Epistle of Jude书信的裘德

General Information一般资料

Jude is a short book of the New Testament of the Bible, consisting of 25 verses.裘德是一个圣经的新约25节组成,短书。The author is commonly believed to have been the Apostle Jude (or Thaddaeus).作者普遍认为已经使徒犹大(或达太)。However, as verse 17 implies that the Apostles are already dead, the authorship and date of composition are uncertain.然而,正如第17节意味着使徒已经死了,作者和日期是不确定的成分。The book may have been written as late as AD 100.该书可能已被写入如公元100晚。

The text is a warning to its recipients against teachers promoting doctrines leading to immorality. Some scholars suggest that the teachers were proponents of Gnosticism.文本是一个对推动理论导致教师的不道德者警告,有学者建议,教师的诺斯替主义的支持者。A distinctive characteristic of this letter is its use of citations from the Assumption of Moses and the Book of Enoch, works classified as Pseudepigrapha.这方面的一个鲜明特点是它的信从摩西和以诺书假设引文使用,Pseudepigrapha分类工作。

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Epistle of Jude书信的裘德

Brief Outline简述

  1. Introduction (1-4)简介(1-4)
  2. Condemnation of false teachers (5-16)假教师的谴责(5-16)
  3. Admonitions (17-23)告诫(17-23)
  4. Doxology (24-25)Doxology(24-25)


Jude = Judas裘德=犹大

Advanced Information先进的信息

Among the apostles there were two who bore this name,其中使徒有两个谁承担这个名字,

He who is called "the brother of James" (Luke 6:16), may be the same with the Judas surnamed Lebbaeus.他是谁被称为“兄弟詹姆斯”(路加福音6:16),可与犹大姓Lebbaeus相同。The only thing recorded regarding him is in John 14:22.唯一关于他的记录是在约翰14:22。


Epistle of Jude书信的裘德

Advanced Information先进的信息

The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less (Jude 1), called also Lebbaeus (Matt. 10:3) and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18).作者是“犹大,詹姆斯的弟弟”少(犹1),此之谓也Lebbaeus(太10:3)和达太(马可福音3:18)。The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but the evidences in support of its claims are complete.这种书信的真实性还早质疑,并怀疑它是关于在时间的改革恢复,但在其索赔的支持证据是否齐全。It has all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears.它有从作家谁的名义承担进行所有的痕迹。 There is nothing very definite to determine the time and place at which it was written.没有什么非常明确的,确定的时间和地点,在它被写入。It was apparently written in the later period of the apostolic age, for when it was written there were persons still alive who had heard the apostles preach (ver. 17).这显然​​是在使徒时代后期写的,因为当它被写有还活着的人谁听说过的使徒传(版本17)。It may thus have been written about AD 66 or 70, and apparently in Palestine.因此,它可能已被写入约公元66或70,显然在巴勒斯坦。 The epistle is addressed to Christians in general (ver. 1), and its design is to put them on their guard against the misleading efforts of a certain class of errorists to which they were exposed.书信是写给一般基督徒(版本1),它的设计是把他们警惕的向他们暴露errorists某些阶层的误导努力。

The style of the epistle is that of an "impassioned invective, in the impetuous whirlwind of which the writer is hurried along, collecting example after example of divine vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words and images strong enough to depict the polluted character of the licentious apostates against whom he is warning the Church; returning again and again to the subject, as though all language was insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy, and to express his burning hatred of their perversion of the doctrines of the gospel."在书信的风格是一种“激情谩骂,在浮躁的旋风,其中沿作家急促,收集后的罪人神圣复仇的例子为例,根据词堆积称号,并打桩时的形象,并为它是,对文字和图像强大到足以描绘出他对人警告教会的淫乱变节者污染的字符劳动,一次又一次地返回到这个问题,好像所有的语言不足以让他们挥霍了充分的思想,并表示他自己对福音的教义曲解燃烧的仇恨。“ The striking resemblance this epistle bears to 2 Peter suggests the idea that the author of the one had seen the epistle of the other.这书信的惊人的相似之处,以熊彼得暗示说,一个作者看到了其他书信的想法。The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the finest in the New Testament.该doxology书信与该结论被认为是在新约中最好的。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistle of Jude书信的裘德

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯M灰色

The writer of Jude, evidently not an apostle, calls himself a "servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James."而裘德,显然不是一个使徒,作家自称是“耶稣基督的仆人,雅各的兄弟。”Which James?其中詹姆斯?There were two whose brother he might have been, the son of Alpheus and the brother of our Lord, and the general opinion is in favor of the last-named.他们有两个弟弟,他可能已经,是河神的儿子,我们的主的兄弟,而一般认为在最后命名有利。

1. 1。The first division is the salutation, 1, 2.先师是称呼,1,2。Notice the Revised Version: "them that are called, beloved in God the Father, and kept for Jesus Christ."公告修订版本:“他们是所谓的,在上帝的父亲心爱的,和耶稣基督的保存。”Why kept for Him?为什么一直为他? How much this suggests as to HIs coming glory and the part believers will take in it?这表明多少对他的到来为荣耀和部分信徒将参加吗?

