lasted twelve months ('Eduy. ii. 10; comp. Testament of Job, v. 9, where the number of years is given as seven); then God, yielding to the prayer of the angels, healed him and restored to him twofold what he had before (Ab. RN lc). Only the number of Job's daughters was not doubled. Nevertheless their beauty was doubled, and therefore their names (Job xlii. 14), indicating their extraordinary charms, are given (BB 16b). The legendary accounts of Job extend also to his three friends. These entered his house simultaneously, though they lived 300 miles apart. Each had a crown or, according to another statement, a tree on which the images of the three friends were carved; and when a misfortune befell any one of them his image was altered (ib.; comp. Targ. to Job ii. 11). It has been said that Job lived 210 years; this is inferred from Job xlii. 16, where it is said that he lived 140 years after his recovery (Gen. R. lviii. 3, lxi. 4; comp. Yalḳ., Kings, 243, and Testament of Job, xii. 8). It is said also that the whole world mourned Job's death (Soṭah 35a).于是工作摆在每一个孔虫,他说:“这是我的肉体,但你吵架一下”(Ab. RN,谢克特版,第164页;比赛科勒,旧约的工作,诉6-8。中科胡特纪念卷,第264-295)约伯的痛苦持续了12个月(“Eduy二10;。排版的工作约,9节,这里的年数是七个给出),然后神,高产在祈祷的天使,他痊愈并恢复到之前他有两个他(Ab. RN LC)了。只有工作的女儿的数目不多了一倍,不过她们的美丽增加了一倍,因此,他们的名字(伯四十二14。 ),说明他们的非凡魅力,给出(BB 16B)的工作传说中的帐户还延伸到他的​​三个朋友,这同时进入他的房子,虽然他们住300英里外,每过一顶王冠,或根据另一份声明,一棵大树上的三个朋友的图像刻和不幸降临时,其中任何一个他的形象被改变(同上;。排版塔尔格到作业二11),它曾经说,工作生活210年,这是从作业XLII 16推断,它是说,他140年后,他的恢复(将军河LVIII 3,LXI 4生活;。。比赛Yalḳ,国王,243,和工作约,十二8),据说还指出,全世界哀悼作业的死亡(Soṭah35A)。

Job's Generosity.约伯的慷慨。

But it was chiefly Job's character and piety that concerned the Talmudists.但它主要是作业的性格和虔诚的有关Talmudists。He is particularly represented as a most generous man.他特别表示为一个最慷慨的人。Like Abraham, he built an inn at the cross-roads, with four doors opening respectively to the four cardinal points, in order that wayfarers might have no trouble in finding an entrance, and his name was praised by all who knew him.亚伯拉罕一样,他建立在十字路口一家客栈,四门分别开在东南西北,为了使wayfarers可能在找到一个入口不闹,他的名字被所有谁知道他的称赞。 His time was entirely occupied with works of charity, as visiting the sick and the like (Ab. RN, ed. Schechter, pp. 33-34, 164; Midrash Ma'yan Gannim, ed. Buber, p. 92; comp. Gen. R. xxx. 9).他的时间完全忙于慈善工作,为来访的病人和如(Ab. RN,谢克特版,第33-34,164;米德拉士Ma'yan Gannim,编辑布伯,第92页;比赛。将军河XXX 9)。Still more characteristic is the conclusion of Raba that Job used to take away, ostensibly by force, a field which belonged to orphans, and after making it ready for sowing would return it to the owners (BB lc).还有更多的特征是拉巴的结论,即就业用来带走,表面上受力,现场是属于孤儿,并使其成为播种后准备将它返回给业主(BB LC)。 Job was also of exemplary piety.工作是模范虔诚也。Like Abraham he recognized God by intuition (Num. R. xiv. 7).像亚伯拉罕他承认直觉(民数记R.十四7)神。Nothing in his possession had been acquired by rapacity, and therefore his prayer was pure (Ex. R. xii. 4).在他身上什么也没有被收购的贪婪,因此他的祷告是纯(出埃及记R.十二4)。He, Melchizedek, and Enoch were as spotless as Abraham (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxxvii.).他,麦基洗德,并以诺竟达亚伯拉罕一尘不染(Midr.的。以诗篇三十七)。He took the greatest care to keep himself aloof from every unseemly deed (Ab. RN ch. ii., Recension B, ed. Schechter, p. 8).他把自己的最大注意保持从每不体面契税(Ab. RN CH II。,校订B,主编。谢克特,第8页)超然。

