Gospel According to Luke根据路加福音 福音

General Information一般资料

The Gospel According to Luke is the third book of the New Testament of the Bible.据卢克的福音是圣经的新约三分之一的书。Because of its similarities to the Gospels According to Mark and Matthew, it is classified with them as the synoptic Gospels.由于其相似之处据马克和马修福音,它被列为与他们的天气福音。Although the Gospel was traditionally ascribed to Luke, a companion of Paul (Philem. 24; 2 Tim. 4:11), most modern scholars think that it was written between AD 80 and 90 by a Gentile Christian who wrote the Acts of the Apostles as a sequel. The Gospel characteristically teaches a message of universal salvation addressed to all people, not only to the Jews.虽然福音是传统归因于卢克,对保罗(Philem. 24; 2蒂姆4:11)伴侣,最现代化的学者认为,这是在公元80和90写一个外邦人基督徒是谁写的使徒行传作为续集的典型福音教的普渡众生的消息给所有的人,不仅对犹太人。

Luke's Gospel can be divided into five major sections: a prologue (1:1 - 4); infancy narrative (1:5 - 2:52); ministry in Galilee (3:1 - 9:50); journey to Jerusalem (9:51 - 21:38); and the passion and resurrection (22:1 - 24:53).路加福音可分为五个主要部分:序言(1:1 - 4);婴儿叙事(1:5 - 2:52),在加利利部(3:1 - 9:50);旅程耶路撒冷(9 :51 - 21:38),以及热情和复活(22:1 - 24:53)。The conclusion sets the scene for the spread of the Christian word, as recounted in the Acts.结论设置了基督教相传的场景,如在叙述行为。

In common with the other Gospels, Luke relates the principal events of Christ's public life. Passages peculiar to Luke include the parable of the good Samaritan (10:25 - 37), the prodigal son (15:11 - 32), and Christ's words to the women of Jerusalem and to the good thief (23:27 - 31, 43). Commentators point out the prominence given to women.与其他常见的福音,路加有关基督的公共生活中的主要事件旅费特有的卢克包括好撒玛利亚(10:25 - 37)的寓言。,浪子(15时11 - 32),和基督的话对耶路撒冷的妇女和良好的小偷(23:27 - 31,43)。评论家指出,给予妇女的重视。Examples include the story of Elizabeth (1:5 - 66), Mary's part in the infancy narrative (1:5 - 2:52), and the widow of Naim (7:11 - 17).例子包括伊丽莎白(1:5 - 66)的故事,玛丽的叙述部分,在婴儿期(1:5 - 2:52),以及纳伊姆(7:11 - 17)的遗孀。Luke also contains three hymns that have become an important part of liturgy: the Magnificat (1:46 - 55), the Benedictus (1:68 - 79), and the Nunc Dimittis (2:29 - 32).卢克还包含三个赞美诗已经成为礼仪的一个重要部分:尊(1时46分 - 55)时,Benedictus(1:68 - 79)和NUNC Dimittis(2时29 - 32)。

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Bibliography 参考书目
GB Caird, The Gospel of St. Luke (1963); F Danker, Jesus and the New Age According to St. Luke (1972); JM Dawsey, The Lukan Voice (1986); F Evans, Saint Luke (1990). GB,圣路加(1963)福音凯尔德,F Danker,耶稣和新时代据圣卢克(1972年); JM Dawsey,该Lukan声(1986),F埃文斯,圣路加(1990年)。


Gospel According to Luke路加福音

Brief Outline简述

  1. Jesus' thirty years of private life (1-4:13)耶稣的三十年的私人生活(1-4:13)
  2. Galilean Ministry of Jesus (4:14-9:50)伽利略部(4:14-9:50)耶稣
  3. Journey from Galilee to Jerusalem (9:51-19:44)旅程从加利利到耶路撒冷(9:51-19:44)
  4. Last days of Jesus in Jerusalem, His Crucifixion and Burial (19:45-23:56)耶稣在耶路撒冷的最后几天,他的受难和埋葬(19:45-23:56)
  5. Resurrections and appearances of the Risen Lord and His Ascension (24:1-53)复活和外观复活的主,他的阿森松岛(24:1-53)


