Book of Lamentations书哀歌

General Information一般资料

The Book of Lamentations in the Old Testament of the Bible is actually five poems that lament the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC.而在圣经旧约耶利米书实际上是诗五首的慨叹耶路撒冷在公元前586年毁灭。Often called "The Lamentations of Jeremiah," it is usually placed after the Book of Jeremiah, despite its uncertain authorship.通常被称为“耶利米哀歌”,它通常是放置后,耶利米书,尽管它的不确定性作者。The poet vividly describes the devastation endured by Jerusalem.诗人生动地描述了耶路撒冷遭受的破坏。Although this recitation of laments faced the harsh realities of the present, the prayer - poems also stirred up continuing hope in Yahweh's promises for the future.尽管这样的感叹背诵目前所面临的严酷现实,祈祷 - 诗也激起了对未来的持续耶和华的承诺的希望。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单


Advanced Information先进的信息

Lamentation, (Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge.哀悼,(希伯来书qinah),一个或挽歌挽歌。The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:17-27).这种诗的形式第一个例子是大卫在扫罗和乔纳森慨叹(2山姆。1:17-27)。It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10).这是一个哀悼频繁伴奏(阿摩司书8:10)。In 2 Sam.在2山姆。3:33, 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner.3点33分,34记大卫在押尼珥慨叹。Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek. 27:2, 32; 28:12; 32:2, 16).有时预言了一个哀叹形式,当它预测灾难(以西结书27:2,32; 28:12,32:2,16)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Book of Lamentations书耶利米哀歌

Advanced Information先进的信息

Lamentations, called in the Hebrew canon 'Ekhah, meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing.悲叹,在希伯来文佳能Ekhah叫,意思是“怎么样,”正在为一首歌曲开始哭公式。It is the first word of the book (see 2 Sam. 1:19-27).这是书(见2山姆。1:19-27)第一个字。The LXX.在LXX。adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans.通过提供的“哀歌”(希腊语threnoi =希伯来书。qinoth)现在普遍使用,以表示对书字符的名字,其中超过了城市和迦勒底人的圣地带来的荒​​芜先知哀悼。In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among the Khethubim.在希伯来文圣经是跻身Khethubim。(See BIBLE.) As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in following the LXX. (见圣经)至于其作者,有没有犹豫房间后,LXX。and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah.而在耶利米Targum归咎于它。The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him.的精神,语气,语言和题材都与传统的在分配给他的证词一致。According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus gate, where he wrote this book.根据传统,他退役尼布甲尼撒到外大马士革门,在那里他写这本书洞穴后,耶路撒冷的破坏。

That cavern is still pointed out.这洞穴仍然指出。"In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the city, the local belief has placed 'the grotto of Jeremiah.'“在山上的岩石上的城市的西侧,面,当地信仰置于”的耶利米石窟。“There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned the fall of his country" (Stanley, Jewish Church).在那里,在那个悲伤的米开朗琪罗有永生固定的态度,先知可能是应该有悼念他的国家属于“(赤柱,犹太教堂)。The book consists of five separate poems.本书由五个独立的诗。In chapter 1 the prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely.在第一章先知dwells在多方面的苦难压迫其中城市作为一个单独的遗孀哭坐在缺阵。In chapter 2 these miseries are described in connection with the national sins that had caused them.在第2章中描述了这些苦难与这些国家造成的罪恶联系。Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God.第三章讲的对神的人的希望。The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day would dawn for them.该惩罚只会对自己好,一个更好的一天会为他们的曙光。Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to the people's sins.第四章感叹废墟和荒芜,民政事务总署在城市和寺庙来,但痕迹只给人们的罪过。Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people.第5章是一个锡安的责备可能采取的忏悔和人民恢复离开祈祷。