According to Targ.据塔尔格。Sheni to Esth. Sheni到Esth。i. Job's name was one of the seven engraved on the seven branches of the golden candlestick.约伯的名字是对黄金的七枝烛台刻的七分之一。

But these features of Job's character made the Rabbis apprehend that he might eclipse Abraham; and some of them therefore depreciated Job's piety.但是,工作的性质这些特点使该拉比逮捕,他可能蚀亚伯拉罕;,其中一些工作,因此贬值的虔诚。Johanan b.约哈难乙Zakkai used to say that Job's piety was only the result of his fear of punishment (Soṭah 27a; Yer. Soṭah v. 5). Zakkai常说,约伯的虔诚,只是对他的惩罚恐惧(Soṭah27A;也门里亚尔Soṭah5节)的结果。In Ab.在AB。RN, Recension A, p. RN,校订A,第34, where the generosity of Job is so much praised, it is concluded that when he, after having been afflicted, complained that he was inadequately rewarded, God said to him: "Thy generosity has not yet attained to the half of that of Abraham." 34,这里的工作是如此慷慨称赞,可以得出结论,当他,被折磨后,抱怨说,他是不充分的回报,上帝对他说:“你的慷慨还没有达到对亚伯拉罕的一半“ R. Levi even went as far as to exculpate Satan, declaring that he had the same apprehension that God might forget the piety of Abraham (BB 16a). R.列维还跟尽量开脱责任撒旦,声称他有同样的担心,可能会忘记神的亚伯拉罕(BB 16A)的虔诚。Still even among the Tannaim Job had his defenders, eg, Joshua b.不过即使在该tannaim了工作辩护人,如约书亚乙Hyrcanus, whose opinion was that Job worshiped God out of pure love (Soṭah lc). Hyrcanus,其意见是崇拜的纯洁的爱情(SoṭahLC)神了那份​​工作。This difference of opinion existed with regard to Job's attitude at the time of his misfortune.这方面存在意见分歧,以工作的态度,在他不幸的时间。R. Eliezer said that Job blasphemed God (the Talmudic expression being "he desired to upset the dish"), but R. Joshua considered that Job spoke harsh words against Satan only (BB 16a).河埃利泽说,工作亵渎神(塔木德表达被“打乱了他想要的菜”),但R.约书亚认为工作讲了话反对撒旦只(BB 16A)难听的话。 This discussion was continued by Abaye and Raba, of whom the former pleaded for Job, while Raba followed R. Eliezer's opinion.这个讨论是继续由Abaye和拉巴,其中前者为作业承认,而拉巴其次河埃利泽的意见。Raba's (according to another text, Rab's) expression was "dust into the mouth of Job."拉巴的(根据其他文字,RAB的)表达“进入作业口的灰尘。”He inferred from the passage "and yet Job sinned not with his lips" (Job ii. 10) that Job sinned in his heart (ib.).他推断从通道“,但作业犯罪与他的嘴唇不是”(伯二10),工作在他的心(同上)犯了罪。In the Talmudic literature it is generally assumed that Job sinned or, as the expression is, "he rebelled" ("ba'aṭ"; Midr. Teh. xxvi.).在塔木德文献中,一般认为工作犯了罪,或者作为表达式,“他背叛”(“ba'aṭ”;。Midr的XXVI)。It is further said that if Job had not sinned people would recite in prayer "and the God of Job," just as they recite "the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," but he rebelled (Pesiḳ. R. Aḥare Mot, ed. Friedmann, p. 190a; comp. Ex. R. xxx. 8).它进一步说,如果工作没有犯过罪的人会背诵祈祷“和有关职位的神,”就像他们背诵“上帝的亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各”,但他背叛(Pesiḳ.R.AḥareMOT, 。弗里德曼版,第190A;。比赛前R. XXX 8)。Job's chief complaint was, according to Raba, that although man is driven to sin by the seducer ("yeẓer ha-ra'"), whom God Himself has created, yet he is punished (comp. Job x. 7).作业的主诉是,根据拉巴,虽然人是驱动罪的诱惑(“yeẓerHA - RA'”),上帝创造了人,但他是惩罚(comp.工作十7)。But Eliphaz answered him: "Thou castest off fear" (ib. xv. 4), meaning, if God created the seducer, He also created the Torah, by which a man can subdue the seducer (BB lc).但以利法回答说:“你castest关恐惧”(同上十五4),这意味着,如果上帝创造了诱惑,他还创造了诵读经文,其中一个人可以制服诱惑(BB LC)。Raba concluded also that Job denied resurrection (ib.).拉巴还认定,作业否认复活(同上)。A more picturesque treatment of Job's bitternessagainst God is recorded by Rabbah (according to BB 16a), or Raba (according to Niddah 52a): Job blasphemed God by using the term "tempest" when he said, "For he breaketh me with a tempest" (Job ix. 17), which passage is interpreted by the Rabbis to mean, "Perhaps a tempest passed before Thee which caused the confusion between [= "Job"] and [= "enemy"]" (comp. also Ecclus. [Sirach] xlix. 9, the Hebrew, Greek, and Syriac versions, and the commentaries ad loc.).一个职位的bitternessagainst神更美丽如画的治疗记录拉巴(根据BB 16A),或拉巴(根据Niddah 52A):作业亵渎使用的术语“风暴”时,他说上帝“,因为他震破了暴风雨我“(伯九17),这一段是由拉比解释为,”也许,在你面前风暴造成之间[=“作业”]和[=“敌”]“(comp.也Ecclus混乱通过。 [西拉奇] XLIX 9,希伯来文,希腊文和叙利亚文版本,以及评论广告同上)。God therefore answered him out of the tempest (ib. xxxviii.-xxxix., which are interpreted as a refutation of Job's charge).因此上帝回答他出了暴风雨(同上xxxviii. - XXXIX。,这是作为一个工作的主管反驳解释)。Still, Rabbi's opinion was that Job spoke in praise of God more than Elihu did (Ex. R. xxxiv. 1).不过,拉比的意见是,工作在赞美上帝说话没超过伊莱休(出R. XXXIV 1)。

