Book of Jonah书约拿

General Information一般资料

The Book of Jonah, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is one of the works of the Minor Prophets.约拿的书,在圣经旧约,是对小先知的作品之一。Unlike the other prophetic books, it is not a book written by a prophet but is a narrative about a prophet.不像其他先知书,它是不是由先知写的书,但一个关于先知的叙述。Jonah seems to be the prophet mentioned in 2 Kings 14:25 who lived during the reign of Jeroboam II (c. 785 BC).约拿似乎是在2国王14:25谁在耶罗波安第二(约785年)在位住提到的先知。The book is anonymous and was probably composed during the 4th century BC.该书是匿名的,很可能是在公元前4世纪组成。

A short novella, the book describes how Jonah sought to evade God's command to go to Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, to preach repentance.一个短中篇小说,书中介绍了如何约拿试图逃避神的命令去尼尼微,亚述的首都,宣讲悔改。He booked passage on a ship to Tarshish, only to have his flight brought to an end by a divinely ordained storm.他预订了他施的船舶通行,只让他的飞行所带来的神灵保佑的风暴结束。Thrown overboard and swallowed by a great fish, Jonah was vomited up on shore after three days and nights.扔到海里和一个伟大的鱼吞食,约拿吐在岸上后三天三夜。He then obeyed God's command and preached in Nineveh.然后,他听从神的命令,并在尼尼微宣讲。When the population responded to his preaching and repented, God changed his plan to destroy the city.当人口答复了他的说教和忏悔,上帝改变了他的计划,以摧毁的城市。Divine mercy was thus shown to possess a distinctly universal dimension.神的怜悯因此证明具备明显的普遍性。The purpose of the book, then, was primarily didactic, dramatizing God's care for Jews and Gentiles alike.该书的目的,那么,主要是教学,戏剧化神对犹太人和外邦人一样照顾。It was a polemic against the exclusivism that was beginning to dominate Judaic theology, depicted so clearly by Jonah himself.这是一场反对排外主义开始占据主导地位的是犹太神学,描绘了约拿自己这么清楚论战。

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Bibliography 参考书目
J Ellul, The Judgment of Jonah (1971); A / P La Cocque, Jonah (1990); H Martin, The Prophet Jonah (1952).J,约拿的判决(1971年)埃吕尔; A / P拉Cocque,约拿(1990年),H马丁,先知约拿(1952)。


Book of Jonah约拿书

Brief Outline简述

  1. Jonah's commission, disobedience, and punishment (1:1-16)约拿的佣金,不服从命令和处罚(1:1-16)
  2. Jonah's deliverance (1:17-2:10)约拿的解脱(1:17-2:10)
  3. Jonah preaches, Nineveh repents and is spared (3)约拿宣扬,尼尼微悔改并幸免(3)
  4. God's mercy defended (4)神的怜悯辩护(4)


Jonah乔纳

Advanced Information先进的信息

Jonah, a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher.约拿,鸽子,在Amittai的迦特,希弗的儿子。He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries (2 Kings 14:25-27) of the kingdom.他是以色列的先知,预言了古老的界限王国(王下14:25-27)恢复。He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess.他行使他的部很早就在耶罗波安第二,统治,因而是当代与何西阿和Amos;或者可能他之前他们,因此可能是所有先知的著作中,我们拥有非常古老。 His personal history is mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name.他的个人历史,主要是为了收集从书里面蕴藏着他的名字。It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a type of the "Son of man."它主要是由两方面人物,他出现时,(1)有趣的尼尼微作为异教徒传教,和(2)作为一种类型为“人子”。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Jonah约拿书

Advanced Information先进的信息

This book professes to give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet.这本书自称给一个什么样的实际参加先知经验的地方帐户。Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a history.一些批评者试图解释为比喻或寓言,而不是作为一个历史的书。They have done so for various reasons.他们这样做的各种原因。Thus (1) some reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form; (2) others, denying the possibility of miracles altogether, hold that therefore it cannot be true history.因此,(1)一些拒绝的理由可以认为,奇迹般的元素进入,以便在很大程度上把它,它不是在它的形式预言,但叙事;(2)他人,否认奇迹的可能性完全,认为因此它不能被真实的历史。 Jonah and his story is referred to by our Lord (Matt. 12:39, 40; Luke 11:29), a fact to which the greatest weight must be attached.约拿和他的故事被称为我们的主(太12:39,40;路加福音11:29),以其中最大的重量必须附上的事实。 It is impossible to interpret this reference on any other theory.这是不可能在任何其他理论解释这个参考。This one argument is of sufficient importance to settle the whole question.这一个参数是足够的重视,以解决整个问题。No theories devised for the purpose of getting rid of difficulties can stand against such a proof that the book is a veritable history.为获得摆脱困境的目的,设计没有理论可以抵挡这样的证据,这本书是名副其实的历史。

There is every reason to believe that this book was written by Jonah himself.我们完全有理由相信,这本书是由约拿自己写的。It gives an account of (1) his divine commission to go to Nineveh, his disobedience, and the punishment following (1:1-17); (2) his prayer and miraculous deliverance (1:17-2:10); (3) the second commission given to him, and his prompt obedience in delivering the message from God, and its results in the repentance of the Ninevites, and God's long-sparing mercy toward them (ch. 3); (4) Jonah's displeasure at God's merciful decision, and the rebuke tendered to the impatient prophet (ch. 4).它给出了一个帐户(1)他的神圣的委托去尼尼微,他的不服从和惩罚以下(1:1-17)(2)他的祈祷和奇迹般的解脱(1:17-2:10);( 3)第二佣金给他,他在提供从神的消息提示服从,并在尼尼微人悔改的结果,与神的长期不放过对他们的怜悯(章3)(4)约拿的不满在上帝的仁慈的决定,并指责招标的不耐烦先知(章4)。 Nineveh was spared after Jonah's mission for more than a century.尼尼微幸免后约拿对一个多世纪的使命。The history of Jonah may well be regarded "as a part of that great onward movement which was before the Law and under the Law; which gained strength and volume as the fulness of the times drew near.", Perowne's Jonah.约拿的历史很可能被视为“作为这一伟大向前运动,在法律面前,根据该法的一部分,它获得了作为时代的充满力量和体积就到了。”扫管笏的约拿。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Jonah约拿书

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯M灰色

There is only one instance of Jonah's prophesying to his own people of Israel, 2 Kings 14:25.只有一个约拿的预言,以他自己的人民以色列,2国王14:25实例。There he made a prediction concerning the restoration of the coasts of israel, which was fulfilled in the reign of Jeroboam II about 800 BC, showing that he lived earlier than that date.在那里,他做了一个预测有关的以色列海岸,这是在耶罗波安二约公元前800年在位履行恢复,表明他生活早于该日期。Of his personal history nothing further is known than what is found in this book.他的个人历史没有进一步被称为比是在这本书中找到。

Chapter 1第1章

Nineveh (2) was the capital of Assyria, and the reason Jonah sought to avoid the divine command against it (3) arose from his patriotism.尼尼微(2)是亚述首都,原因约拿试图避免反对神的命令(3)从他的爱国主义出现。As a student of the earlier prophets he knew what was to befall his nation at the hands of Assyria, and he shrank from an errand which might result favorably to that people, and spare them to become the scourge of Israel.作为早期的先知的学生,他知道什么是降临在他的国家亚述手中,他从一个差事下跌,可能导致积极的人,和备件他们成为以色列的心腹之患。 The contents of the rest of this chapter require no comment till the last verse, where it is interesting to note that it is not said that a whale swallowed Jonah, but "a great fish" which "the Lord had prepared."在本章的其余部分的内容不需要,直到最后一节,它有趣的是,这不是说,鲸鱼吞食约拿发表评论,但“大鱼”,这“上帝准备了。”

Chapter 2第2章

Is self-explanatory, but it is interesting to observe Jonah's penitence under chastisement (2), the lively experiences he underwent (3-6), his hope and expectation even in the midst of them (4), his unshaken faith (5), the lessons he learned (8), and the effect of it all on his spiritual life (9).不言自明,但有趣的是观察,即使在他们中间(4),他矢志不渝的信念(5)约拿的忏悔下责罚(2),他接受了生动的经验(3-6),他的希望和期望,他的经验教训(8),而这一切对他的精神生活(9)起生效。 God could now afford to set him at liberty (10).神现在可以买得起设置在自由(10)他。Is This Historic?这是历史? The question will not dawn, "Is this chapter historic?"这个问题不会来临之际,“这是历史性的章?”

The evidence for it is found: (1) In the way it is recorded, there being not the slightest intimation in the book itself, or anywhere in the Bible, that it is a parable.对于它的证据被发现:(1)事情是这样的记录,那里是不是在书本身丝毫暗示,或任何地方的圣经,这是一个比喻。(2) In the evidence of tradition, the whole of the Jewish nation, practically, accepting it as historic. (2)在传统的证据,对犹太民族的整体,实际上,它接受的历史。(3) The reasonableness of it (see the remarks under chapter 3.) (4) The testimony of Christ in Matthew 12:38, and parallel places.(3)它的合理性(见第3章的言论。)(4)在马太12时38分见证基督,和并行的地方。There are those who read these words of the Saviour in the light of the argument of which they form a part, and say that they allude only to what He knew to be a parable, or an allegory, but I am not of their number.还有那些谁读的说法,其中的一部分,他们形成了光的救世主这些话,说自己暗示什么,他只知道是一个比喻,或讽喻,但我不是他们的数量。 Jesus would not have used such an illustration in such a connection, in my judgment, if it were not a historic fact.耶稣就不会使用这种连接在这样的一个例子,在我的判断,如果它不是一个历史事实。(5) The symbolic or prophetic character of the transaction (see the remarks under chapter 4.) (5)交易性质的符号或先知(见第4章的言论。)


