Book of Joshua, Josue书约书亚记

General Information一般资料

Joshua is the sixth book of the Old Testament of the Bible.约书亚是圣经旧约的第六册。It is named for the leader who succeeded Moses and led Israel in the successful conquest of Canaan, the Promised Land.它被命名为成功的领导者谁在迦南,成功征服应许之地和摩西带领以色列。The book is divided into three parts: the conquest of Canaan during Joshua's three major campaigns (chaps. 1 - 12), including the fall of Jericho (chap. 6), the siege of Gibeon, and Joshua's victory while the sun and moon stood still (chap. 10); the division of Canaan by tribes (chaps. 13 - 22); and Joshua's farewell speeches and death (chaps. 23 - 24).全书分为三个部分:迦南在约书亚的三大战役(chaps. 1 - 12)征服,包括杰里科下降(6章),在基遍围攻,和约书亚的胜利,而太阳和月亮站还是(10章);由部落的迦南(chaps. 13 - 22)司和约书亚的告别演说和死亡(chaps. 23 - 24)。

The Book of Joshua forms part of the Deuteronomistic History, the collective name given by scholars to the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings, all of which appear to have been compiled by the same editor or editors.约书亚书的形式对Deuteronomistic历史,集体名学者给予申命记,约书亚书,法官,1和2萨穆埃尔,和1个和2个国王,所有这一切似乎已经由同一编辑器编译的一部分或编辑。 This history was recorded during the time of Josiah (c. 640 - 609 BC) and revised around 550 BC.这段历史被记录在约西亚(公元前640 - 公元前609)公元前550年左右的时间和修订。Joshua is based on earlier sources, however; some parts of the text date from the premonarchial period.约书亚是基于更早的来源,但是,从文本日期的premonarchial时期的某些部分。The book was edited almost 600 years after the conquest of Canaan (c. 1225 BC).这本书编辑近600年后的迦南(约1225 BC)征服。

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Bibliography 参考书目
P Enns, Joshua: Bible Study Commentary (1981); L Greenspoon, Textual Studies in the Book of Joshua (1983); JA Soggin, Joshua, A Commentary (1972). P恩斯,约书亚:圣经研究述评(1981年),L Greenspoon,在约书亚书(1983)考证研究; JA Soggin,约书亚,评注(1972年)。


Book of Joshua, Josue约书亚记,若苏埃

Brief Outline简述

  1. Conquest of Canaan (1-12)征服迦南(1-12)
  2. Apportionment of territory to tribes (13-22)领土分配到部落(13-22)
  3. Joshua's farewell address (22-24)约书亚的告别演说(22-24)


Joshua约书亚

Advanced Information先进的信息

Joshua, Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour.约书亚,耶和华是他的帮助,或耶和华救主。The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel.嫩的儿子,在以法莲,在摩西为以色列领导人的继任部落。He is called Jehoshua in Num.他叫数Jehoshua。13:16 (AV), and Jesus in Acts 7:45 and Heb.13:16(AV),耶稣在使徒行传7:45和河北。4:8 (RV, Joshua). 4:8(RV,约书亚)。He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom he is generally associated.他出生在埃及,并可能对迦勒岁,与他一般是相关的。He shared in all the events of the Exodus, and held the place of commander of the host of the Israelites at their great battle against the Amalekites in Rephidim (Ex. 17:8-16).他同意在所有的出埃及事件,举行了对以色列人在利非订于他们对伟大战役的亚玛力人(出17:8-16)主机司令员的地方。 He became Moses' minister or servant, and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the two tables (Ex. 32:17).他成为了摩西的部长或受雇人,并陪同他一部分的方式,当他登上西奈山接受两个表(出32:17)。He was also one of the twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (Num. 13:16, 17), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report.他也是十二谁被送往由摩西在探索迦南(民数记13:16,17)土地之一,只有他和迦勒发表了鼓舞人心的报告。Under the direction of God, Moses, before his death, invested Joshua in a public and solemn manner with authority over the people as his successor (Deut. 31:23).根据神,摩西的方向,在他死后,在公共投资和庄严的方式为他的继任者超过(申命记31:23)人民权力约书亚。

The people were encamped at Shittim when he assumed the command (Josh. 1:1); and crossing the Jordan, they encamped at Gilgal, where, having circumcised the people, he kept the Passover, and was visited by the Captain of the Lord's host, who spoke to him encouraging words (1:1-9).这些人被扎营在什亭,当他就任命令(约书亚记1:1)和穿越约旦,他们在吉甲安营,在那里,有割礼的人,一个劲的逾越节,和由主的船长访问主办,谁对他说话(1:1-9)鼓励的话语。 Now began the wars of conquest which Joshua carried on for many years, the record of which is in the book which bears his name.现在开始了征服战争的约书亚进行了许多年过去了,记录这在书里面他的名字命名的。Six nations and thirty-one kings were conquered by him (Josh. 11:18-23; 12:24).六国和31国王被征服他(约书亚记11:18-23; 12:24)。Having thus subdued the Canaanites, Joshua divided the land among the tribes, Timnath-serah in Mount Ephraim being assigned to himself as his own inheritance.经从而制服了迦南人,约书亚划分各部落的土地,Timnath - serah在以法莲山被分配到自己为自己的遗产。His work being done, he died, at the age of one hundred and ten years, twenty-five years after having crossed the Jordan.他的工作正在做的110年岁,他死了,二十五年后已越过约旦。

He was buried in his own city of Timnathserah (Josh. 24); and "the light of Israel for the time faded away."他被安葬在他的Timnathserah(约书亚记24)自己的城市,以及“以色列的时间光消失了。”Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ (Heb. 4:8) in the following particulars:, (1) In the name common to both; (2) Joshua brings the people into the possession of the Promised Land, as Jesus brings his people to the heavenly Canaan; and (3) as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel succeeds the Law.约书亚一直被视为是基督(希伯来书4:8)输入下列事项:(1)在双方共同的名称;(2)约书亚带入应许之地藏人民,耶稣带来他向天上的迦南人,以及(3)约书亚接替摩西,所以福音成功的律师。 The character of Joshua is thus well sketched by Edersheim:, "Born a slave in Egypt, he must have been about forty years old at the time of the Exodus. Attached to the person of Moses, he led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek (Ex. 17:9, 13), while Moses in the prayer of faith held up to heaven the God-given 'rod.'约书亚的性格因此深受爱德生勾勒:“出生在埃及的奴隶,他一定是四十岁左右在出埃及记时附加的摩西的人,他领导了对以色列的第一次决战亚玛力人(出埃及记17:9,13)举行,而在信仰摩西向天祈祷上帝赐予的“棒”。 It was no doubt on that occasion that his name was changed from Oshea, 'help,' to Jehoshua, 'Jehovah is help' (Num. 13:16). And this name is the key to his life and work.这是当时没有怀疑他的名字从Oshea改变,“帮助”,以Jehoshua,“耶和华是帮助”(民数记13:16),而这个名字是他的生活和工作的关键。

Alike in bringing the people into Canaan, in his wars, and in the distribution of the land among the tribes, from the miraculous crossing of Jordan and taking of Jericho to his last address, he was the embodiment of his new name, 'Jehovah is help.'同样在使迦南人,在他的战争,并在各部落的土地分配,从约旦奇迹般的跨越和杰里科采取的最后一个地址给他,他是他的新名字的体现,“耶和华是帮助。“ To this outward calling his character also corresponded.为了达到这个要求他的性格外向也对应。It is marked by singleness of purpose, directness, and decision.它的特点是目的,直接和决策独身He sets an object before him, and unswervingly follows it" (Bible Hist., iii. 103)他套在他面前的对象,坚定不移地遵循它“(圣经历史。,三,103)

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Joshua约书亚记

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Book of Joshua contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua.在约书亚书包含了对以色列人从摩西死亡的约书亚历史。It consists of three parts:, (1.) The history of the conquest of the land (1-12).它由三部分组成:(1)对土地(1-12)征服的历史。(2.) The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes.(2)在土地分配给不同的部落与庇护,对利(13-22)的规定,以及他们的家园东部城市部落解雇任命。This section has been compared to the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest.本节已经相比,诺曼征服末日审判书。(3.) The farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23,24).(3)解决了约书亚的告别,与他的死亡(23,24)帐户。 This book stands first in the second of the three sections, (1) the Law, (2) the Prophets, (3) the "other writings" = Hagiographa, into which the Jewish Church divided the Old Testament.矗立在这本书的三个部分的第二首,(1)法,(2)先知,(3)“等著作”= Hagiographa,到其中的犹太人教会分为旧约。There is every reason for concluding that the uniform tradition of the Jews is correct when they assign the authorship of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding section; the last verses (24:29-33) were added by some other hand.有一切的结论是犹太人的传统,是正确的统一分配时,他们的书作者约书亚,除最后一节的所有原因;的(24:29-33)最后的诗句被一些人则补充说。

There are two difficulties connected with this book which have given rise to much discussion, (1.) The miracle of the standing still of the sun and moon on Gibeon.有两个困难,这已引起不少讨论书连,(1)对太阳和月亮基遍停滞不前的奇迹。The record of it occurs in Joshua's impassioned prayer of faith, as quoted (Josh. 10:12-15) from the "Book of Jasher" (qv).它的记录发生在约书亚的信心慷慨激昂的祈祷,引从“Jasher书”(请参阅​​)(约书亚记10:12-15)。There are many explanations given of these words.有这些话让许多解释。They need, however, present no difficulty if we believe in the possibility of God's miraculous interposition in behalf of his people.他们需要的,但是,目前没有困难,如果我们在神的代表在他的人相信奇迹干预的可能性。 Whether it was caused by the refraction of the light, or how, we know not.无论它是由光的,不然怎么折射引起的,我们不知道。(2.) Another difficulty arises out of the command given by God utterly to exterminate the Canaanites. (2)另一个困难产生于神所赋予完全灭绝迦南人的命令。"Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?"“不得对所有地球法官做吧?”It is enough that Joshua clearly knew that this was the will of God, who employs his terrible agencies, famine, pestilence, and war, in the righteous government of this world.这是不够的约书亚清楚地知道,这是上帝,谁雇佣了这个世界正义的政府机构的可怕,饥荒,瘟疫和战争,将。

The Canaanites had sunk into a state of immorality and corruption so foul and degrading that they had to be rooted out of the land with the edge of the sword.迦南人已经沉入了不道德和腐败使犯规和有辱人格的,他们已经被根深蒂固的与剑的边缘土地进行的状态。"The Israelites' sword, in its bloodiest executions, wrought a work of mercy for all the countries of the earth to the very end of the world."他说:“以色列人”剑,在其最血腥处决,造成了慈悲为所有地球国家为世界的最后工作。“This book resembles the Acts of the Apostles in the number and variety of historical incidents it records, and in its many references to persons and places; and as in the latter case the epistles of Paul (see Paley's Horce Paul.) confirm its historical accuracy by their incidental allusions and "undesigned coincidences," so in the former modern discoveries confirm its historicity.这本书类似于在数量和它记录了历史事件的各种使徒行传,并在向个人和地方的许多参考,并在后一种情况下保罗的书信(见佩利的Horce保罗)确认其历史精度其附带的典故和“非故意的巧合”,所以在确认前现代的发现它的历史性。 The Amarna tablets are among the most remarkable discoveries of the age.在阿玛尔纳片都属于这个时代的最显着的发现。

Dating from about BC 1480 down to the time of Joshua, and consisting of official communications from Amorite, Phoenician, and Philistine chiefs to the king of Egypt, they afford a glimpse into the actual condition of Palestine prior to the Hebrew invasion, and illustrate and confirm the history of the conquest.建于约公元前1480下降到约书亚的时间,从亚摩利人,腓尼基人,非利士人的首领和公务通讯向埃及国王组成的,他们承受到巴勒斯坦的实际情况窥见入侵之前,希伯来文,并说明和确认征服的历史。 A letter, also still extant, from a military officer, "master of the captains of Egypt," dating from near the end of the reign of Rameses II., gives a curious account of a journey, probably official, which he undertook through Palestine as far north as to Aleppo, and an insight into the social condition of the country at that time.阿信,也还是现存的,从军官,“埃及船长大师”,从附近的拉美西斯二世。统治结束约会,给出了一个奇怪的旅程帐户,可能官方,他通过巴勒斯坦承诺在北至阿勒颇,并见识到了该国当时的社会条件。 Among the things brought to light by this letter and the Amarna tablets is the state of confusion and decay that had now fallen on Egypt.这其中所带来的信和阿玛尔纳片轻的东西是混乱和衰退,民政事务总署现已埃及下降的状态。 The Egyptian garrisons that had held possession of Palestine from the time of Thothmes III., some two hundred years before, had now been withdrawn.埃及,民政事务总署举办的Thothmes III时间巴勒斯坦拥有驻军。,大约两百年之前,现在已经撤回。

The way was thus opened for the Hebrews.这样的方式是开放的希伯来人。In the history of the conquest there is no mention of Joshua having encountered any Egyptian force.在历史上的征服约书亚有没有遇到任何提及埃及的力量。The tablets contain many appeals to the king of Egypt for help against the inroads of the Hebrews, but no help seems ever to have been sent.这些药片包含对埃及的希伯来人反对的侵蚀帮助国王多次呼吁,但似乎没有帮助过已发送。 Is not this just such a state of things as might have been anticipated as the result of the disaster of the Exodus?这难道不是这样一个作为可能被作为灾难的结果预期的出埃及记事物的状态?In many points, as shown under various articles, the progress of the conquest is remarkably illustrated by the tablets.在点多,根据各条所示,征服进展显着说明了药片。The value of modern discoveries in their relation to Old Testament history has been thus well described: "The difficulty of establishing the charge of lack of historical credibility, as against the testimony of the Old Testament, has of late years greatly increased. The outcome of recent excavations and explorations is altogether against it.在他们的历史与现代的旧约发现的价值已经这样很好的描述:“建立对历史负责的公信力缺乏的困难,如对旧约的见证,大大提高了晚年的成果。最近发掘和探索是完全反对。

As long as these books contained, in the main, the only known accounts of the events they mention, there was some plausibility in the theory that perhaps these accounts were written rather to teach moral lessons than to preserve an exact knowledge of events.只要这些书籍中,在主,他们提到的事件唯一已知的帐户,有一些的,也许在这些帐户被写入,而不是教道德课保存的事件确切的知识理论的合理性。 It was easy to say in those times men had not the historic sense.这是很容易说,在那个时代的人没有历史感。But the recent discoveries touch the events recorded in the Bible at very many different points in many different generations, mentioning the same persons, countries, peoples, events that are mentioned in the Bible, and showing beyond question that these were strictly historic.但最近发现触摸圣经记载在许多不同的世代很多不同点的事件,提同一人,国家,人民,这是在圣经中提到的事件,毫无疑问,这些都显示出严格的历史。 The point is not that the discoveries confirm the correctness of the Biblical statements, though that is commonly the case, but that the discoveries show that the peoples of those ages had the historic sense, and, specifically, that the Biblical narratives they touch are narratives of actual occurrences."问题的关键不在于发现证实了圣经的陈述的正确性,尽管这是常见的情况,但该发现表明,这些年龄段的人民有历史感,而且,具体而言,他们接触圣经的叙事是叙事实际发生。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Josue (Joshua)若苏埃(约书亚)

Catholic Information天主教信息

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books.八,在旧约的人的名字,以及对神圣的书籍之一。

('Oseé), a Bethsamite in whose field the ark stood on its way back from the land of the Philistines to Juda (1 Samuel 6:14, 18). ('Oseé),在其领域的方舟Bethsamite站在其归途从非利士土地犹大(撒母耳记上6:14,18)。

('Iesoûs), governor of Jerusalem whose idolatrous altars were destroyed by King Josias, during the latter's attempts to undo the evil wrought by his father Amon and grandfather Manasses (2 Kings 22:8). ('Iesoûs),耶路撒冷的被摧毁国王Josias在后者的尝试,撤消邪恶盲目崇拜神坛州长造成由他的父亲和祖父Manasses阿蒙(王下22:8)。

