General Information一般资料

For Christians, Lent is a 40-day penitential period of prayer and fasting that precedes Easter.对于基督徒,四旬期是一个40天的祈祷和禁食前面复活节悔罪时期。In the Western church, observance of Lent begins 6 1/2 weeks prior to Easter on Ash Wednesday; (Sundays are excluded).在西方教会,遵守大斋期开始6 1 / 2周前在圣灰星期三到复活节(星期日除外)。In the Eastern church the period extends over 7 weeks because both Saturdays and Sundays are excluded.在东方教会的期限延长,因为这两个周六,周日不包括超过7个星期。Formerly a severe fast was prescribed: only one full meal a day was allowed, and meat, fish, eggs, and milk products were forbidden.以前严重快速遵医嘱:只有一个饱一顿,每天被允许,肉,鱼,蛋,奶产品被禁止。Today, however, prayer and works of charity are emphasized.然而,今天的祈祷和慈善工作的重视。Lent has been observed since the 4th century.斋已被观察到自4世纪。

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General Information一般资料

Lent is the period of fasting and penitence traditionally observed by Christians in preparation for Easter.四旬期是空腹和传统上由基督徒观察复活节期间准备忏悔。The length of the Lenten fast, during which observants eat sparingly, was established in the 4th century as 40 days.该四旬期快长,在此期间,observants应尽量少吃,成立于4世纪至40天。In the Eastern churches, where both Saturdays and Sundays are regarded as festival days, the period of Lent is the eight weeks before Easter; in the Western churches, where only Sunday is regarded as a festival, the 40-day period begins on Ash Wednesday and extends, with the omission of Sundays, to the day before Easter.在东教堂,这里既有星期六和星期日为节日认为,封斋期是复活节前八个星期,在西方教会,其中只有星期天是节日认为,40天期在圣灰星期三开始并延伸,随着周日遗漏,到复活节前一天。 The observance of fasting or other forms of self-denial during Lent varies within Protestant and Anglican churches.四旬期期间的自我否定空腹或其他形式的纪念活动不同新教和圣公会教堂内。These bodies emphasize penitence.这些机构强调忏悔。The Roman Catholic church has in recent years relaxed its laws on fasting.罗马天主教会已放宽,近年来在空腹的法律。According to an apostolic constitution issued by Pope Paul VI in February 1966, fasting and abstinence during Lent are obligatory only on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.据使徒宪法教皇保罗六世在1966年2月颁布,并在四旬期斋戒禁欲是必须只在圣灰星期三和耶稣受难日。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Lent is a forty-day period of penitence and prayer which begins on Ash Wednesday and prepares for the feast of Easter.四旬期是一个忏悔和祈祷开始在圣灰星期三和复活节的盛宴准备第四天。 It is a form of retreat for Christians preparing to celebrate the paschal mystery.它是一种以退为准备庆祝逾越奥迹的基督徒形式。 It became a forty-day retreat during the seventh century to coincide with the forty days spent BY Christ in the desert; before this Lent usually lasted only a week.它成为一个在公元七世纪四十日撤退,以配合由基督在沙漠中度过四十天,在此之前斋通常只持续了一个星期。Every Friday of Lent is a day of abstinence.每个星期五的四旬期是一个禁欲的日子。Fasting probably originated from the custom of fasting by those who were expecting to be baptized after being catechumens.空腹可能起源于由那些谁是期待被慕道者受洗后禁食习俗。The third, fourth, and fifth Sundays of Lent refer to the process of preparing for baptism.四旬期第三,第四和第五个星期日指的洗礼准备的过程。

Penitential works are very important during Lent.悔罪的作品是非常重要的四旬期期间。These include not only abstinence and fasting but also prayers and charitable works.这不仅包括禁欲和禁食,但也祈祷和慈善工作。Ash Wednesday is one of the greatest days of penitence.圣灰星期三是悔罪的最大的一天。Vatican Council II in the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy describes how penitence will lead one closer to God.梵蒂冈理事会在宪法第二的圣礼仪介绍如何忏悔会导致人们更接近神。People should not become overly involved in the penitence itself, however, but realize that the penitence is in preparation for celebrating the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.人们不应该成为在忏悔本身过分介入,然而,但认识到忏悔为庆祝耶稣基督的死亡和复活的准备。Christians seek a change of heart during Lent in their relationship to God.基督徒寻求在四旬期的心在上帝的关系变化。