2. 2。The object follows, 3, 4.对象如下,3,4。What is that object as stated in verse 3?什么是在第3节指出的对象?Notice that according to the Revised Version the faith delivered to the saints was delivered "once for all."请注意,根据修正后的版本交付给交付圣徒的信仰“的所有一次。”"Faith" here is to be taken in the sense of that body of Christian doctrine which forms the substance of the truth concerning "our common salvation." “信念”在这里是要在该基督教教义,形成了关于真理的物质体感采取了“我们共同的拯救。”It is used synonymously with "Gospel."它是使用同义词“福音”。This was delivered to the body of the church, at the beginning of its history as a complete revelation in itself (Revelation 22:18, 19).这是交付给教会的机构,在其历史本身就是一个完整的启示(启示录22时18分,19)开始。 It is a sacred deposit to be preserved in its integrity, defended and earnestly contended for.这是一个神圣的存款在其完整地保存下来,切实维护和争夺。The necessity for this defense is seen in verse 4.此防御的必要性被认为是在第4节。"Foreshadowed" in that verse should be "forewritten," ie, the false teachers referred to had been predicted as coming in among the flock.“预示”,因为诗应该是“forewritten”,即提到了假教师已经预测在未来的羊群之中。 Our Lord had spoken of them, and so had all His apostles.我们的主谈到了他们,于是只好他所有使徒。The nature and outcome of their teaching as suggested by "lasciviousness" is particularly noticeable.的性质和自己的教学成果如“lasciviousness”建议是格外引人注目。

False Teachers假教师

3.3。The third division deals with the false teachers, and we have first, a revelation of their punishment (5-7).第三个部门涉及假教师,我们首先,对他们处罚的启示(5-7)。From this their position as professed disciples would not save them any more than it saved the Israelites brought out of Egypt, when they afterward sinned against light (5); or the angels referred to in Peter's epistles and Genesis (6); or Sodom and Gomorrah (7).从这个作为自称弟子自己的立场不会保存任何超过它救了以色列人带出埃及,当他们后来对轻(5)犯了罪,或天使提到彼得的书信和创世纪(6),或所多玛和蛾摩拉(7)。 Do not fail to observe the class of sins prominent in these instances, especially the two last-named, and their relationship to "lasciviousness" already spoken of.不要不遵守在这些情况下的罪恶类突出,尤其是最后的命名两个,他们的关系“lasciviousness”已经说过了。While the erroneous teachings were intellectual, yet their power was augmented by carnality of the grossest kind.虽然错误的教义是知识分子,但他们的权力,增强由粗暴的那种肉欲。

4. 4。the description of the teachers follows, (8-13).教师的描述如下,(8-13)。Observe in verse 8 that they not only defile the flesh but speak evil of dignitaries, by which may be meant both civil and ecclesiastical superiors.请遵守在第8节,他们不仅玷污肉体,但说话的政要,其中既可能意味着民间和教会上级邪恶。And there is a strange illustration in verse 9, that throws light on the burial of Moses recorded in Deuteronomy.而且有一个第9节,抛出对摩西在申命记记录埋葬光奇怪的例证。Why that mystery?为什么这个秘密? Why should God have buried Moses, and kept the place a secret?为什么要埋葬摩西的神,并保持一个秘密的地方?Why should Satan have desired possession of that body?为什么撒旦有需要该机构拥有?Did his fore-knowledge of what should take place on the Mount of Transfiguration (Mt. 17) have aught to do with it?做了他应该承担什么样的变形山(山17)地方脱颖而出知识有任何事物做呢?And further, shall we say with some, that Moses in the flesh is to be one of the two witnesses named in Revelation 11, and did Satan seek thus to frustrate God's purposes concerning the last days?再者,我们应该说一些,即在肉体摩西是要在启示录11命名的两个见证人之一,并以此来阻挠撒旦寻求神的目的有关的最后几天? And then the contention of Michael, how that brings to mind the teaching in Daniel concerning him as the prince that stands for Israel!然后是迈克尔争,怎么说使我想起在教学有关的丹尼尔王子,对于以色列代表他!

What a bearing all this has on the teachings of the New Testament about the dominions, and principalities and powers of the air (see Ephesians 6).什么轴承这一切对有关领土和公国和空气权力(见以弗所书6)新约的教导了。Further analysis of these teachers is afforded in verse 11.这些教师给予进一步的分析是在第11节。With what three Old Testament individuals, each conspicuous for his self-willed and rebellious spirit, are they compared?随着哪三旧约个人,每一个为他的任性和叛逆精神,是他们比较突出的?How strange that such could have any standing in the Christian church were it not that we discover their successors at the present day.真奇怪,这样可以在任何基督教教会的地位,如果不是,我们会发现在现今的接班人。Read verse 12 in the Revised Version.读诗句在修订版本12。"Spots in your feasts of charity," should be "hidden rocks in your love-feasts." “在你们的爱的节日景点,”应该是“在你的爱情节日暗礁。”

These "love-feasts" were the Christian gatherings on the first day of the week for the "breaking of bread," and the presence of such would-be leaders in those assemblies suggested the perils of hidden rocks to mariners.这些“爱宴”是基督教的聚会上一周的第一天的“擘饼”,而这种存在将要成为领导人建议在这些程序集的暗礁的危险,以海​​员。 What care were required to avoid disastrous contact with them.什么人需要照顾,以避免灾难性的与他们接触。"Feeding themselves without fear," should be, "Shepherds that without fear feed themselves." “进料毫不畏惧自己,”应该是,“牧羊人,没有恐惧养活自己。”It is characteristic of the heretical teacher that he is thinking of himself rather than the flock.它是邪教的特征,他是老师对自己的思想,而不是羊群。Six terse descriptions of these teachers may be given as follows: Visionary, 8, 9; Ignorant, 10, 11; Deceptive, 12, 13; Ungodly, 14, 15; Selfish, 16-18; Schismatic, 19.六这些教师简洁的描述,可给予如下:有远见,8,9;无知,10,11;欺骗性,12,13;不敬虔,14,15;自私,16-18;分裂,19。