The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of the Psalms (25, 34, 37, 119), ie, each verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order.首四言诗(章)是acrostics,像一些诗篇(25,34,37,119),即 ​​每节一开始就采取了以希伯来字母。The first, second, and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet.第一,第二和第四各自22节,在希伯来文字母表中的字母数。The third has sixty-six verses, in which each three successive verses begin with the same letter. The fifth is not acrostic.第三个有66节,其中每三个连续的诗句具有相同字母开头。五是没有离合词。Speaking of the "Wailing-place (qv) of the Jews" at Jerusalem, a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon, Schaff says: "There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail the downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms."的“哭位的犹太人(QV)”在耶路撒冷,一个是所罗门圣殿的老墙的一部分时,沙夫说:“有犹太人集会逢星期五下午哀叹的圣城倒台,接吻石墙和浇水它与他们的眼泪,他们重复他们的陈腐的希伯来文圣经和祈祷书耶利米哀歌和合适的诗篇。“

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Jewish Perspective Information犹太人的角度看信息


-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

Fourth and Fifth Poems.第四和第五诗。


-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

In the manuscripts and printed copies of the Old Testament the book is called, after its initial word, "Ekah"; in the Talmud and among the Rabbis, after its contents, "Ḳinot" (comp. especially BB 15a).在手稿和印刷本的旧约书被称为后,其最初的一句话,“Ekah”,在塔木德和拉比之间,它的内容后,“Ḳinot”(comp.特别是BB 15A)。The Greek and Latin translations of the Old Testament, as well as the Church Fathers, call it Θρῆνοι, or Θρῆνοι Ἱερεμίον, or "Threni."在旧约,以及教会的神父的希腊文和拉丁文翻译,称之为Θρῆνοι,或ΘρῆνοιἹερεμίον,或“Threni。”

The five poems deal with the destruction of Jerusalem (586 BC), describing how city and country, palace and Temple, king and people, suffered under the terrible catastrophe.五个诗歌处理耶路撒冷(公元前586年)的破坏,城市和国家如何描述,宫殿和神庙,国王和人民在遭受了可怕的灾难。 The several poems have markedly different characteristics.这几首诗有明显不同的特点。The first shows an almost utter lack of consecutive thought.首先给出了一个几乎完全缺乏连续思想。Although it may be divided into two distinct sections.-verses 1-11b, in which the poet speaks, and 11c-22, in which the city continues-the sections themselves present no logical development of thought.虽然它可分为两个不同的sections. -诗句1 - 11B,其中诗人说话,和11C - 22,其中城市继续,目前还没有自己的部分思想的逻辑发展。The theme of the entire song is the distress of the city (which is personified) and of her children and inhabitants, and the haughtiness of the victors.整个歌曲的主题是城市的(这是拟人化)和她的孩子和居民的困扰,而傲慢的胜利者。Thus verses 1 et seq.这样的诗句1起。deal, in obvious imitation of Isa.处理,在伊萨明显的模仿。i.21, with the misfortunes of Jerusalem; verse 5, with the arrogance of the Chaldeans; verses 6-9, again, with the misery of the inhabitants; verse 10, with the proud victors. 21,与耶路撒冷的不幸,第5节,与迦勒底人的嚣张气焰;诗句6-9,再次与居民的苦难;第10节,与骄傲的胜利者。Verses 12-16 of the second section are especially remarkable for their series of detached images representing Jerusalem's sufferings; viz., the rain of fire, the net, the yoke, the treading in the wine-press, etc. From a theological point of view, the strong sense of sin (verses 5, 8, 14, 18, 21), as well as the wish that God may punish the enemy (verse 22), is noteworthy.诗篇第二部分12-16特别为他们的代表耶路撒冷的痛苦超脱一系列图像显着;即,火雨,净,枷锁,在葡萄酒报刊,等从神学角度践踏。看来,罪感强(诗句5,8,14,18,21),以及希望上帝会惩罚敌人(诗22),是值得注意的。

The second poem, ch.第二首诗,甲烷。ii.II。(comp. Jer. xiv. 15-18), is remarkable for its methodical arrangement.(comp.哲。十四15-18),是其显着有条不紊的安排。 After the theme-the destruction of Jerusalem-has been announced in verse 1, it is treated first in its political aspect (2-5) and then from its religious side (6-7).经过主题的破坏耶路撒冷一直在诗歌1日宣布,它被视为第一个在政治方面(2-5),然后再从宗教方面(6-7)。Verse 8 is the beginning of a new section, also in two parts: (a) 8-9a, dealing with the fate of the city; and (b) 9b-12, with that of her inhabitants.第8节是一个新的开始部分,也分为两部分:(一)8 - 9A,处理城市的命运;及(b)9B - 12与她的居民说。Verse 13 introduces a parenetic portion: the false prophets are mostly to blame (14-17); therefore the exhortation to cry unto the Lord (18-19) and the fulfilment of the exhortation (20-22).第13节介绍了parenetic部分:假先知大多归咎于(14-17),因此祂的劝告哭主(18-19)和劝勉(20-22)履行。