('Iesoûs), the son of Josedec and the high-priest who returned with Zorobabel from the Babylonian Captivity to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7; 21:1). ('Iesoûs),对Josedec儿子和高牧师谁与Zorobabel返回从巴比伦圈养耶路撒冷(以斯拉2:2;尼希米记7:7,21:1)。 In I and II Esd.在第一和第二ESD。the Vulgate calls him Josue; in Agg.武加大告诉他若苏埃,在AGG的。and Zach., Jesus.和扎克。耶稣。 He assisted Zorobabel in rebuilding the Temple, and was most zealous for the restoration of the religion of Israel (Ezra 3:2, 8; 4:3; 5:2).他协助重建圣殿Zorobabel,并最适合的以色列(以斯拉记3:2,8; 4:3; 5:2)恢复宗教狂热。It was he whom Zacharias saw in vision stripped of filthy garments and clothed in clean robes and mitre, while the angel of the Lord proclaimed the high-priest the type of the coming Messias (Zechariah 3).这是他在视觉看到他们撒迦利亚剥夺了污秽的衣服和干净的长袍和人字衣,而主天使宣告了高牧师的未来弭赛亚(撒迦利亚3)类型。

('Iesoué, 'Iesoû), a head of the family of Phahath Moab, one of the families named in the list of Israelites that returned from the Babylonian Exile (Ezra 2:6; Nehemiah 7:11). (“Iesoué,”Iesoû),一对Phahath摩押,在以色列人的名单,从巴比伦流亡(以斯拉2:6;尼希米记7:11)返回指定的家庭一个家庭的头。

('Iesoî 'Iesoû), a head of the priestly family of Idaia, maybe the high-priest Josue mentioned above (Ezra 2:36; Nehemiah 7:39). (“Iesoî”Iesoû),一个祭司的Idaia一家之主,也许高牧师若苏埃上述(拉2:36;尼希米记7:39)。

('Iesoûs, 'Iesoû), the name of a priestly family descended from Oduia, as also of various heads of that family after the Exile (Ezra 2:40; 3:9; 8:33; Nehemiah 3:19; 7:43; 8:7; 9:4, 5; 12:8, Vulg. Jesua; 12:24). (“Iesoûs,”Iesoû),一个祭司姓后裔Oduia,也为后,流亡国外的家庭的各种头(以斯拉2:40; 3:9; 8:33,尼希米记3:19; 7: 43,8:7,9:4,5; 12:8,Vulg Jesua; 12:24)。

('Iesía), one of the sons of Herem who were ordered to put away their wives taken from the land of the stranger (Ezra 10:31). ('Iesía),对Herem谁被勒令收起从陌生的土地(拉10:31)决定了他们的妻子儿女之一。

(First called Osee; Septuagint 'Iesoûs, first A&úsé), the son of Nun; the genealogy of the family is given in I Par., vii, 20-27; it belonged to the tribe of Ephraim. (第一叫Osee;译本“Iesoûs,首先A&使用),嫩的儿子,家庭的家谱是在给我票,七,20-27;它属于以法莲支派。Josue commanded the army of Israel, after the Exodus, in its battle with Amalec (Exodus 17:9-13), was called the minister of Moses (xxiv, 13), accompanied the great lawgiver to and from Mount Sinai (xxxi, 17) and into the tabernacle of the covenant (xxxiii, 11), and acted as one of twelve spies whom Moses sent to view the land of Chanaan (Numbers 13:9).若苏埃指挥的以色列军队,出埃及后,在与Amalec(出17:9-13),战斗中,被称为摩西部长(24,13),伴随着伟大的立法者和从西奈山(三十一,17 ),并派人到该公约的帐幕(三十三,11),以及十二个探子人摩西one采取行动,查看土地Chanaan(民数记13:9)。On this occasion Moses changed his servant's name from Osee to Josue (Numbers 13:17).在此之际摩西改为Osee到若苏埃(民数记13:17)他的仆人的名字。The new name most likely means "Jahweh is salvation".新的名称最有可能的手段“亚威是救赎”。Josue and Caleb alone spoke well of the land, even though the people wished to stone them for not murmuring and these two lived on (Numbers 14:38).若苏埃和迦勒单独讲清楚的土地,尽管人们希望石他们没有怨言,这两个上(民数记14:38)居住。Josue was chosen by God to succeed Moses.若苏埃被选为接替摩西的上帝。The words of the choice show the character of the chosen (Numbers 27:17-18).的选择的话显示出所选择的(民数记27:17-18)字符。Before Eleazar and all the assembly of the people Moses laid hands on Josue.在以利亚撒和所有的人大会摩西放在若苏埃手中。Later this soldier was proposed by Moses to the people to lead them into the land beyond the Jordan (Deuteronomy 31:3), and was ordered by the Lord to do so (xxxi, 23).后来这名士兵是由摩西带领人民把超越乔丹(申命记31:3)他们的土地,和由主这样做(三十一,23)排序。After the death of Moses, Josue was filled with the spirit of wisdom and was obeyed by the children of Israel (Deuteronomy 34:9).摩西去世后,若苏埃充满了智慧的精神,并服从由以色列的孩子(申命记34:9)。The rest of story of Josue is told in the Book of Josue.而其余的若苏埃的故事告诉了若苏埃书。

THE BOOK OF JOSHUA预定的约书亚

The sixth book of the Old Testament; in the plan of the critics, the last book of the Hexateuch (see PENTATEUCH).在旧约的第六册;在批评计划,最后的Hexateuch书(见摩西五)。In the Fathers, the book is often called "Jesus Nave".在父亲的书通常被称为“耶稣殿”。The name dates from the time of Origen, who translated the Hebrew "son of Nun" by uìòs Nauê and insisted upon the Nave as a type of a ship; hence in the name Jesus Nave many of the Fathers see the type of Jesus, the Ship wherin the world is saved.该名称的日期从奥利,谁翻译希伯来文“嫩的儿子”的uìòs Nauê并呼吁殿坚持作为一个船型的时间,因此在名称耶稣殿的父亲看到了许多耶稣,类型船舶wherin世界保存。

(1) Contents(1)目录

The Book of Josue contains two parts: the conquest of the promised land and the division thereof.若苏埃书包含两个部分:承诺的土地和划分及其征服。(a) The Conquest (i- xii). (一)征服(I - XII)。Josue enters the land of promise, after being assured by spies that the way is safe.若苏埃进入应许之地,后被间谍的方式是安全的保证。It is the tenth day of the first month, forty-one years since the Exodus.它是正月初十,因为出埃及记41年。The channel of the Jordan is dry during the passage of Israel (i-iii) A monument is erected in the midst of the Jordan, and one at Galgal, to commemorate the miracle.该通道是干燥,约旦,以色列通道(I - III)是一个纪念碑竖立在约旦之中,并在Galgal之一,为了纪念奇迹。Josue camps at Galgal (iv).在Galgal若苏埃营地(四)。The Israelites born during the wandering are circumcised; the pasch is eaten the first time in the land of promise; the manna ceases to fall; Josue is strengthened by the vision of an angel (v).在流浪出生的以色列人割礼;的Pasch吃在应许之地第一次;甘露不再下降;若苏埃是由天使眼光(五)加强。 The walls of Jericho fall without a blow; the city is sacked; its inhabitants are put to death; only the family of Rahab is spared (vi).耶利哥的墙塌下没有打击;城市是被解职,其居民置于死地,仅有的拉哈伯家庭幸免(六)。 Israel goes up against Hai.以色列对海上升。The crime of Achan causes defeat.亚干犯罪原因的失败。Josue punishes that crime and takes Hai (vii-viii, 29); sets up an altar on Mount Hebal; subjugates the Gabaonites (viii, 30-ix), defeats the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jerimoth, Lachis, and Eglon; captures and destroys Maceda, Lebna, Lachis, Eglon, Hebron, Dabir, and the South even to Gaza; marches North and defeats the combined forces of the kings at the waters of Meron (x-xii).若苏埃惩罚的罪行,并采取海(七,八,29);设置了一个山上Hebal坛;征服的Gabaonites(八,30九),击败了耶路撒冷,希伯伦,耶利摩,Lachis,和伊矶伦国王;捕捉和破坏马塞达,Lebna,Lachis,伊矶伦,希伯伦,Dabir,以及甚至加沙南部;游行北和失败在梅龙水域(X - XII)的国王的联合部队。(b) The Division of the Land among the Tribes of Israel (xiii-xxii). (二)以色列之间的部落(十三,二十二)国土部。Epilogue: last message and death of Josue (xxiii and xxiv).后记:最后的死亡消息,若苏埃(二十三和二十四)。

(2) Canonicity(2)正规

(a) In the Jewish canon Josue is among the Early Prophets Josue, Judges, and the four Books of Kings.(a)是在早期的先知若苏埃,法官和国王四书在犹太佳能若苏埃。It was not grouped with the Pentateuch, chiefly because, unlike Exodus and Leviticus, it contained no Torah, or law; also because the five books of the Torah were assigned to Moses (see PENTATEUCH).它不是分组与摩西五,主要是因为,不像出埃及记和利未记,它没有包含诵读经文,或法律,也因为托拉五本书被分配到摩西(见摩西五)。 (b) In the Christian canon Josue has ever held the same place as in the Jewish canon. (b)在基督教教会有史以来举行的若苏埃在犹太佳能同一个地方。

(3)Unity (3)统一

Non-Catholics have almost all followed the critics in the question of the "Hexateuch"; even the conservative Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", ed.非天主教徒几乎都遵循在“Hexateuch”的问题提出批评,甚至是保守的黑斯廷斯,“快译通的圣经。”主编。1909, takes it for granted that Josue (Joshua) is a post-Exile patchwork.1909年,理所当然地认为若苏埃(书)是一个后流亡林立。 The first part (i-xii) is made up of two documents, probably J and E (Jehovistic and Elohistic elements), put together by JE and later revised by the Deuterocanonical editor (D); to this latter is assigned all of the first chapter.第一部分(I - XII)是由两个文件,​​可能J和E(Jehovistic和Elohistic元素),JE一起提出的,后来修订的次经编辑器(D);后者被分配到所有的第一次章。 Very little of this portion is the work of P (the compiler of the Priestly Code).这部分非常小,是P的工作(即祭司码编译器)。 In the second part (xiii-xxii) the critics are uncertain as to whether the last editing was the work of the Deuteronomic or the Priestly editor; they agree in this that the same hands those of J, E, D, and P are at work in both parts, and that the portions which must be assigned to P have characteristics which are not at all found in his work in the Pentateuch.在第二部分(十三- XXII)的批评者是否是最后编辑的Deuteronomic或编辑工作不确定的祭司,他们在此同意,同手中的J​​,E,D和P的是在工作中的两个部分,并认为它必须被分配到P部分有特色,是不是在他的所有工作中发现的五。 The final redaction is post-Exilic a work done about 440-400 BC Such in brief is the theory of the critics, who differ here as elsewhere in the matter of the details assigned to the various writers and the order of the editing, which all assume was certainly done.最后的节录是后放逐一个完成约440-400 BC在简短的工作是这样的批评,谁在这里与其他地方一样在不同的分配到各个作家和编辑命令的细节问题,理论,所有假设是肯定做。(See GA Smith and Welch in Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", large and small editions respectively, sv "Joshua"; Moore in Cheyne, "Encyc. Bibl."; Wellhausen, "Die Composition des Hexateuchs und der historischen Bücher des AT", Berlin, 1889; Driver, "Introd. to Lit. of OT", New York, 1892, 96.) (见GA史密斯和韦尔奇在黑斯廷斯,“快译通的圣经”,大大小小的版本,分别SV“约书亚”,摩尔在进益,“百科全书Bibl”;豪森,“模具组成DES Hexateuchs UND DER historischen书刊DES AT“,柏林,1889年,驱动器,”Introd来点燃OT“,纽约,1892年,96)。

The Jews knew no such Hexateuch, no such six books set together by a final editor; they always kept a marked distinction between the Pentateuch and Josue, and rather linked Josue with Judges than with Deuteronomy.犹太人知道没有这样的Hexateuch,没有这样的六个SET经最后编辑在一起的书籍,他们总是不停地之间的pentateuch和若苏埃明显的区别,而联系在一起比申命记法官若苏埃。 The well-known preface to Ecclesiasticus (Septuagint) separates the "Law" from the "Prophets".著名的序言Ecclesiasticus(七十)分隔从“先知”的“法”。The Samaritans have the Torah entirely separate from the recently discovered Samaritan Josue.在撒玛利亚有托拉完全从最近发现的撒玛利亚若苏埃分开。

Catholics almost universally defend the unity of Josue.天主教徒几乎普遍捍卫若苏埃的统一。It is true that before the decree of the Biblical Commission on the question of the multiple authorship of the Pentateuch, some Catholics assigned Josue, as well as the five Mosaic books, to J, E, D, and P. Catholic Biblical scholars favour the pre-Exilic unity of composition of Josue and its editorial independence of the Pentateuch.诚然,之前的对作者的pentateuch多个问题圣经委员会,一些天主教徒分配若苏埃,以及五个马赛克书籍,J,E,D和P.天主教圣经学者法令有利于前放逐的统一构成了若苏埃和它的五经编辑的独立性。 This independence is shown by the completeness and originality of the plan of the book.这种独立性是所表现出的完整性和独创性的计划书。We have seen the unity of this plan Josue's conquest and division of the promised land.我们已经看到了这一计划若苏埃的征服和承诺的土地分割的统一。The purpose is clear to carry on the history of the chosen people after the death of Moses.其目的是明确的,以进行后的摩西死亡的人民的历史选择。The purpose of the Pentateuch was very different to codify the laws of the chosen people as well as to sum up their primitive history.该五经的目的是非常不同的编纂所选择的人以及他们的原始总结历史的规律。No laws are codified in Josue.没有法律规定在若苏埃。The critics argue that the death of Moses leaves a void to be filled up, ie the conquest of the land of promise, and therefore postulate this conquest for the historical, if not for the legal, completeness of the Pentateuch.批评者认为,摩西死后留下了空白被填补,即征服应许之地,因此推测这征服的历史,如果不是因为法律,摩西五完整性。 Such an hypothesis would justify one in postulating also that the history of the conquest after the death of Josue be needed for the historical completeness of the Pentateuch.这种假说中的假设是否合理还指出,征服死亡后,若苏埃历史负责的pentateuch历史的完整性需要之一。 Again, the completeness of Josue's narrative of the conquest of the promised land is clear from the fact that it repeats data which are already given in the Pentateuch and are details of that conquest.再次,若苏埃的的承诺的土地征服的叙述完整性的事实,它重复目前已经给出了五经,而且是明确的征服相关内容。The orders of Moses to the children of Ruben and of Gad are clear cut in the Pentateuch (Numbers 32:20 sqq.); so, too, is the execution of these orders by the Rubenites and Gadites in the lands of the Amorrhites and of Basan (Numbers 32:33-38).摩西的吩咐迦得的鲁本和孩子们在五经明确的(民数记32:20 SQQ);何尝不是如此,是这些订单的Rubenites和在Amorrhites迦得人的土地和执行把伞(民数记32:33-38)。If Josue is part of the composite and late composition which the critics make the Mosaic books out to be, how comes it that these very data concerning the children of Ruben and of Gad are repeated by the supposititious Deuteronomic D¹ or D² when he comes to set together the J and E and P of Josue?如果若苏埃是综合和后期组成的批评使马赛克书到会的一部分,如何来认为这些关于鲁本和迦得孩子非常数据是由假的申命记ð ¹或D重复²当他来到集一起J和E和若苏埃P?Why does he break in upon his continued narrative (see Joshua 1:12; 13:15-28)?为什么他休息时他继续叙述中(见约书亚记1:12; 13:15-28)?Why this useless repetition of the same names, if not because of the unity of composition of Josue?为什么这种无用的重复相同的名称,如果不是因为若苏​​埃组成的统一?Why are the cities of refuge given again (cf. 20:8; Deuteronomy 4:41 sqq.)?为什么给定的避难所再次(参20:8;申命记4:41 SQQ)城市?To answer these and similar difficulties, the critics have recourse to an uncritical subterfuge D¹ or D² was not brought up in the school of modern criticism; hence his blunderings.为了回答这些和类似的困难,批评者求助于不加批判的托词或D ² ¹ ð没有带来学校的现代批评了,因此他的blunderings。We cannot accept so uncritical and free-handed a writer as the God-chosen and inspired editor of the Pentateuch and Josue.我们不能接受的神选择和灵感的pentateuch和若苏埃编辑器,以便不加批判和自由交给一个作家。For a full refutation of the critics, see Cornely, "Introd. Specialis in Hist. VT Libros", II (Paris, 1887, 177).对于一个完整的批评反驳,看到Cornely,“Introd。特别在组织胺。VT Libros”,二(巴黎,1887年,177)。