5. 5。The description of the teachers is followed by a reference to the foreknowledge of them (14-16).教师的介绍之后向他们预知(14-16)参考。There is a quotation from Enoch in verse 14, on which we say a word.有一个从以诺在14节的报价,对我们说一句话。

There is an apocryphal book in which it is found, but it is thought to have been of a later date than Jude, and that its author probably quoted from our epistle.有一个未经证实的书在它被发现,但它被认为是一个比裘德日后被,它的作者可能是由我们的书信引用。How interesting to learn that Enoch, before the deluge, had his mind carried out in the Spirit to the Second Coming of Christ!如何有趣地得知,诺,在洪水之前,他心中已经开展的精神,以基督再来!And how perfectly his words agree with the later prophets, concerning that event!而如何完全同意他的话后来先知,关于该事件! The True Church in Contrast.在对比真正的教会。

6. 6。The reference to the false teachers gives way to a description of the true church in sharp contrast with the false (17-25).到假教师参考让位给了鲜明的对比,在真正的教会介绍与假(17-25)。 It begins with a caution (17-19).它一开始就谨慎(17-19)。To which of the apostles is he here referring, do you think?要的使徒是他在这里指,你觉得呢?How does he describe these ungodly persons who have found their way into the visible Church?他是如何描述这些谁已经找到进入有形教会他们的方式不敬虔的人?That word "sensual" is in the margin of the Revised Version, "natural" or "animal."这字“声色”是在修订版保证金,“自然”或“动物”。

It is a case of unregenerated Christians with whom the Church is still plentifully supplied.这是一个与他们的教会仍然plentifully提供unregenerated基督徒的情况。The caution is followed by an exhortation (20, 21).该警告是跟一个劝勉(20,21)。"Build," "pray," "keep," "look," are the four corner posts defining the possessions of the Christian life. “构建”,“祈​​祷”,“保持”,“看,”这四个角柱的定义基督徒生活的财产。What is peculiar about the exhortation to pray?是什么样的告诫祈祷奇特?In Romans 8 we have revealed that the Holy Spirit prays in us, but here we are to pray in Him.在罗马书8,我们发现,在我们圣灵祈祷,但在这里我们要祈求他。Are these contradictory teachings?难道这些矛盾的教义?Is it not true that the Holy Spirit is our life, and also our spiritual atmosphere?这不是真正的圣灵是我们的生命,也是我们的精神氛围?In what are we to keep ourselves according to this exhortation?在什么是我们不断告诫自己按照这个?Does this mean God's love to us or our love to Him?这是否意味着神的爱我们或我们爱他呢?How better can we keep ourselves in His love to us, and the consciousness of our love to Him than by building ourselves up on our most holy faith, and praying in the Holy Spirit?如何才能更好地保持自己在他的爱给我们,我们爱他比意识,通过建立自己上我们最神圣的信仰,并在圣灵祷告?

What do you suppose is meant by "looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life"?你想通过“为我们的主耶稣基督的怜悯,直到永生寻找”是什么意思?In the light of the previous teaching about the appearing of His glory, may it not refer to that?在有关他的荣耀出现以往的教学轻,可它不是指什么?The exhortation is followed by instruction concerning soul-winning (22, 23).在劝勉其次是关于灵魂殊荣(22,23)指令。The Greek text, especially in verse 23, is obscure, but the teaching calls for compassion on our part, and an effort to save the sinner while hating the sin.在希腊文,特别是in 23节,是模糊的,但教学同情在我们方面,并努力拯救罪人while恨罪调用。

7. 7。The benediction and ascription follow.遵循的祝福和归属。What two things is God able to do for believers in His Son?什么两样东西是上帝的信徒们能够在他的儿子?No wonder that we should ascribe unto Him through Jesus Christ "glory and majesty, dominion and power throughout all ages."难怪,我们应该归于祂借着耶稣基督“荣耀和威严,统治和在所有年龄段的力量。”Supplemental Jude is particularly a Scripture for these times, and has been called "a preface to Revelation," as it shows the drift of the apostasy which makes the awful judgment of the book to be necessary.补充裘德是次特别为这些经文,并已被称为“作序,以启示录”,因为它显示了叛教这使得书是必要的可怕的判决漂移。

RV Miller points out how it refers to all the more important articles of the Christian faith.RV米勒指出,如何是指所有的基督教信仰更重要的文章。(a), The Trinity, inasmuch as we have God the Father, (v. 1), Jesus Christ the Son, in several verses, and the Holy Spirit (v. 20); (b), the Deity of Christ, Who in half a dozen verses is called LORD; (c), the historicity of the Old Testament, whose miraculous events are used to illustrate the teaching and give point to the warnings as though they were actual occurrences (vv. 5-11); (d), the existence and power of a personal Satan against whom even the archangel himself dare not bring a railing accusation (v. 9); (e), the existence of angels and spirits (vv. 6, 7); (f), the certainty and fearfulness of future retribution (vv. 6, 7, 13;; (g), the Second Coming of Christ (vv. 14, 15). (一),三位一体,生死时刻,因为我们父神,(1节),在一些经文耶稣基督的儿子,和圣灵(20节),(b)项,基督的神,谁在半打经文叫耶和华;(三),在旧约,用来说明其教学,给点的警告,就像他们(vv. 5-11)实际发生的奇迹般的历史性事件;( d)项的存在和个人的力量对他们进行撒旦连自己都不敢天使带来了栏杆指控(第9),(e)项,天使和神灵的存在(vv. 6,7),(六) ,未来的确定性和恐惧报复(vv. 6,7,13,(G),第二个基督(vv. 14,15)即将。

Questions 问题

1. 1。How is the author of this epistle distinguished from some others?如何从其他一些杰出的这书信的作者? 2.2。Name the seven main divisions of it.它的名称的七个主要部门。3.3。How is "Faith" (v. 3), to be understood?如何是“信仰”(3节),被人理解?4.4。What different ideas are suggested by the "mystery" in verse 9?有什么不同的想法所建议的“神秘”的诗句9?5.5。What was said in the lesson about verse 14?什么是说,在约14节的教训?6.6。Name the four corner posts of the Christian life?名称的四个角柱基督徒的生活?7.7。What makes this epistle particularly applicable to, or useful in, these days?是什么使这书信特别适用,或有用的,这几天? 8.8。What seven important articles of the Christian faith does it emphasize?什么是基督教信仰的七个重要文章强调它?