Jonah乔纳

Catholic Information天主教信息

The fifth of the Minor Prophets.该未成年人的先知第五。The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the complaining words of the Prophet (Jonah 4), it is not unlikely that the name is derived from the root Yanah = to mourn, with the signification dolens or "complaining".该名称通常是指“鸽子”,但在对先知(约拿4)抱怨的话看来,这不是不可能的名称是从根Yanah =派生哀悼,与意义dolens或“抱怨“。This interpretation goes back to St. Jerome (Comm. on Jonah, iv, 1).这种解释可以追溯到圣杰罗姆(Comm.对约拿,四,1)。Apart from the book traditionally ascribed to him, Jonah is mentioned only once in the Old Testament, 2 Kings 14:25, where it is stated that the restoration by Jeroboam II (see Jeroboam) of the borders of Israel against the incursions of foreign invaders was a fulfillment of the "word of the Lord the God of Israel, which he spoke by his servant Jonah the son of Amathi, the prophet, who was of Geth, which is in Opher".除了传统上归因于他的书,约拿是只提到一次在旧约,2国王14:25,其中指出,反对外国侵略者的入侵恢复的耶罗波安二世(见耶罗波安)以色列的边界曾是“主以色列的神,他通过他的仆人约拿的Amathi儿子,先知,谁是Geth的,这是在Opher是讲字”的实现。 This last is but a paraphrastic rendering of the name Gath-Hepher, a town in the territory of Zabulon (Josephus, "Antiq.", XIX, xiii), which was probably the birthplace of the Prophet, and where his grave was still pointed out in the time of St. Jerome.最后这不过是名称迦特 - 希弗,在西布伦镇境内(约瑟夫,“Antiq。”十九,十三),这可能是先知的发源地,并在他的坟墓仍然指出paraphrastic渲染在时间的圣杰罗姆。 Mention is made of Jonah in Matthew 12:39 sqq., and in 16:4, and likewise in the parallel passages of Luke (xi, 29, 30, 32), but these references add nothing to the information contained in the Old Testament data.提到了约拿在马太12时39 SQQ。,并在16时04,同样在卢克(十一,29,30,32)的平行通道,但这些提法添加任何在旧约中包含的信息数据。According to an ancient tradition mentioned by St. Jerome (Comm., in Jonas, Prol., PL, XXV, 118), and which is found in Pseudo-Epiphanius (De Vitis Prophetarum, xvi, PL, XLIII, 407), Jonah was the son of the widow of Sarephta whose resuscitation by the Prophet Elias is narrated in 1 Kings 17, but this legend seems to have no other foundation than the phonetic resemblance between the proper name Amathi, father of the Prophet, and the Hebrew Emeth, "truth", applied to the word of God through Elias by the widow of Sarephta (1 Kings 17:24).根据一个古老的传统,圣杰罗姆(Comm.,在乔纳斯海峡,PL,XXV,118),并发现其中提到是在伪埃皮法尼乌斯(德葡萄Prophetarum,十六,PL,XLIII,407),乔纳是的Sarephta其复苏的先知以利亚在1国王17讲述寡妇的儿子,但这个传说似乎也并不比之间的正确名称Amathi,先知的父亲,和希伯来文Emeth拼音相似的其他基础, “真理”,适用于通过埃利亚斯神的字由Sarephta(1国王17:24)的遗孀。

The chief interest in the Prophet Jonah centres around two remarkable incidents narrated in the book which bears his name.在先知约拿主要利益中心,围绕在他的名字命名的书,讲述两个显着的事件。In the opening verse it is stated that "the word of the Lord came to Jonah the son of Amathi, saying: Arise and go to Ninive, the great city, and preach in it: for the wickedness thereof is come up before me."在开幕诗是说:“耶和华的话临到约拿的Amathi儿子,说:出现,并去Ninive,伟大的城市,在它鼓吹:为邪恶及其已经来到了我面前” But the Prophet, instead of obeying the Divine command, "rose up to flee into Tharsis from the face of the Lord" that he might escape the task assigned to him.但先知,而不是服从神的命令,“奋起为塔尔西斯逃离主的脸”,他可能逃脱分配给他的任务。He boards a ship bound for that port, but a violent storm overtakes him, and on his admission that he is the cause of it, he is cast overboard.他板该端口绑定的船舶,但猛烈的风暴赶超他,在他承认他是它的原因,他是演员海里。 He is swallowed by a great fish providentially prepared for the purpose, and after a three day's sojourn in the belly of the monster, during which time he composes a hymn of thanksgiving, he is cast upon dry land.他是天意吞噬为目的准备了很大的鱼,经过为期三天的中的怪物,在此期间,他撰写了感恩赞歌肚子逗留,他是在旱地演员。After this episode he again receives the command to preach in Ninive, and the account of his second journey is scarcely less marvellous than that of the first.经过这次事件,他再次接到命令,鼓吹在Ninive,而他的第二次旅程的帐户几乎不到第一的奇妙。He proceeds to Ninive and enters "after a day's journey" into it, foretelling its destruction in forty days.他收益Ninive并进入“后一天的旅程”了进去,预言在四十天内销毁。A general repentance is immediately commanded by the authorities, in view of which God relents and spares the wicked city.一个是一般的忏悔立即指挥当局,鉴于神变温和和备件的邪恶的城市。Jonah, angry and disappointed, wishes for death.约拿,愤怒和失望,希望死亡。He expostulates with the Lord, and declares that it was in anticipation of this result that on the former occasion he had wished to flee to Tharsis.他expostulates与主,并宣布它在这样,对前一次他希望逃往塔尔西斯预期的结果。He withdraws from Ninive and, under a booth which he has erected, he awaits the destiny of the city.他退出Ninive,并在一个摊位,他已经竖立起来,他等待着这个城市的命运。In this abode he enjoys for a time the refreshing shade of a gourd which the Lord prepares for him.在这个享有居留权,他在一段时间内的一个葫芦,其中主为他准备清爽的颜色。Shortly, however, the gourd is stricken by a worm and the Prophet is exposed to the burning rays of the sun, whereupon he again murmurs and wishes to die.不久,但是,葫芦是遭受了蠕虫和先知是暴露在阳光下燃烧的光芒,于是他再次杂音和愿望死。Then the Lord rebukes him for his selfish grief over the withering of a gourd, while still desiring that God should not be touched by the repentance of a city in which "there are more than a hundred and twenty thousand persons that know not how to distinguish between their right hand and their left, and many beasts."然后主责骂他在葫芦枯萎了他自私的悲痛,同时仍然渴望上帝不应该由一个城市,“有超过一百20000人的不知道如何区分忏悔感动他们之间的右手和左手,许多野兽。“ Apart from the hymn ascribed to Jonah (ii, 2-11) the contents of the book are prose.除了归咎于约拿的赞美诗(二,2-11)一书的内容是散文。

HISTORICITY历史性

Catholics have always looked upon the Book of Jonah as a fact-narrative.天主教徒一直看低了约拿书作为事实的叙述。In the works of some recent Catholic writers there is a leaning to regard the book as fiction.在最近的一些天主教作家的作品有一种倾向视为小说的书。Only Simon and Jahn, among prominent Catholic scholars, have clearly denied the historicity of Jonah; and the orthodoxy of these two critics may no longer be defended: "Providentissimus Deus" implicitly condemned the ideas of both in the matter of inspiration, and the Congregation of the Index expressly condemned the "Introduction" of the latter.只有西蒙和雅恩,其中突出的天主教学者,已明确否认了历史性约拿,以及这两个批评正统可能不再辩护:“Providentissimus杀出”含蓄谴责的灵感问题既想法,和众该指数明确谴责后者的“导言”。

Reasons for the traditional acceptance of the historicity of Jonah:原因是传统的历史性约拿验收:

I. Jewish Tradition一犹太传统

According to the Septuagint text of the Book of Tobias (xiv, 4), the words of Jonah in regard to the destruction of Ninive are accepted as facts; the same reading is found in the Aramaic text and one Hebrew manuscript.根据预定的托比亚斯(十四,4)译本的文字,在关于销毁Ninive约拿被接受为事实的话,同样的阅读是在阿拉姆语的文字和一个希伯来文手稿发现。 The apocryphal III Mach., vi, 8, lists the saving of Jonah in the belly of the fish along with the other wonders of Old Testament history.三马赫的猜测。,六,八,列出了鱼​​腹随着旧约历史等奇观的约拿保存。Josephus (Ant. Jud., IX, 2) clearly deems the story of Jonah to be historical.约瑟夫(Ant.达瓦慈善会。,九,2)明确认为对约拿的故事,历史的。