The third poem, ch.第三首诗,甲烷。iii., has a character of its own, being a psalm, somewhat similar to Ps.三,有它自己的特点,作为一个诗篇,有点类似于聚苯乙烯。lxxxviii.lxxxviii。Here, too, the question arises as to whether the speaker is one person-perhaps Jeremiah (comp. K. Budde in Marti's "Kurzer Handcommentar,"xvii. 92 et seq.)-or the community (comp. R. Smend in Stade's "Zeitschrift," viii. 62, note 3).在这里,由此产生的问题,是否是一个人说话,也许耶利米(comp.光布德在马蒂的“Kurzer Handcommentar,”十七92起。)或社区(comp. R. Smend在体育场的“(杂志),”八,62,注3)。The latter opinion is preferable in view of the contents.后者认为是最好的内容观点。Verses 1-18 deal with the deep affliction in consequence of which the speaker is without peace and without hope, and therefore he cries to God (19 et seq.).诗篇1-18随着深痛苦后果,其中的一位发言者是没有和平,没有希望,因此他哭神(19起。)处理。The following section (21-47) is most important from a religious point of view; for, according to it, God's mercy is renewed every morning, and therefore man may hope even in sorrow, which is only a divine means of discipline.以下部分(21-47)最从宗教角度重要,因为,根据它,神的怜悯是每天早上更新,因此人甚至可能希望在悲哀,这只是一种神圣的纪律手段。 If God has afflicted any one, He will also show pity, according to the abundance of His mercy.如果上帝折磨任何一个,他还将展示可惜,按照他的怜悯丰富。Hence, he who is afflicted must not deem himself abandoned by God, but should consider whether he has not deserved his trials because of sins.因此,他是谁折磨绝不能认为上帝抛弃自己,而应该考虑是否值得,因为他并没有对他的审判罪。The result of this reflection is an admission of sin by the community (verse 47).而这种反思的结果是一个罪恶的由社区(诗47)入场。This is followed by another description of the afflictions of the community (48-55).其次是由另一社区(48-55)描述的苦难。 The song ends with a prayer: "Help me and avenge me on my enemies" (56-66).歌曲结束了祈祷:“帮助我,报复我的敌人我”(56-66)。

Fourth and Fifth Poems.第四和第五诗。

The fourth poem, ch.第四首诗,甲烷。iv., is similar to the second as regards its symmetrical arrangement and its contents.四,类似第二至于其对称安排及其内容。Verses 1-11 deal with the affliction of the "bene Ẓiyyon" and the "Nezirim"-with the famine as the greatest terror of the siege.诗篇1-11处理的“BENEẒiyyon”的苦恼和“Nezirim”的,作为最恐怖的包围饥荒。God has poured out all His anger upon the unhappy city, which suffers because of the sins of its leaders, the priests and prophets (13-16), the king and his council (17-20).神倒出来后,不愉快的城市,这是因为其领导人,祭司和先知(13-16),国王和他的议会(17-20)遭受所有的罪,他的愤怒。 The last two verses (21-22) contain a threat of punishment against Edom.最后两节(21-22)载有惩罚对以东的威胁。

Since ancient times the fifth poem, ch.自古以来第五首诗,甲烷。v., has rightly been called a prayer.五,正确地被称为祷告。Verse 1 addresses God with the words "Behold our reproach"; this reproach is described with but little coherence in verses 2-18, which are followed by a second appeal to God (19-22): "Renew our days as of old."诗歌1地址改为“看哪我们的责备”上帝,这是无可非议的,但在2-18节,这是由第二个呼吁上帝(19-22),其次一点连贯性的描述:“作为老更新我们的日子。 “