TJ German TJ德国
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
N. Hordern and J. Otwell, Lent; H. Franke, Lent and Easter.N. Hordern和J. Otwell,封斋,H.弗兰克,四旬期和复活。


Catholic Information天主教信息

Origin of the word这个词的起源

The Teutonic word Lent, which we employ to denote the forty days' fast preceding Easter, originally meant no more than the spring season.条顿斋词,这是我们聘请来表示“40天快过去的复活节,原意是没有比春季多。Still it has been used from the Anglo-Saxon period to translate the more significant Latin term quadragesima (French carême, Italian quaresima, Spanish cuaresma), meaning the "forty days", or more literally the "fortieth day".不过它已被用于从盎格鲁 - 撒克逊时期翻译更重要的拉丁词quadragesima(法国carême,意大利quaresima,西班牙语cuaresma),意为“四十日”,或更字面意思是“40天”。 This in turn imitated the Greek name for Lent, tessarakoste (fortieth), a word formed on the analogy of Pentecost (pentekoste), which last was in use for the Jewish festival before New Testament times.这反过来模仿的封斋期,tessarakoste(四十),在圣灵降临节(pentekoste),其中最后在新约时代的前犹太节日使用是比喻形成一个字的希腊名字。 This etymology, as we shall see, is of some little importance in explaining the early developments of the Easter fast.这个词源,正如我们将看到的,是一些在解释复活节快一点的早期发展的重要性。

Origin of the custom原产自定义

Some of the Fathers as early as the fifth century supported the view that this forty days' fast was of Apostolic institution.作为作为第五个世纪初的父亲一些支持这样的观点,这40天“快速使徒机构了。For example, St. Leo (d. 461) exhorts his hearers to abstain that they may "fulfill with their fasts the Apostolic institution of the forty days" - ut apostolica institutio quadraginta dierum jejuniis impleatur (PL, LIV, 633), and the historian Socrates (d. 433) and St. Jerome (d. 420) use similar language (PG, LXVII, 633; PL, XXII, 475).例如,圣里奥(四461)告诫他的听众,他们可能会放弃“履行他们的斋戒了四十天使徒机构” - UT apostolica institutio quadraginta dierum jejuniis impleatur(PL,LIV,633),以及历史学家苏格拉底(卒于433)和圣杰罗姆(卒于420)使用类似的语言(PG,LXVII,633,PL,22,475)。

But the best modern scholars are almost unanimous in rejecting this view, for in the existing remains of the first three centuries we find both considerable diversity of practice regarding the fast before Easter and also a gradual process of development in the matter of its duration.但是,最好的现代学者们几乎一致拒绝这种观点,在前三世纪的现有保持我们发现,在其持续时间的有关事项均在复活节之前的快速做法相当大的差异,也是一个逐步发展的过程。 The passage of primary importance is one quoted by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) from a letter of St. Irenaeus to Pope Victor in connection with the Easter controversy.最重要的是通过尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书。,V,XXIV)引述了圣爱任纽信与复活节争议连接教皇维克多之一。 There Irenaeus says that there is not only a controversy about the time of keeping Easter but also regarding the preliminary fast.有爱任纽​​说,不仅是一个有争论的关于保持复活节时间,但还就初步快。"For", he continues, "some think they ought to fast for one day, others for two days, and others even for several, while others reckon forty hours both of day and night to their fast". “对于”,他继续说,“一些人认为他们应该快一天,其他两天,甚至几个人,而其他人估计forty既日夜小时的快”。He also urges that this variety of usage is of ancient date, which implies that there could have been no Apostolic tradition on the subject.他还敦促,这种使用各种古老的日期,这意味着可能存在有没有关于这个问题的使徒传统。 Rufinus, who translated Eusebius into Latin towards the close of the fourth century, seems so to have punctuated this passage as to make Irenaeus say that some people fasted for forty days. Rufinus,谁翻译成拉丁文对第四世纪结束尤西比乌斯,显得那么有这样一段话作为点缀,使爱任纽说,有些人四十天禁食。Formerly some difference of opinion existed as to the proper reading, but modern criticism (eg, in the edition of Schwartz commissioned by the Berlin Academy) pronounces strongly in favor of the text translated above.以前存在一些不同的意见,以正确的阅读,但现代的批评(例如,在施瓦茨版由柏林科学院委托)宣告强烈的翻译上面的文字青睐。 We may then fairly conclude that Irenaeus about the year 190 knew nothing of any然后,我们可以得出结论相当约190年的爱任纽知道任何无关