II. II。The Authority of Our Lord而我们的主管理局

This reason is deemed by Catholics to remove all doubt as to the fact of the story of Jonah.这个理由被认为是天主教徒,以消除对约拿的故事其实所有疑问。The Jews asked a "sign" -- a miracle to prove the Messiahship of Jesus.犹太人问一个“符号” - 一个奇迹,证明了耶稣的弥赛亚。He made answer that no "sign" would be given them other than the "sign of Jonah the Prophet. For as the Jonah was in the whale's belly three days and three nights: so shall the Son of man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights. The men of Ninive shall rise in judgment with this generation and shall condemn it: because they did penance at the preaching of Jonah. And behold a greater than Jonah here" (Matthew 12:40-1; 16:4; Luke 11:29-32).他做了回答,没有“签名”会给予他们比约拿“签署先知其他对于像约拿在鲸鱼的肚子三天三夜:所以应在人子在地上的心。三天三夜的Ninive男人们应上升判决这一代人,并应谴责:因为他们在约拿宣讲忏悔你看这里比约拿更大“(太12:40-1; 16: 4,路加福音11:29-32)。The Jews asked for a real miracle; Christ would have deceived them had He presented a mere fancy.犹太人要求一个真正的奇迹;基督会欺骗他们了,他提出了一个单纯的幻想。He argues clearly that just as Jonah was in the whale's belly three days and three nights even so He will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.他认为显然,正如约拿在鲸鱼的肚子三天三夜了,即使这样,他将在地球三天三夜的心。If, then, the stay of Jonah in the belly of the fish be only a fiction, the stay of Christ's body in the heart of the earth is only a fiction.如果,那么,约拿在鱼腹停留只有一种虚构,基督在地上的心体停留只是一个虚构。 If the men of Ninive will really not rise in judgment, neither will the Jews really rise.如果Ninive男人会真的不上升的判断,也不会犹太人真的上升。Christ contrasts fact with fact, not fancy with fancy, nor fancy with fact.基督事实与事实的对比,不花哨花哨,也不符合事实看中。 It would be very strange, indeed, were He to say that He was greater than a fancy-formed man.这将是很奇怪,事实上,是他说他不是一个花哨的形成男人更大。It would be little less strange were he to berate the Jews for their real lack of penance by rating this lack in contrast with the penance of Ninive which never existed at all.这将是少一些奇怪的是他要痛斥他们缺乏真正的忏悔按等级这与忏悔的Ninive从未存在于所有的对比缺乏犹太人。The whole force of these striking contrasts is lost, if we admit that the story of Jonah is not fact-narrative.这些惊人的整个力量对比失去,如果我们承认,约拿的故事是不是事实的叙述。Finally, Christ makes no distinction between the story of the Queen of Sheba and that of Jonah (see Matthew 12:42).最后,基督不作任何之间的示巴女王的故事和约拿(见马太福音12:42)的区别。He sets the very same historical value upon the Book of Jonah as upon the Third Book of Kings.他设置后,约拿作为国王后,第三本书书同样的历史价值。Such is the very strongest argument that Catholics offer for the firm stand they take upon the ground of the fact-narrative of the story of Jonah.这就是非常强烈的论点,即天主教徒提供的坚定立场后,对约拿的故事事实的叙述,他们采取地面。

III. III。The Authority of the Fathers该管理局的父亲

Not a single Father has ever been cited in favor of the opinion that Jonah is a fancy-tale and no fact-narrative at all.没有一个父亲曾经被引用在认为约拿是看中般的,没有事实的叙述都赞成。 To the Fathers Jonah was a fact and a type of the Messias, just such a one as Christ presented to the Jews.对于父亲约拿是事实和类型的messias,只是这样一个基督提交给犹太人之一。Saints Jerome, Cyril, and Theophilus explain in detail the type-meaning of the facts of the Book of Jonah.圣徒杰罗姆,西里尔和西奥菲勒斯详细解释对约拿书的事实类型的含义。St. Cyril even forestalls the objections of the Rationalists of today: Jonah flees his ministry, bewails God's mercy to the Ninivites, and in other ways shows a spirit that ill becomes a Prophet and an historical type of Christ.圣西里尔甚至抢先在今天的理性主义者的反对:约拿逃离他的部,bewails神的怜悯的Ninivites,并以其他方式显示了一个精神病人成为先知和基督的历史类型。 Cyril admits that in all this Jonah failed and is not a type of Christ, but does not admit that these failures of Jonah prove the story of his doings to have been a mere fiction.西里尔承认,在这一切约拿失败,不是基督的类型,但不承认这些失败的约拿证明他的所作所为的故事一直是单纯的小说。

To the Rationalist and to the advanced Protestant Biblical scholar these arguments are of no worth whatsoever.要理性主义和新教圣经学者先进这些论点是没有任何价值。They find error not only in Jewish and Christian tradition but in Christ Himself.他们发现,不仅在犹太教和基督教的传统,但在基督自己的错误。They admit that Christ took the story of Jonah as a fact-narrative, and make answer that Christ erred; He was a child of His time and represents to us the ideas and errors of His time.他们承认,基督把它当成是事实的叙述了约拿的故事,并回答说,基督是错误的,他是他那个时代的孩子,代表我们的思想和他的时间误差。 The arguments of those who accept the inerrancy of Christ and deny the historicity of Jonah are not conclusive.这些谁接受无误基督和否认约拿历史性的论点是没有定论。

Christ spoke according to the ideas of the people, and had no purpose in telling them that Jonah was really not swallowed by the fish.基督讲根据人的思想,并在告诉他们,约拿是真的不被鱼吞食没有目的。We ask: Did Christ speak of the Queen of Sheba as a fact?我们不禁要问:难道基督的示巴女王说成事实?If so, then He spoke of Jonah as a fact -- unless there be some proof to the contrary.如果是这样,那么他谈到约拿作为一个事实 - 除非有一些相反的证明。

Were the book historical in its narrative, certain details would not be omitted, for instance, the place where the Prophet was vomited forth by the sea-monster, the particular sins of which the Ninivites were guilty, the particular kind of calamity by which the city was to be destroyed, the name of the Assyrian king under whom these events took place and who turned to the true God with such marvellous humility and repentance.是书在叙述历史,某些细节就不能省略,例如,在先知是呕吐的海怪物,其中Ninivites有罪,特定类型的灾难的发生提出了具体的罪,其中的城市是被破坏,对亚述国王的名义下他们这些事件发生,谁转为这种奇妙的谦卑和忏悔的真神。

We answer, these objections prove that the book is not an historical account done according to later canons of historical criticism; they do not prove that the book is no history at all.我们的答案,这些反对意见证明,书是不是一个历史帐户做根据历史的批评之后大炮,并不证明这本书是没有历史可言。The facts narrated are such as suited the purpose of the sacred writer.事实叙述,如适合的神圣作家的目的。He told a story of glory unto the God of Israel and of downfall to the gods of Ninive.他向记者讲述了所不欲,以色列神的荣耀和灭亡的故事的Ninive神。It is likely that the incidents took place during the period of Assyrian decadence, ie, the reign of either Asurdanil or Asurnirar (770-745 BC).这是可能的事件发生期间,亚述人颓废,即任Asurdanil或Asurnirar(770-745年)在位期间举行。A pest had ravaged the land from 765 till 759 BC Internal strife added to the dismay caused by the deadly disease.甲虫害肆虐过的土地,从765到759 BC内讧添加到由这种致命的疾病所造成的沮丧。The king's power was set at naught.国王的权力被定为前功尽弃。Such a king might seem too little known to be mentioned.这样的国王似乎太少已知提及。The Pharaoh of Mosaic times is not deemed to have been a fiction merely because his name is not given.法老时代的马赛克是不被视为一直是小说只是因为他的名字没有给出。

Jewish tradition assumed that the Prophet Jonah was the author of the book bearing his name, and the same has been generally maintained by the Christian writers who defend the historical character of the narrative.犹太传统假定先知约拿是他的名字命名的书的作者,而同样被普遍为捍卫谁的叙述历史人物基督教作家维持。But it may be remarked that nowhere does the book itself claim to have been written by the Prophet (who is supposed to have lived in the eighth century BC), and most modern scholars, for various reasons, assign the date of the composition to a much later epoch, probably the fifth century BC As in the case of other Old Testament personages, many legends, mostly fantastic and devoid of critical value, grew up around the name Jonah.但它可能是表示,无处没有书本身声称已经由先知(谁应该在公元前八世纪),和最现代化的学者写的,由于种种原因,分配的组成日期为很久以后的时代,可能是公元前五世纪成长一如其他旧约人物,许多传说,大多是荒唐的和缺乏的临界值,案例周围的名称乔纳。 They may be found in the "Jewish Encyclopedia".他们可能会发现,在“犹太百科全书”。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.出版信息书面詹姆斯F斯科尔。Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.A.转录由安东尼基林。Aeterna non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.Aeterna非caduca天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Book of Jonah约拿书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

-Critical View:临界查看:

Age and Origin.年龄和起源。

Inclusion in Canon.列入佳能。

Purpose and Teachings.目的和教导。

Details of the Story.详细的故事。

Later Uses and Interpretation.后来使用和解释。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The Book of Jonah stands unique in the prophetical canon, in that it does not contain any predictions, but simply relates the story of its hero, beginning for that reason with "wa-yeḥi," like a passage taken from history.在约拿书屹立在世界的预言佳能独特的,因为它不包含任何预测,只是涉及其英雄的故事,该以理“WA -yeḥi,”就像从历史采取了通行的开始。The contents may be summarized as follows:内容可概括如下:

Ch. CH。i.: Jonah is commanded by Yhwh to prophesy against Nineveh.一:约拿是指挥耶和华说预言对尼尼微。 Hoping to escape from this commission by flight into another country, he goes down to Joppa to take ship for Tarshish (Tartessus in Spain).希望这个委员会由逃避到另一个国家的航班,他下降到约帕采取他施(西班牙Tartessus)船舶。Yhwh then sends a terrible storm, and the pious heathen mariners, after all their labors to lighten the ship and all their prayers prove vain, cast lots to find out on whose account this misfortune has come upon them (comp. Achan in Josh. vii. and Jonathan in I Sam. xiv.).耶和华然后发送一个可怕的风暴,虔诚的异教徒水手,毕竟​​他们的劳动,以减轻船舶和所有他们的祈祷证明虚​​荣,掣签上找到这个不幸的帐户后,他们来了(comp.乔希在第七亚干出,和乔纳森在我心。十四)。 The lot falls upon Jonah, and upon being questioned he answers that he is a Hebrew and worships Yhwh, the God of Heaven; he admits his guilt and requests that he be thrown into the sea.该幅落在约拿,并呼吁遭到质疑他回答说他是一个希伯来文和崇拜耶和华,天上的神,他承认自己有罪,他被扔进大海的请求。After having prayed to Yhwh the mariners comply with his wish, and when the storm has subsided they give thanks to Yhwh with sacrifices and vows.祈祷后,耶和华的水手符合他的愿望,当风暴平息感谢他们给耶和华与牺牲和誓言。

Ch. CH。ii.: Yhwh prepares a great fish to swallow Jonah, who remains for three days and three nights in the monster's belly; after having there praised Yhwh, Jonah is cast up by the fish upon the dry land.二:耶和华准备一条大鱼吞约拿,谁三天在怪物的肚子三夜的尸体;后,有赞扬耶和华,乔纳是由鱼投起来后,旱地。