It has already been said that the Book of Job was ascribed by the Rabbis to Moses.它已经表示,约伯记是由摩西拉比冲高。Its place in the canon is between Psalms and Proverbs (BB 14b).它在佳能和地方之间的诗篇箴言(BB 14B)。The high priest read the Book of Job for diversion before Yom Kippur (Yoma i. 4 [18b]).大祭司阅读改道前赎罪日(山脉岛4 [18B])的工作簿。According to the Talmudists, he who sees the Book of Job in a dream may anticipate a misfortune (Ber. 57b).据Talmudists,谁看到了他在梦中约伯记可预见的不幸(Ber. 57B)。There was an ancient Targum to Job which was regarded by the Talmudists as a dangerous work (comp. Tosef., Shab. xiv.).有一个古老的Targum到作业是由Talmudists视为一个危险的工作(comp. Tosef。,沙巴。十四)。


Israel Schwarz, Tikwat Enosh, Berlin, 1868; Wiernikowsky, Das Buch Hiob, Breslau, 1902.SSM Sel.以色列施瓦茨,Tikwat挪士,柏林,1868年; Wiernikowsky,达斯布赫Hiob,布雷斯劳,1902.SSM SEL。

-Critical View:临界查看:

The hero whose name has furnished the title of the Book of Job appears only as a legendary figure.英雄的名字已提供了有关职位书名似乎只是作为一个传奇人物。It is idle to inquire whether the story has any historical basis, since nothing definite relating to Job can be ascertained.它处于空闲状态,询问是否有什么历史故事的基础上,因为没有明确的有关工作,可确定。The story originated in the land of Edom-a background that has been retained in the Hebrew poem.故事起源于以东,背景的土地已在希伯来文诗保留。The names of Job and his three friends have been partly Hebraized.约伯和他的三个朋友的名字已被部分Hebraized。"Iyyob," the Hebrew form of "Job," is either passive, meaning the person attacked [by Satan]" (comp. "yillod" = "the born one"; Ex. i. 22; Josh. v. 5; "shilloaḥ" in Job ix. 7 = ἀπεσταλ μήνος), or active, meaning "the attacker [ie, of the ancient doctrine of retribution]" (comp. Merx, "Das Gedicht von Hiob," 1871, pp. xvii., xxxv.), like "yissor," Job xl. 2 = "the reprover"; the Arabic etymologies given in Ewald, "Das Buch Ijob" (2d ed., 1854, pp. 19 et seq.: "the returning, repenting"), and in Hitzig, "Das Buch Hiob" (1874, pp. xix. et seq.: from the Arabic tribe "banu Awwab" = "sons of the evening star," ie, "of the returning one"), are doubtful. Eliphaz the Temanite (Job ii. 11) appears also in Gen. xxxvi. 