(a) Biblical and Pre-Talmudic Data: The book gives no information as to its author. (一)圣经和预塔木德数据:书中没有给出关于其作者信息。The earliest mention of it is found in II Chron.它的发现最早的一提的是在二专栏。xxxv.三十五。25: "And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah; and all the singing men and the singing women spake of Josiah in their lamentations to this day, and made them an ordinance in Israel: and, behold, they are written in the lamentations." 25:“耶利米为约西亚感叹,一切歌唱男人和女人说话唱歌在他们悲叹约西亚这一天,使他们在以色列的一项法令:和,不料,他们都写在悲叹。”The chronicler therefore regards Jeremiah as the author of lamentations on Josiah; and it is not improbable that he saw them in the Book of Lamentations, in view of passages like ii.因此,有关的编年史上约西亚为作者耶利米哀歌,以及它是不是不可能,他认为在他们的哀歌书,如第二通道查看。6 and iv.6和四。20.20。Josephus ("Ant." x. 5, § 1) has transmitted this tradition: "But all the people mourned greatly for him [Josiah], lamenting and grieving on his account for many days: and Jeremiah the prophet composed an elegy to lament him, which is extant till this time also."约瑟夫(“蚂蚁”X 5,§ 1)转交了这一传统:“但所有的人对他哀悼大大[约书亚],哀叹和悲伤他的帐户上多天:和耶利米先知组成的悲歌悲叹他,这是现存直到这个时候还。“ This tradition has found a place in the Talmud as well as in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, and is plainly cited by Jerome, who says, on Zech.这个传统已经找到了在犹太法典以及在旧约的希腊文翻译的地方,显然是由杰罗姆在撒加利亚,谁说,引。xii.十二。11: "Super quo [Josia] lamentationes scripsit Jeremias, quæ leguntur in ecclesia et scripsisse eum Paralipomenon testatur liber."EGHM Lö.11:“超级现状[Josia] lamentationes scripsit赫雷米亚斯,quæ在教会等scripsisse EUM Paralipomenon testatur LIBER leguntur。”EGHM LO。

(b) In Rabbinical Literature: The rabbinical authorities regard Lamentations as having been written by Jeremiah (BB 15a).(b)在犹太教文学:犹太教当局认为有被耶利米(BB 15A)书面哀歌。 It is one of the three "Ketubim Ḳeṭannim" (Ber. 57b), and is variously designated as "Ḳinot," "Megillat Ḳinot," "Ekah," and "Megillat Ekah" (Ber. 57b; BB 15a; Lam. R. i. 1, ; comp. L. Blau ["Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," p. 38, note 3, Budapest, 1894], who questions the last two titles).它是三个“KetubimḲeṭannim”(Ber. 57B)之一,是不同地称为“Ḳinot”,“MegillatḲinot”,“Ekah”和“Megillat Ekah”(Ber. 57B指定; BB 15A;林ř ,一1;。排版L.布劳[“祖尔导论在模具Heilige Schrift,”第38页,注3,布达佩斯,1894],谁的问题的最后两项冠军)。And he who reads it utters first the benediction "'Al Miḳra Megillah" (Soferim xiv. 2; comp. ed. Müller, p. 188).他第一次说出谁读它的祝福“'基地MiḳraMegillah”(Soferim十四2;。排版版米勒,第188页)。 Ekah was written immediately after the destruction of the First Temple and of the city of Jerusalem (Lam. R. i. 1), though R. Judah is of the opinion that it was composed during the reign of Jehoiakim, after the first deportation (ib.).Ekah后,立即写了第一圣殿被毁及耶路撒冷(Lam. R. I. 1)城市,虽然​​R.犹大的意见是,这是由约雅敬在位期间,第一次被驱逐出境后,( IB)。