Epistle of St. Jude书信的圣裘德

Catholic Information天主教信息

The present subject will be treated under the following heads:本主题将被视为根据以下元首:

I. The Author and the Authenticity of the Epistle:一,作者和书信的真实性:

(1) Jude in the Books of the New Testament;(1)裘德在新约中的图书;

(2) Tradition as to the Genuineness and the Canonicity of the Epistle; (2)的真实性和正规的传统的书信;

(3) Difficulties Arising from the Text;(3)从文本产生的困难;

(4) The Relation of Jude to the Second Epistle of St. Peter;(4)裘德关系到圣彼得第二书信;

(5) Vocabulary and Style;(5)词汇和风格;

II. II。Analysis of the Epistle;分析的书信;

III. III。Occasion and Object;场合和对象;

IV. IV。To Whom Addressed;为了谁的问题;

V. Date and Place of Composition.五,日期和地点组成。

I. THE AUTHOR AND THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE EPISTLE一,作者和书信的真实性

(1) Jude in the Books of the New Testament(1)裘德在新约的书籍

In the address of the Epistle the author styles himself "Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James".在书信的作者自己的风格“犹大,耶稣基督的仆人,雅各的兄弟”的地址。"Servant of Jesus Christ" means "apostolic minister or labourer".“耶稣基督的仆人”的意思是“使徒的部长或劳动者”。"Brother of James" denotes him as the brother of James kat exochen who was well-known to the Hebrew Christians to whom the Epistle of St. Jude was written. “雅各的兄弟”指作为詹姆斯吉exochen哥哥谁是众所周知的基督徒希伯来人的圣裘德书信写他。This James is to be identified with the Bishop of the Church of Jerusalem (Acts 15:13; 21:18), spoken of by St. Paul as "the brother of the Lord" (Gal. i, 19), who was the author of the Catholic Epistle of St. James.这是詹姆斯被识别与耶路撒冷的教会(使徒15时13; 21:18)主教,口语由圣保罗为“主的兄弟”(加我,19),谁是作者的天主教圣雅各福群书信。and is regarded amongst Catholic interpreters as the Apostle James the son of Alpheus (St. James the Less).并认为天主教之间的翻译使徒詹姆斯的河神(圣雅各福群欠)的儿子。This last identification, however, is not evident, nor, from a critical point of view, does it seem beyond all doubt.这最后确定,但并不明显,也从一个角度临界点,它似乎毫无疑问。Most Catholic commentators identify Jude with the "Judas Jacobi" ("Jude, the brother of James" in the DV) of Luke, vi, 16, and Acts, i, 13 -- also called Thaddeus (Matthew 10:3: Mark 3:18) -- referring the expression to the fact that his brother James was better known than himself in the primitive Church.大多数天主教评论家认同“犹大雅可比”(“裘德,詹姆斯的兄弟”,在DV)的卢克,六,16和行为,我,13裘德 - 也称为赛迪斯(马太10时03分:马克3 :18) - 指的表达了他的弟弟詹姆斯比自己已知的原始教会的事实。This view is strongly confirmed by the title "the brother of James", by which Jude designates himself in the address of his Epistle.这种观点是强烈证实了标题为“詹姆斯的兄弟”,其中裘德指定在他的书信地址自己。If this identification is proved, it is clear that Jude, the author of the Epistle, was reckoned among the Twelve Apostles.如果这个鉴定证明,很显然,裘德,书信的作者,是十二门徒之一计算。This opinion is most highly probable.这种观点是极有可能最。Beyond this we find no further information concerning Jude in the New Testament, except that the "brethren of the Lord", among whom Jude was included, were known to the Galatians and the Corinthians; also that several of them were married, and that they did not fully believe in Christ till after the Resurrection (1 Corinthians 9:5; Galatians 1:10; John 7:3-5; Acts 1:14).除此之外,我们发现在新约中没有进一步的信息有关裘德,只不过,其中裘德被列入,“主的兄弟”被称为向加拉太和科林蒂安;还,他们几个人结婚了,他们没有完全相信基督复活后,直到(哥林多前书9时05分;加拉太书1:10;约翰7:3-5;徒1:14)。 From a fact of Hegesippus told by Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, xix, xx, xxii) we learn that Jude was "said to have been the brother of the Lord according to the flesh", and that two of his grandsons lived till the reign of Trajan (see, however, BRETHREN OF THE LORD).从一个由尤西比乌斯告诉Hegesippus事实(Hist.传道书。,三,十九,二十,二十二)我们知道,裘德是“说是主的兄弟根据肉”,而他的孙子two生活直到图拉真在位(见,然而,耶和华弟兄)。

(2) Tradition as to the Genuineness and the Canonicity of the Epistle The Epistle of Jude is one of the so-called antilegomena; but, although its canonicity has been questioned in several Churches, its genuineness has never been denied. (2)以传统的真实性和书信的裘德书信是所谓的antilegomena one正规,但是,虽然它的正规已经在几个教会的质疑,其真实性从未被拒绝。 The brevity of the Epistle, the coincidences between it and II Peter, and the supposed quotation from apocryphal books, created a prejudice against it which was gradually overcome.在简短的书信,它与彼得的巧合,而应该从猜测书籍报价,创造了一个反对偏见逐渐克服。The history of its acceptance by the Church is briefly as follows:其由教会接受历史简述如下:

Some coincidences or analogies exist between Jude and the writings of the Apostolic Fathers -- between Barnabas, ii, 10, and Jude, 3, 4; Clemens Romanus, Ep.有些巧合或类比之间存在着裘德和使徒教父的著作 - 在巴拿巴,II,10,和裘德,3,4;克莱门斯罗马努斯,EP。xx, 12; lxv, 2, and Jude, 25; Ep.XX,12,第六十五,2,和裘德,25; EP。ad Polyc., iii 2; iv, 2, and Jude, 3.广告Polyc,三2;四,2,裘德,3。20, Mart.20,沃尔玛。Polyc., xx, and Jude, 24 sq. It is possible, though not certain, that the passages here noted were suggested by the text of Jude.Polyc。,XX,和裘德,24平方米这是可能的,虽然不能肯定,该通道在这里指出是由裘德文本建议。 The similarity between "Didache" ii, 7 and Jude, 22 sq., does not seem to be accidental, whilst in Athenagoras (about AD, 177), "Leg.", xxiv, and in Theophilus of Antioch (d. about 183), "Ad Autol."之间的“十二使徒遗训”二,第七条和裘德,22平方米,相似性似乎并没有被偶然的,而在哥拉(约公元177),“腿”,二十四,并在安提阿西奥菲勒斯(四约183 ),“广告Autol。”II, xv, there is a clear reference to Jude, 6 and 13 respectively.二十五,有一个明确提及裘德,分别为6和13。

The earliest positive reference to the Epistle occurs in the Muratorian Fragment, "Epistola sane Judæ et superscriptæ Joannis duae in catholica [scil. Ecclesia] habentur."最早积极参考书信在穆拉多利片段时,“Epistola理智Judæ等superscriptæ Joannis duae在catholica [SCIL。教会] habentur。”The Epistle was thus recognized as canonical and Apostolic (for it is Jude the Apostle who is here meant) in the Roman Church about 170.在书信因此确认为规范和使徒(因为这是裘德这里指的是谁使徒)在约170罗马教会。 At the end of the second century it was also accepted as canonical and Apostolic by the Church of Alexandria (Clement of Alexandria, "Pæd.", III, viii, followed by Origen), and by the African Church of Carthage (Tertullian).在第二个世纪末,也有人为规范和使徒所接受教会亚历山大(亚历山大的克莱门特,“PAED”,三,八,由奥利之后),以及由迦太基(良)非洲教会。 At the beginning of the third century the Epistle was universally accepted except in the primitive East Syrian Church, where none of the Catholic Epistles were recognized, nor the Apocalypse.在第三个世纪初的书信被普遍接受,除了在原始的东方叙利亚教会,那里的天主教教会没有被承认,也没有启示。

This remarkably wide acceptance, representing as it does the voice of ancient tradition, testifies to the canonicity and the genuineness of Jude.这非常广泛的接受,因为它代表了古代传统的声音,证明了正规和裘德的真实性。During the third and fourth centuries doubt and suspicion, based on internal evidence (especially on the supposed quotation from the Book of Henoch and the "Assumption of Moses"), arose in several Churches.在第三和第四世纪怀疑和猜忌,内部证据(特别是在从过敏性书籍和“摩西升天”应该报价)为基础,出现了几个教会。 However the prejudice created against the deuterocanonical Jude was soon overcome, so that the Epistle was universally accepted in the Western Church at the very beginning of the fifth century (see CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT).但对次经裘德创建的偏见很快被克服,从而使书信被普遍接受的第五世纪开始的西方教会(见新约CANON)。

In the Eastern Church Eusebius of Cæsarea (260-340) placed Jude among the antilegomena or the "disputed books, which are nevertheless known and accepted by the greater number" (Hist. Eccl., II xxiii; III, xxv); he incorporated all the Catholic Epistles in the fifty copies of the Bible which at the command of Constantine, he wrote for the Church of Constantinople.在东方教会尤西比乌斯的cæsarea(260-340)跻身antilegomena或“争议的书,不过这是已知的和更多的接受”裘德(Hist.传道书,二二十三,三,二十五),他成立所有的圣经五十份,在君士坦丁的命令,他为君士坦丁堡天主教教会写书信。 St. Athanasius (d. 387) and St. Epiphanius (d. 403) placed Jude among the canonical and Apostolic writings.圣亚他那修(卒于387)和圣埃皮法尼乌斯(卒于403)跻身规范和使徒的著作裘德。Junilius and Paul of Nisibis in Constantinople (513) held it as mediæ auctoritatis. Junilius和尼西比斯保罗在君士坦丁堡(513)举行mediæ auctoritatis它。However, in the sixth century the Greek Church everywhere considered Jude as canonical.然而,在六世纪的希腊教会到处视为规范裘德。

The recognition of Jude in the Syriac Church is not clear.而裘德在叙利亚教会承认并不清楚。In Western Syria we find no trace of Jude in the fifth century.在西方叙利亚,我们发现在第五世纪没有裘德痕迹。In Eastern Syria the Epistle is wanting in the oldest Syriac version, the Peshito, but it is accepted in the Philoxenian (508) and Heracleon (616) versions.在东部叙利亚的书信,是想在最古老的叙利亚文版本,Peshito,但它是在Philoxenian(508)和Heracleon(616)版本所接受。 Except among the Syriac Nestorians, there is no trace of any ecclesiastical contradiction from the beginning of the sixth century till the Council of Trent, which defined the canonicity of both the proto- and deutero-canonical books of the New Testament.除叙利亚文景教之中,没有任何从到安理会的遄达,明确了双方的原和新约deutero规范的正规书六世纪初教会矛盾的痕迹。