4, 11, 15, as Esau's eldest son. Bildad the Shuhite is mentioned only in the Book of Job. According to Nöldeke (in "ZDMG" xlii. 479), the name means "Bel has loved" (comp. "Eldad"). In Gen. xxv. 2 "Shuah" is the name of a tribe, not of a place. "Zophar" also occurs only in the Book of Job. His home, Naamah, is mentioned in Josh. xv. 41 as a city within the Judaic "shefelah." Job's home, Uz (Χώρα Αὐσίτις in the Septuagint), is mentioned in Lam. iv. 21 as being in Edom; according to Wetzstein (in Delitzsch, "Hiob," pp. 576 et seq.) it was in Hauran, east of the Jordan. For other opinions see Budde, "Das Buch Hiob," 1896, pp. x. et seq. “Iyyob”的希伯来文的形式“作业”,要么是被动的,也就是说,人的攻击[撒旦]“(comp.”yillod“=”的诞生之一“;前一22;乔希5节; “shilloaḥ”的工作九,7 =ἀπεσταλμήνος),或主动,意为“攻击者[即,古老的报应主义]”(comp. MERX,“资本Gedicht冯Hiob,”1871年,页十七。, XXXV),如“yissor,”就业XL 2 =“的reprover”,在给定的阿拉伯语词源埃瓦尔德,“资本布赫Ijob”(2版,1854年,第19及以下: “选举,悔改“),并在希齐格,”资本布赫Hiob“(1874年,第十九及以下:从阿拉伯部落”巴努Awwab“=”的黄昏之星的儿子“,即”对选举之一“),是值得怀疑的。以利法的Temanite(伯二11)出现在将军三十六也。4,11,15,如以扫的长子。比勒达的Shuhite提到只有在约伯记根据Nöldeke(在“ZDMG”四十二。479),这个名字的意思是“倍儿有爱”(comp.“伊利达”),在创二十五2,“书亚”是一个部落的名字,一个不到位。“Zophar”也只有在发生约伯记,他的家,Naamah,提到在乔什。十五,41内的犹太城“shefelah。”作业的家,​​UZ(Χώρα在七十Αὐσίτις),是蓝四提到21作为是在以东,据Wetzstein(中Delitzsch,“Hiob,”第576页起),它是在Hauran,约旦东的其他意见看到布德,“资本布赫Hiob,”1896年,第十起。 。

Composite Nature of Book of Job.综合性质的招聘书。

The poem of Job as found in the Old Testament is a combination from two sources.而在旧约中发现人才诗是从两个来源的组合。The earlier of these, a folk-book, comprises the prologue (Job i. and ii.) and the epilogue (ib. xlii. 7-17).这些较早,民间书,包括序幕(作业一和​​二)和尾声(同上四十二。7-17)。According to this source Job was a rich Edomite sheik, of irreproachable piety (ib. i. 1, 3, 8), as is shown especially by his punctiliousness in ritual observances (ib. i. 5) according to the customs of the time.根据这一源头工作是无可指责的丰富以东人酋长的虔诚,(同上一,1,3,8),尤其是他在仪式纪念活动punctiliousness(同上一5)所示,根据当时的习俗。 The accusing angel Satan (ib. i. 6) in the presence of God casts reflections on the causes of Job's piety (ib. i. 9-11), and, in agreement with the conceit that the evil upon earth is not caused by God directly, but is brought by one or many intermediary angels, receives permission to test Job by misfortune (Gen. xix.; II Sam. xxiv. 16 et seq.; Ezek. ix. 4 et seq.; comp. κολαστικὴ δύναμις in Philo, "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 34 [ed. Mangey. i. 496]; "middat ha-din" in the Jewish midrash, Gen. R. xii.).天使撒旦的指责(同上一6)在神的存在使人们对约伯的虔诚(同上一9-11)反射的原因,并与自负的协议,即在地上罪恶是不是由上帝直接,而是由一个或多个中介天使带来的,接收权限不幸测试工作(创十九;。二,三四条16及以下;以西结书IX 4及以下;。排版κολαστικὴδύναμις在。斐洛,“Quis Rerum Divinarum继承人坐”§ 34 [版Mangey一496。]“middat HA - DIN”在犹太人米德拉士,将军河十二)。