The alphabetical construction of the poems furnished suggestions of an ethical nature to the Rabbis.该诗字母建设提供一个道德性建议的拉比。The seven alphabets (ch. v. was also considered alphabetical as it numbers twenty-two verses) recall the seven sins committed by Israel (ib. Introduction, xxvii.).这七个字母(章诉也被认为是按字母顺序排列,因为它的数字22节)召回的七个以色列(同上介绍,二十七)犯的罪。 This form also indicates that Israel violated the Law from alef这种形式也表示,以色列从ALEF违反法律to taw (到托( ib.兴业。i.1, § 21), ie, from beginning to end.1,§ 21),即从开始到结束。The letter pe信PEwas placed before 'ayin, because Israel spake with the mouth () what the eye ("'ayin") had not seen (Lam. R. ii. 20).是摆在“阿银,因为以色列说话的嘴()眼(”“阿银”)没有看到(Lam. R.二20)。 The influence of the Lamentations in bringing Israel to repentance was greater than that of all the other prophecies of Jeremiah (Lam. R. ix. 26).在引进以色列悔改的哀歌的影响比所有的耶利米(Lam. R.九26)其他预言更大。See also Jeremiah in Rabbinical Literature.见在犹太教文学也耶利米。


Fürst, Der Kanon des AT Leipsic, 1868.SSEGH弗斯特,DER加隆DES AT Leipsic,1868.SSEGH

(c) Critical View: Since the tradition of the Jeremianic authorship was current as early as the time of the chronicler, it is doubtless an ancient one, but no reference is made to it in any of the songs themselves. (三)批评的看法:由于传统的Jeremianic作者是一样的编年史时间早电流,它无疑是一个古老的一个,但没有提到自己的歌曲在任何它。There are, on the contrary, weighty reasons against ascribing the authorship to Jeremiah:还有,相反,对指称的著作权耶利米重的原因:

(1) The position of the book among the "Ketubim" in the Hebrew canon; for though the Alexandrian canon places it beside the Book of Jeremiah, this juxtaposition did not obtain originally, since the two books were translated by different writers. (1)位置之间的“Ketubim”在希伯来语佳能书;为佳能虽然亚历山大的地方旁边的耶利米书看来,这并列没有获得原来,因为两书分别由不同的作家翻译。

(2) The style of the songs, ie (a) their language and (b) their poetical form. (2)的歌曲,即(a)他们的语言和(b)其诗的形式风格。

(a) Their language: this has been exhaustively examined by Löhr in Stade's "Zeitschrift," xiv.(一)他们的语言:这是彻底审查LOHR在体育场的“(杂志),”十四。31 et seq., and it shows that ii.31页起,它表明II。and iv.及iv。were drawn undoubtedly from Ezek., and i.毫无疑问,得出从以西结书,和一and v. probably from Deutero-Isaiah.和诉可能从第二以赛亚。