Easter fast of forty days.复活节快四十天。

The same inference must be drawn from the language of Tertullian only a few years later.同样的推理,必须取材于良语言仅仅几年后。When writing as a Montanist, he contrasts the very slender term of fasting observed by the Catholics (ie, "the days on which the bridegroom was taken away", probably meaning the Friday and Saturday of Holy Week) with the longer but still restricted period of a fortnight which was kept by the Montanists.当作为Montanist写作,他对比了空腹观察了天主教徒与更长(即“在其上的新郎被带走的日子”,大概意思是周五和周六的圣周),但仍局限于短期内很修长一个是由Montanists保存两周。 No doubt he was referring to fasting of a very strict kind (xerophagiæ - dry fasts), but there is no indication in his works, though he wrote an entire treatise "De Jejunio", and often touches upon the subject elsewhere, that he was acquainted with any period of forty days consecrated to more or less continuous fasting (see Tertullian, "De Jejun.", ii and xiv; cf. "de Orat.", xviii; etc.).毫无疑问,他指的是一种非常严格的禁食(xerophagiæ - 干斋戒),但没有迹象显示在他的作品,虽然他写了一个完整的论文“德Jejunio”,并经常在这个问题涉及到其他地方,他是与任何奉献给或多或少连续禁食40天期间结识(见良,“德Jejun ”,第二和第十四;比照“山Orat”,十八;等)。

And there is the same silence observable in all the pre-Nicene Fathers, though many had occasion to mention such an Apostolic institution if it had existed.并且有相同的沉默在所有预尼西亚教父观察,虽然许多人提到这样一个机会,如果使徒机构已经存在。We may note for example that there is no mention of Lent in St. Dionysius of Alexandria (ed. Feltoe, 94 sqq.) or in the "Didascalia", which Funk attributes to about the yearkú yet both speak diffusely of the paschal fast.我们可能会注意到,例如,没有在四旬期圣亚历山大修斯(编辑Feltoe,94 SQQ)或在“Didascalia”,这方克属性有关yearkú但都讲的逾越节快速弥漫提及。Further, there seems much to suggest that the Church in the Apostolic Age designed to commemorate the Resurrection of Christ, not by an annual, but by a weekly celebration (see "the Month", April 1910, 337 sqq.).此外,似乎有许多建议,在设计,以纪念基督的复活,由每年不使徒时代的教会,但每周的庆祝活动(看“月”,1910年4月,337 SQQ)。If this be so, the Sunday liturgy constituted the weekly memorial of the Resurrection, and the Friday fast that of the Death of Christ.如果是这样,周日礼仪构成了复活的纪念周,即基督的死亡和周五的快。Such a theory offers a natural explanation of the wide divergence which we find existing in the latter part of the second century regarding both the proper time for keeping Easter, and also the manner of the paschal fast.这样的理论提供了广泛的分歧,我们发现在第二世纪后关于复活节​​既保持适当的时候,也是在逾越节快速地部分现有的自然解释。 Christians were at one regarding the weekly observance of the Sunday and the Friday, which was primitive, but the annual Easter festival was something superimposed by a process of natural development, and it was largely influenced by the conditions locally existing in the different Churches of the East and West.基督徒在关于星期天和星期五,这是原始的每周遵守之一,但每年的复活节节日是由一个自然发展过程叠加的东西,它主要是由当地在现有条件下的不同教会的影响东方和西方。 Moreover, with the Easter festival there seems also to have established itself a preliminary fast, not as yet anywhere exceeding a week in duration, but very severe in character, which commemorated the Passion, or more generally, "the days on which the bridegroom was taken away".而且,随着复活节节日似乎也已初步建立了自己快,还不如尚未在任何地方持续时间超过一个星期,但很字符,它纪念的激情,或更普遍严重,“天在其上新郎带走“。