(4) Authorship(4)作者署名

(a) The Book of Josue was certainly written before the time of David, for the Chanaanite still dwelt in Gazer (xvi, 10), the Jebusite in Jerusalem (xv, 63), and Sidon held supremacy in Phoenicia (xiv, 28); whereas, before the time of Solomon, the Egyptians had driven the Chanaanite from Gazer (1 Kings 9:16), David had captured Jerusalem in the eighth year of his reign (2 Samuel 5:5), and Tyre (twelfth century BC) had supplanted Sidon in the supremacy of Phoenicia. (一)若苏埃书肯定是以前写的大卫时间为Chanaanite,仍住在Gazer(十六,10),在耶路撒冷的耶布斯人(十五,63)和西顿举行的腓尼基至上(十四28) ;而之前,在所罗门的时候,埃及人逐出Gazer(1国王9:16)的Chanaanite,大卫抓获了他的王朝(撒下5:5)第八个年头耶路撒冷,轮胎(公元前十二世纪)已取代了至高无上的腓尼基西顿。 Moreover, in David's time, no writer could have set down his allies the Phoenicians among the peoples to be destroyed (xiii, 6).此外,在大卫的时候,没有作家可以放下他的盟友之间要破坏人民的腓尼基人(十三,6)。

(b) Internal evidence favours the view that the author lived not long after the death of Josue.(b)内部证据支持作者的观点,即住后若苏埃死亡时间不长。The territory assigned to each tribe is very exactly described.分配给每个部落的领土是非常准确描述。Only the land allotted to Ephraim is set down (xvi, 5), since occupation was delayed (xvii, 16); on the other hand, we are told not only the portion of land allotted to Juda and Benjamin, but the cities they had captured (xv, 1 sqq.; xviii, 11 sqq.); as for the other tribes, the progress they had made in winning the cities of their lot is told us with an accuracy which could not be explained were we to admit that the narrative is post-Exilic in its final redaction.只有土地分配给以法莲定下(十六,5),因为职业被推迟(十七,16);另一方面,我们被告知,不仅部分分配给犹大和便雅悯地,但他们的城市抓获(十五,1 SQQ;。十八,11 SQQ);至于其他部落,他们已经赢得了他们的很多城市所取得的进展被告知与那些无法解释的准确性我们是我们不得不承认,叙事是后放逐在其最后节录。 Only the inadmissible bungling of the uncritical D¹ or D² will serve to explain away this argument.只有在不加批判地ð不予受理笨拙或D ² ¹将有助于解释过去这个论点。

(c) The question remains: Did Josue write all save the epilogue? (三)问题仍然是:有没有若苏埃写入所有保存尾声?Catholics are divided.天主教徒分歧。Most of the Fathers seem to have taken it for granted that the author is Josue; still there have ever been Catholics who assigned the work to some one shortly after the death of the great leader.大部分的父亲似乎已理所当然地认为它的作者是若苏埃,仍然有去过天主教徒谁交办的工作在一定后不久死亡的伟大领袖之一。 Theodoret (In Jos., q. xiv), Pseudo-Athanasius (Synopsis Sacr. Scrip.), Tostatus (In Jos., i, q. xiii; vii), Maes ("Josue Imperatoris Historia", Antwerp, 1574), Haneberg ("Gesch. der bibl. Offenbarung", Ratisbon, 1863, 202), Danko ("Hist. Rev. Div. VT", Vienna, 1862, 200), Meignan ("De Moïse à David", Paris, 1896, 335), and many other Catholic authors admit that the Book of Josue contains signs of later editing; but all insist that this editing was done before the Exile. Theodoret(在圣何塞,问:十四),伪亚他那修(提要SACR过户。)Tostatus(在圣何塞,我问:十三,七),梅斯(​​“若苏埃Imperatoris Historia”,安特卫普,1574), Haneberg(“Gesch。之bibl。Offenbarung”,拉蒂斯邦,1863年,202),丹科(“组织胺。牧师科。VT”,维也纳,1862,200),Meignan(“德莫伊兹à大卫”,巴黎,1896年, 335),以及许多其他天主教作家承认,若苏埃书包含了后来编辑的迹象,但都坚持认为,这是前流亡编辑完成。

(5) Historicity(5)历史性

The Biblical Commission (15 Feb., 1909) has decreed the historicity of the primitive narrative of Genesis 1-3; a fortiori it will not tolerate that a Catholic deny the historicity of Josue.圣经委员会(1909年2月15号)已颁布了创世纪1-3原始叙述史实,更不必也不会容忍一个天主教否认若苏埃的历史性。 The chief objection of rationalists to the historical worth of the book is the almost overwhelming force of the miraculous therein; this objection has no worth to the Catholic exegete.对理性主义的主要异议书的历史价值是其中的神奇几乎压倒性的力量,这也没有反对天主教的注释家的价值。Other objections are forestalled in the treatment of the authenticity of the work.其他反对意见抢先在工作的真实性治疗。Full answer to the rationalistic objections will be found in the standard works of Catholics on introduction.完整的答案,理性的反对,会发现在天主教徒的标准对引进工程。Saints Paul (Hebrews 11:30-31; 13:5), James (ii, 25), and Stephen (Acts 7:45), the tradition of the Synagogue and of the Church accept the Book of Josue as historical.圣徒保罗(希伯来书11:30-31; 13:5),詹姆斯(二,25)和斯蒂芬(徒7点45分),在犹太教堂和教会的传统,接受历史的若苏埃书。To the Fathers Josue is an historical person and a type of the Messias.若苏埃的父亲是一个历史人物和类型的messias。As an antidote to accusations that Josue was cruel and murderous, etc., one should read the Assyrian and Egyptian accounts of the almost contemporary treatment of the vanquished.作为对指控若苏埃是残酷和血腥的解毒剂,等等,应该阅读的战败国几乎当代治疗亚述和埃及帐户。St. Augustine solved the rationalistic difficulty by saying that the abominations of the Chanaanites merited the punishment which God, as Master of the world, meted out to them by the hand of Israel (In Hept., III, 56; PL, XXXIV, 702, 816).圣奥古斯丁说,解决了Chanaanites的可憎值得处罚的理性困难,上帝,作为掌握世界,罪刑由以色列一方面向他们(在庚,三,56; PL,XXXIV,702 ,816)。These abominations of phallic worship and infant sacrifice have been proven by the excavations of the Palestine Exploration Fund at Gazer.婴儿的生殖器崇拜和牺牲,这些可憎的事已被证明了在Gazer的巴勒斯坦勘探基金发掘。

(6) Text (6)文本

The Septuagint is preserved in two different recensions the Alexandrian (A) and Vatican (B) and varies considerably from the Masorah; the Vulgate often differs from all three (iii, 4; iv, 3, 13; v, 6).该译本是保存在两个亚历山大(A)和梵蒂冈(B)和不同的recensions从Masorah变化很大;武加大往往是从三个(;四,3,13,V,6个三,四)不同。 The Samaritan Josue recently discovered, resembles the Sept. more closely than the Masorah.撒玛利亚若苏埃最近发现,类似九月更加紧密地比Masorah。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息写沃尔特鼓。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录由WGKofron。With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.由于对圣玛丽教堂感谢,美国俄亥俄州阿克伦城天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Fathers: ORIGEN, Eclectum in Jesum Nave in PG, XII, 819-825); AUGUSTINE, Quæstiones in Heptateuchum in PL, XXXIV, 547).父亲:奥利,Eclectum在PG,XII,819-825)在Jesum殿,奥古斯丁,在Heptateuchum Quæstiones在PL,XXXIV,547)。Modern writers: MAES, op.现代作家:MAES,OP。cit.; CALMET, Comm.企业所得税;卡尔梅特,通讯。Lit.点亮。in Omnes Libros N. et V. Test.在义务Libros N.等五测试。(Würzburg, 1788); SERARIUS, Josue, etc. (Mainz, 1610); BONFRÈRE, Josue, Judices, Ruth (Paris, 1733); also works mentioned in body of article.(维尔茨堡,1788); SERARIUS,若苏埃等(美因茨,1610);邦弗雷雷,若苏埃,Judices,露丝(巴黎,1733年),也可以在文章正文中提到。Protestant: SPEAKER's Bible, II (London, 1872); KÖNIG, Alttest Studien, i.新教:喇叭的圣经,II(伦敦,1872年); KONIG,Alttest(研究)岛Authentie des Buches Josua (1836).Authentie DES Buches Josua(1836)。


Book of Joshua约书亚记

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Part I., ch.第一部分,甲烷。i-xii.I - XII。

Crossing of Jordan.隧道约旦。

The Confederacy Against Joshua.廉政约书亚邦联。

Part II., ch.第二部分,甲烷。xiii.-xxi.xiii. - XXI。

Appendix, ch.附录,CH。xxii.-xxiv.xxii. - XXIV。

-Critical View:临界查看:

Views as to Authorship.点击以作者。

Comparison with Judges.法官的比较。

Redaction.节录。

Historical Character of the Book.历史人物的书。

The Hexateuch.的Hexateuch。

The Text.文本。

The Samaritan Book of Joshua.撒玛利亚的约书亚书。

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The first book of the second greater division in the Hebrew canon, the "Nebi'im," and therefore also the first of the first part of this division, the "Nebi'im Rishonim."第二个更大的分裂,在希伯来文经典中,“Nebi'im”,因此也是本部门的第一部分,第一第一本书“Nebi'im Rishonim。”It bears in Hebrew the superscription ; in the Septuagint, using the post-exilic form of the name (; Neh. viii. 17), Ἰησοῦς (in some manuscripts with the addition of υἱὸς Ναυῆ); in the Peshiṭta, "Ketaba de-Yeshu' bar-Nun Talmideh de-Mushe" (Book of Joshua, son of Nun, the Disciple of Moses).它在希伯来文熊的上标,在七十,使用的名称后放逐形式(;尼八17),Ἰησοῦς(符合υἱὸςΝαυῆ除了一些手稿),在培熹托,“Ketaba去椰树“扎嫩Talmideh去Mushe”(约书亚记,嫩的儿子,摩西的门徒)。 It belongs to the historical books of the Old Testament, its theme being the invasion and conquest under Joshua of west-Jordanic Palestine and its apportionment among the tribes, with an account of the closing days and death of the great leader.它属于旧约的历史书籍,其主题为入侵和下西Jordanic巴勒斯坦和部落之间的分配约书亚征服,用的闭幕日,伟大领袖逝世帐户。 The book, which comprises twenty-four chapters, readily falls into two main parts and an appendix, which may be summarized thus: (1) the events following Moses' death; the invasion and capture of the land; (2) the division of the country; (3) the conduct of the Reubenites, etc.; two hortatory addresses by Joshua shortly before his death, followed by a brief gloss on his burial-place and the disposition made of the bones of Joseph.这本书,其中包括24章,随手分为两个主要部分和一个附录,这可能是这样概括:(1)下列事件摩西死亡;入侵和土地获取;(2)分工该国;(3)流便等行为;两个约书亚劝告地址前不久去世,由他的埋葬地点简要光泽和约瑟夫的骨头之后作出的处分。 In detail the contents are as follows:详细内容如下:

Part I., ch.第一部分,甲烷。i-xii.I - XII。

i.: After Moses' death, Joshua, by virtue of his previous appointment as Moses' successor, receives from Yhwh the command to cross the Jordan.一:在摩西死后,约书亚,由他任命的摩西以前凭借“接班人,从耶和华接收命令穿越约旦。In execution of this order Joshua issues the requisite instructions to the stewards of the people for the crossing of the Jordan; and he reminds the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half of Manasseh of their pledge given to Moses to help their brethren.在执行这个命令约书亚问题,为过路的约旦人民的管家必要的指示;他提醒流便,迦得人,和玛拿西给予摩西,以帮助他们的兄弟他们承诺的一半。

ii.: Joshua sends out from Shittim two spies to explore the city of Jericho.二:约书亚从什亭发送两个探子前往探索城市杰里科。They are saved from falling into the hands of the king by the shrewd tactics of Rahab.它们保存到从国王手中下跌的拉哈伯精明的战术。The spies return and report.该间谍回报和报告。Crossing of Jordan.隧道约旦。

iii.-iv.: Camp is broken at Shittim.iii.-iv.:营是在什亭打破。A halt is made at the Jordan.停顿是由在约旦。Joshua addresses the people; assuring them that Yhwh, the living God, is in the midst of them, that He will drive out the Canaanites, and that the Ark will cross the Jordan, whereupon a miraculous change will be worked in the waters of the river.约书亚地址的人;向他们保证,耶和华,神的生活,在他们中间是,他将驱逐迦南人,而方舟将穿越约旦,于是奇迹般的变化将在水域工作河流。 The predicted miracle takes place as soon as the priests with the Ark wade into the water.奇迹发生的预测尽快与入水方舟趟祭司。In commemoration of the event, Joshua orders two monuments to be erected: one in the river-bed; the other on the west bank, at Gilgal.在事件的纪念,约书亚订单two纪念碑竖立:一个在河床,在约旦河西岸的其他,在吉甲。The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half of Manasseh number 40,000 warriors.流便,迦得人,和玛拿西人数的一半40000勇士。 The priests are bidden to come up out of the river's bed after the people have crossed over.祭司是bidden出来河流的床后的人越过。This happens on the tenth day of the first month; and the camp is pitched at Gilgal.这发生在正月初十,以及在吉甲投阵营。

v.: Joshua is bidden to make flint knives wherewith to circumcise the Israelites, for those born in the desert had not been circumcised.诉:约书亚是bidden使火石刀wherewith到割礼的以色列人,在沙漠中出生的人没有割礼。This is done; Pesaḥ is celebrated; and the manna ceases.这样做;Pesaḥ庆祝,以及甘露停止。Joshua in front of Jericho receives the visit of a "captain of the host of the Lord" in the guise of a man, who declares that the soil on which Joshua is standing is holy ground.约书亚在耶利哥前接收到了一个男人,谁宣布,它的土壤是神圣的约书亚站在地面幌子“的主主机队长”的访问。

vi.: The siege and capture of Jericho; after thirteen circuits-one every day for six days, and seven circuits on the seventh day-with seven priests blowing seven rams' horns and the people shouting, the walls cave in. Jericho is put under the ban; but Rahab is excepted.六:围困和捕获杰里科;后thirteen电路一六天,每天七电路的第七天,祭司吹seven七公羊的角和人民的呼喊,耶利哥的城墙英寸洞穴付诸表决。根据禁令,但拉哈伯是例外。 A curse is pronounced against any one who should rebuild the city.诅咒是突出对任何一个谁应该重建这座城市。Joshua becomes famous throughout the whole land.约书亚成为著名在整个土地。