(b) Their poetical form: this does not refer to the elegiac verse (which Budde called the "Ḳinah-verse") of the first four songs-a verse-form which since the time of Amos is found in all the prophetic literature-but to the so-called acrostic form: that is, in ch.(二)他们的诗歌形式:这并不是指的挽歌诗(其中布德称为“Ḳinah - 诗”)的前四首歌曲,诗句,形式,时间以来,阿莫斯在所有的预言发现文学作品但对所谓的离合词形式:即,在CH。i., ii., and iv.一,二,及四。 each successive verse begins with a successive letter of the alphabet; in ch.每个连续的诗一开始就连续字母的字母表,在CH。 iii.三。three verses are devoted to each letter; and the fifth song contains at least twenty-two verses, corresponding to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet.三节致力于每个字母和第五歌曲至少包含22诗句,对应的希伯来文字母表中的字母数。This artificial arrangement is scarcely ever found in the Old Testament except in late Psalms and in the later literature, like Prov.这种人为的安排几乎是迄今发现的除下旬在后来的诗篇和文学一样省,旧约。xxxi.三十一。and Nahum i.和那鸿岛3.3。The decisive argument against the hypothesis of the Jeremianic authorship is found in the contents of some of the passages.反对的Jeremianic作者假设的决定性参数是发现在一些段落的内容。For example, ii.例如,二。 9 states that at that time the prophets had no vision from the Lord; iv.第9条规定当时的先知曾从主没有远见;四。17 refers to the reliance on help from Egypt; iv.17指的是依赖从埃及的帮助;四。20, to the loyalty to the king; v. 7 states that Israel suffered innocently for the sins of the fathers.Indeed, it is highly improbable that Lamentations was composed by any one man, for the following reasons: (1) One writer would hardly have treated the same theme five different times; (2) the diversified character of the several songs, as shown above, is an argument against the assumption, as is also the difference in the acrostic arrangement; for in ch.20,地王的忠诚度; 7节指出,以色列遭受的fathers.Indeed无辜的罪恶,这是极不可能的哀歌组成了任何一个人,理由如下:(1)一个作家会几乎有同等对待五种不同的时代主题;(2)的几首歌曲如上图所示,多元化的性格是对假设的说法,因为是在离合词也有不同安排,为在CH。 i.theprecedes the先于 , while it follows in ii.-iv.,而它遵循ii.-iv.In view of the characteristics mentioned above, ii.鉴于上述观点的特点,II。and iv.及iv。may be regarded as belonging together; the first dwelling more on the fate of the city, the second more on that of the inhabitants, and both rising to a higher poetic level than the remaining songs of the book.可能会被视为属于一起,第一住宅更多关于城市的命运,对居民的第二个比较,既上升到了比书的其余歌曲更高诗意的水平。Ch.CH。i.and v. might also be classed together, while iii.和诉也可能被归类在一起,而三。occupies an exceptional position, and may have been added in order to render the whole collection adaptable to religious purposes.占有特殊地位,并可能已被添加,以使整个收集适应宗教目的。In later times, the book was read on the Ninth of Ab, in memory of the destruction of the Solomonic and Herodian Temples; and the custom may have originated even during the time of Zerubbabel's Temple.在稍后的时间,书是读了AB的第九,在所罗门和希律一世的庙宇破坏内存,以及自定义可能起源过程中所罗巴伯圣殿时间均匀。 The time and place of the composition of the book are matters of conjecture.的时间和书的构成发生是猜想的问题。Ch.CH。ii.II。and iv.及iv。may have been written a decade after the destruction of Jerusalem; i.可能已被写入后,耶路撒冷毁灭的十年;岛and v., perhaps toward the end of the Exile; and iii.与诉,也许朝流放结束;及iii。seems to be of still later origin.似乎是再后来的起源。Arguments seem to be in favor of Babylon as the place of origin of the book.参数似乎在巴比伦有利于被作为书的产地。

Emil G. Hirsch, Max Löhr, Solomon Schechter埃米尔赫斯基G.,最大LOHR,索罗门谢克特

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书,1901至1906年间出版。


H. Ewald, Die Dichter des Alten Bundes, 2d ed., 1866, pp. 321 et seq.; Otto Thenius, in Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, 1855; Nägelsbach, Keil, Payne-Smith, Cheyne, and Plumptre at the end of their commentaries on Jeremiah; WR Smith, Lamentations, in Encyc.H.埃瓦尔德,模具迪希特DES Alten Bundes,第2版,1866年,第321页起;。奥托Thenius,在Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载,1855; Nägelsbach,KEIL,佩恩 - 史密斯,进益,并在其最终Plumptre在耶利米评论; WR史密斯,悲叹,在百科全书。Brit.英国人。9th ed.; S. Oettli, in Strack and Zoeckler's Kurzgefasster Kommentar, etc.; M. Löhr, Die Klagelieder Jeremia's, 1891; idem, in Nowack's Handkommentar zum Alten Testament, 1893; S. Minocchi, Le Lamentazioni di Geremia, Rome, 1897; Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, pp. 456 et seq., New York, 1902; Einleitungen to Lamentations (Klagelieder) by Cornill, Baudissin, König, Wellhausen-Bleek; Budde, Klagelieder, in KHC 1898.EGHM Lö.第9版; S.欧特​​列,在施特拉克和Zoeckler的Kurzgefasster Kommentar等; M. LOHR,模具Klagelieder Jeremia的,1891年,同上,在Nowack的Handkommentar ZUM Alten约1893年; S. Minocchi,乐Lamentazioni迪Geremia,罗马, 1897年,驱动程序,介绍了旧约,第456页起,纽约,1902年文学; Einleitungen由Cornill,Baudissin,柯尼希,豪森- Bleek哀歌(Klagelieder);布德,Klagelieder在KHC 1898年。 EGHM LO。

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语

Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源