Be this as it may, we find in the early years of the fourth century the first mention of the term tessarakoste.是这样的,因为它可能,我们发现在第四世纪的第一次提到这个词tessarakoste早年。 It occurs in the fifth canon of the Council of Nicea (AD 325), where there is only question of the proper time for celebrating a synod, and it is conceivable that it may refer not to a period but to a definite festival, eg, the Feast of the Ascension, or the Purification, which Ætheria calls quadragesimæ de Epiphania.它发生在了尼西亚会议(公元325),那里只是为庆祝主教适当的时间问题第五佳能,这是可以想象的,它可能是指一个时期,但不是一个明确的节日,如阿森松岛的盛宴,或净化,这Ætheria电话quadragesimæ DE Epiphania。But we have to remember that the older word, pentekoste (Pentecost) from meaning the fiftieth day, had come to denote the whole of the period (which we should call Paschal Time) between Easter Sunday and Whit-Sunday (cf. Tertullian, "De Idololatria", xiv, - "pentecosten implere non poterunt").但是我们必须记住,老词,意思是从pentekoste 50天(五旬节),已经到了表示之间复活节和圣灵降临节至周日(见良期(我们应该叫逾越节时间)整体而言,“德Idololatria“,十四, - ”pentecosten implere非poterunt“)。In any case it is certain from the "Festal Letters" of St. Athanasius that in 331 the saint enjoined upon his flock a period of forty days of fasting preliminary to, but not inclusive of, the stricter fast of Holy Week, and secondly that in 339 the same Father, after having traveled to Rome and over the greater part of Europe, wrote in the strongest terms to urge this observance upon the people of Alexandria as one that was universally practiced, "to the end that while all the world is fasting, we who are in Egypt should not become a laughing-stock as the only people who do not fast but take our pleasure in those days".在任何情况下,它是从“节日快报”圣亚他那修在331圣在他的羊群的初步禁食四十到几天时间,但没有包容,更严格的圣周快,其次是一定责成在339相同的父亲,后前往罗马,在欧洲的大部份,写在最强烈地敦促后,亚历山大的人来说,这是纪念为一体的普遍实行,“到最后,虽然所有的世界空腹,我们谁在埃及不应成为笑柄的谁也不快,但只有人参与这些天我们的荣幸。“ Although Funk formerly maintained that a Lent of forty days was not known in the West before the time of St. Ambrose, this is evidence which cannot be set aside.虽然方克以前认为,一个曾借出40天没有在西方被称作前圣刘汉铨的时间,这是证据,不能被搁置。