Ch. CH。iii.: Yhwh's command being repeated, Jonah goes to Nineveh, and announces to the city that it shall be destroyed within forty days.三:耶和华的命令正在重演,乔纳去尼尼微,并宣布到它应在40日内摧毁的城市。Then all the inhabitants, following the example of the king and the nobles, repent in sackcloth and ashes; even the flocks and herds fast and are covered with sackcloth.然后,所有的居民,跟随国王和贵族的例子,在麻布和炉灰悔改,连羊群和牛群快速,覆盖着麻布。Yhwh, repenting of the punishment He had intended for them, permits the Ninevites to go free.耶和华,在他打算惩罚他们悔改,允许尼尼微去自由。

Ch. CH。iv.: Yhwh's action displeases Jonah exceedingly; he prays Yhwh to let him die.四:耶和华的行动极为不满的约拿,他祈祷耶和华,让他死。Yhwh comforts him by preparing a "ḳiḳayon" (castor-oil plant?) to spring up beside his booth, which gives Jonah great pleasure.耶和华舒适,编写了“ḳiḳayon”(蓖麻?)到他的摊位旁春天,这给了他非常高兴约拿。But Yhwh prepares a worm to smite the plant, so that it withers; the sun beating upon the head of Jonah causes him to faint; and again be begs for death.但耶和华准备一个蠕虫击打植物,因此它凋谢;太阳后,约拿头部导致他隐隐跳动,并再次乞求死亡。Yhwh then says that if Jonah is sorry for the gourd, which sprang up of itself in one night, and withered also in one night, how much more must Yhwh feel sorrow for the mighty city which contains more than twelve myriads of innocent people besides much cattle.EGHKB耶和华接着说,如果乔纳是抱歉的葫芦,它的兴起本身在一个晚上,在一个晚上也枯萎,多少必须耶和华感到非常强大的城市,除了其中包含超过十二无数无辜的人的悲哀cattle.EGHKB

-Critical View:临界查看:

The text on the whole has been fairly well preserved.对整个文本已经相当完好地保存。The following variants of the Septuagint deserve notice: i.在七十以下的变种值得通知:一,2: , probably a combination of two variants, being placed side by side with (comp. Gen. xviii. 21, xix. 13); i.2,可能是被放置一边侧两个变种,组合;岛(comp.创十八21,十九13。)4: is lacking and not needed; verse 16: instead of ; iii.4:是不是缺乏和需要; 16节:不是;三。2: κατὰ τὸ κήρεγμα τὸ ἔμπροσΘεν ὃ ἐγὼ ἐλάλησα, equivalent to , probably correct, since only absolute obedience to the first command would agree with the context; iii. 2:κατὰτὸκήρεγματὸἔμπροσΘενὃἐγὼἐλάλησα,相当于,可能是正确的,因为只有绝对服从的第一个命令会同意的情况下,第三。 4: instead of , but probably only an error following verse 3, end; iii.4:不是,但可能只是一个错误下列诗句3月底;三。7: instead of ; iii. 7:代替;三。9: is lacking, probably correctly so in view of the following ; iv. 9:缺乏,可能正确,以便在以下看法;四。2: is lacking; iv. 2:缺乏;四。6: ; iv. 6:;四。11: instead of -hardly the original reading, but a possible one. 11:不是,绝不是原来的阅读,而是一个可能的一个。H. Winckler ("Altorientalische Forschungen," ii. 260 et seq.), especially, has proposed important emendations of the text that are all worthy of careful examination.H. Winckler(“Altorientalische Forschungen,”二260页起),特别是提出的文本的重要emendations的都是值得仔细研究。He transposes i.他调换岛 13 to come directly after i. 13来岛后直接4, which makes a better connection at both places.4,这使得在两地更好的连接。Again, he transposes i.再次,他调换岛10 to follow immediately i. 10日至紧接一7, at the same time striking out in verse 8 the words and (like many other emendators and critics) to , besides 10b entirely. 7日,在同一时间剔除在第8节词和(像其他许多emendators和评论家)到除了10B完全。This will not do, however, as verse 10a, depicting the fright of the men, with their exclamation, "Why hast thou done this?"这不会做,但是,由于诗句10A,描绘他们感叹的男人害怕,“祢为什么这样做?”is intelligible only after Jonahhas told the men why he was on the ship.是理解后,才Jonahhas告诉男人为什么他在船。 Still this explanation should not have been given in 10b, but rather either in 9ba (which would then read ) or as an addition to verse 9 (ie, ).不过这个解释不应该被赋予了10B,而是在9ba(这然后读)或作为第9节除(即)或。

If this phrase be inserted here it is necessary merely to delete the corresponding phrase in verse 10 (ie, 10b), and to omit also 8aβ, which disturbs the context.如果这句话被插入这里有必要只是删除对应的词组在第10节(即10B),并省略也8aβ,它扰乱了环境。Winckler also transposes iv. Winckler也调换四。5 to follow iii.5按照第三。4, which is at the first glance a simple and entirely obvious emendation.4,在乍看之下简单,完全是明显的校正。The verse could follow ch.的诗句可以按照通道。iii.三。only with the introduction , and even then would have to precede iv.只有引进,而且当时就不得不先四。1.1。Ch.CH。iv.四。4 must be stricken out (as Böhme has proposed), being a poor repetition of iv.4必须受灾(视伯梅建议),是一个贫困的四重复。 9, which probably came in with the erroneous interpolation of iv.9,这可能想出了一个错误的四插在。5.5。Ch.CH。iv.四。3 connects closely with iv. 3连接紧密IV。6. 6。In the latter verse Wellhausen, and after him Nowack, strike out ; Winckler strikes out instead because Jonah was protected by the booth (iv. 5).在后者的诗豪森,经过他Nowack,重拳出击; Winckler罢工了,而不是因为约拿是由展位保护(iv. 5)。Winckler furthermore says that the sun could not have stricken Jonah if he had been protected by the booth; he therefore proposes to insert the statement in verse 8 that the east wind blew down the booth. Winckler再者说,太阳不可能受灾约拿,如果他的展位已被保护,因此他建议在第8节中插入的声明中指出,东风吹下来的展位。This is a happy conjecture; for could have easily been corrupted to form the enigmatical (even Cheyne's , "Encyc. Bibl." ii. 2566, is unsatisfactory).这是一个幸福的猜想;为可以很容易被破坏,形成阴阳怪气(甚至进益的“百科全书Bibl。”II 2566,是不能令人满意的。)It must be remarked, however, that this would duplicate the motive, while verse 9 mentions the gourd only.必须指出,然而,这将重复的动机,而第9节提到的葫芦而已。It may be questioned therefore whether the mention of the booth is not a later interpolation, in which case iv.它可能会受到质疑,因此无论是展位一提的是不是后插,在这种情况下四。5 should not be transposed after iii.5不应该换位后三。4, but should be simply stricken out together with iv.4,而应简单地受灾了一起四。4 and the mention of the east wind in iv.4,在第四的东风提。8, so that the text would read simply: .8,这样的文字会读简单。Verse 6 would then remain unchanged.第6节,然后将保持不变。

The last-named considerations, which were touched upon by Hitzig and Böhme, lead to the question whether Böhme (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," vii. 224 et seq.; for earlier attempts see Cheyne, lcp 2565, note) is correct in attempting to trace the Book of Jonah to various sources.最后命名的考虑,这是感动希齐格和伯梅后,引发的问题是否伯梅(在体育场的“(杂志),”七224及以下;。较早尝试见进益,LCP 2565注)是正确的尝试追查约拿书各种来源。Since his attempt the question has been answered everywhere in the negative, probably correctly.由于他的努力已经回答的问题无处不在的否定,可能正确。This popular story, in its present state, rather creates the impression that extraneous matter has been added here and there, as in the cases of the Book of Daniel and that of Esther, or that such additions were transferred to the Masoretic text from manuscripts going more into detail.这种流行的故事,在目前的状态,而创建的异物已被添加在这里和那里的印象,因为在但以理书的案件和以斯帖的,或者说,这样会增加被调离到马所拉文本手稿为更详细。 To this might be due the grotesque detail in ch.为了这可能是由于在CH怪诞的细节。iii.三。that even the flocks and herds should take part in Nineveh's general penitence, by fasting in sackcloth, and perhaps also by uttering loud cries (verse 8).即使是羊群和牛群应在尼尼微的一般忏悔的一部分,在麻布禁食,也许还出言(第8节)大声呼喊。Yet the words (iii. 8) must not be simply stricken out as an addition, as Böhme, Wellhausen, and Nowack propose; for they now fit in admirably with the legendary tone of the whole.然而,字(III. 8)不能简单地遭受了作为此外,伯梅,豪森,以及Nowack建议,因为他们现在在令人钦佩配合整个传奇的基调。Cheyne rightly refers to what Herodotus (ix. 24) recounts of the Persians.进益正确地指的是什么希罗多德(ix. 24)的波斯人重新计票。 The psalm (ii. 3-10) was in any case added to the original composition later (comp. Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1892, p. 42).在诗篇(白介素3-10)在添加到原成分后(comp.体育场的“(杂志),”1892年,第42页)任何情况下。As a prayer of thanks it is undeniably in the wrong place, since Jonah is still in the belly of the fish.作为感谢祈祷它无疑是在错误的地方,因为约拿仍然在鱼腹。That it was added at this point is probably due to the fact that the words (verse 2) offered a convenient connection, the interpolator wishing to give the exact words of the prayer.它是在这一点上说可能是由于这样的事实的话(二节)提供了一个方便的连接,内插希望让我们的祈祷词的确切。Originally verse 2 was immediately followed by verse 11 thus: "Then Jonah prayed to the Lord his God out of the fish's belly; and the Lord spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land."本来第2节之后,随即由11节这样的:“那么约拿祷告耶和华他的神鱼的肚子出来,以及所不欲,鱼主说话,而且呕吐出来后,旱地约拿。” The psalm certainly seemed appropriate, because it speaks, even if only metaphorically, of Jonah being cast into the midst of the seas, and of the salvation which is of the Lord.当然似乎是适当的诗篇,因为它说,即使只有比喻,约拿流入海洋的中间投,以及救赎主是哪个。And it was perhaps added also partly because the book contained no connected speech of the prophet.它也许是增加也是因为​​书中没有包含的先知连接讲话。The time at which this interpolation was added can be conjecturally fixed only after the sources and the origin of the book have been discussed.在此插上架时间可conje​​cturally固定后,才源,书的起源进行了讨论。