vii.: The miscarriage of the expedition against Ai, undertaken, upon the counsel of spies, with a very small force, strikes terror into the heart of the people and brings Joshua to the verge of despair.七:对对艾,开展,经间谍律师具有非常小的力量,远征流产罢工进入人们的内心带来了恐怖和绝望的约书亚的边缘。But Yhwh announces that the people have sinned.但耶和华宣布,人都犯了罪。As stated in the first verse, Achan has not respected the ban.正如在第一首诗歌说,亚干没有尊重禁令。The people must be reconsecrated.人们必须reconsecrated。The sinner must be discovered by the casting of Yhwh's lot.罪人必须被发现由耶和华的大量铸造。This is done.做到这一点。By a process of elimination the guilt is limited to the tribe of Judah, then to the clan of the Zarhites, then to the sept of Zabdi; the individual members of Zabdi are then brought forward, man by man, and finally Achan is detected as the culprit.通过消除过程中的罪责仅限于犹大支派,然后到Zarhites氏族,再到Zabdi九月;的Zabdi的个别成员,然后提出,人,人,终于被检测为亚干罪魁祸首。 He admits having taken a costly Babylonian garment, besides silver and gold; and his confession is verified by the finding of the treasure buried in his tent.他承认已采取了昂贵的巴比伦服装,除了银和金,以及他的供词是在他的帐篷埋宝藏的发现进行验证。Achan is taken into the valley of Achor, and there stoned to death.亚干取到亚割谷,而且用石头打死。

viii.: Expedition against Ai, this time with the whole army.八:对艾远征,这与整个军队的时间。The city is taken by clever strategy, 30,000 men being placed overnight in an ambush.这个城市是采取巧妙的策略,在一次伏击中被放置过夜30000人。The attacking force feigning flight, the King of Ai is drawn far away from the city; Joshua points with his lance toward the city; whereupon the men in ambush rush into it, while Joshua and the army with him face about.假装飞行的攻击力,对艾王绘制远离城市,与他对城市兰斯约书亚百分点;于是埋伏在男人赶了进去,而约书亚和他的军队面临的问题。 Thus the pursuing enemy is taken between the two sections of Israel's array.因此,追求的敌人是采取以色列之间的数组的两部分。Not one man escapes; the city is burned; 12,000 inhabitants are killed, and the spoils are taken.没有一个人逃脱;城市被烧毁; 12000居民被杀害,并采取的战利品。The King of Ai is hanged to a tree until nightfall, when his body is thrown into a pit, where on a stone heap is raised.国王的爱是吊死在一棵树上,直到夜幕降临,当他的身体成一个坑,堆在一块石头上引发异常。Joshua erects an altar on Mount Ebal as Moses had commanded, offering to Yhwh holocausts and sacrificing peace-offerings.On the stones of the altar he engraves a copy of the law of Moses; the people being ranged in two sections-one facing Ebal; the other, Gerizim-while the blessings and curses are read as ordained by Moses.约书亚架设在登上以巴录一个祭坛的摩西吩咐,提供给耶和华大屠杀和牺牲和平offerings.On的祭坛,他刻了摩西的律法副本的石头,人民正在两个范围的部分,不得不去面对以巴录;另一方面,盖里济姆,而祝福和诅咒,读为摩西受戒。

The Confederacy Against Joshua.廉政约书亚邦联。

ix.: Confederacy of the native kings to fight Joshua.九:原生国王打约书亚邦联。The Gibeonites by craft obtain a treaty from the Israelites, which even after the detection of the fraud practised upon the invaders is not abrogated.通过工艺的基遍人获得由以色列人,连后经侵略者实行的欺诈检测不废除条约。 They are, however, degraded to be "hewers of wood and drawers of water" for the altar of Yhwh.但他们却是,降级为“hewers木材和水抽屉”为耶和华的祭坛。

x.: Adoni-zedek brings about an alliance between the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon, and they ("the five kings of the Amorites") besiege Gibeon.十:亚多尼洗,zedek带来之间耶路撒冷,希伯伦,Jarmuth,拉吉和伊矶伦国王结盟,他们(“的亚摩利人的五王”)围攻基遍。 In their distress the Gibeonites implore Joshua's help.在他们的窘迫基遍人恳请约书亚的帮助。Joshua, assured by Yhwh of victory, comes up from Gilgal by a forced night march and attacks the allies suddenly.约书亚,耶和华的胜利保证,自带了由强制夜间行军和攻击盟国吉甲突然。Thrown into confusion, the Amorites flee as far as the ascent of Beth-horon.到手忙脚乱,亚摩利人逃离至于伯和仑上升。To this battle is referred a song from the Book of Jashar, commanding the sun to be still at Gibeon and the moon in the valley of Ajalon.为了这一仗被称为背离了Jashar书歌,指挥在基遍太阳和月亮仍然在Ajalon谷。The five kings are captured, first being incarcerated in the cave where they had hidden for safety, then, after the pursuit had been discontinued,-scarcely one of the enemies escaping-being by order of Joshua humiliated and hanged.五王被捕获,第一次是在隐蔽的地方,他们的安全,那么,在追求已经停止洞穴监禁, - 几乎是逃避,被侮辱与被绞死约书亚秩序的敌人之一。Then follows a detailed enumeration of the cities captured and put under ban.然后遵循的捕获和下禁令把城市详细列举。Joshua becomes master of the whole land-the hill-country, the southland, the lowland, and the slopes-leaving not one king alive, and banning all men from Kadesh-barnea unto Gaza, and all the district of Goshen unto Gibeon.约书亚成为整个土地的山国,在南国,低地掌握和斜坡,离开不是一个国王活着,并禁止一切从加低斯,巴尔内亚所不欲,加沙人,以及所有所不欲,基遍的歌珊地区。 After this expedition he returns to Gilgal.在此之后他回到吉甲远征。

xi.: Jabin, King of Hazor, and his allies rendezvous at Merom.十一:耶宾,对夏琐王,和他的盟友在Merom的会合。Joshua is assured by Yhwh of their total defeat, which in fact is brought about by a sudden attack on the part of Joshua.约书亚是保证,他们的完败,这实际上是带来了关于约书亚的一部分突然袭击约耶和华。Pursuing them to a great distance (the cities are named), he hamstrings their horses and burns their chariots, capturing Hazor, killing all of its people, and burning the town.追求他们有很大的距离(该城市命名),他腿筋他们的马匹和烧伤的战车,夺取夏琐,杀死所有的人,烧镇。Other royal residences he takes by the sword, putting them under the ban.其他王室住所,他需要用剑,把他们下禁令。The spoils are taken, and the men are put to death.采取的战利品,而男人处死。The cities on the hill are allowed to stand.在山上的城市允许立场。Joshua drives the Anakim from the mountains, from Hebron, and from other places.约书亚驱动器从山上的Anakim,从希伯伦,并从其他地方。Only in Gaza some remain.只有在加沙一些仍然存在。Finally the land has peace.最后,土地的和平。

xii.: Recapitulation of Joshua's conquests, with statistical details of the number of the kings (30) captured and subdued.第十二章:约书亚的征战重演,同数量的国王(30)统计信息采集和制服。

Part II., ch.第二部分,甲烷。xiii.-xxi.xiii. - XXI。

xiii.: After an enumeration of the places still unconquered (mainly the coast districts of the Philistines) Joshua is bidden to apportion the land, the unconquered as well as the conquered (verse 6b), among nine and one-half tribes of Israel, the other two and one-half tribes having under Moses been given their portion on the east of the Jordan (verses 14b-32).十三:在一个仍然unconquered的地方(主要是非利士人的海岸区)列举约书亚是bidden分摊的土地,unconquered以及以色列的占领(诗6B),其中九分之一的部落,其他两个和一个半摩西下有部落被赋予其对约旦河以东(诗句14B - 32)的一部分。

xiv.: Résumé of the foregoing reference to Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh, with a gloss concerning Levi's non-inheritance save as regards detached cities, while Joseph receives a double heritage (verses 1-5).十四:上述提到流便,迦得,和玛拿西半简历,与有关利维的非继承光泽保存至于分离的城市,而约瑟夫收到双重遗产(诗句1-5)。 Caleb's claim to Hebron is allowed.迦勒的声称希伯伦是允许的。

xv.: The "lot" of Judah (verses 1-12).十五:在“地段”犹大(1-12节)。Caleb's share (13).迦勒的份额(13)。Expulsion by him of the three Anakim (14).他驱逐三个Anakim(14)。Story of Kirjath-sepher (16).故事Kirjath - sepher(16)。Othniel takes it and wins, as promised, Caleb's daughter for wife (17).俄陀聂需要它,赢了,按照承诺,迦勒对妻子女儿(17)。Her successful plea for the gift of wells (18).她的成功抗辩的井(18)的礼物。Catalogue of the heritage of Judah (20 et seq.).目录的犹大(20起。)遗产。Gloss on the continued dwelling of the Jebusites in Jerusalem (63).对耶布斯人继续居住在耶路撒冷的光泽度(63)。

xvi.: Lot of the Josephites (1-3).十六:在Josephites(1-3)地块。The Ephraimites own cities in the territory of Manasseh (9).而自己在以法莲玛拿西(9)境内城市。Gloss to the effect that the Canaanites dwelling in Gezer had not been driven out, but had been reduced to slavery (10).光泽的基色的迦南人住在没有被赶出来的效果,但已沦为奴隶(10)。

xvii.: Lot of Manasseh, Machir as a warrior taking for his prize Gilead and Bashan (1).十七:玛拿西,玛吉地段作为他的奖金和巴山基列(1)取勇士。Delimitation of Manasseh (7).划界玛拿西(7)。Manasseh's assignments in Issachar and Asher (11).在以萨迦和亚设(11)玛拿西的任务。Gloss stating that these cities had not been captured (12).光泽,说明这些城市还没有被抓获(12)。Protest of the Josephites against receiving one share only (14).抗议的Josephites接收一股只(14)。Joshua advises them to conquer the wooded hill-land (15).约书亚建议他们征服岵陆(15)。Plea on their part that the mountain is not extensive enough, while the plains are held by Canaanites equipped with iron chariots (16).在他们的部分认罪,该山是不够广泛,而平原是由铁战车(16)配备迦南举行。Joshua's consolatory encouragement (17).约书亚的安慰鼓励,(17)。

xviii.: Erection of the Tabernacle at Shiloh (1).十八:对在希洛(1)幕勃起。Seven tribes without allotment.七无配股部落。Joshua urges these to appoint commissions of three men out of each tribe to go and take the land and to report to him, when, after dividing it into seven portions, he will cast the lot (2-7).约书亚敦促这些任命了各部落的三名男子佣金去,并采取土地和向他汇报时,经它划分为七个部分,他会投很多(2-7)。 The commissions carry out the errand and lay their book of record before Joshua, who then casts the lot (8-10).该委员会开展的差事,奠定其账面记录在约书亚面前,谁再蒙上了很多(8-10)。Benjamin's share (11).本杰明的份额(11)。The boundaries (12-20).的界限(12-20)。List of the cities (21-28).的城市名单(21-28)。

xix.: Simeon's share, in the territory of Judah.十九:西缅的份额,在犹大的领土。List of the cities (1-8).的城市名单(1-8)。Reason why Simeon's lot was in Judean territory (9).之所以西面的很多在朱迪亚地区(9)了。Zebulun's share; its boundaries (10-14).西布伦的份额,它的边界(10-14)。Twelve cities not specified (15b).未指定12个城市(15B)。Issachar's share; its cities and boundaries (17-23).以萨迦的份额,其城市和边界(17-23)。Asher's lot; its boundaries; summary gives twenty-two as the number of its cities (24-31).阿舍的很多,它的界限;总结给作为其城市数量(24-31)22。Naphtali's share; its boundaries and fortified cities (32-39).拿弗他利的市场份额,其边界和(32-39)设防城市。Dan's share; its cities enumerated (40-46).丹的份额,它的城市列举(40-46)。Why the Danites took Leshem = Dan (47).为什么Danites了Leshem =丹(47)。Joshua receives as his own share Timnath-serah (49-50).约书亚接收作为他自己的份额Timnath - serah(49-50)。Eleazar and Joshua had assigned the lots before Yhwh at the gate of the Tabernacle at Shiloh (51).利亚撒和约书亚分配在会幕在示罗(51)门之前耶和华的地段。Cities of refuge established (51b-xx.).避难城市建立(51b-xx.)。

xxi.: The Levites' assignment (1-8).二十一:利未人“分配(1-8)。Concluding paragraph, emphasizing God's fulfilment of His promise to the fathers (43-45).最后一段,强调神对他承诺的父亲(43-45)履行。

Appendix, ch.附录,CH。xxii.-xxiv.xxii. - XXIV。

xxii.: Dismissal to their homes of Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh with Joshua's blessing and an admonition to take heed of Yhwh's Law as commanded by Moses.二十二:解雇流便,迦得他们的家园,和玛拿西与约书亚的祝福和训诫利用耶和华的法律听从摩西所吩咐的一半。Now that they have become rich in cattle, silver, gold, iron, and garments they are to divide the booty with their brethren (1-8).现在,他们已成为牛富,银,金,铁,服装,他们是​​与他们的兄弟分(1-8)的战利品。Return of the east-Jordanic tribes; they build an altar at the stone-heap on the bank of the Jordan; the Israelites desire to punish them for this act; but they first send Phinehas and ten princes to the Reubenites, etc., to censure them, recalling the Peor episode and advising them to remove to Palestine.返回的东西Jordanic部落,他们建立一个对​​约旦银行在祭坛石头堆,以色列人渴望惩罚他们这种行为,但他们首先发送非尼哈和十阿哥的流便,等等,谴责他们,回顾Peor情节和建议他们转移到巴勒斯坦。 The Reubenites explain that in building the altar their intention was to show their fidelity to Yhwh,that their descendants might not be taunted with being untrue to Him.流便解释说,在建立祭坛他们的意图是展示自己忠于耶和华,他们的后代可能与被不真实的,以他嘲弄。The delegation rejoices at the explanation, and upon their report the Israelites abandon the projected punitive expedition (9-34).在解释该代表团欢喜,并呼吁以色列放弃其报告中预计的讨伐(9-34)。

xxiii.: Joshua, now old, calls an assembly of all Israel, at which he admonishes the people to remain loyal to the Torah of Moses.二十三:约书亚,现在老了,要求对所有以色列集会,会上他告诫人们要保持忠诚的摩西律法。

xxiv.: An account of a gathering of Israel at Shechem, at which Joshua delivers an impressive address, reviewing the past, and makes the people vow to remain faithful.二十四:一个是以色列在示剑收集帐户,在这提供了一个令人印象深刻的约书亚地址,回顾过去,并使得人们发誓保持忠诚。 He erects a great stone as a witness to the promise (1-28).他作为一个架设的承诺(1-28)见证大石头。Joshua dies (29).约书亚死亡(29)。Joseph's bones are buried in Shechem (32).约瑟夫的骨头埋在示剑(32)。Eleazar dies and is buried (33).以利亚撒死了,被埋没(33)。EGHEGH

-Critical View:临界查看:

The Rabbis ascribe the authorship of the book, as of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, to Joshua (BB 14b); the account of Joshua's death (Josh. xxiv. 29-32) was added, according to them, by Eleazar, the son of Aaron (BB 15a), and that of Eleazar's demise (Josh. xxiv. 33) by Phinehas (BB lc).拉比归咎于书的作者,作为最后8申命记的经文,约书亚(BB 14B)的约书亚的死帐(。约书亚记二十四29-32)增加了,据他们的埃莱亚萨的,儿子亚伦(BB 15A),和以利亚撒的消亡由非尼哈(BB LC)(约书亚记二十四,33)。But this view has been rejected by Isaac Abravanel (see preface to his commentary on the Earlier Prophets), who correctly observes that the use of the phrase = "unto this day" (Josh. iv. 9, vii. 26, ix. 27, xiv. 14, xv. 62, xvi. 10) controverts this assumption, and that certain events mentioned in the Book of Joshua are recorded in the Book of Judges (xix. 45) as occurring "long after the death of Joshua" (Abravanel, "Comm. in Prophetas Priores," pp. 2b, col. 2; 3a, col. 1; Leipsic, 1686).但这种观点已经拒绝了艾萨克阿布拉瓦内尔(见序言,他在先前的先知评论),谁正确地指出了“直到今日”这句=(约书亚记四9,七26,九27使用,十四14,十五62,十六10)controverts这一假设,并在约书亚书中提到某些事件是在士师记(xix. 45)记录为发生的“长后,约书亚死”(阿布拉瓦内尔,“通讯在Prophetas Priores,”第2B,COL 2; 3A,COL 1; Leipsic,1686)。