Duration of the Fast时间的快速

In determining this period of forty days the example of Moses, Elias, and Christ must have exercised a predominant influence, but it is also possible that the fact was borne in mind that Christ lay forty hours in the tomb.在确定这一40天时期的摩西,以利亚和基督例如必须行使的主要影响,但它也有可能是事实牢记基督躺在坟墓40小时。On the other hand just as Pentecost (the fifty days) was a period during which Christians were joyous and prayed standing, though they were not always engaged in such prayer, so the Quadragesima (the forty days) was originally a period marked by fasting, but not necessarily a period in which the faithful fasted every day.另一方面,正如圣灵降临节(第五十天)是一个时期的基督徒被欢乐和祈祷的地位,但他们并不总是从事这项祈祷,所以Quadragesima(第四日)最初是由禁食标志着一个时期,但不一定是一段时间内每天的忠实禁食。 Still, this principle was differently understood in different localities, and great divergences of practice were the result.然而,这一原则在不同的地方不同的理解和实践伟大的分歧是结果。In Rome, in the fifth century, Lent lasted six weeks, but according to the historian Socrates there were only three weeks of actual fasting, exclusive even then of the Saturday and Sunday and if Duchesne's view may be trusted, these weeks were not continuous, but were the first, the fourth, and sixth of the series, being connected with the ordinations (Christian Worship, 243).在罗马,在第五世纪,四旬期历时六个星期,但根据历史学家苏格拉底只有三个星期的实际禁食,独家即使当时的星期六和星期日,如果杜申的观点可能是值得信赖的,这几个星期不连续的,但第一,第四和第六的系列,正与祝(基督教崇拜,243)连接。 Possibly, however, these three weeks had to do with the "scrutinies" preparatory to Baptism, for by some authorities (eg, AJ Maclean in his "Recent Discoveries") the duty of fasting along with the candidate for baptism is put forward as the chief influence at work in the development of the forty days.可能,但是,这三个星期必须做的“scrutinies”筹备洗礼,一些部门(如​​AJ在他的“新发现”麦克林)的禁​​食与候选人的洗礼的,是一起责任提出的首席影响力在四十天的发展工作。 But throughout the Orient generally, with some few exceptions, the same arrangement prevailed as St. Athanasius's "Festal Letters" show us to have obtained in Alexandria, namely, the six weeks of Lent were only preparatory to a fast of exceptional severity maintained during Holy Week.但在整个东方普遍,一些少数例外,同样安排盛行的圣亚他那修的“节日快报”显示我们在亚历山大获得,即大斋期的六个星期只准备了特殊的严重性在圣保持快速周。 This is enjoined by the "Apostolic Constitutions" (V, xiii), and presupposed by St. Chrysostom (Hom. xxx in Gen., I).这是责成由“使徒宪法”(V,十三),以及圣金口(Hom.在将军XXX,I)的先决条件。But the number forty, having once established itself, produced other modifications.但数量四十,有一次建立本身产生的其他修改。It seemed to many necessary that there should not only be fasting during the forty days but forty actual fasting days.它似乎是必要的,有许多不仅应该在四十天,但forty实际禁食天禁食。Thus we find Ætheria in her "Peregrinatio" speaking of a Lent of eight weeks in all observed at Jerusalem, which, remembering that both the Saturday and Sunday of ordinary weeks were exempt, gives five times eight, ie, forty days for fasting.因此,我们发现在她的“Peregrinatio”讲Ætheria 8周斋在耶路撒冷,其中,记住,无论是周六和周日的普通星期被豁免,给人五次八,也就是说,第四为空腹天观察到的所有。On the other hand, in many localities people were content to observe no more than a six weeks' period, sometimes, as at Milan, fasting only five days in the week after the oriental fashion (Ambrose, "De Elia et Jejunio", 10).另一方面,在许多地方人的内容,观察不超过六个星期的时间多,有时,因为在米兰,禁食后的东方时尚只有五个星期(刘汉铨,“德埃利亚等Jejunio”,10 )。In the time of Gregory the Great (590-604) there were apparently at Rome six weeks of six days each, making thirty-six fast days in all, which St. Gregory, who is followed therein by many medieval writers, describes as the spiritual tithing of the year, thirty-six days being approximately the tenth part of three hundred and sixty-five.在伟大的格雷戈里时间(590-604)有明显的罗马六6天每个星期,使得36天快速的一切,这圣格雷戈里,谁其次是许多中世纪的作家当中,作为描述什一奉献精神的一年,36天被大约是3​​65十分之一。 At a later date the wish to realize the exact number of forty days led to the practice of beginning Lent upon our present Ash Wednesday, but the Church of Milan, even to this day, adheres to the more primitive arrangement, which still betrays itself in the Roman Missal when the priest in the Secret of the Mass on the first Sunday of Lent speaks of "sacrificium quadragesimalis initii", the sacrifice of the opening of Lent.在以后的愿望,实现导致了实践40天确切数字后,我们现在开始四旬期圣灰星期三,但米兰的教堂,甚至到今天,坚持以更原始的安排,仍然在原形毕露罗马Missal时,在地下的大斋期的第一个星期日的秘密牧师的“sacrificium quadragesimalis initii”话没说完,在大斋期开幕牺牲。