Age and Origin.年龄和起源。

The book does not bear the least evidence of having been written by the prophet or even during his time; and its age must be gathered from different indications.该书不承担有被先知,甚至在他的时间至少书面证据,而且它的年龄必须从不同的适应症聚集。It has long since been held that it is one of the latest books of the Hebrew canon.它早已被认为是对希伯来语佳能最新的书籍之一。 This is proved in the first place by the language, as considered lexically, grammatically, and stylistically (comp. on this point the commentaries, and books like SR Driver's "Introduction").这是证明摆在首位的语言,认为词汇,语法和文体(关于这一点的评论,而像SR驱动程序的“导言”的书籍comp.)。 Only Esther, Chronicles, and Daniel are of later date.只有以斯帖,方志,和丹尼尔是稍后的日期。Again, the way in which Nineveh is referred to shows that the city had long since vanished from the face of the earth and had faded into legend (comp. iii. 3).同样,在其中尼尼微被称为表明,城市早已消失在地球表面,并已成为传奇(comp.三,3)褪色的方法。The King of Nineveh, also (iii. 6), could have been referred to only in a late myth; and the legendary atmosphere of the whole story, from beginning to end, is in accord with the length of time that had elapsed since the events recounted took place.在尼尼微王也(III. 6),本来是指只在后期的神话,以及整个故事传说气氛从开始到结束,在与时间长度以来经过的协议是事件讲述发生。This becomes evident both in the episode of the fish which swallows a man and then casts him up alive after three days, and in that of the plant which in one night grows high enough to overshadow Jonah.这已成为明显无论是在鱼的燕子一个人情节,然后蒙上了三天后他还活着,并在其中的植物生长在一个晚上高到足以掩盖乔纳说。 These things might, it is true, be considered as divine miracles; but such an explanation can not be offered for the three days' time that it takes to pass through Nineveh (iii. 3), nor for the fasting, sackcloth, and penitent cries of the animals (iii. 7 et seq.), much less for the conception that an Israelitish prophet could preach penitence to the city of Nineveh, and that the king and the citizens would listen to him.这些事情都有可能,这是事实,被视为神圣的奇迹,但这样的解释不能三天的时间提供,它需要通过尼尼微(III. 3),也不是禁食,麻布,和忏悔动物呐喊(III. 7页起),更不为概念,一个Israelitish先知讲道可以忏悔的尼尼微城,而国王和公民将听他的。Everything about the story is, and was intended to be, miraculous and legendary.关于故事一切,并拟,奇迹和传奇。

The Book of Jonah is a midrash.在约拿书是米德拉士。The book must undoubtedly be placed in this class; and it remains only to see whether a more definite position can be assigned to it in the Midrashic literature.这本书无疑必须放在这个类;它仍然只看到一个更加明确的立场是否可以分配给它的Midrashic文学。The writer of this article has attempted to do this (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1892, pp. 40 et seq.), suggesting that the Book of Jonah is a section from the Midrash of the Book of the Kings mentioned in II Chron.本文作者试图做到这一点(在体育场的“(杂志),”1892年,第40页起),这表明约拿书是从米德拉士的国王图书节第二专栏提及。 xxiv.二十四。27, which in all probability was the chief source used by the author of the Chronicles. 27,在所有的概率是主要来源由编年史的作者使用。The suggestion is supported by the simple fact that the prophet Jonah ben Amittai is referred to in no other place except in II Kings xiv.该建议是支持简单的事实,先知约拿本Amittai被称为在没有其他地方除了在二国王十四。 25.25。Furthermore, it is highly improbable that at the time of the earliest Midrashic literature any other notice of him could have existed; and, finally, since the Book of Jonah begins without any superscription-it begins not simply with the word "wayehi," which introduces a period of time (comp.Ruth i. 1; Esth. i. 1), but with the phrase , which certainly assumes a previous mention of Jonah-the suggestion proposed is the most natural one.此外,它是极不可能,在最早Midrashic文学时间任何其他通知他可能已经存在,以及最后,约拿书以来,没有任何上标 - 它开始并没有用“wayehi,”这只是开始引入了时间(comp.Ruth一1; Esth一1)时期,但与短语,这当然假设先前提到约拿,提出的建议是最自然的。If this be correct, then Chronicles of course omitted the passage found in its source and mentioning the prophet, a circumstance that is explained by the fact that the scene is laid in the Northern Kingdom, with which Chronicles has nothing to do.如果这是正确的,那么当然省略记载其来源和提先知,一个是的,是现场的布局,在北国,与之无关的记载事实解释的情况下找到了通道。

The suggestion would be invalid if Winckler (see, however, Jonah, Biblical Data, end) and Cheyne were correct in maintaining that the Jonah of the story is a different person from that mentioned in the Book of Kings.该建议将是无效的,如果Winckler(见,然而,约拿,圣经资料,结束)和潮人坚持认为约拿的故事是从一个不同的人,在书中提到的国王正确的。 It is impossible, however, to refute the suggestion by referring to the distinctive character of that midrash, as König (Introduction, p. 379) and Smend ("Alttestamentliche Religionsgesch." 1st ed., p. 409) have done.这是不可能的,然而,反驳指该米德拉士性格鲜明的柯尼希(导言,第379页)和Smend,建议(“Alttestamentliche Religionsgesch。”第1版,第409)已完成。If extensive stories of personal events happening to Elijah have been included in the Book of Kings (eg, I Kings xvii., xix.), why should not the same have occurred (against König) in the case of Jonah?如果发生在以利亚的个人大型活动的丰富的故事已被列入了国王书(例如,我国王第十七,十九),为什么不能同样发生在约拿的情况下(对柯尼格)? And Smend's assertion that, compared with the Book of Jonah the Midrash of the Book of the Kings was "a work of such a different character that its (Jonah's) author would not have buried his book therein," can not be substantiated.而Smend的说法,与约拿书的书米德拉士的国王是不能成立“的这样一个不同的字符,它的(约拿的)的作者不会埋没他的书内,工作”。

On the contrary, just the passage in the midrash referring to Jonah seems to be closely related to the Book of Jonah as regards the contents.相反,只是通过在米德拉士提到约拿似乎是密切相关的约拿书方面的内容。The author of the Book of Kings puts into Yhwh's mouth warm words of mercy toward the sinful Northern Kingdom (II Kings xiv. 26 et seq.).在对国王一书的作者放入耶和华的口向罪孽深重北方王国(二国王十四26起。)怜悯温暖的话语。It is easy to see how a midrash could be added showing that this mercy was extended even to an alien, heathen empire.这是很容易看到如何米德拉士可以增加可见这怜悯延长甚至外国人,异教徒帝国。If there were any reasons for assuming the existence of another Midrash of the Book of the Kings than the one mentioned in Chronicles, the Book of Jonah might have been taken from the latter; but at present the writer of this article does not see what reasons could be brought forward in support of such a theory.如果有就任的另一个比在历代国王提到的米德拉士书存在任何原因,约拿书可能已经采取了从后者,但目前这篇文章的作者并不认为是什么原因可以提前在这样的理论支持。 In any case the connection of the book with II Kings xiv.在任何情况下,与二国王十四本书的连接。25 must be insisted upon. 25,必须坚持的。In agreement with the view here expressed, the date of the book would fall some time toward the end of the fourth or in the fifth century; such a date is supported by other considerations.在与查看这里表示同意,书date将下降朝第四年底或第五世纪一些时间,这一日期是由其他因素的支持。

Inclusion in Canon.列入佳能。

The inclusion of the Book of Jonah among the Minor Prophets is paralleled by the inclusion of II Kings xviii.-xx.约拿的小先知书之中,纳入并联由国王xviii. II - XX纳入。in the Book of Isaiah (ch. xxxvi.-xxxix.), but with this exception that in the latter (as also in Jer. lii.) historical passages are added to an already existing prophetical book, while an entirely new personality and an entirely new book are added to the canon of the Prophets with the Book of Jonah.在以赛亚(章xxxvi. - XXXIX)书,但这个例外,在后者(也正如耶LII)历史段落被添加到一个已经存在的预言书,而一个全新的个性和全新的书被添加到与先知约拿书典。 How may this have happened?这怎么可能发生?Smend's assumption (lc), that the author wrote the book with the intention of adding it to the "Twelve Minor Prophets," may be set aside, for the styles of the two differ too widely, as noted above; nor, if that had been the intention, would it have been necessary to introduce a psalm in order to make the book fit into its surroundings: there are numerous examples to show that the writers of later periods knew how to reproduce the style of the Prophets when they desired to do so. Smend的假设(LC),撰文写了同其添加到意向书“十二小先知,”可能被搁置,对两者的差异也很大的样式,如上所述,也不,如果有一直打算将它一直需要引入诗篇,以使之成为其周围的书适合:有许多例子表明,后期的作家知道如何重现的先知式的,当他们需要做的如此。 On the other hand, it can not have been the intention of inserting stories of the Prophets in the books of the Prophets; for if it had been, the "Earlier Prophets" would have offered the right place therefor.另一方面,它不能被插入在的先知书的先知的故事意向;因为如果它已经,在“早期先知”将为此提供了合适的位置。 This is proved in the case of I Kings xiii., a story, relating to a prophet, which has many points of similarity to the story of Jonah and is of about the same length.这证明了我王十三,一个故事的情况下,有关先知,具有相似的约拿的故事多点,差不多的长度。It likewise is probably derived from the Midrash of the Book of the Kings (comp. Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1892, xii. 49 et seq.) and was added later to the canonical Book of Kings.它也可能是源于对国王书(comp.体育场的“(杂志),”1892年,十二49起。)米德拉士和后来加入的国王规范书。 The reasons for the inclusion of Jonah in the "Twelve Minor Prophets" must be sought in the book itself.对于约拿在“十二小先知”列入的原因必须寻求在书本身。The fixing of the number of the "Minor Prophets" at twelve was certainly intentional, and the Book of Jonah must have been included in order to make up that number, although it does not harmonize with the other books, and originally belonged elsewhere.而对“小先知”在十二号肯定是故意操纵,而约拿书必须已列入为了弥补这个数字,虽然它并不协调与其他书籍,原本属于其他地方。 The necessity for including it arose, perhaps, only in later times; for the enumeration (without Jonah) of precisely eleven books in the canon is not entirely self-evident.对于包括它的必要性产生的,也许,只有在以后的时间;为十一个,正是佳能书籍枚举(不约拿)不完全是不言而喻的。 It need only be pointed out that Zech.它仅需要指出的是,撒加利亚。ix.-xi.ix.-xi.and xii.-xiv.和xii.至十四。 are added very loosely to Zechariah, and may equally well have been regarded as independent books; that Malachi, on the contrary, at first probably had no superscription (comp. Mal. iii. 1), and might have been added as an appendix to Zechariah.顷添加非常松散地撒迦利亚,可能同样也已被视为独立的书籍,是玛拉基书,相反,起初可能没有上标(comp.玛三1。),并可能已被作为附录添加撒迦利亚。 According as these matters were arranged, it might occur that there were only eleven books found where formerly twelve had been counted.根据安排,因为这些事项,它可能会发生有发现那里以前twelve已经算只有十一书籍。 The passage in Num.在数通过。 R. xviii.R.十八。seems in fact to refer to a time when the Book of Jonah was not included in the twelve Prophets.在事实似乎指的时候约拿书不包括在十二个先知。