Views as to Authorship.点击以作者。

Christian commentators have for similar reasons contended that the book was by a later author, who had access to documents composed by Joshua or by contemporaries of his (Theodoret, "In Josue Quæst." xiv.).基督教评论家争夺同样的原因,该书作者通过以后,谁能够获得由Joshua或同时代组成的文件为(Theodoret,“在若苏埃Quæst。”十四)。 In the "Synopsis Sacræ Scripturæ" (xxviii., col. 309), attributed to St. Athanasius, the title of the book is explained not as the name of the author, but as indicating the hero of the events.在“概要Sacræ Scripturæ”(xxviii.山口309),归因于圣亚他那修,书的标题是解释不作为作者的名字,但为表示对事件的英雄。Alphonsus Tostat ("Opera," Cologne, 1613; "In Josue I. Quæst." xiii.) rejects the authorship of Joshua, and advances the theory that the book is the work of King Solomon, while Maes ("Josue Imperatoris Historia," Antwerp, 1574) ascribes it to Ezra, who had access to ancient Hebrew archives.阿方Tostat(“歌剧”,科隆,1613年;“在若苏埃一Quæst”十三)拒绝约书亚作者和进步的理论认为,书是所罗门王的工作,而梅斯(“若苏埃Imperatoris Historia, “安特卫普,1574)归咎到以斯拉,谁接触到古老的希伯来文档案。These and modern Catholic critics also (Cardinal Meignan, "De Moïse à David," Paris, 1896) thus make the book posterior to the time of Joshua, but, for the greater part, pre-exilic and always based on documents coeval with the events reported.这些与现代天主教评论家也(红衣主教Meignan,“德莫伊兹à大卫,”巴黎,1896年),从而使本书后的约书亚的时间,但是,对于大部份,前放逐并始终与同时代的文件事件的报道。

Among modern Jewish critics L. Wogue ("Histoire de la Bible," Paris, 1881) defends the traditional view, with reference to BB 14b and 15a.在现代犹太批评家L. Wogue(“Histoire德拉圣经”,巴黎,1881年)守传统的观点,并参照BB 14B和15A。More recently the passage in Ecclus.最近,在Ecclus通道。(Sirach) xlvi.(西拉奇)四十六。 1 has been invoked in proof of the authorship of Joshua; προΦητεῖαι in Ecclesiasticus means "books," so that Joshua being designated (ib.) as διάδόχος Μωϋσῆ ἔν προΦητείαίς would imply that he was the "author" of the "book." 1已援引的约书亚作者证明;在EcclesiasticusπροΦητεῖαι的意思是“书”,让约书亚被指定为διάδόχοςΜωϋσῆἔνπροΦητείαίς将意味着他是“作者”的(同上)“一书。” The Hebrew text, however, has (see Israel Lévi, "L'Ecclésiastique," Paris, 1898), but this has also been construed, with reference to II Chron.希伯来文的文字,然而,(见以色列列维,“L'​​ Ecclésiastique,”巴黎,1898年),但这也被解释参照二专栏。ix.九。29, where means "book," as supporting the traditional view.29,其中的意思是“书”,作为配套的传统观点。

Keil in his commentary has endeavored to defend this view by urging the force of = "until we had passed over" (Josh. v. 1) as demonstrating that the narrative must have been written by an eyewitness; but the ancient versions show this reading to be erroneous.在他的评论凯尔一直致力保卫要求的=力量“,直到我们已经通过了”作为证明的叙述必须由一名目击者书面(约书亚记诉1)这种观点,但古老的版本显示这种阅读是错误的。 Nor is xviii.也不是十八。9 conclusive: at the utmost it proves that the catalogue of cities (xviii. 11-xix. 46) was abstracted from a document contemporary with Joshua.9定论:它的最大证明,城市目录(xviii. 11十九46)是从文件与约书亚当代抽象。In the same way xxiv.以同样的方式XXIV。26 may be taken as evidence only that xxiv.5月26日被视为证据只是XXIV。1-25 is by him, though upon closer inspection even this passage is seen to be merely the honest opinion of a later writer.1-25是他,虽然经仔细检查,即使这段话都被看作是仅仅是以后的作家的真实想法。The objections by Abravanel have not been answered.由阿布拉瓦内尔的反对并没有得到答复。

Comparison with Judges.法官的比较。

Later Biblical books exhibit incidents which demonstrate that the situation assumed in Joshua could not have been that of the period of invasion.后来圣经的书籍表现出事故,表明在约书亚假设的情况不可能被入侵的时期。For instance, Jericho, represented in Joshua as completely overthrown and upon the rebuilding of which a solemn curse is invoked, is found to exist at a much later date, even as a city of the Prophets (see Elisha; comp. Josh. vi. 2-27, xvi. 1; Judges iii. 12-30; II Sam. x. 5; II Kings ii. 5, 15; v. 19-22; I Chron. xix. 5; for the curse see I Kings xvi. 34).例如,杰里科,在约书亚表示为完全推翻后,其中一个庄严的诅咒被调用重建,被发现存在于一个更晚的日期,甚至作为一个城市的先知(见以利沙;。排版乔希六。 2-27,十六1;法官三12-30;二,三十5;二王二第5,15;诉19-22;我专栏十九5;的诅咒看我国王XVI 34段)。Ai, reported burned, is known to Isaiah (as "Aiath"; Isa. x. 28).艾报道烧毁,是众所周知的以赛亚(如“Aiath”;赛十28)。Gezer (Josh. xvi. 10), described as being reduced to vassalage, is not rendered tributary until the time of Solomon (I Kings ix. 16).基色(约书亚记十六10),如被减少到附庸描述,是不是呈现支流直到所罗门(王九16)的时间。 But a comparison with the Book of Judges suffices to discredit the theory that the Book of Joshua is an autobiography of its eponymous hero.但与法官书比较足以抹黑理论认为,约书亚书是其同名英雄的自传。 The narrative in Judges reveals the fact that the invasion was not directed by a general-in-chief, nor undertaken at one time by the tribes united under a national commander, nor accomplished in the lifetime of one man, much less in two decades.在法官的叙述揭示了该入侵并非由一名普通的总司令,也不在同一时间进行的下一个国家司令员团结的部落,也不是一个人,更在二十年寿命减少既成事实。

Nor is the book the work of one man.也不是书中的一个人的工作。Contradictions abound, eg, in the chronology: in iii.矛盾比比皆是,例如,在年表:在III。1 the crossing is set for the next day; iii.1交叉设置为第二天;三。2, three days intervene; iii. 2,三天干预;三。5, the start is again delayed one day; comp.5,开始再次推迟一天;比赛。v. 10 with iv.五,10 IV。 19 and v. 2-9.19日和诉2-9。 In xi.在西安。21 the Anakim are expelled by Joshua, while in xv.21 Anakim被开除的约书亚,而在十五。13 Caleb is reported as having performed this feat.13迦勒的报告为完成这一壮举。Double and variant versions are given, as, for instance, the explanation of the name Gilgal (iv. 20; comp. v. 9 and xiv. 6 et seq. with xv. 13 et seq.).双和变种版本给出,因为,例如,该名称的吉甲的解释(iv. 20;。排版9节和第十四与第十五6及以下13及以下。)

The Book of Joshua must be regarded as a compilation; and analysis of its contents makes it certain that its sources are of the same character as those of the Pentateuch.在约书亚书必须被视为汇编;及其内容的分析使得确定其来源,作为五经相同性质。This, to a certain degree, was the impression of the Rabbis.这在一定程度上,是拉比的印象。According to Mak.据麦。 11a, the chapter (xx.) concerning the cities of refuge was taken from the Pentateuch. 11A,本章(xx.)有关避难的城市是从五经。The Book of Joshua was regarded by them as written in the light of the Deuteronomic legislation (Gen. R. vi. 14).在约书亚书被视为他们作为在Deu​​teronomic立法(将军河六14)光写的。At all events, Joshua and the Pentateuch are treated as of one character in the saying that the sins of Israel alone necessitated the adding of other books to these (Ned. 22b).在所有的事件,约书亚与摩西五都视为一个字符的说法,以色列单独的罪必要的其他书籍加入到这些(Ned. 22B)。Joshua is often compared with Moses (Ta'an. 20a; Soṭah 36a; BB 75a; Sanh. 20a; Mak. 9b).约书亚是经常与摩西(Ta'an 20A;Soṭah36A; BB 75A; Sanh 20A;麦9B)。

While modern critics generally are agreed that the Book of Joshua is a compilation from sources that have been utilized in the Pentateuch (J, E, JE, D, and P), with additions by the editor (R = Redactor), they differ very widely as regards the details.虽然现代评论家一般都同意,约书亚书是从已使用中的摩西五(J,E,JE,D和P)与编辑器增加(R =修订者),来源汇编,它们之间的区别非常广泛至于细节。According to Steuernagel ("Joshua," in Nowack's"Hand-Kommentar"), Albers' attempt in his "Die Quellenberichte in Josua," i-xii., 1891, to separate the components of J from E in part i.据Steuernagel(“约书亚”,在Nowack的“手Kommentar”),阿尔伯斯“在他的企图”死在Josua Quellenberichte,“I -十二,1891年,分开E在第一部分的组成部分的J(i.-xii.) is unsatisfactory. (一至十二)并不理想。In fact, Steuernagel assumes that J and E combined as JE never were accessible to the compiler of Joshua, the two being then still uncombined.事实上,Steuernagel假设J和E为JE结合从来没有被访问的约书亚编译器,这两个被当时还是未结合。 A few fragments from J (after Budde, in Stade's "Zeitschrift," vii.), parallel with passages in Judges i., and others somewhat more numerous from E, are all that he finds in Joshua.从J(后布德在体育场的“(杂志),”七, ),在法官一平行通道,和其他人稍微多从E,A几个片段,都是他在约书亚发现。He insists that for i.-xii.他坚持为一至十二的。another work, D, was the main source.另一个工作,D,是主要来源。This D is not identical with the author of Deuteronomy, but is rather D2 (= the author of Deut. i.-iii.), and is on the whole an independent elaboration of E. The few fragments of J and E in Joshua he concedes were added by R, and only after D2 had been combined with P (mostly in part ii.).这个D是不符合申命记的作者相同,相反却是D2(=的申命记。岛- III的作者),并在整个E的独立制定的J和E在约书亚的几个片段是他承认分别加入由R,只有经过D2已与P(主要是在第二部分)相结合。

Steuernagel's analysis has not been accepted by Holzinger ("Josua," in Marti's "KHC"), who rejects D2 and works out a scheme on the basis of J, E, and JE, with a pronounced Deuteronomic coloring: Deuteronomist, Priestly Code, and Redactor. Steuernagel的分析尚未接受Holzinger(“Josua,”在马蒂的“KHC”),谁拒绝D2和工程出了明显的申命记着色上的J,E,及日本脑炎的基础上计划:Deuteronomist,祭司码,和修订者。 Contrary to the Pentateuchal R, who makes P the original document, in Joshua JED is the basis, supplemented by extracts from P. Still later additions are noticeable as well as changes in phraseology (eg, the use of in vii. 13, 19 et seq.; viii. 30; ix. 18, 20; x. 40, 42; xiii. 14, 33; xiv. 14; xxii. 16, 24; xxiii.; xxiv. 2, 23).相反到是Pentateuchal R,谁使P的原始文件,在约书亚JED是基础,由P.提取再后来是明显的增加,以及在措辞的变化(例如,在vii使用of supplemented 13,19等SEQ;八30; IX 18,​​20;十,40,42,十三14,33;十四14;二十二16,24;二十三; XXIV 2,23)。 For a detailed analysis on this basis see Holzinger, "Das Buch Josua," pp. xvii.-xxi.对于在此基础上详细分析见Holzinger,“资本布赫Josua,”页xvii. - XXI。

Steuernagel in his translation prints the different sources in different types.在他的翻译Steuernagel打印在不同类型的不同来源。WH Bennett in "The Book of Joshua" (in "SBOT" 1895) indicates the various documents by the use of different colors.WH在“约书亚记”(在“SBOT”1895年)由本内特表示了不同的颜色使用的各种文件。

Redaction.节录。

Summing up, these various analyses have certainly demonstrated that, on the whole, in the narrative portion of the book (i.-xii.) the introduction (i.) is Deuteronomic, as is the conclusion of the whole book (xxi. 43-xxii. 6, xxiii.), and that Deuteronomic coloring is to be found in both parts, naturally in a greater degree in the narrative chapters.总之,这些不同的分析,肯定表明,从总体上看,在书(一至十二)引进的叙述部分(一)是申命记,因为是全书的结论(xxi. 43 - 二十二,6,二十三),以及申命记着色是被发现在两个部分,在一个章节的叙述更大程度自然。The basis of the book was a Deuteronomic history of Joshua, founded on material from J and E perhaps not as yet combined as JE, thus excluding Rje (=Redactor of JE).该书的基础是申命记约书亚历史上也许还没有为乙脑结合从J和E物质基础,从而排除RJE(=日本脑炎修订者)。The main current of the narrative is not originally Deuteronomic, the Deuteronomic editor heightening its coloring, and dwelling on the moral and religious implications of the story.的叙事主流是原先没有申命记,加高的Deuteronomic编辑其着色,并在故事的道德和宗教的影响,住宅。The narrative is not always consistent.叙述并不总是一致的。In xiii.-xix.在xiii. - XIX。many fragments are for the most part parallels to Judges i., which make it appear that the conquest was a slow, laborious process, the tribes acting without concerted plan and nowhere under united central command.许多碎片大部分的相似之处,以法官一,这使得它看来,征服是一个缓慢的,艰苦的过程,部落没有协调一致的计划,并根据统一的中央指挥无处作用。 These belong to J. But even in the narrative portion, strictly so-called, as distinct from the statistical, a twofold account is almost always discernible: one apparently older and more prosy; the other, with a clear tendency to magnify the importance of the events and the absolute annihilation of the inhabitants (though this may be set down as by Rd), and to emphasize the miraculous.这些属于J.但是,即使在叙事部分,严格所谓的,因为从统计不同,双重帐户几乎总是明显的:一个年纪较大,显然更prosy;另一方面,带有明显的倾向,放大的重要性该事件和居民绝对湮灭(虽然这可能是定下由路为),并强调了奇效。 The older recalls the method of J in the Pentateuch; the younger, that of E. P's share in the narrative section is very limited.老一辈回顾了在摩西五J方法;年轻,E的P的在叙事部分份额,这是非常有限的。Additions of a few verses may be ascribed to it.几节添置可能归因于它。In xiii.-xxii.在xiii. - XXII。the contributions from P are much more extensive.从P的贡献是更加广泛。The boundaries and the lists of the cities of refuge and of the Levitical towns belong to it.在边界和避难及利未城镇的城市名单属于它。The combining of the Deuteronomic Joshua (Rd, J, E, perhaps JE [Rje]) with P was the work of R, who made verbal changes to suit his ends.合并的Deuteronomic约书亚(路,J,E,也许JE [RJE])与P是R的工作,谁做口头修改,以适应他的目的。But even after this additions were made, eg, xxii.但即使在此之后作了补充,如,22。9-24 (comp. Num. xxxii.-xxxiii.; Judges xx.).9-24(comp.数xxxii. - 三十三;。法官XX)。Ch.CH。xvi.十六。and xvii.和十七。have come down in mutilated form.都来了肢解形式固定下来。When they were abridged can not be determined.当他们被删节无法确定。The duplication of Joshua's farewell also is by a later hand; or it is possible that one account of it (xxiv.) is from E, while the other is clearly Deuteronomistic, resembling Deut.在约书亚的告别重复也被后来的手,或有可能是其中的一个帐户(xxiv.)是从E,而另一种是明确Deuteronomistic,颇似申。 iv.四。29-30.29-30。