Nature of the fast大自然的快

Neither was there originally less divergence regarding the nature of the fast.无论是有分歧本来就少的快速性。For example, the historian Socrates (Hist. Eccl., V, 22) tells of the practice of the fifth century: "Some abstain from every sort of creature that has life, while others of all the living creatures eat of fish only. Others eat birds as well as fish, because, according to the Mosaic account of the Creation, they too sprang from the water; others abstain from fruit covered by a hard shell and from eggs. Some eat dry bread only, others not even that; others again when they have fasted to the ninth hour (three o'clock) partake of various kinds of food".例如,历史学家苏格拉底(。Hist.传道书,V,22)道出了第五世纪的做法:“有些放弃每一个有生命的生物类,而其他所有的生物只能吃其他的鱼类。吃鸟类以及鱼类,因为,根据创世马赛克帐户,他们也从水中窜出,有些则放弃由坚硬的外壳和鸡蛋覆盖一些水果吃干面包而已,别人也不是;人再次,当他们禁食的第九个小时(三点钟)参加的各类食物。“ Amid this diversity some inclined to the extreme limits of rigor.这种多样性中一些倾向于极端的严格限制。Epiphanius, Palladius, and the author of the "Life of St. Melania the Younger" seem to contemplate a state of things in which ordinary Christians were expected to pass twenty-four hours or more without food of any kind, especially during Holy Week, while the more austere actually subsisted during part or the whole of Lent upon one or two meals a week (see Rampolla, "Vita di. S. Melania Giuniore", appendix xxv, p. 478).埃皮法尼乌斯,帕拉丢斯,以及似乎考虑一个普通的基督徒,其中,预计通过没有任何形式的食物24小时以上,尤其是在圣周,事物的状态,“圣Melania的年轻生命”的作者而更严峻的实际并不存在于部分或全部一人或两餐斋一周(见Rampolla,“生命之堤。S. Melania Giuniore”,附录二十五,第478)。But the ordinary rule on fasting days was to take but one meal a day and that only in the evening, while meat and, in the early centuries, wine were entirely forbidden.但是,对禁食天普通规则是采取一餐,但每天只在晚上,而肉,并在世纪初,葡萄酒是完全禁止的。During Holy Week, or at least on Good Friday it was common to enjoin the xerophagiæ, ie, a diet of dry food, bread, salt, and vegetables.圣周期间,或至少在耶稣受难日是很普遍的责令​​xerophagiæ,即一个干粮,面包,盐和蔬菜的饮食。

There does not seem at the beginning to have been any prohibition of lacticinia, as the passage just quoted from Socrates would show.似乎没有在一开始就已经禁止任何lacticinia,作为刚刚从苏格拉底通过引用将显示。Moreover, at a somewhat later date, Bede tells us of Bishop Cedda, that during Lent he took only one meal a day consisting of "a little bread, a hen's egg, and a little milk mixed with water" (Hist. Eccl., III, xxiii), while Theodulphus of Orleans in the eighth century regarded abstinence from eggs, cheese, and fish as a mark of exceptional virtue.此外,在较晚的日期,比德告诉主教Cedda,四旬期期间,他只用了一餐,每天的“一点点面包,鸡蛋,牛奶和少量水混合”(Hist.传道书。组成的我们,三,二十三),而新奥尔良Theodulphus在第八世纪把从鸡蛋,奶酪和鱼作为一种特殊的美德标志禁欲。 None the less St. Gregory writing to St. Augustine of England laid down the rule, "We abstain from flesh meat, and from all things that come from flesh, as milk, cheese, and eggs."尽管如此圣格雷戈里书面形式向英国圣奥古斯丁定下的规则,“我们放弃肉肉,以及从所有的东西,从肉来,如牛奶,奶酪和鸡蛋。” This decision was afterwards enshrined in the "Corpus Juris", and must be regarded as the common law of the Church.这一决定是事后体现在“民法大全”,并且必须作为教会普通法认为。Still exceptions were admitted, and dispensations to eat "lacticinia" were often granted upon condition of making a contribution to some pious work.不过例外的承认,并特许吃“lacticinia”往往后作出的贡献给予一些虔诚的工作条件。These dispensations were known in Germany as Butterbriefe, and several churches are said to have been partly built by the proceeds of such exceptions.这些被称为特许在德国Butterbriefe,和几个教堂,据说已部分通过建立这种例外的收益。One of the steeples of Rouen cathedral was for this reason formerly known as the Butter Tower.卢昂大教堂的尖塔之一是为前身为著名的奶油塔这个原因。This general prohibition of eggs and milk during Lent is perpetuated in the popular custom of blessing or making gifts of eggs at Easter, and in the English usage of eating pancakes on Shrove Tuesday.这种鸡蛋和牛奶一般禁止在封斋期是永存的祝福或制作复活节蛋的礼物流行的习俗,并在饮食上忏悔星期二煎饼英语用法。