Purpose and Teachings.目的和教导。

It becomes necessary to inquire into the purpose and teaching of the book, because of the fact that it is not a historical narrative, but a midrash, and also because of its conclusion.所以才需要调查的目的和书教学,因为一个事实,即它不是一个历史叙事,而是一种米德拉士,还因为它的结论。 The whole story ends with the lesson received by Jonah, the purpose of the book having thus been accomplished; and as one can not follow the effects of this lesson on Jonah's further career (unlike the story of Elijah in I Kings xix.), the lesson itself is in reality addressed to the reader, ie, to the Jewish congregation.整个故事结尾,由约拿,对有这样被完成了本书的目的收到的教训;(不同于以利亚在我国王十九故事),而一个不能按照约拿的进一步职业生涯的这一课的影响,课本身就是在给读者,即到犹太教的现实。 It is not probable that the story was carried on further in its original place in the Midrash of the Book of the Kings.这是不大可能的故事是在其在米德拉士书的国王原来的地方进一步开展。

This short story, as Wellhausen has best expressed it, is directed "against the impatience of the Jewish believers, who are fretting because, notwithstanding all predictions, the antitheocratic world-empire has not yet been destroyed;-because Yhwh is still postponing His judgment of the heathen, giving them further time for repentance. Yhwh, it is hinted, is hoping that they will turn from their sins in the eleventh hour; and He has compassion for the innocent ones, who would perish with the guilty."这个简短的故事,因为它豪森有最好的表现,是针对犹太信徒,谁是微动因,尽管所有的预测,antitheocratic世界帝国尚未被破坏急躁“; - 因为耶和华是他的判断仍推迟。的异教徒,给他们更多的时间耶和华悔改,这是暗示,是希望他们会变成在最后一刻从他们的罪孽,以及他为无辜的,谁灭亡的有罪同情“。 In agreement with this synopsis of the purpose, the book is closely akin to and emphasizes the basic passage, II Kings xiv.按照这一协议的目的大纲,书是密切近似,并强调基本通行,二国王十四。26 et seq., which also shows, and as it were explains, how it is possible that Yhwh can grant a prophecy of good things to come to the disloyal Northern Kingdom and to a king who, according to verse 24, persists in all the sins of all his predecessors, and can then fulfil what He has promised. 26及以下,这也说明,随着它被解释,它是如何可能耶和华可以授予预言的好东西来的不忠北方王国和国王谁,根据24节,在所有的坚持他的所有前辈的罪孽,然后可以实现他所承诺的。 This purpose harmonizes perfectly with the idealized description of the piety of the heathenmariners (ch. i.) and of the king and the inhabitants of Nineveh (ch. iii.).这个目的完全同相协调的heathenmariners虔诚(章一)和王理想化的描述和尼尼微(章三)居民。The book is therefore in a way the negative pole to the positive pole in the Book of Ruth.这本书在某种程度上因此负极中的露丝书正极。The first shows why Yhwh does not destroy the heathen; the second, why and how He can even accept them among His people and bring them to high honor.首先说明为什么耶和华不破坏异教徒,第二,为什么和怎么他甚至可以接受他的人当中他们,将他们崇高荣誉。Both these tendencies became apparent in Israel after the puristic reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah, which rigorously drew a sharp line between Israel and the pagan world.这两种倾向明显后成为以色列的以斯拉和尼希米记,画了哪些严格的以色列与异教徒的世界急剧线简约改革。The opposition to this dominating doctrine was clothed in the unassuming but all the more effective garb of poetry and of story, as has happened time and again in similar cases.对这一主导学说反对派的张扬,但穿在所有的诗歌和故事更有效的装束,因为已经发生的时间和在类似案件再次。Cheyne rightly points to the parable of the good Samaritan in the New Testament and to the story of the three rings in Lessing's "Nathan der Weise."进益正确地指出了在新约好撒玛利亚人的比喻,并在莱辛的三个环的故事“弥敦道DER魏泽。”

Details of the Story.详细的故事。

All the details of the book are subordinated and made subservient to this one purpose; and there is every probability that it was invented only for that purpose, whereby of course appeal to other, well-known motives also is not excluded.所有的书细节服从和屈从于这个目的,并有每一个发明,它是为这一目的,即呼吁其他当然,众所周知的动机也并不排除只概率。 The story of Elijah on Horeb (I Kings xix.) furnished the model for the general outline, and for the lesson taught the prophet, who was filled with doubts and was weary of his office.以利亚在何烈山的(王十九。)故事提供的一般轮廓模型,并于该课程讲授的先知,谁是充满了怀疑和厌倦是他的办公室。 No search was necessary for the name of the hero, which was given in I Kings xiv.没有搜索是为英雄,这是我给国王十四名必要的。 25.25。The fact that "Jonah" means "dove" is a coincidence which must not be interpreted allegorically, as Cheyne has done.事实上,“约拿书”的意思是“鸽子”是必须不能被解释比喻,作为进益所做的巧合。Nor must the fact that Israel is spoken of as a prophet in Deutero-Isaiah and is called "Servant of Yhwh" be used in order to attenuate the personality of Jonah to an allegory of the people of Israel; nor that he was swallowed by the sea, to an allegory of the Exile.在以色列也必须是口语的,因为在第二以赛亚先知,被称为“耶和华的仆人”被使用,以减轻对约拿个性的以色列人民寓言事实,也不是说他被吞噬海,一个流亡寓言。 All these are comparisons, it is true, which may easily be made and which are fully justified as secondary considerations, but they must not be allowed to confuse the simplicity of the original story.所有这些都是比较,这是事实,这可能很容易地,哪些是完全合理的作为次要的考虑,但他们决不允许混淆原故事简单。

Nor must mythological motives, although they may easily be deduced from the story, be regarded as constitutive elements that were introduced consciously.也必须神话的动机,但他们可以很容易地从故事中推导出,被视为是有意识地介绍了构成要件。This applies to the Andromeda myth as well as to that of Oannes, of Nineveh as the "Fish City" ("nun"), etc., and to the chaotic dragon Tiamat, which has recently become a favorite myth with scholars (comp. Cheyne, lc, sv "Jonah," for details).这适用于仙女座神话以及对尼尼微Oannes,被誉为“鱼市”(“尼姑”)等认为,和混乱的龙魔龙,最近成为学者们喜爱的神话(comp.进益,LC,SV“约拿书”的详细信息)。 The author of the story was of course familiar with all the current conceptions regarding the sea; and he probably had in mind, whether consciously or not, the myths and sagas clinging to it (comp. the rich collection of material relating to these myths in Hermann Usener, "Die Sintfluthsagen," 1899).这个故事的作者是当然的所有关于海的电流概念熟悉,他可能想到的,无论是有意还是无意,神话和传奇抱住它(comp.物质丰富的馆藏与这些神话中赫尔曼Usener,“模具Sintfluthsagen,”1899年)。 It was probably the intention of the author, however, to confine himself to the narration of a story which, dealing with the prophet Jonah known to tradition, should be a vehicle for the lesson he meant to teach.这可能是作者的意图,但是,把自己局限到一个故事,与已知的传统的先知约拿,处理应为教训他的意思教车辆旁白。

Later Uses and Interpretation.后来使用和解释。

In the New Testament Jesus (Luke xi. 29-32) makes use of the book in its original sense, referring to the people of Nineveh as examples of the faith and repentance that he missed among his contemporaries, while refusing them the miracle that they were asking at his hands.在新约中耶稣(路十一29-32),使得在其原来意义上的书使用,指的是作为信仰和悔改,他在他的同时代的例子错过了尼尼微人,而拒绝他们,他们的奇迹被要求在他的手中。 The endeavor to find more than this simple reference in the "sign of Jonas," which is akin to the tendency of the artificial inter pretations mentioned above, has led in the parallel passage (Matt. xii. 39-41) to the interpolation (verse 40), according to which Jonah's three days in the belly of the fish are a prophecy of the three days that Jesus would spend in the grave.在努力寻找比这在“约拿的神迹”,这是类似的上述人工间pretations倾向更简单的参考,也导致了平行通道(太十二39至41)的插值(诗40),根据该约拿的三个在鱼腹天了三天,耶稣会花费在严重的预言。 The early Christian Church more correctly elevates Jonah's rescue from the belly of the fish into the standing type of the resurrection from the grave, a type which is found in all the plastic representations that decorate the early Christian sarcophagi and other monuments.早期的基督教教会更正确地提升约拿的进入,从坟墓,一个在所有的塑料装饰陈述的早期基督教石棺和其他古迹的发现类型复活站在类型从鱼腹救援。