The first trial consists in the destruction of Job's possessions (Job i. 12-19), in which he is the victor through his resignation (ib. i. 20-22).第一次试验包括在有关职位的财产破坏(作业一12-19),其中他是通过他的辞职胜利者(同上一20-22)。Satan declares this trial to have been insufficient, and demands another to consist in personal bodily suffering.撒旦声明本已不足的审判,并要求另一家道个人身体的痛苦。This also is granted, and Job is again victorious (ib. ii. 1-10).这也是理所当然的,工作是一次胜利(ib.二1-10)。Job's wife (ib. ii. 9, 10) here shows how great in such cases is the temptation to do wrong.约伯的妻子(ib.二,9,10)在这里展示了如何在这种情况下极大的诱惑做是错误的。That the friends of Job, who come to comfort him (ib. ii. 11-13), also sin on this occasion is evidenced in Job xlii.这是工作的朋友,谁前来安慰他(ib.二11-13),同样在这个场合罪是证明在工作四十二。7-10a, where Job, who alone remains guiltless, has to intercede for them when they bring the burnt offerings. 7 - 10A,在那里工作,谁独自仍然无罪,已为他们说情,当他们把燔祭。The nature of their sin does not appear, since the folk-book is interrupted at this point by the interpolation of the poem of Job (ib. iii. 1-xlii. 6).其罪恶本质没有出现,因为民间书在这一点打断了有关职位诗(ib.三1 - XLII 6)插。

The folk-book is further differentiated from the poem by its employment of the name of Yhwh, which it naively puts into the mouth of the Edomites (ib. i. 7, 21b; xlii. 7).民间书是进一步区别其诗的耶和华,它天真地进入了以东人口(同上一7,21B;四十二7)所说名就业。Here again Job refrains from sinning with his lips (ib. ii. 10), even in his deepest suffering, and says to Yhwh only what is just ("nekonah"; ib. xlii. 7b, 8b), whereas in the poem he utters the most offensive sentiments against God, beginning by cursing the day of his birth.在这里再次与他的嘴唇从犯罪的(。ib.二10),即使在他最深切的痛苦和作业refrains耶和华只说要什么是公正(“nekonah”;。IB XLII 7B,8B),而在他的诗说出对上帝最反感情绪,由咒骂他出生一天的开始。

In the folk-book the sins consist mainly in unseemly speeches to and about God (ib. i. 10; xlii. 7, 8; comp. ib. i. 22, "natan tiflah").在民间书的罪主要包括在和对神(同上一10; XLII 7,8;。排版IB一22日,“纳坦tiflah”)不体面的发言。He who refrains, like Job, is 'sar me-ra'" (="one who escheweth evil") and "yere Elohim" (= "who feareth God") (ib. i. 1). In other respects piety here, as among the Patriarchs (Gen. xxii. 3), is a matter of ritual, consisting in burnt offerings (Job i. 5). Job's dress is that worn by the Patriarchs; his flocks are reminiscent of Gen. xii. 16, xxxii. 5; his servants ("'abuddah"), of Gen. xxvi. 14. According to Duhm ("Das Buch Hiob," 1897, p. viii.) Ezek. xiv. 14 et seq. indicates that the writer of that passage knew the folk-book.EGHCS他谁refrains一样工作,是“特区ME - RA'”(=“一个谁escheweth邪”)和“yere罗欣”(=“谁feareth神”)(同上一1),在其他方面的虔诚在这里作为其中的始祖(创二十二3),是一个仪式的问题,在(作业一5)燔祭组成的工作的礼服是由始祖穿;他的羊群是将军十二让人想起16。三十二5;。。。。。他的仆人(“'abuddah”)的将军二十六,14根据Duhm(“达斯布赫Hiob,”1897年,第8页)以西结书十四14及以下表明,作家即通过知道民间book.EGHCS

Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn, Solomon Schechter, Carl Siegfried埃米尔赫斯基G.,M. Seligsohn,索罗门谢克特,卡尔齐格弗里德

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

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