Relaxations of the Lenten Fast松弛的四旬期快

From what has been said it will be clear that in the early Middle Ages Lent throughout the greater part of the Western Church consisted of forty weekdays, which were all fast days, and six Sundays.从已表示,将明确的是,在早期的中东整个西方教会大部份斋年龄四十平日,这是所有快天,六周日组成。From the beginning to the end of that time all flesh meat, and also, for the most part, "lacticinia", were forbidden even on Sundays, while on all the fasting days only one meal was taken, which single meal was not permitted before evening.从开始到结束的时候所有的肉肉,而且,在大多数情况下,“lacticinia”,甚至被禁止在星期日,而在所有的禁食天只吃一餐被带到,这是不允许的餐单之前晚上。 At a very early period, however (we find the first mention of it in Socrates), the practice began to be tolerated of breaking the fast at the hour of none, ie, three o'clock.在一个非常早期阶段,但是(我们找到了它在第一次提到苏格拉底),这种做法开始被打破在无,即三时小时快速耐受性。 We learn in particular that Charlemagne, about the year 800, took his lenten repast at 2 pm This gradual anticipation of the hour of dinner was facilitated by the fact that the canonical hours of none, vespers, etc., represented rather periods than fixed points of time.我们学习,特别是查理曼,约800年,发生在下午2点他的四旬期就餐的这种期待的晚餐时间逐渐由一个事实,即无,晚祷等,规范代表的不是固定的时间点,而期间的便利的时间。 The ninth hour, or none, was no doubt strictly three o'clock in the afternoon, but the Office of none might be recited as soon as sext, which, of course, corresponded to the sixth hour, or midday, was finished.第九个小时,或无,无,下午三时严格疑问,但没有一个办公室可能会背诵尽快SEXT,其中,当然,对应到第六小时,中午,已经完成。 Hence none in course of time came to be regarded as beginning at midday, and this point of view is perpetuated in our word noon which means midday and not three o'clock in the afternoon.因此,随着时间的推移没有后来被视为中午开始,而这种观点在我们的话,这意味着中午中午和下午三点不点延续。 Now the hour for breaking the fast during Lent was after Vespers (the evening service), but by a gradual process the recitation of Vespers was more and more anticipated, until the principle was at last officially recognized, as it is at present, that Vespers in lent may be said at midday.现在,打破四旬期期间的快速小时后晚祷(晚上服务),而是由一个渐进的过程的晚祷朗诵被越来越多的预期,直到最后的原则是官方认可的,因为它目前是,这晚祷在借给可以说在中午。 In this way, although the author of the "Micrologus" in the eleventh century still declared that those who took food before evening did not observe the lenten fast according to the canons (PL, CLI, 1013), still, even at the close of the thirteenth century, certain theologians, for example the Franciscan Richard Middleton, who based his decision in part upon contemporary usage, pronounced that a man who took his dinner at midday did not break the lenten fast.这样,虽然“Micrologus”在十一世纪的作者还宣称,谁是在之前的傍晚食品没有遵守四旬期快根据大炮(PL,CLI,1013),甚至仍然在接近,十三世纪,一些神学家,如方济理查德米德尔顿,谁设在当代的用法后,他的决定的一部分,突出一个人谁发生在中午吃饭没有打破他的四旬期快。