(3) Difficulties Arising from the Text(3)从文本产生的困难

The wording of verse 17 -- which some critics have taken as an evidence that the Epistle was written in the second century -- does not imply that the recipients of the Epistle had, in a period that was past, received oral instructions from all the Apostles, nor does it imply that Jude himself was not an Apostle.而第17节的措辞 - 这一些批评人士说,作为书信是在公元二世纪的书面证据,采取 - 并不意味着对书信的受助人,在一个时期已经过去,得到了所有的口头指示使徒,也不意味着裘德自己不是一个使徒。The text ton apostolon implies only that several of the Apostles had predicted to the readers that such "mockers" as are described by the writer would assail the Faith; it is not separation in time, but distance of place, that leads Jude to refer to the scattered Apostles as a body.文本吨apostolon意味着只有这几个使徒曾预测给读者,这种“诮”作为由作家描述将攻击的信仰,它不是在时间上分离,但距离的地方,这导致裘德指作为一个机构分散使徒。 Nor does he exclude himself from this body, he only declares that he was not one of those prophesying Apostles.他也没有排除这个机构自己,他只是宣称他是不是那些预言使徒之一。The author of II Peter, who often ranks himself among the Apostles, uses a similar expression ton apostolon humon (3:2), and certainly does not mean to imply that he himself was not an Apostle.而彼得,谁往往跻身使徒自己,作者采用了类似的表达吨apostolon恒邦(3:2),当然并不意味着暗示,他本人不是一个使徒。

Many Protestant scholars have maintained that the false teachers denounced in Jude are Gnostics of the second century.许多基督教学者认为,在裘德谴责假教师是公元二世纪诺斯替教派。But, as Bigg rightly says: "It is not really a tenable view" (op. cit. infra).但是,正如Bigg正确地说:“这是不是一个真正站得住脚的意见”(同前下文)。St. Jude does not give any details about the errors denounced in this short letter any more than does St. Peter, and there is no ground for identifying the false teachers with any of the Gnostic sects known to us.圣裘德不提供有关错误的任何细节在这短短的信中谴责任何不超过圣彼得大教堂,并没有确定与我们所知的任何的诺斯底教派假教师地面。 There is nothing in the references made to false doctrines that obliges us to look beyond the Apostolic times.有在作出这一迫使我们超越了使徒时代的引用没有虚假的教义。

The use made of apocryphal writings, even if proved, is not an argument against the Apostolicity of the Epistle; at most it could only invalidate its canonicity and inspiration.由未经著作,即使证明的使用,是不是违背了使徒的书信参数;在大多数情况下它只能作废了正规和灵感。Verse 9, which contains the reference concerning the body of Moses, was supposed by Didymus ("Enarr. in Epist. Judæ" in PG, XXXIX, 1811 sqq.), Clement of Alexandria (Adumbr. in Ep. Judæ), and Origen (De Princ., III, ii, 1), to have been taken from the "Assumption of Moses", which is unquestionably anterior to the Epistle of Jude.第9节,其中包含引用有关摩西的身体,本来是由Didymus(“Enarr中Epist。Judæ”的PG,XXXIX,18​​11 SQQ),亚历山大(在EP Adumbr.。Judæ)克莱门特和奥利(德Princ,,三,二,1),已采取了从“摩西升天”,这是毫无疑问前的裘德书信。Jude may possibly have learned the story of the contest from Jewish tradition.裘德有可能已经学会了从犹太传统比赛的故事。 But, at any rate, it is evident that Jude does not quote the "Assumption" as a written authority, and still less as a canonical book.但是,无论如何,很显然,裘德不引述“假设”作为书面授权,仍然作为一个典型的书少。

As regards the prophecy of vv.至于VV的预言。14 sq., many Catholic scholars admit it to be a loose and abbreviated citation from the apocryphal Book of Henoch, i, 1, 9, which existed a century before St. Jude wrote. 14平方米,许多天主教学者承认这是一个从过敏,我,1,9,它存在一个世纪前写下杜撰的圣犹大书松动和缩写引用。But here again St. Jude does not quote Henoch as a canonical book.但在这里再次引述圣裘德不作为规范书过敏。There is nothing strange, as Plumptre remarks (op. cit. infra, 88), in Jude making use of books not included in the Hebrew Canon of the Old Testament, "as furnishing illustrations that gave point and force to his counsels. The false teachers, against whom he wrote, were characterized largely by their fondness for Jewish fables, and the allusive references to books with which they were familiar, were therefore of the nature of an argumentum ad hominem. He fought them, as it were, with their own weapons."没有什么奇怪的,因为Plumptre备注(同前,红外线,88)在裘德使图书的使用不包括在旧约希伯来语佳能,作为家具插图,给点力量,他的律师“,假教师,对人,他写道,进行了表征,主要是由他们喜爱的犹太寓言,以及书籍与他们所熟悉的引经据典的引用,因此是一个argumentum广告人身攻击性,他与他们战斗,因为它是他们的, 。自己的武器“He merely intends to remind his readers of what they know.他只是想提醒他们知道他的读者。He does not affirm or teach the literary origin of the apocryphal book, such is not his intention.他不肯定或教的猜测书文学出身,这样是不是他的本意。He simply makes use of the general knowledge it conveys, just as the mention of the dispute between Michael and the Devil is but an allusion to what is assumed as being known to the readers.他只是利用了它传达的一般知识的使用,只是作为迈克尔和魔鬼之间的争端一提的是,而是什么典故是被称为给读者承担。 By no means, therefore, does either of the passages offer any difficulty against the canonicity of the Epistle, or against the Catholic doctrine of inspiration.决不,因此它的段落或提供任何反对书信正规困难,或对天主教教义的灵感。