Luke卢克

Advanced Information先进的信息

Luke, the evangelist, was a Gentile.卢克的传播者,是一个外邦人。The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown.的日期和他的转换情况不明。According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning."根据他自己的声明(路加福音1:2),他不是一个“目击者和部长词从一开始。”It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself.这是可能的,他在特罗亚医生,并在那里转化保罗,他非常重视自己给谁。He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1).他陪同他立,但没有有分享他的监禁,他也没有陪在他在他的传教之旅在这个时候释放(徒17:1),他进一步。On Paul's third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of seven or eight years.在保罗的第三次访问腓(20:5,6)我们再次会见卢克,谁可能在这个城市度过了所有的这段时间,七,八年时间。From this time Luke was Paul's constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18).从这个时候路加是保罗的同伴不断在他的旅程到耶路撒冷(20:6-21:18)。He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out for Rome (27: 1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon 24; Col. 4:14).他再次从视野中消失,在保罗的在耶路撒冷和凯撒利亚入狱,只有重新出现时,保罗列出罗马(27:1),往那他伴随着他(28:2,12-16),并在他与他保持直到接近他的第一监禁(腓利门书24;上校4:14)。

The last notice of the "beloved physician" is in 2 Tim.这次“亲爱的医生”最后公告在2蒂姆。4:11.4:11。There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his medical knowledge.有在保罗的书信许多段落,以及在卢克的著作,其中显示的程度和他的医学知识的准确性。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Gospel according to Luke路加福音

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Gospel according to Luke was written by Luke.要根据路加福音的作者是卢克。 He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4).他不主张一直是我们的主的事工目击证人,但已经达到了在他的信息的最佳来源,并写了一个有序的事实叙述(路1:1-4)。 The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other.前三福音书的作者,对观福音,写互不影响。Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.每写下的圣灵引导他的独立的叙述。Each writer has some things, both in matter and style, peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common.每一个作家有一些事情,无论是在物质和风格,特有的自己,但所有的三个有许多共同之处。

Luke's Gospel has been called "the Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;" the "Gospel of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;" "the Gospel of womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of tolerance."卢克的福音被称为“福音的国家,怜悯和充满希望的,有保证的一个痛苦救主爱的世界”,“对圣洁的生命福音”,“为希腊人福音;的福音未来,历史悠久的福音;;对耶稣的好医生和人类救主的福音,基督教的进步,对普遍性和福音gratuitousness福音“的”神的福音和做父亲的人兄弟“,”女大十八变的福音“,”福音的弃儿,对见义勇为的税吏,妓女的,和浪子“,”宽容的福音。“ The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar (Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in the motto, "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil" (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4: 18).这个福音的主要特点为法拉(。剑桥圣经,路加福音,Introd)的言论,恰好是表达的座右铭,(使徒10时38分“谁做的好有关,而且愈合所有被压迫的魔鬼了”; 。排版路加福音4:18)。Luke wrote for the "Hellenic world."路加写的“希腊世界。”This Gospel is indeed "rich and precious."这的确是福音“丰富和珍贵的。”"Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. “出了总共1151诗句,卢克在与马修,仅41常见于马修和马克,176与389共同马克单独常见,留下544特有的自己。

In many instances all three use identical language." (See Matthew; Mark) There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records seven of our Lord's miracles which are omitted by Matthew and Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels are related to each other after the following scheme. If the contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when compared this result is obtained: Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences. That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same things in very similar language. Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of Matthew and Mark.在许多情况下这三个使用相同的语言“(见马太福音,马可福音)有我们的主的比喻特有的这个福音十七(见附录寓言名单。)卢克也记录我们的上帝的奇迹七个是由马修省略。和马克(见附录奇迹名单。)的提要福音以下是有关计划后,向对方如果每个福音的内容是由100代表,那么当这个结果相比,得到:马克7特殊性,93巧合。马修42特殊性,58巧合。路加福音59特殊性,41巧合,也就是十三fourteenths马克,四七分的马修和卢克五分之二是采取了非常类似的语言描述同样的事情了。卢克的风格更完成,比马修和马克的经典。