As far as can be seen, the canonicity of the book has never been seriously doubted.据可以看出,书的正规从来没有受到严重质疑。One might rather find in the Midrash ba-Midbar and perhaps also in Ta'an.有人可能会比较发现,在米德拉士BA - Midbar,也许还Ta'an。ii.II。a vague reference to a time when the book was classed, not with the "Nebi'im," but with the "Ketubim."一个模糊的引用的时候书被归类不符合“Nebi'im”,但与“Ketubim。”In that place it would at least find a sufficient counterpart in Ruth.在那个地方这样做至少可以找到一个对口露丝足够。This, however, is only a remote probability, and does not touch the question of the origin of the work.然而,这只是一个偏远的概率,并没有触及工作的起源问题。

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Budde埃米尔赫斯基G.卡尔布德

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

Bibliography:参考书目:

The commentaries contained in Lange's Bibelwerk (Kleinert) and in the Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch; Hitzig, 4th ed., 1904, by H. Steiner; those of GA Smith in his Twelve Prophets; of J. Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten, 1892, 3d ed.在朗格的Bibelwerk(莱内特)和Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载中所包含的评论;希齐格,第四版,1904年,由H.施泰纳;的GA史密斯在他的十二先知;的J.豪森,模具Kleinen Propheten,1892年,3D编辑。1898; and of Nowack in his Kleine Propheten, 1897, 2d ed.1898年,并在他的克莱Propheten,1897年,第2版Nowack。 1904; Kalisch, Bible Studies, ii.; TK Cheyne, in Theological Review, 1877, pp. 211-217; CHH Wright, Biblical Studies, 1886; JS Bloch, Studien zur Gesch. 1904年Kalisch,圣经研究,二;传统知识进益,在神学审查,1877年,第211-217; CHH赖特,圣经研究,1886年; JS布洛赫,(研究)楚Gesch。der Sammlung der Althebräischen Litteratur, 1875.EGHKBDER Sammlung DER Althebräischen Litteratur,1875.EGHKB


Jonah乔纳

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Reason for Flight.飞行的原因。

The Ship.船。

The Fish.鱼。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Prophet in the days of Jeroboam II.; son of Amittai of Gath-hepher.先知在耶罗波安二世的日子;的迦特 - 希弗Amittai儿子。He is a historical personage; for, according to II Kings xiv.他是一位历史人物,因为,根据二国王十四。25, he predicted in Yhwh's name the extent to which Jeroboam II.25日,他预测在耶和华的名字在何种程度上耶罗波安二。would restore the boundaries of the Northern Kingdom, "from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain."将恢复北方王国的边界“,从哈马进入所不欲,平原之海”。Thewording of the passage may also imply that Jonah's prophecy was uttered even before Jeroboam II., perhaps in the time of Jehoahaz (thus Klostermann to II Kings xiii. 4).对通过Thewording也可能意味着约拿的预言说出之前耶罗波安二,在时间也许约哈斯(从而Klostermann到二王十三4)。 In any case Jonah is one of the prophets who advised the house of Jehu, and it is not unlikely that with him the series of prophets that began with Elijah came to a close.在任何情况下的先知约拿是谁劝耶户的房子之一,它是不是不太可能与他的先知以利亚系列开始落下了帷幕。The next succeeding prophet, Amos of Tekoa, whose activity fell in the reign of Jeroboam II., begins an entirely new series, as regards not only his position toward the king and the people, but also his method of communication, in that he resorted to writing instead of the spoken word.下一个成功的先知,在提哥亚,其活性在耶罗波安二,在位下跌,阿莫斯开始一个全新的系列,至于他的立场不仅对国王和人民,也是他的通信方法,在他使出写作,而不是口头语言。

Jonah belongs only seemingly to the prophets who were also writers; for the book bearing his name does not afford the least evidence of having been written by the prophet himself.约拿似乎只属于向先知谁也作家;为他的名字命名的书不负担的已被写入由先知自己至少证据。It merely tells his history, as the Books of the Kings tell of Elijah, Elisha, Micaiah, or Yimlah ben Zimlah.它只是告诉他的历史,作为国王的图书以利亚,以利沙,米该雅,或Yimlah本Zimlah告诉。The book, however, doubtless refers to the same prophet Jonah as is mentioned in II Kings xiv.这本书,但是,毫无疑问是指同一先知约拿的是在二国王十四提及。25; for the name of both is Jonah ben Amittai.25,为双方的名称是约拿本Amittai。This identity has recently been denied by Hugo Winckler ("Altorientalische Forschungen," 1900, ii. 260 et seq.; see also Cheyne in "Encyc. Bibl." ii. 2570), but Winckler's reasoning, however ingenious, does not suffice to make his theory more than possible.这个身份,最近被剥夺了雨果Winckler(“Altorientalische Forschungen,”1900年,二260及以下;见也进益II 2570“百科全书Bibl ”),但Winckler的推理,但巧妙,并不足以使他的理论比可能更多。It is one and the same prophet that is mentioned in both places: in the superscription to the Book of Jonah, with the name of his father; in the historical narrative, with the name of his home also.它是同一个先知即在两地提到:在上标到约拿书,与他父亲的名字,在历史叙述,在他家的名字也。Indeed, the account in the Book of Jonah depends on that in the Book of Kings; nor has it been proved, as some have held, that the Book of Jonah was written to account for the non-fulfilment of the predictions against Nineveh contained in the prophecy of Nahum, and that the Jonah of Kings and the Jonah of the prophetical book can consequently not be identical.事实上,在约拿书帐户取决于在国王的书,也没有得到证实,如一些人所持有,该约拿书是写给对尼尼微所包含的预测的不履行占在那鸿预言,而国王和约拿的预言书约拿可以因此不相同。 Winckler retracted his opinion in "Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung," 1903, p. Winckler翻供的“汇报Evangelisch - Lutherische Kirchenzeitung,”1903年版,第他的意见 1224.EGHKB1224.EGHKB

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

The tribal affinities of Jonah constitute a point of controversy; generally assigned to Asher, he is claimed for Zebulun by R. Johanan on the strength of his place of residence (II Kings xiv. 24); these opinions were harmonized by the assumption that his mother was of Asher while his father was of Zebulun (Yer. Suk. v. 1; Gen. R. xcviii. 11; Yalḳ., Jonah, 550; Abravanel's commentary to Jonah).约拿的部落亲和力构成争议点,一般分配给亚设,他声称为西布伦R.约哈难在他居住的地方(二国王十四24)。实力,这些意见是一致的假设,他的母亲是灰粉,而他的父亲西布伦(Yer.淑诉1;将军河xcviii 11;Yalḳ,乔纳,550;阿布拉瓦内尔的评注乔纳)了。According to another authority his mother was the woman of Zarephath that entertained Elijah (ib.; Pirḳe R. El. xxxiii.).另据权威他的母亲是女人的Zarephath娱乐利亚(同上;PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多三十三)。As this prophet, who was also of priestly descent, would have profaned himself if he had touched the corpse of a Jew, it was concluded that this woman, whose son (Jonah) he "took to his bosom" and revived, was a non-Jew (Gen. R. lc).由于这先知,谁是祭司的后裔也将有亵渎自己,如果他碰到的一个犹太人尸体,得出的结论是,这个女人,他的儿子(乔纳)他“花了他的怀里”和复兴,是一个非犹太人(将军河LC)。 He received his prophetic appointment from Elisha, under whose orders he anointed Jehu (II Kings ix.; Ḳimḥhi, ad loc.; and Ẓemaḥ Dawid).他获得了他的预言以利沙任命是根据他的命令膏耶户(II国王IX;Ḳimḥhi,广告同上;和ẒemaḥDawid)。 He is said to have attained a very advanced age (more than 120 years according to Seder 'Olam; 130 according to Sefer Yuḥasin), while Ecclesiastes Rabbah viii.他说已经达到了一个非常先进的年龄(超过120年根据家宴“奥兰; 130根据之书Yuḥasin),而传道书拉巴八。 10 holds that the son (Jonah) of the Zarephath widow never died.10认为,在Zarephath寡妇的儿子(乔纳)永不凋谢。The "holy spirit" descended on him while he participated in the festivities of the last day of Sukkot (Yer. Suk. v. 1, 55a).而“圣灵”降临在他身上,而他的住棚节(Yer.淑诉1,55A)参加最后一天的庆祝活动。His wife is adduced as an example of a woman voluntarily assuming duties not incumbent on her, for she is remembered as having made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem on the "regel" (holiday; Yer. 'Erubin x. 1, 26a; "Seder ha-Dorot"; and "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah").他的妻子是援引作为一个自愿承担的职责不是她的责任,因为她是有关于“regel”(节日的朝圣耶路撒冷想起女人的例子;也门里亚尔“Erubin十1,26A;”家宴公顷 - Dorot“及”Shalshelet公顷卡巴拉“)。