Still more material was the relaxation afforded by the introduction of "collation".然而更多的物质是由“序”介绍所提供的放松。This seems to have begun in the ninth century, when the Council of Aix la Chapelle sanctioned the concession, even in monastic houses, of a draught of water or other beverage in the evening to quench the thirst of those who were exhausted by the manual labor of the day.这似乎已经开始在第九世纪,当艾克斯拉夏佩尔理事会批准的让步,即使是在寺院的房子,在晚上的水或其他饮料解渴草案的那些谁是由手工劳动用尽口渴这一天。 From this small beginning a much larger indulgence was gradually evolved.从这个小开始一个更大的放纵是逐渐进化而来的。The principle of parvitas materiae, ie, that a small quantity of nourishment which was not taken directly as a meal did not break the fast, was adopted by St. Thomas Aquinas and other theologians, and in the course of centuries a recognized quantity of solid food, which according to received authorities must not exceed eight ounces, has come to be permitted after the midday repast.该parvitas物的,即原则,即少量的营养而不是采取直接吃饭没有打破快,通过了圣托马斯阿奎那和其他神学家,并在几百年过程中的固体公认的数量食品,它根据接收到的机关不得超过八盎司,已经到了中午就餐后的允许。 As this evening drink, when first tolerated in the ninth-century monasteries, was taken at the hour at which the "Collationes" (Conferences) of Abbot Cassian were being read aloud to the brethren, this slight indulgence came to be known as a "collation", and the name has continued since.由于今天晚上喝,当第一次在第九世纪的修道院的耐受性,是在位于其中的“Collat​​iones”(会议)的住持卡西安正在朗读的弟兄小时采取的,这轻微的放纵后来被称为“排序规则“,名称一直持续至今。

Other mitigations of an even more substantial character have been introduced into lenten observance in the course of the last few centuries.一个更严重性质的其他缓解措施已被引入四旬期遵守在过去几百年的过程。To begin with, the custom has been tolerated of taking a cup of liquid (eg, tea or coffee, or even chocolate) with a fragment of bread or toast in the early morning.首先,自定义一直采取容忍与面包或土司在清晨片段杯的液体(​​如茶或咖啡,甚至是巧克力)。But, what more particularly regards Lent, successive indults have been granted by the Holy See allowing meat at the principal meal, first on Sundays, and then on two, three, four, and five weekdays, throughout nearly the whole of Lent.但是,还有什么特别问候封斋期,连续indults已获教廷允许在主餐肉,先上周日,然后在二,三,四,五个工作日,几乎贯穿整个封斋。 Quite recently, Maundy Thursday, upon which meat was hitherto always forbidden, has come to share in the same indulgence.最近,濯足节,在这肉是迄今一直被禁止,已经到了份额,在同放纵。In the United States, the Holy See grants faculties whereby working men and their families may use flesh meat once a day throughout the year, except Fridays, Ash Wednesday, Holy Saturday, and the vigil of Christmas.在美国,罗马教廷授予学院工作,让男人和他们的家庭可以使用,每日一次,全年肉肉,除周五,灰星期三,圣周六,以及圣诞晚会。 The only compensation imposed for all these mitigations is the prohibition during Lent against partaking of both fish and flesh at the same repast.唯一的补偿为所有这些缓解措施的实施是在四旬期对鱼和肉的同时就餐partaking的禁令。(See ABSTINENCE; FAST; CANONICAL IMPEDIMENTS; LAETARE SUNDAY; SEPTUAGESIMA; SEXAGESIMA; QUINQUAGESIMA; QUADRAGESIMA; VESTMENTS).(见禁欲;快; CANONICAL障碍; LAETARE星期日; SEPTUAGESIMA; SEXAGESIMA; QUINQUAGESIMA; QUADRAGESIMA;法衣)。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息赫伯特瑟斯顿写。Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.A.转录由安东尼基林。AMDG The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.AMDG天主教百科全书,体积九。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

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