There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom.在它有较少的希伯来成语。He uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20), but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar, "he is intoxicated", Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine.他用几个拉丁词(路加福音12时06分,7点41分,8时半,11点33,19:20),但没有叙利亚文或希伯来文的话,除了sikera,一个令人振奋的酒性饮料,但没有取得葡萄(来自希伯来。shakar,“他是陶醉”,列弗。10:9),可能棕榈酒。 This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the Old Testament.这福音包含旧约28不同的参考。The date of its composition is uncertain.其组成日期是不确定的。It must have been written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is generally fixed at about 63 or 64 AD This Gospel was written, therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner.它必须是书面的行为之前,对其中的组成日期一般是固定在大约63或64 AD这福音是书面的,因此,大概60或63时,卢克可能已在出席撒利亚保罗,谁是当时的囚犯。Others have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul's imprisonment there.也有人猜测,这是写在罗马期间保罗的监禁那里。But on this point no positive certainty can be attained.但在这一点上没有正面肯定可以实现。

It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction, if not at the dictation of Paul.人们普遍推测,路加写所指的方向,如果不是在听写的保罗。Many words and phrases are common to both; eg Compare Luke 4:22 with Col. 4:6.许多单词和短语是共同的,如比较上校4:6路加福音4:22。Compare Luke 4:32 with 1 Cor.比较路加福音4:32 1肺心病。2:4.2:4。Compare Luke 6:36 with 2 Cor.比较路加福音6:36 2肺心病。1:3.1:3。Compare Luke 6:39 with Rom.比较路加福音6:39与光盘。2:19.2:19。Compare Luke 9:56 with 2 Cor.比较路加福音9:56 2肺心病。10:8.10:8。Compare Luke 10:8 with 1 Cor.比较路加福音10:8 1肺心病。10:27.10:27。Compare Luke 11:41 with Titus 1:15.比较提图斯1:15路加福音11:41。Compare Luke 18:1 with 2 Thess.比较路加福音18:1 2帖。1:11.1:11。Compare Luke 21:36 with Eph.比较弗路加福音21:36。6:18.6:18。Compare Luke 22:19, 20 with 1 Cor.比较林前路加福音22:19,20。11:23-29.11:23-29。Compare Luke 24:46 with Acts 17:3.比较路加福音24:46与17:3的行为。Compare Luke 24:34 with 1 Cor.比较路加福音24:34 1肺心病。15:5.15:5。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Luke Chapter 24路加福音第24章

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯M灰色

First Day of the Week第一天的周

The order of our Lord's appearances on this day was given in the comment on Matthew 28, and need not be repeated.而在这一天我们的主的出场顺序被赋予在马修28的评论,而无须重复。Indeed all of the events in the chapter were dealt with there, except the walk to Emmaus (vv. 13-35).事实上,在本章的事件都被处理了那里,除了步行到厄玛乌(vv. 13-35)。Three score furlongs represent nearly eight miles (v. 13).三局比分弗隆代表近八英里(13节)。Cleopas, one of the two on this journey is not met with elsewhere, and is to be distinguished from the "Clopas" of John 19:25.革流巴,两个一对的这段旅程是不符合其他地方,并须从“Clopas”约翰19:25尊敬。Luke has sometimes been identified as the other, but this is conjecture.卢克有时被确定为其他,但这是猜想。The story runs on smoothly and requires little explanation; but, following Stuart, we remark on the wisdom Christ displayed in dealing with the men.故事上运行顺利,需要一点解释,但是,下面的斯图尔特,​​我们的话就与男人打交道中显示的智慧基督。

He brought them to the written word, and He left them there (vv. 25-27), furnishing no fresh revelation, but expecting them to rest on the old one.他带来了他们的文字,和他离开他们那里(vv. 25-27),家具没有新鲜的启示,但希望他们停留在旧的。What He expected of them, He still expects of His disciples, and the sooner we realize and act on it, the sooner will we have peace.他对他们的期望是什么,他仍然希望他的弟子,我们越早认识和行动上,越早将我们的和平。Another interesting item is the reference to Simon Peter (v. 34) which no other evangelist mentions, but which Paul records later (1 Corinthians 15: 5).另一个有趣的项目是对西门彼得(34节),其中没有提到其他传播者的参考,但后来保罗记录(哥林多前书15:5)。The reason for silence concerning it was the question of communion with His Lord that had to be settled for Peter.在沉默的原因是有关的共融与他的主,必须为彼得解决的问题。Could he again enjoy it after what he had done?他能否再次享受之后,他做了什么呢?"That visit settled it," says Stuart: "We say visit because evidently it was the Lord who sought him out." “这次访问解决了,”斯图尔特说:“我们说的访问,因为显然它是主谁寻求他。”