Historical Character of the Book.历史人物的书。

After eliminating the pragmatic elements and toning down the Deuteronomic coloring, the critical study of the Book of Joshua penetrates to a bed of traditions that in a more or less confused way reflect actual occurrences; but these did not take place in the sequence here assumed, nor in the manner detailed.在排除了务实的元素和色调下的Deuteronomic着色,对约书亚书的批评性研究渗透到了传统,在或多或少地反映实际发生混淆床,但这些并没有参加这里假定序列的地方,的方式,也不详细。 The division of the land is, on the whole, the work of a theorist who utilizes actual conditions to a certain extent, but always to bring into prominence his priestly program.该土地的划分,就整体而言,是一个理论家谁利用的实际情况在一定程度上工作,但总是带给他的祭司为突出节目。Local legends, snatches of folk-lore and folk-songs, the tendency to concentration in one man of the experiences of tribes and generations (always characteristic of legend), have had a decisive share in the shaping of the original material.当地传说,民间传说和民间歌曲防抢,在一个部落和几代人的经验的人倾向浓度(永远的传奇特性),曾在原材料成型决定性的份额。 Explanations of names (Achor, Gilgal), old local shrines, and reminiscences of former religious usages are also detectable as the raw data upon which popular fancy had been at work long before the various literary sources had leaped into existence.名称的解释(亚割,吉甲),老地方神社,和前宗教用途的回忆,也为流行的花式赖以工作已在很久以前的各种文学资料已经存在跃升到原始数据检测。 To deny in toto, with Eduard Meyer (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," i.), the historical character of the book is dogmatic.全盘否认与爱德华迈耶(在体育场的“(杂志),”一),书的历史人物是教条式的。It may, however, be noticed that, in contrast with Judges, the Book of Joshua has no chronological scheme (comp. xi. 18, xiv. 10, xxiii. 1, xxiv. 31).它可能,不过,注意到,在与法官相比,约书亚书没有按时间计划(comp.十一18,十四10,二十三1,二十四31)。

The Hexateuch.的Hexateuch。

In view of the identity of its sources, and also of the fact that throughout the Pentateuch the conquest of the land is presupposed and emphasized as the goal (Gen. xiii. 14-17, xv. 13-16, xxvi. 3, xxviii. 13-15; Ex. iii. 8, 17; xxxii. 13; xxxiii. 1-3; Num. xiii. 17 et seq., xiv., xxxii.; Deut. i. 38, iii. 21, xxxi. 3-6; P Gen. xvii. 6-8, xxviii. 3; Num. xxvii. 18-23, xxxiii. 50-54, xxxiv., xxxv.; Deut. xxxiv. 9), critics have held that Joshua at one time formed with the Pentateuch the so-called Hexateuch.由于其来源的身份,以及在整个五经之地征服先决条件为目标(创十三14-17,十五13-16,二十六,三,二十八强调其实还可以查看13-15;防爆三8,17;三十二13;。三十三1-3;。编号17及以下第十三,十四,三十二;。。申一38,三21,三十一。 3-6,P 6-8将军十七,二十八3;。序号18-23二十七,三十三50-54,三十四,三十五;。。。。。。申三十四9),批评者认为,在约书亚一次形成了与摩西五所谓的Hexateuch。 If this was the case, it must have been at a time anterior to the separation of the Samaritans from the Jews, as the Samaritans have only the Pentateuch; but the books of Ezra and Nehemiah give no intimation of the existence of a hexateuch.如果是的话,它一定是在同一时间前到从犹太人的撒马利亚人的分离,为撒玛利亚只有五经,但以斯拉和尼希米书给不存在的一个hexateuch暗示。 In all probability the sources J, E, as well as D and P, carried the narrative to the conquest of the land; but in their present forms the Pentateuch and Joshua were never combined.在所有的概率来源J,E,以及D和P,进行叙述,以土地的征服,但在其目前形式的五和约书亚从未相结合。Volck (in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc." ix. 390), assuming that P is older than JE and D, argues that before D was incorporated into the present Pentateuch, Joshua (i.-xxiv.) formed a part of a work composed of P, JE, and Deut.Volck(在​​赫尔佐格 - 豪克,“实时百科全书”九390),假设P是比乙脑和D年纪大了,认为在D组成立到现在的五经,约书亚(一,二十四)形成了一部分对P,乙脑,和申组成的工作。 xxxi.三十一。14-23, xxxii.14-23,三十二。 1-44, 48-52, xxxiii., xxxiv.1-9, and that it was when Deut.1-44,48-52,三十三。,xxxiv.1 - 9,而且它是当申。v.-xxviii.五,二十八。was incorporated that Joshua was made a separate book.被合并,约书亚被做了单独的书。This theory, while not convincing, helps to make plain that the sources must have contained the story of the conquest.这个理论,而没有说服力的,有助于使平原的来源必须载有征服的故事。That Hosea, Amos, and Micah knew this Hexateuch (minus Deuteronomy) is not proved by such passages as Micah vi.这何西阿,阿莫斯和米卡知道这Hexateuch(零下申命记)不证明作为弥六等段落。5 et seq.5起。(or Hosea ix. 10, xii. 4 et seq., and Amos ii. 10, v. 25, vii. 4).(或何西阿九,十,十二,4及以下,和Amos二,10,25节,七4)。 The traditions at the base of the histories were known to these early prophets.在历史基础的传统是众所周知的这些早期的先知。More than this can not be inferred from their references to Shittim and Gilgal (eg, in Micah vi. 5 et seq.).比这更不能推断其引用什亭和吉甲(例如,在弥六5页起)。

The Text.文本。

The fact that in Joshua the Pentateuchal archaic forms ( for or for ) are not found is not evidence against the Hexateuchal hypothesis.认为,在约书亚的Pentateuchal(或为)古老的形式都没有发现其实不是针对Hexateuchal假说的证据。 This circumstance merely indicates that at the time (post-exilic) when the consonantal text was fixed Joshua was not one work with the Pentateuch.这种情况只是表明,当时(后放逐)当辅音文本不是一个固定的约书亚与摩西五的工作。 Jericho is pointed for Pent.杰里科是指对被压抑。.The text is in fairly good condition.该文本是在较好的条件。The Septuagint is without some of the glosses (v. 4-7, vi. 3-5, xx. 4-6).该译本是未经粉饰一些(诉4-7,六3-5,XX 4-6)。 The omissions in the Hebrew (in xv. 59, names of eleven cities; in xxi., a passage between verses 35 and 36) are supplied in the Greek.在希伯来文( 在十五59名的11个城市,在二十一世纪,诗歌之间的35和36通道)的遗漏是提供在希腊。At the end of xxiv.截至二十四月底。the Septuagint presents additions of interest.七十介绍了兴趣增加。

The Samaritan Book of Joshua.撒玛利亚的约书亚书。

The Samaritan Book of Joshua, an extracanonical book written in Arabic, pretends to be a translation from the Hebrew ("Chronicon Samaritanum CuiTitulus Est Liber Josuæ," ed. Juynboll, Leyden, 1848).在约书亚,一个extracanonical书阿拉伯文写的,见义勇为图书假装是从希伯来文翻译(“Chronicon Samaritanum CuiTitulus市盈率LIBER Josuæ,”埃德。Juynboll,莱顿,1848年)。It relates the consecration of Joshua (Deut. xxxi.), the Balaam episode, and the war under Joshua as general against the Midianites; then, with a new title ("Book of Joshua the Son of Nun"), the conquest of the land and its division, continuing the story from Joshua's demise to Eli's death.它涉及的约书亚(申命记三十一),在巴兰情节,和一般战争下约书亚对米甸人奉献,然后,用新的标题(“约书亚嫩的儿子书”),对征服土地及其部门,继续故事从约书亚的灭亡以利的死亡。 Interpolations (xxvi.-xxxvii.) deal with other personages, and in the concluding chapters Nebuchadnezzar, Alexander, and Hadrian are the heroes.插值(xxvi. -三十七。)与其他人士处理,并在最后的章节尼布甲尼撒,亚历山大和哈德良的英雄。This book is a medieval compilation of the time when the Samaritans were under Mohammedan rule, but contains also old haggadic material (see Shobach).这本书是一个撒玛利亚的时候根据伊斯兰教统治了中世纪的汇编,但也包含旧haggadic材料(见Sho​​bach)。

Emil G. Hirsch埃米尔赫斯基G.

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。

Bibliography:参考书目:

The introductions of Driver, Cornill, König, Baudissin, Reuss, Bleek-Wellhausen, Schrader-De Wette, and Kuenen; the histories of Israel by Guthe, Stade, Piepenbring, Kittel, Winckler; the Bible dictionaries of Cheyne and Black, Hastings, Riehm (2d ed.), Schenckel, Hamburger, Winer (3d ed.); Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.该司机介绍,Cornill,柯尼希,Baudissin,罗伊斯,Bleek -豪森,施拉德德Wette,并Kuenen;由Guthe,体育场,Piepenbring,基特尔,Winckler以色列的历史;的进益和黑色,黑斯廷斯圣经字典, Riehm(。2版),Schenckel,汉堡,温纳(3D版);赫尔佐格 - 豪克,实时百科全书。viii.; Vigouroux, iii.; L. König, Alttest.八; Vigouroux,三; L.柯尼希,Alttest。Studien, i.; idem, Die Authentie des Buches Josua, Meurs, 1836; Keil, Kommentar über das Buch Josua, Erlangen, 1847; J. Hollenberg, Die Deuteronomischen Bestandtheile des Buches Josua, in Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1874; idem, Die Alexandrinische Uebersetzung des Buches Josua, Meurs, 1876; Wellhausen, Die Komposition des Hexateuchs (originally in Jahrbuch der Theologie, 1876-77); Budde, Richter und Josua, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1877, pp. 93 et seq.; JS Black, The Book of Joshua, Cambridge, 1891; E. Albers, Die Quellenberichte in Josua (Josh. i.-xii.), Bonn, 1891;(研究)岛;同上,模具Authentie DES Buches Josua,米尔斯,1836年,凯尔,Kommentar黚DAS布赫Josua,埃尔兰根,1847年的J. Hollenberg,模具Deuteronomischen Bestandtheile DES Buches Josua,在Theologische(研究)UND Kritiken,1874年,同上,模具Alexandrinische Uebersetzung DES Buches Josua,米尔斯,1876年,豪森,模具Komposition DES Hexateuchs(最初在Jahrbuch DER神学,1876年至1877年);布德,里希特UND Josua,在体育场的(杂志),1877年,第93页起; JS黑,而约书亚,剑桥,1891年图书; E.阿尔伯斯,模具Quellenberichte在Josua(约书亚记一至十二),波恩,1891年;

Dillmann, Numeri, Deuteronomium, und Josua, in the Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, Leipsic, 1886; Oettli, commentary to the book in Deuteronomium, Josua, Richter (Strack-Zöckler, Komment. zum AT 1893); Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 4th ed.; Holzinger, Einleitung in den Hexateuch, 1893; idem, Das Buch Josua, Tübingen and Leipsic, 1901; Steuernagel, Das Buch Josua, 1900; WH Bennett, The Book of Joshua, in SBOT Leipsic and Baltimore, 1895.EGH Dillmann,Numeri,Deuteronomium,UND Josua,在Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载,Leipsic,1886年,欧特列,评注,在Deuteronomium,Josua,里希特(施特拉克- Zöckler,Komment AT 1893年ZUM)书;豪森,绪论,第4版。 ; Holzinger,导论在书房Hexateuch,1893年,同上,布赫Josua达斯,图宾根和Leipsic,1901年; Steuernagel,达斯布赫Josua,1900; WH贝内特,而约书亚书,在SBOT Leipsic和巴尔的摩,1895.EGH


Joshua约书亚

Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:第标题:

Appointed Moses' Successor.委任摩西的继任者。

Conquest of Jericho.征服杰里科。

Division of the Land.司土地。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

His Faithful Service.他忠实的服务。

The Change in His Name.他的名字更改。

Married to Rahab.结婚到拉哈伯。

-Critical View:临界查看:

Leader of Josephites.领袖的Josephites。

Name of several Biblical personages.一些圣经人物的名字。

In Hebrew (Deut. iii. 21; Judges ii. 7) and commonly (Judges ii. 7a; Ex. xvii. 9; Josh. i. 1) correspond to = "helped by Yhwh," the shorter form being = "help" or "one who helped" (Num. xiii. 8; Deut. xxxii. 44; here probably an error for ).在希伯来文(申三21;。法官二7)和一般(士二7A;。前十七9;。乔希一,1)对应=“耶和华所的帮助下,”在较短的形式被=“帮助“或”一帮谁“(民数记十三8;。申命记三十二44;这里可能是一个错误的)。 The Septuagint has Ἰησους; the Vulgate, usually "Josue," but "Jesus" in Ecclus.该译本已Ἰησους;武加大,通常是“若苏埃”,但“耶稣”在Ecclus。(Sirach) xlvi.(西拉奇)四十六。 1; I Macc.1,我排雷。ii.II。55; II Macc.55;二排雷。 xii.十二。15, identical with , the post-exilic form of the name.15,,名字的后放逐的形式相同。

1. 1。Biblical Data: The son of Nun; servant and successor of Moses.圣经资料:嫩的儿子和仆人摩西的继任者。 An Ephraimite (Num. xiii. 8), the grandson of Elishama, he is described as the chief of his tribe (I Chron. vii. 26, 27).一个Ephraimite(民数记十三8),在Elishama孙子,他被描述为他的部落(我专栏。七,26,27)的首席。 At first named "Hoshea" (Num. xiii. 8 [AV "Oshea"]; Deut. xxxii. 44), he was called by Moses "Jehoshua" (Num. xiii. 16).起初命名为“何细亚”(民数记十三8 [AV“Oshea”];。申命记三十二44),他是由摩西“Jehoshua”(。民数记十三16)调用。Joshua first leaps into notice in the account of the defeat of the Amalekites in the desert, where he leads the picked troops of the Israelites (Ex. xvii. 8-14).约书亚第一次飞跃到通知在击败亚玛力人的帐户在沙漠,在那里他领导的以色列人(出十七。8-14)精兵。Afterward he appears successively at the side of Moses as his servant (ib. xxiv. 13; xxxii. 17, 18); as the guardian of the Tabernacle (ib. xxxiii. 11); and as the zealous defender of Moses' prestige on the occasion of Eldad's and Medad's prophesying in the camp (Num. xi. 27-29).随后,他先后出现在摩西的一面,他的仆人(同上二十四13;。三十二17,18);作为幕监护人(同上三十三11);而随着摩西的威信热心于后卫在伊利达的和Medad在营预言(民数记十一27-29)之际。 He is one of the spies sent to explore Canaan (ib. xiii. 9, 17).他是送到探索迦南(ib.十三,9,17)的间谍之一。Returning from this errand, it is he who with Caleb allays the apprehension of the excited people, bravely taking the risk of being stoned to death (ib. xiv. 6-10).从这个差事返回,它是谁,他与迦勒allays激发人们的顾虑,勇敢地走了被石头砸死(同上十四6-10)的风险。For this fidelity he and Caleb, alone of all the Israelites twenty years old and upward at the time of this episode, are to enter the promised land (ib. xiv. 30-38, xxvi. 65, xxxii. 12).对于这种忠​​诚,他和迦勒,独自所有以色列人二十岁,并在这个情节的时候向上,是进入应许之地(同上十四。30-38,二十六65,三十二12)。