Reason for Flight.飞行的原因。

Jonah was induced to flee because, after having won his reputation as a true prophet ( = "one whose words always came true") by the fulfilment of his prediction in the days of Jeroboam II.乔纳诱导逃离,因为,后赢得了他的预言实现了他的名誉作为一个真正的先知(=“一个实现了他的话总是”)在耶罗波安二世的日子。 (II Kings xiv.), he had come to be distrusted and to be called a false prophet, the reason being that when sent to Jerusalem to foretell its doom its inhabitants repented and the disaster did not come.(二国王十四),他已经到了被不信任和被称为假先知,原因是,当发送到耶路撒冷的末日预言其居民忏悔和灾难没有来。Knowing that the Ninevites also were on the point of repenting ("ḳerobe teshubah"), he anticipated that among them, too, he would earn the reputation of being a false prophet; he therefore resolved to flee to a place where the glory of God, or His Shekinah, could not be found (Pirḳe R. El. x.; but comp. Ibn Ezra's commentary).明知尼尼微人还对悔改(“ḳerobeteshubah”)点是,他预期,其中太,他将获得的是一个假先知的声誉,因此他决心逃离到一个地方,神的荣耀,或他的舍吉拿,找不到(PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多十;但比赛伊本以斯拉的评论)。 The phrase in Jonah iii.在约拿三句话。1, "and the word of God came unto Jonah the second time," is interpreted by Akiba, however, to imply that God spoke only twice to him; therefore the "word of Yhwh" to him in II Kings xiv. 1,“与神的话所不欲,约拿传来了第二次”,是解释秋叶,但是,暗示上帝对他讲只有两次,因此是“耶和华字”的第二十四国王给他。25 has no reference to a prophecy which Jonah delivered in the days of Jeroboam II., but must be taken in the sense that as at Nineveh Jonah's words changed evil to good, so under Jeroboam Israel experienced a change of fortune (Yeb. 98a). 25没有一个是约拿在耶罗波安二,天交付预言参考,但必须在这个意义上考虑,截至尼尼微约拿的话改变了邪恶的好,所以在耶罗波安以色列经历了财富变化(Yeb. 98A) 。

When Jonah went to Joppa he found no ship, for the vessel on which he had intended taking passage had sailed two days before; but God caused a contrary wind to arise and the ship was driven back to port (Zohar, Ḥayye Sarah).当约拿到约帕,他没有发现船舶,为上,他本来打算采取通过了船舶航行的前两天,但神使出现了相反的风和船被逼退到端口(佐哈尔,Ḥayye莎拉)。 At this Jonah rejoiced, regarding it as indicating that his plan would succeed, and in his joy he paid his passage-money in advance, contrary to the usual custom, which did not require its payment until the conclusion of the voyage.在这约拿欢欣鼓舞,认为这表明他的计划会成功了,并在他的喜悦,他在推进他通过支付金钱,违背了通常的习惯,这并不要求其直至航程结束付款。

According to some he even paid the full value of the ship, amounting to 4,000 gold denarii (Yalḳ., lc; Ned. 38a).据一些他甚至付出了船舶的全部价值,总额为4000金denarii(Yalḳ.,LC;奈德38A)。 But all this happened to teach him the fallacy of his conclusion that God could be evaded (Yalḳ., lc; and Rashi, ad loc.), for the contrary wind affected his ship only; all others on the sea at that time proceeded uninterruptedly on their courses.但是,这一切发生在他的教导他的结论谬论,​​上帝可以回避(Yalḳ.,LC;和Rashi,广告同上),为逆风影响了他的船只,当时所有的人在海面上进行不间断在他们的课程。

The Ship.船。

The storm which overtook Jonah is quoted as one of three most noteworthy storms (Eccl. R. i. 6).风暴的超越约拿是引述三个最值得关注的风暴(传道书传译一6)之一。After the sailors' prayers to their idols, as well as their efforts to turn about and lighten the ship, had proved futile, the crew finally was compelled to believe Jonah's statement that this calamity had befallen their craft on his account, and assented to his petition to be thrown overboard.经过水手“祈祷自己的偶像,以及他们的努力,转一下,减轻船,已证明是徒劳的,船员终于被迫相信约拿的说法,这场灾难已降临在他的帐户自己的手艺,并表示同意他的请愿书被扔到海里。 Praying that they might not be held accountable for his death, they first lowered him far enough for the waters to touch his knees.祈祷,他们可能不会为他的死亡负责,他们首先降低了他足够的水域触摸他的膝盖。Seeing that the storm subsided, they drew him back into the ship, whereupon the sea at once rose again.眼看风暴平息,他们把他背到船上,于是在一次海上再次上升。They repeated this experiment several times, each time lowering him deeper, but taking him out again, and each time with the same result, until finally they threw him into the sea (Yalḳ., lc).他们重复这个实验了几次,每次lowering him更深,但带他出来了,并且每个相同的结果时,直到最后他们全身心地投入到海(Yalḳ.,LC)他。

The Fish.鱼。

The fish which swallowed Jonah had been created in the very beginning of the world in order to perform this work (Zohar, Wayaḳhel; Pirḳe R. El. x.; see also Gen. R. v. 5).该鱼吞食约拿已经创造了世界的开始,以执行这项工作(佐哈尔,Wayaḳhel;PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多十;也见将军河五5)。 Therefore this fish had so large a mouth and throat that Jonah found it as easy to pass into its belly as he would have found it to enter the portals of a very large synagogue (ib.).因此这种鱼有这么大的嘴和喉咙的约拿发现它一样容易传递到它的肚子,他会发现自己进入了一个非常大的犹太教堂(同上)的门户。 It had eyes which were as large as windows, and lamps lit up its interior.它的眼睛是被作为窗口为大,灯亮了起来它的内部。 According to another opinion, a great pearl suspended in the entrails of the fish enabled Jonah to see all that was in the sea and in the abyss.另一种意见认为,一个伟大的珍珠鱼的内脏暂停启用约拿看到所有,在海上和深渊了。 The fish informed Jonah that he was to be devoured by Leviathan.鱼通知约拿,他被海怪吞噬。Jonah asked to be taken to the monster, when he would save both his own life and that of the fish.约拿要求采取的怪物,当他将节省自己的生活和鱼。Meeting Leviathan, he exhibited the "seal of Abraham," whereupon the monster shot away a distance of two days.会议利维坦,他展示了“亚伯拉罕的印章,”届时怪物拍走了两天的距离。To reward him for this service the fish showed Jonah all the wondrous things in the ocean (eg, the path of the Israelites across the Red Sea; the pillars upon which the earth rests).为了奖励他为这项服务表明约拿的鱼在海洋中的所有奇妙的东西(例如,对以色列人跨越红海的道路;的支柱赖以地球在于)。 Thus he spent three days and three nights in the belly of the fish, but would not pray.因此,他花了鱼的肚子三天三夜,但不会祈祷。God then resolved to put him into another fish where he would be less comfortable.上帝然后决心把鱼他到另一个地方,他就不太舒服。A female fish quick with young approached the male fish in which Jonah was, threatening to devour both unless Jonah were transferred to her, and announcing her divine orders to that effect.一位女青年迅速上前鱼公鱼中,约拿,威胁要吃掉两个除非约拿被转移到了她,并宣布她神圣的命令,这种效果。Leviathan confirmed her story at the request of both fishes, and then Jonah was ejected from one fish into the over-filled belly of the other.利维坦确认,在这两个鱼要求她的故事,然后从一条鱼约拿抛入了其他过度填充肚子。Cramped for room and otherwise made miserable, Jonah finally prayed, acknowledging the futility of his efforts to escape from God (Ps. cxxxix.).狭小的空间,否则惨了,乔纳最后祈祷,承认他的努力摆脱神(诗篇cxxxix)是徒劳的。But he was not answered until he had promised to redeem his pledge to capture Leviathan.但他没有回答,直到他答应兑现他的承诺捕捉利维坦。As soon as God had his promise, He beckoned to the fish and it spat out Jonah upon the dry land, a distance of 968 parasangs.当上帝有他的诺言,他招手的鱼,它吐出来后,干燥的土地,距离968 parasangs乔纳。When the crew of the ship saw this they immediately threw away their idols, sailed back to Joppa, went to Jerusalem, and submitted to circumcision, becoming Jews (Yalḳ., lc; Tan., Wayiḳra, ed. Stettin, 1865, pp. 370 et seq.; see also Pirḳe R. El. x.).当船员看到了这一点,他们立刻扔掉了自己的偶像,航行回到约帕,来到耶路撒冷,并提交给割礼,成为犹太人(Yalḳ.,LC;谭Wayiḳra编什切青,1865年,页。 370页起,见也PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多十)。

In the Zohar (Wayaḳhel) it is related that the fish died as soon as Jonah entered, but was revived after three days.在佐哈尔(Wayaḳhel)是相关的鱼类死亡乔纳尽快进入,但三天后复活。 When Jonah was thrown into the sea his soul immediately left his body and soared up to God's throne, where it was judged and sent back.当约拿被扔进大海立即离开他的灵魂他的身体和飙升到神的宝座,它是判断并送回。As soon as it touched the mouth of the fish on its way back to the body, the fish died, but was later restored to life.当它触动了它的方式回到了身体鱼口,鱼死了,但后来恢复了生机。The fish's name is given in "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah" as (ie, "cetos" = "whale").这种鱼的名称是在“Shalshelet公顷卡巴拉”的(即“cetos”=“鲸鱼”)。The fate of Jonah is allegorized in the Zohar (Wayaḳhel) as illustrative of the soul's relation to the body and to death.约拿的命运是allegorized在佐哈尔(Wayaḳhel)为灵魂的关系,以身体和死亡说明。In the assumption that Jonah is identical with the Messiah, the son of Joseph, the influence of Christian thought is discernible (comp. Matt. xii. 39-41).在假设约拿与弥赛亚,约瑟的儿子一样,基督教思想的影响是明显的(comp.马特。十二39-41)。

The gourd of Jonah was enormous.约拿的葫芦是巨大的。Before its appearance Jonah was tortured by the heat and by insects of all kinds, his clothes having been burned by the heat of the belly of the fish; he was tortured again after the worm had caused the gourd to wither.在其外观约拿的热量和各种昆虫的折磨,他的衣服已被烧毁的鱼的肚子热,他被折磨后再次蠕虫造成了葫芦枯萎。This brought Jonah to pray that God should be a merciful ruler, not a strict judge (Pirḳe R. El. x.; Yalḳ. 551).SSEGH这使约拿祈祷上帝应该是一个仁慈的统治者,而不是一个严格的法官(PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多十;Yalḳ551)SSEGH。

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Budde, Solomon Schechter埃米尔赫斯基G.卡尔布德,所罗门谢克特

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。



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