He "hath appeared unto Simon."他“祂所所不欲,西蒙出现了。”The effect of this interview on Peter is seen in John 21:7.此采访时看到彼得的影响在约翰21:7。Luke is very definite concerning the evidences of Christ's resurrection.卢克是非常明确的关于基督复活的证据。"A spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have" (39).“一个精神祂所没有肉和骨头,因为你们看到我有”(39)。There is no mention of blood, for that is the life of the flesh (Lev. 17:14), and was poured out when He died for guilty men.没有提到的血液,是该肉体的生命(利未记17:14),并倒出来时,他为有罪的人死亡。Luke's version of the commission to the disciples is new, in that "repentance and remission of sins" were to "be preached in His Name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem" (v. 47).卢克的佣金版本的弟子是新的,在这“悔改和赦罪”是要“宣扬他的名字在所有国家,开始在耶路撒冷”(第47)。This is "the gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 20 : 24), and is to be distinguished from the gospel of the Kingdom which our Lord Himself and His disciples preached throughout His earthly life.这是“福音神的恩典”(徒20:24),并须从其中我们的主自己和他的弟子在他的尘世生活宣讲天国的福音区别开来。

That gospel will be preached again as we have seen (Matt. 24 : 14), but not until after the translation of the church, and Israel takes up her mission once more among the Gentiles.这将是宣扬福音再次正如我们看到的(太24:14),但直到教会后,翻译和以色列占据了她的使命在外邦人一次。 Power was needed for the preaching of this gospel, and it is promised (v. 49), but our Lord must first ascend ere it can be "shed forth," hence the record following (vv. 50-51).电力,需要为这个传福音,这是承诺(诉49),但我们的主必须先登上ERE它可以是“棚提出,”因此,记录如下(vv. 50-51)。This reference to the ascension in Luke makes his Gospel the most complete outline of the four, for it begins with the announcement of the birth of John the Baptist as none of the others do, and closes with this event which Mark alone alludes to but in the briefest manner.这对提升在路加福音参考使得他的福音的四个最完整的轮廓,因为它与施洗约翰的出生宣布开始为别人没有,与此事件的标志单独关闭暗示,但在最简短的方式。 Speaking of verse 51, the Scofield Bible says very beautifully, "the attitude of our Lord here characterizes this age as one of grace, an ascended Lord is blessing a believing people with spiritual blessings.诗51时,斯科菲尔德圣经说的很漂亮,“我们的主在这里的态度刻画这个年龄的恩典之一的,登上主是祝福与祝福a相信人的精神。

The Jewish, or Mosaic age was marked by temporal blessings as the reward of an obedient people (Deut. 28 : 1-15).犹太人的,或镶嵌年龄的特点是作为一个听话的人奖励(申命记28:1-15)颞祝福。In the Kingdom or Millennial age, spiritual and temporal blessings unite."在英国或千禧年时代,团结精神和时间的祝福。“

Questions 1.问题 1。Have you reviewed the order of our Lord's appearances?你有没有检讨了我们的主的出场顺序?2.2。How was Christ's wisdom displayed on the walk to Emmaus?如何是基督的智慧显示在以马忤斯走?3.3。What reason for silence is suggested in regard to our Lord's appearance to Simon?沉默的原因是什么建议对于我们的主的外观西蒙? 4.4。Why is the mention of "blood" omitted in the testimony to Christ's bodily resurrection?为什么是“血”,在基督的身体复活的见证略提?5.5。What is the distinction between the two "gospels" mentioned?什么是两者之间的“福音”中提到的区别?6.6。In what sense is the third Gospel the completest?在何种意义上是第三个福音completest?7.7。Distinguish among the three ages, the Jewish, Christian and Millennial.区分这三个年龄,犹太教,基督教和千年。


Gospel of Saint Luke福音圣路加

Catholic Information天主教信息

The subject will be treated under the following heads:该主题将被视为根据以下元首:

I. Biography of Saint Luke;一传圣路加;

II.Authenticity of the Gospel;II.Authenticity的福音;

III. III。Integrity of the Gospel;完整性的福音;

IV. IV。Purpose and Contents;目的和内容;

V. Sources of the Gospel: Synoptic Problem;五,资源的福音:天气问题;

VI. VI。Saint Luke's Accuracy;圣路加的准确性;

VII.七。Lysanias, Tetrarch of Abilene; Lysanias,分封的阿比林;

VIII.第八。Who Spoke the Magnificat?谁发言的尊?