Appointed Moses' Successor.委任摩西的继任者。

Nevertheless, during the following thirty-eight years of the desert migration no further mention is made of him.然而,在随后的38多年的沙漠迁移没有进一步提到了他。But when Moses is apprised of his own impending death, Joshua is pointed out as the one man to carry to completion the great leader's unfinished task.但是,当摩西是他自己即将死亡的通报,约书亚,指出了作为一个人来进行完成的伟大领袖的未完成的任务。Moses is bidden to lay his hand upon him-"a man in whom is the spirit"-and thus to give him charge as his successor; which command is carried out (ib. xxvii. 16 et seq.).摩西是bidden奠定了他在他的手,“一个人的人是精神”,并以此来给他负责为他的继任者,这是执行命令(同上XXVII 16页起)。Joshua is to preside over the division of the land (ib. xxxiv. 17), but must keep the compact entered into with Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh (ib. xxxii. 28).约书亚是主持的土地(同上三十四17)的划分,但必须保持紧凑型与流便,迦得进入和玛拿西半(同上三十二28)。God assures Joshua of success in the leadership (Deut. xxxi. 14, 23); and he as the designated successor is with Moses when the great prophet addresses his last counsel to the people (ib. xxxii. 44).神向你保证,在领导的成功约书亚(申三十一14,23);和指定接班人,他与摩西是当他最后一次伟大的先知地址律师向人(同上三十二44)。

At Moses' death Joshua was filled with "the spirit of wisdom" (ib. xxxiv. 9).在摩西的死约书亚充满了“精神的智慧”(同上三十四9)。Upon him devolved a twofold duty: to conquer the land, and to apportion it among the tribes (Josh. i. 1-5).当他移交了双重责任:征服的土地,和部落之间的分配(约书亚记一1-5)它。Yhwh Himself encouraged him to be strong and to cling to the Law, which was never to "depart out of his mouth."耶和华亲自鼓励他要坚强,并坚持该法,这是从来没有的“离开他的嘴里说出来。”After enlisting the cooperation of the kindred east-Jordanic tribes (ib. i. 6-18), his first concern was to spy out Jericho (ib. ii. 1).经过争取的亲属东Jordanic部落(同上一6-18)的合作,他首先关心的是窥探耶利哥(ib.二1)。On receiving the report of his emissaries (ib. ii. 23, 24) he gave the necessary instructions for the crossing by the Israelites of the Jordan (ib. iii. 1-13).在接到他的使者报告(ib.二23,24)他给了穿越由约旦以色列人(ib.三1-13)必要的说明。With the Ark of the Covenant carried by the priests in the van, on the tenth day of the first month of the forty-first year after the Exodus the Israelites set out to conquer the land.随着由祭司在面包车上的后出埃及的以色列人开始着手征服土地第四十一年正月初十,携带的约柜。The river, miraculously divided as long as the priests with the Ark remained in its bed, was crossed north of Adam; and in memory of this occurrence Joshua erected over the place where the priests had been stationed a monument of twelve stones (ib. iv. 9).这条河,奇迹般地与方舟如在床仍然是祭司长的划分,是跨越了亚当北部,以及在此发生内存约书亚在那里祭司已经进驻了十二块石头纪念碑的地方(同上四建9)。 He also ordered that one man from each tribe should take each another stone from that spot and deposit it on the western bank as a memorial (ib. iv. 1-8, xx. 24).他还下令,一个从每个部落的人认为应该从每一个点石沉积在西岸它作为纪念(同上四,1-8,XX 24)。Here, at Gilgal, Joshua pitched his camp and remained for some time; and in order that all might be able to participate in the Passover, he directed that every Hebrew that had been born in the desert should be circumcised (ib. v. 2-8).在这里,在吉甲,约书亚投他的阵营,并在一段时间内保持,并且为了所有可能能够参加逾越节,他指示,每一个曾经在沙漠出生的希伯来文应该是割礼(同上第2节-8)。

Conquest of Jericho.征服杰里科。

Jericho was the first city captured.杰里科是第一个城市抓获。After exploring it by spies Joshua invested it, finally capturing it in a miraculous manner (ib. v. 13-vi.).在探索它的间谍约书亚投资它,终于捕获了它神奇的方式(同上诉13 - VI)。The ban was pronounced over the ruins, and all the inhabitants were destroyed save Rahab and her paternal family; they being spared because she had shown hospitality to the spies.这项禁令是在废墟上宣布,所有的居民都保存拉哈伯和她父亲的家庭被毁,他们幸免于难,因为她已经表明招待的间谍。Joshua became famous by this victory, but met a reverse at Ai in consequence of Achan's misdeed; however, after visiting condign punishment upon the offender he made himself master of the town, which was the key to the mountains rising west of the plain of Jericho.约书亚成了这场胜利而闻名,但会见了艾在亚干的不当行为的后果反向,但是,在参观后,罪犯condign惩罚他做了自己该城的主人,这是到了耶利哥平原高山耸立西部的关键。 The Gibeonites made their peace with him, gaining advantageous terms by means of a clever ruse (ix. 3 et seq.).基遍人与他取得的和平,争取通过一个巧妙的诡计(ix. 3起。)指有利的条件。On Ebal and Gerizim he caused the blessings and the curses to be read (comp. Deut. xxvii.).在以巴录盖里济姆和他带来的祝福和诅咒要读(comp.申命记二十七)。

While Joshua was thus engaged in the north, five of the southern rulers made an alliance to punish Gibeon; but they were completely routed at Makkedah by Joshua, who had hastened to the assistance of the Gibeonites.虽然约书亚因此在北方从事南部统治者five联盟作出了惩罚基遍,但他们在玛基大路由完全由约书亚,谁赶紧给基遍人的援助。 It was during this battle that a furious hail-storm set in, proving more deadly than the sword (Josh. x. 11), and on this occasion also, at Joshua's command, the sun stood still upon Gibeon and the moon in the valley of Ajalon (ib. x. 12-13a).正是在这一仗,一个愤怒的冰雹,风暴设置,证明以上的剑(约书亚记十11)致命的,并在此之际也,在约书亚的命令,在基遍站在太阳和月亮仍然在山谷在Ajalon(同上X. 12 - 13A)。The fugitive five kings were discovered hiding in a cave at Makkedah.五王的逃犯被发现在一个山洞里躲藏在玛基大。By Joshua's orders the cave was closed with huge stones until the pursuit was over, when it was reopened and the kings, after having been thoroughly humiliated, were slain, their bodies being hanged on trees until the evening, when they were taken down and cast into the cave.由Joshua的订单洞穴被关闭巨大石块,直到追求结束后,当它被重新开放和国王后,已被彻底羞辱,被杀害,他们的尸体被挂在树上,直到晚上,当他们被取下来,并投进山洞。 Then followed the conquest of Libnah, Lachish, Eglon, Hebron, and Debir.然后跟着立拿,拉吉,伊矶伦,希伯伦,底璧征服。In the south Joshua penetrated as far as Kadesh-barnea; in the west as far as Gaza (ib. x. 29 et seq.).在南部约书亚渗透尽量加低斯,巴尔内亚;在西部,据加沙(同上十,29页起)。Later onhe routed the allied kings of the north at Lake Merom-Hazor being the head of these kingdoms-killing the inhabitants and burning the city of Hazor (ib. xi.).后来onhe路由在湖的Merom,夏琐头部被这些王国的杀伤居民和燃烧的夏琐(同上十一)城市的北方联盟的国王。

Division of the Land.司土地。

In this manner Joshua within a few years (ib. xiv. 7; comp. verse 10) had made himself master of the whole country with the exception of the Philistine and Phenician coasts.通过这种方式在几年内约书亚(同上十四7;。比赛第10节)作出了自己与非利士和Phenician海岸外的整个国家的主人。 Still he continued to guard in Gilgal his fortified camp; thence he governed the land (ib. xiv. 6), and there he began to allot the districts to the various tribes.不过他继续在吉甲守卫森严的营地;那里,他所管辖的土地(同上十四6),并有他开始配发到各个部落地区。Judah, Ephraim, and the half of Manasseh were the first to be settled, Caleb being allowed to take Hebron (ib. xiv. 12, xv.-xvii.).犹大,以法莲和玛拿西半是要解决第一,迦勒可参与希布伦(同上十四12,xv. - XVII)。 After this, Joshua removed the Tabernacle and the Ark from Gilgal to Shiloh, and took up his residence there (ib. xviii.).在此之后,约书亚删除了幕,并从吉甲到示罗方舟,并注意到了他的住所那里(同上十八)。Here he continued the work of apportioning the rest of the land by lot according to the families (ib. xviii.-xix.).在这里,他继续通过抽签的分摊土地的其余工作按照家庭(同上xviii. - XIX)。Cities of refuge, in accordance with the Law, were appointed (ib. xx.).在与城市的避难法的规定,获委任(同上XX)。Joshua himself received the city of Timnath-serah in Ephraim for an inheritance (ib. xix. 49, 50; xxiv. 30).约书亚本人收到莲的Timnath - serah城市为继承(同上十九49,50;二十四30)。Having thus completed his task, he gave Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh permission to return to their east-Jordanic territory (ib. xxii. 1-9).经从而完成了他的任务,他给鲁本,盖德,和玛拿西半的权限回到自己的东西Jordanic领土(同上二十二1-9)。

When he was "old and stricken in age" Joshua convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites and exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population (ib. xxiii.).当他是“老年龄灾区”约书亚召开了以色列人和酋长和长老叮嘱他们有没有与外来人口(同上二十三)奖学金。At a general assembly of the clans at Shechem he took leave of the people, admonishing them to be loyal to their God, who had been so mightily manifested in the midst of them (ib. xxiv.).在一个氏族在示剑参加了大会,他离开的人,告诫他们要忠于自己的上帝,谁已如此境地,在他们(同上二十四)当中表现出来。 As a witness of their promise to serve Yhwh, Joshua set up a great stone under an oak by the sanctuary of Yhwh (ib. xxiv. 26-28).由于他们的承诺,为耶和华见证,约书亚下成立橡树由耶和华圣殿(同上二十四26-28)一块大石头。Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110, and was buried in Timnath-serah (ib. xxiv. 29-30).EGH随后,他死了,在110岁,并于Timnath - serah埋(同上二十四29-30)。EGH

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

Joshua is regarded as the type of the faithful, humble, deserving, wise man.约书亚被认为是忠实,谦虚,值得,智者类型。Biblical verses illustrative of these qualities and of their reward are applied to him.这些素质和他们的报酬圣经经文说明适用于他。"He that waiteth on his master shall be honored" (Prov. xxvii. 18) is construed as a reference to Joshua (Num. R. xii.), as is also the first part of the same verse, "Whoso keepeth the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof" (Yalḳ., Josh. 2; Num. R. xii. 21). “他说,在他的掌握waiteth应兑现”(箴二十七18)作为对约书亚的提述(民数记R.十二),作为也是同样的诗句的第一部分,“Whoso keepeth无花果树必吃的果子“(Yalḳ.,乔希2;。序号R.十二21)。That "honor shall uphold the humble in spirit" (Prov. xxix. 23) is proved by Joshua's victory over Amalek (Num. R. xiii.).这“荣誉应坚持的精神,谦虚”(箴二十九23)是由约书亚的超过亚玛力(民数记R.十三)胜利证明。Joshua was a wise man; hence in him was verified the saying, "With me [wisdom] kings shall rule" (Prov. viii. 15, Hebr.).约书亚是一个聪明的人,因此在他被证实的说法,“跟我[智慧]君王统治”(箴八15,黑布尔。)Not the sons of Moses-as Moses himself had expected-but Joshua was appointed successor to the son of Amram (Num. R. xii.).不是儿子摩西,摩西本人曾预期,但约书亚被任命为继任者的阿姆拉姆(民数记R.十二)的儿子。Moses was shown how Joshua reproved Othniel (Yalḳ., Num. 776).摩西是展示了如何约书亚谴责俄陀聂(Yalḳ.,序号。776)。Joshua's manliness recommended him for this high post.约书亚的气概推荐他这一崇高职务。David referred to him in Ps.大卫提到了他在诗篇。lxxxvii.lxxxvii。25, though without mentioning the name, lest dissensions should arise between his sons and those of his brothers (Yalḳ., quoting Sifre, lc). 25,虽然没有提到这个名字,以免纠纷,应该出现在他的儿子和他的兄弟(Yalḳ.,引用Sifre,LC)。

His Faithful Service.他忠实的服务。

Joshua was always at the front of the army, and did not, as other generals, remain in the rear (ib.) or in his tent.约书亚一直在军队前面,并没有像其他将军,留在后方(同上),或在他的帐篷。Moses in his lifetime appointed Joshua as his interpreter ("meturgeman"), in order to forestall the possibility of his being looked upon as an upstart after Moses' death (Yalḳ., lc).摩西在任命他的翻译(“meturgeman”),以防止其被视为一个暴发户后,摩西在“死亡(Yalḳ.,LC)的可能性约书亚他的一生。 Yet Moses' face was like the sun, and that of Joshua like the moon (ib.).然而,摩西的脸像太阳和月亮一样约书亚(同上)这一点。 Joshua had deserved the honor by his faithful service.约书亚他的忠实服务当之无愧的荣誉。He used to rise early in the morning and set in order the chairs in the house of assembly.他经常早起在早上和设置,才能在众议院的主席。

Therefore, according to some, Moses raised up Joshua from the ground and took him on his knees, and he and the whole of Israel would lift up their heads to hear Joshua's words; but Joshua in his modesty exclaimed: "Blessed be Yhwh, who gave the Torah to Israel through Moses, our master" (Yalḳ., lc, quoting the Midrash Yelammedenu).因此,根据一些,摩西提出了从地面约书亚,并就他的膝盖他,他和以色列的整个会抬起他们的头听到约书亚的话,但在他的谦逊约书亚惊呼:“是应当称颂耶和华,​​谁通过摩西给以色列律法,我们的主人“(Yalḳ.,LC,引用米德拉士Yelammedenu)。 The wisdom of Joshua is emphasized also in other connections (Ex. R. xi. and parallels).约书亚的智慧也强调在(出R.十一和平行)其他连接。The prediction (Deut. xxxiii. 17) in the blessing of Moses is held to have come to pass in Joshua (Sifre, ad loc.).在摩西的祝福预测(申命记三十三17)举行有来传递在约书亚(Sifre,广告同上)。Moses possessed "hod" (splendor), but Joshua, only "hadar" (a lesser degree of fame; according to Friedmann, Sifre, 146b, note 11, this has reference to the fact that kingship was denied to Joshua); for if the former had been Joshua's portion he would have been absolutely irresistible.摩西拥有“HOD”(辉煌),但约书亚,只有“哈达尔”(一种名气较小的程度,据弗里德曼,Sifre,146b,注11,这参考的王权被拒绝约书亚事实);因为如果前者已约书亚的一部分,他会是绝对无法抗拒。 Joshua was given the strength of the ox but the beauty of the "re'em" (Sifre, lc; Yalḳ., Deut. 959).约书亚给了牛的力量,但对“re'em”(Sifre,LC。;Yalḳ,申959)美。When Joshua upon his return with the spies found the people ungrateful, he was the only one that was shocked to the extent of both falling on his face, like Moses and Aaron, and rending his garments, like Caleb (Yalḳ., Num. 744).当约书亚在他的间谍回报忘恩负义的人发现,他是唯一一个震惊的同时落在他的脸上,像摩西和亚伦,并认定他的衣服像迦勒(Yalḳ.,数量的程度。744 )。

The Change in His Name.他的名字更改。

Moses added the letter摩西说信to the name "Hoshea" (Num. xiii. 16) because he had prayed that God () would keep Joshua from joining the conspiracy of the spies, and also because, as Caleb's reward was a portion of the land, Joshua's compensation was to be his own allotment and that of the other ten (= "yod") spies (Soṭah 34b; Tan. ad loc.; Num. R. xvi.).这个名字“何细亚”(民数记十三16),因为他祈祷上帝()将防止加入的间谍阴谋约书亚,也因为作为迦勒的奖励是该部分土地,约书亚的补偿是是他自己配发及其他十个(=“yod”)间谍(Soṭah34B;谈广告同上;。序号R.十六)。 According to Yer.据也门里亚尔。 Sheb.帅。vi.六。1, the name "Hoshea" was changed as soon as Joshua entered the service of Moses, or at the latest after the victory over Amalek.1,名称为“何细亚”,改为只要约书亚进入了亚玛力的胜利后,摩西的服务,或最新的。