(4) The Relation of Jude to the Second Epistle of St. Peter(4)关系的裘德到二圣彼得书信

The resemblance as to thought and language between Jude and II Peter, ii, is quite sufficient to make it certain that one of the two writers borrowed from the other: the hypothesis that both writers borrowed from a common document must be put aside, as having no support whatsoever.作为以思想与裘德和彼得,II语言相似,是相当足够,使其确信,一个从其他借用两位作家:假设,从一个共同文件借来的两个作家必须抛开作为有,不支持任何责任。 The question remains: Which of the two Epistles was the earlier?问题是:这两个书信这是较早?The priority of II Peter, as well as the priority of Jude, has found strong advocates, and much has been written about this intricate question.而彼得的优先级,以及裘德优先,大力倡导发现,和许多一直关注这个复杂的问题写的。The following arguments, however, lead to the conclusion that the Epistle of Jude was the earlier of the two:下面的参数,但是,得出结论认为,裘德书信是前面的两个:

It is not uncommon for St. Peter to throw a light on the more obscure passages of the Epistle of Jude, or to interpret the more difficult passages.这并非罕见的圣彼得扔在书信的裘德更晦涩的段落轻,或解释较困难的段落。At one time he puts them in a shorter form or uses more general terms; at another, while adducing in general the same arguments, he adds a new one or omits one or another used in Jude.有一次他把在一个较短的形式,或使用更多的一般条款;另一个,而在相同的参数一般举证,他增加了一个新的或遗漏一个或裘德用另一种。 This shows that St. Peter had probably read the Epistle of St. Jude.这表明,圣彼得可能读的圣裘德书信。Compare especially II Peter, ii, 12, with Jude, 10.比较裘德,10尤其是彼得,二,12。This may also be confirmed not only by II Peter, i, 17, compared with Jude, 13 -- where St. Peter doubles Jude's comparison and puts more strength into it, whilst Jude has more similitudes -- but also by comparing the style of both, for, whereas the style of Jude is always the same, that of St. Peter differs somewhat from his usual way of writing, and the reasons for this change seem to be the matter he writes about and the influence of the Epistle of St. Jude.这也可能是确认不仅彼得,我,17岁,比裘德,13 - 在圣彼得双打裘德的比较,并把更多的力量到它,而有更多的similitudes裘德 - 但也比较的风格同时,对于,而裘德风格总是相同的,圣彼得的有所不同,从他的写作通常的方式,并为这种变化的原因似乎是这个问题,他写到了和圣书信影响。裘德。

Finally, is more probable that St. Peter has embodied in his work the text of Jude's Epistle than that Jude should have included in his writing only a part of St. Peter's Epistle.最后,更可能是圣彼得在他的作品体现了裘德的书信比裘德文本应该有他的写作只包括了圣彼得的书信的一部分。If Jude wrote later than Peter and found the same state of things, why did he omit the remaining questions, eg the doubts about the parousiæ?如果裘德后来写道比彼得和发现事物相同的状态,他为什么省略了其余问题,例如有关parousiæ的疑虑?Or why should he, in order to combat the same heretics, give only a summary of St. Peter's Epistle, omitting entirely the strongest arguments?或者为什么要他,为了打击同异教徒,只给出了圣彼得的书信总结,完全忽略了最强的论据?

(5) Vocabulary and Style(5)词汇和风格

The vocabulary of Jude proves that the author was a Jew, saturated with the Old Testament, using Hebraisms, yet acquainted with the koine dialektos -- the "common dialect".而裘德词汇证明,作者是一个犹太人,与旧约使用Hebraisms,但与koine dialektos熟悉饱和 - “共同语”。Thirteen words found in Jude do not occur elsewhere in the New Testament.在裘德发现十三话不发生其他地方的新约。Some words of the new Christian dialect appear in Jude as well as in the Pauline Epistles, but literary affinity or direct quotation cannot be proved.新基督教方言有些话出现在裘德以及在保禄书信,但文学的亲和力或直接报价不能证明。The style, although sometimes poetical, always evinces the severe and authoritative tone of a man of Apostolic rank, held in high honour.的风格,虽然有时诗意,总是evinces一个人的使徒职级高的荣誉举行,严重的,权威的基调。

II. II。ANALYSIS OF THE EPISTLE分析书信

(a) Exordium(一)绪论

Address and good wishes (vv. 1-2), occasion and purpose of the Epistle (3-4).地址和良好的祝愿(vv. 1-2),场合和书信(3-4)的目的。

(b) First Part(二)第一部分

He inveighs against the pseudo-teachers; describes their life and errors (5-16).他inveighs反对伪教师;介绍了他们的生活和错误(5-16)。They will be severely punished, as is evident from the severe punishment of the unbelieving Israelites in the desert (5), of the wicked angels (6), and of the inhabitants of Sodom (7).他们将受到严厉惩罚,因为是显而易见的,从以色列人的不信在沙漠中(5)邪恶的天使(6),严厉的惩罚,以及对所多玛(7)的居民。 He mentions their wicked teaching and life (8), and opposes the modesty of Michael the Archangel (9) to their pride (10).他提到自己的邪恶的教学和生活(8),反对迈克尔的天使(9)他们的骄傲(10)谦虚。He foretells for the heretics the punishment of Cain, Balaam, and the sons of Core, for they have imitated their errors (11-3).他预言为异端的惩罚该隐,巴兰和核心的儿子,因为他们模仿他们的错误(11-3)。Enoch has already prophesied the judgment of God upon them (14-6).以诺预言已经在他们(14-6)神的审判。