IX. IX。The Census of Quirinius;普查的居里扭;

X. Saint Luke and Josephus.十圣卢克和约瑟夫。

I. BIOGRAPHY OF SAINT LUKE一传圣路加

The name Lucas (Luke) is probably an abbreviation from Lucanus, like Annas from Ananus, Apollos from Apollonius, Artemas from Artemidorus, Demas from Demetrius, etc. (Schanz, "Evang. des heiligen Lucas", 1, 2; Lightfoot on "Col.", iv, 14; Plummer, "St. Luke", introd.)这个名字卢卡斯(路)可能是从Lucanus的缩写,像从Ananus亚那,从阿波罗纽斯,Artemas亚波罗从Artemidorus,从德米特里等迪马斯(Schanz,“Evang DES heiligen卢卡斯”,1,2,莱特富特在“上校“,四,14;卢默,”圣路加“,introd)。

The word Lucas seems to have been unknown before the Christian Era; but Lucanus is common in inscriptions, and is found at the beginning and end of the Gospel in some Old Latin manuscripts (ibid.).卢卡斯这个词似乎已经在基督教时代之前未知的,但Lucanus是常见的碑文,是在开始和一些老(同上)拉丁手稿福音末尾。 It is generally held that St. Luke was a native of Antioch.人们普遍认为,圣卢克是一个安提阿人。Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. III, iv, 6) has: Loukas de to men genos on ton ap Antiocheias, ten episteuen iatros, ta pleista suggegonos to Paulo, kai rots laipois de ou parergos ton apostolon homilnkos--"Lucas vero domo Antiochenus, arte medicus, qui et cum Paulo diu conjunctissime vixit, et cum reliquis Apostolis studiose versatus est."尤西比乌斯(。Hist.传道书三,四,六)有:Loukas DE对AP Antiocheias吨,十episteuen iatros,TA pleista suggegonos到圣保罗男女GENOS,启德腐烂laipois OU parergos吨apostolon homilnkos - “卢卡斯VERO DOMO Antiochenus ,ARTE梅迪库斯,归仁等暨圣保罗乌conjunctissime vixit,等暨reliquis Apostolis studiose versatus估。“Eusebius has a clearer statement in his "Quæstiones Evangelicæ", IV, i, 270: ho de Loukas to men genos apo tes Boomenes Antiocheias en--"Luke was by birth a native of the renowned Antioch" (Schmiedel, "Encyc. Bib.").尤西比乌斯有一个在他的“Quæstiones Evangelicæ”,四,我,270明确声明:浩德Loukas男子GENOS APO TES Boomenes Antiocheias恩 - “卢克是由出生在著名的安提本土”(Schmiedel,“百科全书背带裤。 “)。Spitta, Schmiedel, and Harnack think this is a quotation from Julius Africanus (first half of the third century).施皮塔,Schmiedel,并哈尔纳克认为这是一个由朱利叶斯Africanus(第三世纪上半叶)的报价。 In Codex Bezæ (D) Luke is introduced by a "we" as early as Acts 11:28; and, though this is not a correct reading, it represents a very ancient tradition.在食品Bezæ(D)卢克是介绍一个“我们”只要行为11时28分早,而且,虽然这不是一个正确的阅读,它是一个非常古老的传统。 The writer of Acts took a special interest in Antioch and was well acquainted with it (Acts 11:19-27; 13:1; 14:18-21, 14:25, 15:22, 23, 30, 35; 18:22).作家的行为发生在安提阿特殊利益,并与它良好(徒11:19-27认识;十三点零一; 14:18-21,14:25,15点22,23,30,35,18: 22)。We are told the locality of only one deacon, "Nicolas, a proselyte of Antioch", 6:5; and it has been pointed out by Plummer that, out of eight writers who describe the Russian campaign of 1812, only two, who were Scottish, mention that the Russian general, Barclay de Tolly, was of Scottish extraction.我们被告知只有一个执事的地方,“尼古拉,是安提阿proselyte”,6点05分,并已指出普拉默说,谁出八个作家描述了1812年俄运动,只有两个,谁是苏格兰,提到了俄罗斯将军,巴克莱德托利,苏格兰萃取。 These considerations seem to exclude the conjecture of Renan and Ramsay that St. Luke was a native of Philippi.这些考虑似乎排除勒南和拉姆齐推测,圣路加是一个腓人。