Joshua was among those who, too modest to call themselves " 'ebed," were so dignified by God Himself (Sifre, Wa'etḥanan, cited in Yalḳ., Josh. 1).约书亚在那些谁也谦虚地称自己是“'ebed,”是如此威严的上帝(Sifre,Wa'etḥanan,在Yalḳ引用。,乔希1)。 The spies whom Joshua sent to Jericho were Phinehas and Caleb (Yalḳ., lc).他们的间谍约书亚发送到杰里科被非尼哈和迦勒(Yalḳ.,LC)。When Joshua commanded the sun to stand still he used the phrase (= "be still"; Josh. x. 12); for the sun kept on singing a song of praise as long as it was moving.当约书亚吩咐太阳停滞不前,他用这句话(=“是还”;乔希十12),为太阳唱赞美歌,只要有人动保存。The sun would not obey Joshua until he had assured it that he would sing God's praises himself (Yalk., lc 22).太阳不会服从约书亚,直到他确信它,他会唱上帝的赞美自己(Yalk.,LC 22)。Joshua led and governed the people during thirty-eight years (Seder 'Olam R.; Yalḳ., lc 35).在约书亚领导和管辖38年的人(家宴“奥兰R.;Yalḳ,LC 35)。Israel is represented by the Rabbis as not very eager to pay him honor at his obsequies (Yalḳ., lc).以色列代表的拉比为不支付他非常渴望在他的葬礼荣誉(Yalḳ.,LC)。

Married to Rahab.结婚到拉哈伯。

Rahab is said to have become Joshua's wife.喇合说已经成为约书亚的妻子。They had daughters but no son.他们的女儿,但没有儿子。From this union many prophets descended, and Hannah was Rahab's reincarnation.从这个联盟的许多先知的后裔,和汉娜是拉哈伯的轮回。Rahab was ten years old when Israel left Egypt, and during the forty years intervening she was a great sinner; but when the spies visited her she became a proselyte.喇合是十来岁,当以色列离开埃及,并在第四年她介入是一个伟大的罪人,但是当间谍参观了她,她成了proselyte。 There is some doubt as to her having had only daughters by Joshua(see Zeb. 116b; Mek., Yitro [beginning]; Rashi to Josh. ii.; Yalḳ., Josh. 9; Meg. 14a; Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya, "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," p. 14a).有一些以怀疑她有过唯一的女儿由约书亚(见瑞伯116B; MEK,Yitro [开始]。Rashi到乔希二;。Yalḳ,乔希9;。梅格14A;大利伊本叶海亚,“ Shalshelet公顷,卡巴拉,“第14A条)。According to Pirḳe R. El.据PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多。xlii., when Joshua was fighting for the Gibeonites the Sabbath was about to set in. Seeing the disinclination of his people to continue the battle at the risk of desecrating the Sabbath, and perceiving that the magicians of the heathen were inciting the constellations to help the cause of Israel's enemies, he spread out his hand toward the light of the sun and of the moon and "remembered upon them" the Ineffable Name, when both sun and moon stood still for thirty-six hours (Yalḳ., Gen. Lek Leka).四十二。时,约书亚是为基遍人战斗安息日即将设置英寸眼看着他的人不愿继续在亵渎安息日的危险战斗,感知,该异教徒的魔术师被煽动的星座帮助以色列的敌人的原因,他摊开朝向太阳和月亮的光线他的手,“记得在他们”无法形容的名称,当太阳和月亮都主张36小时仍然(Yalḳ.,创沥乐卡)。 The song intoned by Joshua after his victory is given in full in the "Sefer ha-Yashar" (chapter on Joshua).歌曲吟诵由Joshua后,他的胜利是完全刊载于“之书公顷亚沙尔”(在约书亚章)。Joshua had appealed to Israel before crossing the Jordan not, as the text has it in the literal sense, to prepare provisions for the journey-that was not necessary, since the manna had not yet ceased falling-but to repent (Pirḳe R. El. vi.).约书亚曾呼吁以色列前穿越约旦并非如文本已在字面意义上它,以备旅途,这是没有必要的规定,因为甘露还没有停止下降,但是悔改​​(PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多六)。

Joshua's name is associated with many "taḳḳanot," eg, the benediction upon entering the holy land (Ber. 48b); the license to graze on the plowed field of others without liability to a charge of robbery (B. Ḳ. 60b); the permission to gather wood in a neighbor's field (ib. 61b); the permission to gather grass anywhere (ib.); and seven other measures enumerated in Maimonides ("Yad," Nizḳe Mamon, viii. 5), regulating certain privileges, permitting certain natural or necessary acts (in open fields or when walking through vineyards), and assuring to the unknown dead buried by the community the undisturbed possession of his grave (see Dead, Duty to the; Bloch, "Die Institutionen des Judentums," i. 54-68, Vienna, 1879).EGH约书亚的名字与许多“taḳḳanot,”关联例如,在进入圣地(Ber. 48B)祝福;许可证放牧无责任对他人的犁领域的抢劫收费(B.Ḳ60B);收集木材的权限在邻居的领域(同上61B)的权限,收集基层的任何地方(同上)和其他七个在迈蒙尼德列举的措施(“屠杀”NizḳeMamon,八5),调节某些特权,允许某些自然或必要的行为(在开放领域或行走时,通过葡萄园),并保证对未知死者的社会埋下了他的坟墓不受干扰的管(见死,责任的;布洛赫,“模具Institutionen DES Judentums”一54-68,维也纳,1879年)。EGH

-Critical View:临界查看:

Joshua's historical reality has been doubted by advanced critics, who regard him either as a mythological solar figure (Winckler, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel," ii. 96-122; Schrader, "KAT" 3d ed., p. 225) or as the personification of tribal reminiscences crystallized around a semi-mythical hero of Timnath-serah (= "Timnat Ḥeres").约书亚的历史事实已经被怀疑通过先进的批评,无论是谁把太阳能作为神话人物(Winckler,“Gesch DES Volkes以色列。”二96-122。。施拉德,“吉”的3D版,第225页)他或作为围绕着Timnath - serah(=“Timnat继承人”)半结晶部落神话英雄回忆的化身。Eduard Meyer, denying the historicity of the material in the Book of Joshua, naturally disputes also the actuality of its eponymous hero (Stade's "Zeitschrift," i.).爱德华迈耶,否认在约书亚书材料历史性,自然纠纷也由此得名,其英雄(体育场的“(杂志),”一)现状。These extreme theories must be dismissed.这些极端的理论必须予以驳回。But, on the other hand, it is certain that Joshua could not have performed all the deeds recorded of him.但是,另一方面,可以肯定的是约书亚不可能完成所有的记录他的事迹。Comparison with the Book of Judges shows that the conquest of the land was not a concerted movement of the nation under one leader; and the data concerning the occupation of the various districts by the tribes present so many variants that the allotment in orderly and purposed sequence, which is ascribed to Joshua, has to be abandoned as unhistorical.随着法官书籍比较表明,征服的土地没有一人领导下的全国协调运动;和数据有关的各地区各部落占领现在这么多的变种,在有序,purposed顺序分配,这是归因于约书亚,已被视为非历史抛弃。

Leader of Josephites.领袖的Josephites。

Yet this does not conflict with the view that Joshua was the leader of a section of the later nation, and that he as such had a prominent part in the conquest of the districts lying around Mount Ephraim.然而,这不符合认为约书亚是一个民族的部分领导人后来,他因此不得不在周围山莲躺在征服突出的部分地区冲突。The conquest of the land as a whole was not attempted; this final achievement was the result of several successive movements of invasion that with varied success, and often with serious reverses, aimed at securing a foothold for the Israelites in the trans-Jordanic territories.而作为一个整体并没有试图征服的土地,这最后的成就是几个连续动作的入侵具有不同的成功,而且往往有严重的倒退,为在确保以色列人在跨Jordanic地区的立足点,旨在结果。 Joshua was at the head of the Josephite (Leah) tribes (comp. Judges i. 22, according to Budde; Joshua dies at the age of 110, as does Joseph), for whom the possession of the hill-country of Ephraim-Gibeon in the south and Ebal in the north-was the objective point.约书亚在Josephite(莉亚)部落头(comp.法官一22日,据布德;约书亚死在了110岁,象约瑟夫),对他们来说,在以法莲 - 基遍山国藏在南部和以巴录在东北是客观点。This invasion on the part of the Josephites was probably preceded by others that had met with but little success (comp. the story of the spies, Num. xiv.).这对Josephites一部分可能入侵之前,曾与但收效甚微(comp.的间谍故事,序号。十四。)会见他人。But the very fact that while earlier expeditions had failed this one succeeded impressed for centuries the imagination of the people to such an extent that the leader of this invasion (Joshua) became the hero of folk-lore; and in course of time the plan of the conquest of the whole land and its execution were ascribed to him.但张女士,虽然早期探险队未能成功地打动了这一个世纪的人想象到这样的程度,这一入侵(约书亚)的领导者成为了民间传说的英雄,以及参与该计划的时间进程整个土地及其执行征服被归因于他。 He thus grew to be in tradition the leader of the united people-especially in view of the supremacy enjoyed by the tribe of Joseph, in whose possession was the Ark at Shiloh-and therefore the successor of Moses, and as such the chief in authority when the land was divided among the tribes.因此,他成长为在传统的领导者是美国在由约瑟夫部落所享有的至高无上的观点,特别是人,在其身上是在方舟希洛,因此继承摩西的,正因为如此,在管理局行政当土地被划分了各部落。

Recollections of valorous feats performed in the days of these fierce wars with the aboriginal kings were transferred to Joshua and his time; battles remembered in fable and in song were connected with his name; natural phenomena (the blocking of the waters of Jordan by rocks, the earthquake at Jericho, the hail-storm before Gibeon) which had inspired semi-mythological versions were utilized to enhance his fame, all the more since they helped to vindicate his dignity as a second Moses.在与原住民国王这些天的激烈战争的回忆,表现勇猛的功勋转移到约书亚和他的时间,战斗在寓言和歌想起了他的名字相连;(对约旦的水域被岩石阻挡的自然现象,在杰里科地震,冰雹,风暴前基遍),它曾激励半神话版本被利用,以提高他的名气,更因为他们帮助,以维护作为第二摩西他的尊严。 Snatches of popular songs, no longer understood because their original mythology had become unintelligible, were applied to his feats, and in turn gave rise to new accounts of his marvelous accomplishments (eg, at Ajalon).流行的歌曲,不再理解,因为他们原来的神话已经成为不可理解,防抢被应用到他的壮举,并反过来引起了他的(例如,在Ajalon)奇妙的成就的新帐户。 This process is perfectly natural, and has its analogues in the stories concerning other heroes; in fact parallels between his biography and that of Jacob have been discovered (Steuernagel, "Joshua," p. 150).这个过程是很自然的,并在有关的其他英雄的故事及其类似物,在与他的传记和雅各的事实已发现相似之处(Steuernagel,“约书亚”,第150页)。 But all this makes the historical reality of Joshua as the chief of a successful army of invasion all the more strongly assured.但是,这一切使得作为一个成功的入侵,更强烈地保证陆军参谋长的约书亚的历史现实。The chapters dealing with the division of the land must be dismissed as theoretical speculation, dating from a period when the tribal organization had ceased to exist; that is, from the Exile and perhaps later.各章与土地部门打交道,必须斥之为从理论上推测当部落组织已不复存在期间约会;也就是说,从流放,也许以后。 The epilogues (the story of Joshua's gathering the elders or the whole people at Shechem before his death, Josh. xxiii.-xxiv. 28) are clearly the work of a Deuteronomic writer; and the scenes are conceived in imitation of Jacob's blessing (Gen. xlix.) or of Moses taking leave of the people and admonishing them before his transition.该epilogues(。在约书亚的聚会生前的长老或在示剑全民,乔希xxiii. - XXIV 28故事)显然是一个申命记作家作品,以及场景中的雅各的祝福模仿构思(创。XLIX)或摩西请假的人,告诫他们在他的过渡。The cruelty imputed to Joshua-the ban against Jericho, for instance-is a trait corroborative of the historical kernel of the military incidents of his biography.归咎于约书亚,对杰里科禁止虐待,例如,是一个特点是对他的传记的军事历史事件的内核佐证。

According to the Biblical accounts, Joshua had nowhere to meet a non-Canaanite power.根据圣经的帐户,约书亚无处可满足非迦南人的力量。The Flinders Petrie inscription recording Me(r)neptah's battle with Israel, located in Palestine (before 1200 BC; see Exodus), is thus not to be referred to this period.碑文记录的弗林德斯皮特里我(R)neptah的战斗与以色列,巴勒斯坦位于(公元前1200年之前,见出埃及记),因此不被称为这一时期。 Egypt's claim to suzerainty had become merely nominal after 1250 BC The empire of theHittites (c. 1200) had become disrupted into a number of small principalities.埃及的宗主权声称已成为有名无实的theHittites后1250帝国(公元前1200)已成为成一个小公国数目打乱BC。 This would indicate that the incursion of Joseph-Israel must have taken place about 1230-1200 BCEGH这表明,约瑟夫 - 以色列入侵必须是约1230年至1200年BCEGH地方

2. 2。Son of Jozadak or Josedech; high priest when the Jews returned under Zerubbabel from the Babylonian exile.儿子Jozadak或Josedech;大祭司当犹太人在所罗巴伯返回从巴比伦放逐。His father had died in exile, and on the return from the Captivity Joshua was the first high priest to officiate (Hag. i. 1, 12, 14; ii. 2, 4; Zech. vi. 11; Ezra iii. 2, 8; v. 2; x. 18; Neh. xii. 26).他的父亲死于流亡,并从圈养约书亚回报是第一位大祭司主持(Hag.一,1,12,14;二2,4;。撒加利亚六11;。以斯拉III 2 8,诉2,十18;尼十二26)。Joshua was therefore born during the Exile.因此,约书亚出生在流亡。On the arrival of the caravan at Jerusalem, he naturally took part in erecting the altar of burnt offering and in laying the foundations of the Temple (Ezra iii. 2 et seq.).关于在耶路撒冷马帮的到来,他自然参加了架设的燔祭坛和圣殿铺设的基础(以斯拉三,2及以下)的一部分。With Zerubbabel he opposed the machinations of the Samaritans (ib. iv. 3).随着所罗巴伯他反对撒玛利亚阴谋(同上四3)。 Several of Haggai's utterances are addressed to Joshua (Hag. i. 1, ii. 2), and his name occurs in two of the symbolical prophecies of Zechariah (iii. 1-10, vi. 11-15).对哈的话语中有几个给约书亚(Hag.一1,二,2),他的名字在撒迦利亚的(III. 1-10,六11-15)象征性的预言two发生。He is eulogized in Ecclus.他是在Ecclus传颂。(Sirach) xlix.(西拉奇)XLIX。 12, in the list of worthies, as one who "builded the house and exalted a people holy to the Lord, prepared for everlasting glory." 12,在前贤的清单,作为一个谁“builded房子和崇高的人民神圣的主,为永恒的辉煌做好准备。”In Ezra (ii., iii., iv., v., x.) and Nehemiah (vii. 7; xii. 1, 7, 10, 26) he is called "Jeshua."EGHBP在以斯拉(白介素,三,四,五,十。)和尼希米(vii. 7;十二1,7,10,26)他被称为“约书亚”。EGHBP

Emil G. Hirsch, Bernhard Pick埃米尔赫斯基G.,伯恩哈德选择

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。



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