(c) Second Part(三)第二部分

He exhorts the faithful (17-23).他劝勉信徒(17-23)。They must remember the teaching of the Apostles, by whom they had been warned of the coming of such heretics (17-19).他们必须记住的使徒教学中,他们曾经是谁的(17-19)等异端来警告。They must maintain the Faith, keep themselves in the love of God, and wait for life everlasting (20-21).他们必须保持信心,保持在神的爱自己,并等待生命永恒(20-21)。What their behaviour should he towards Christians that have in any way fallen away (22-23)什么他对自己的行为应该基督徒,在远离任何方式都下降(22-23)

(d) Epilogue(四)后记

A most beautiful doxology (24-25).一个最美丽的doxology(24-25)。

III. III。OCCASION AND OBJECT场合和对象

Occasion场合

The Epistle was occasioned by the spread of the dogmatico-moral errors amongst the Hebrew Christians; pseudo-doctors "are secretly entered in", who abuse Christian liberty to give themselves over to intemperance; moreover "denying the only sovereign Ruler, and our Lord Jesus Christ" (4).所引致的书信是由dogmatico道德的错误蔓延之间的希伯来基督徒;伪医生“正在秘密进入”,谁虐待基督徒的自由给自己到放纵,而且“否定了只有主权的统治者,我们的主耶稣基督“(4)。

Object对象

Jude's intention was to caution his readers, the Hebrew Christians, against such depraved teaching, and to exhort them to keep faithfully the teaching of the Apostles.裘德的目的是提醒他的读者,希伯来基督徒,对这种堕落的教学,并告诫他们保持忠实的使徒教学。

IV. IV。TO WHOM ADDRESSED敬启者ADDRESSED

The dedicatory address runs as follows: tois en Theo patri hegapemenois kai Iesou Christo teteremenois kletois (to them that are beloved in God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called).运行的奉献地址如下:tois EN西奥patri hegapemenois偕Iesou克里斯托teteremenois kletois(他们都在上帝的父亲心爱的,而在耶稣基督保存,并呼吁)。 Which are the kletoi, or "called", becomes manifest from the context.哪些是kletoi,或“叫”,成为从内容清单。They are not all the Christians of the whole Christian world, but those of a particular Church (vv. 3, 4, 17, 22).他们是不是所有的基督徒整个基督教世界,而是一个特定的教会人士(vv. 3,4,17,22)。Several commentators think that St. Jude's Epistle was addressed to the same churches of Asia Minor to which St. Peter's Epistle was written.一些评论家认为,圣裘德的书信是写给小亚细亚到其中圣彼得的书信写相同的教堂。 This opinion, according to these commentators, is to be held because in both Epistles the same errors are condemned, and also because Jude (v. 17) appears to have known II Peter, and shows that the prophecy of the Prince of the Apostles has been verified.这种意见,根据这些评论,是因为在这两种举行书信同样的错误被谴责,而且还因为裘德(17节)似乎已经知道彼得,又体现了对王子的使徒预言已得到了验证。 But we have already proved that the second argument is of no value (see above I, 4); as for the first, there are two objections:但我们已经证明,第二个参数是没有价值的(见上面我,4);为第一,有两个反对:

the errors condemned in the Epistle of St. Jude and in II Peter may have spread in countries outside Asia Minor; we find in Jude several reasons for believing that the Epistle was addressed, not to the Gentile Christians of Asia Minor, but to the Hebrew Christians of Palestine or of a neighbouring country.在圣裘德书信和彼得谴责了错误的传播可能在亚洲以外的小国家,我们发现在相信该书信是写给裘德几个原因,不以小亚细亚的外邦基督徒,但希伯来文基督徒巴勒斯坦或邻国。

V. DATE AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION五,日期和地点组成

Date日期

It is difficult to state the exact time at which St. Jude wrote his Epistle.这是很难说出确切时间的圣犹大写他的书信。But the doctrines against which he inveighs, and the looseness of morals or the so-called antinomismus, seem to indicate the end of the Apostolic age.但对他的学说inveighs,以及道德或所谓的antinomismus松动,似乎表明了使徒时代的结束。Jude seems on the other hand to have written before AD 70; otherwise in vv.裘德似乎已经写在公元70年,另一方面,在VV否则。 5-7 he would have spoken of the destruction of Jerusalem.5-7他都谈到了耶路撒冷的破坏。In those verses St. Jude mentions the different punishments of prevaricators, and therefore in this exhortation to Hebrew Christians he could not have passed over in silence so dire a calamity.在这些诗句中提到的圣裘德prevaricators不同的惩罚,因此在这希伯来基督徒规劝他不可能通过在沉默了这么可怕的灾难。 Moreover we have shown that the Epistle of St. Jude was written before II Peter, which latter was probably written AD 64 (65).此外,我们已经表明,圣裘德之前彼得书信,其中后者可能是书面公元64(65)写的。Therefore St. Jude must have written shortly before 64 (65).因此,圣裘德必须有书面前不久64(65)。

Place of Composition广场的组成

Here we can only guess, but we prefer the opinion that the Epistle was written in Palestine, and probably in Jerusalem.在这里,我们只能猜测,但我们更愿意认为,书信写于巴勒斯坦和耶路撒冷可能的意见。

Publication information Written by A. Camerlynck.出版信息A. Camerlynck书面。Transcribed by Ernie Stefanik.转录由厄尼Stefanik。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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