St. Luke was not a Jew.圣卢克不是犹太人。He is separated by St. Paul from those of the circumcision (Colossians 4:14), and his style proves that he was a Greek.他是分离圣保禄从割礼(歌罗西书4:14)的人,和他的风格证明他是希腊人。Hence he cannot be identified with Lucius the prophet of Acts 13:1, nor with Lucius of Romans 16:21, who was cognatus of St. Paul.因此,他不能确定与卢修斯的行为13:1先知,也与罗马书16:21,谁是cognatus圣保罗卢修斯。From this and the prologue of the Gospel it follows that Epiphanius errs when he calls him one of the Seventy Disciples; nor was he the companion of Cleophas in the journey to Emmaus after the Resurrection (as stated by Theophylact and the Greek Menol.).从这个和福音由此可见,埃皮法尼乌斯出错时,他称他的七十弟子之一的序幕,也不是他的Cleophas在复活后(如Theophylact和希腊Menol列示。)厄玛乌旅途伴侣。 St. Luke had a great knowledge of the Septuagint and of things Jewish, which he acquired either as a Jewish proselyte (St. Jerome) or after he became a Christian, through his close intercourse with the Apostles and disciples.圣卢克有一个七十和犹太人的事情,他无论是作为一个犹太proselyte(圣杰罗姆)或获得丰富的知识后,他成为基督徒,通过他与使徒和门徒密切交往。 Besides Greek, he had many opportunities of acquiring Aramaic in his native Antioch, the capital of Syria.除了希腊,他在他的家乡收购安提阿,叙利亚首都阿拉姆很多机会。He was a physician by profession, and St. Paul calls him "the most dear physician" (Colossians 4:14).他是一个由专业医生,和圣保罗称他“最亲爱的医生”(歌罗西书4:14)。This avocation implied a liberal education, and his medical training is evidenced by his choice of medical language.这隐含了业余爱好自由教育,他的医疗培训是由他的医学语言的选择就是证明。Plummer suggests that he may have studied medicine at the famous school of Tarsus, the rival of Alexandria and Athens, and possibly met St. Paul there.普拉默认为,他可能就读于塔尔苏斯名校医学认为,亚历山大和雅典的对手,并可能会见圣保罗那里。From his intimate knowledge of the eastern Mediterranean, it has been conjectured that he had lengthened experience as a doctor on board ship.从他的地中海东部的深入了解,它已有人猜测,他已经延长为船上医生的经验。 He travailed a good deal, and sends greetings to the Colossians, which seems to indicate that he had visited them.他travailed一个很好的协议,并发送问候歌罗西书,这似乎表明,他曾访问过他们。

St. Luke first appears in the Acts at Troas (16:8 sqq.), where he meets St. Paul, and, after the vision, crossed over with him to Europe as an Evangelist, landing at Neapolis and going on to Philippi, "being assured that God had called us to preach the Gospel to them" (note especially the transition into first person plural at verse 10).第一次出现在圣路加在特罗亚(16时08分SQQ),在那里他会见后,视力圣保罗,而且,行为,越过与他作为一个传播者,在Neapolis的登陆,去到腓欧洲, “放心,上帝被称为我们传福音给他们”(注到在第10节第一人称复数尤其是过渡)。He was, therefore, already an Evangelist.他是,因此,已经是一个福音。He was present at the conversion of Lydia and her companions, and lodged in her house.他出席了丽迪雅和她的同伴转换,并在她家提出上诉。He, together with St. Paul and his companions, was recognized by the pythonical spirit: "This same following Paul and us, cried out, saying: These men are the servants of the most high God, who preach unto you the way of salvation" (verse 17).他与圣保罗和他的同伴,是公认的pythonical精神:“这同以下保罗和我们,喊着说:这些人是至高神的仆人,谁给你们宣讲救恩之道“(17节)。 He beheld Paul and Silas arrested, dragged before the Roman magistrates, charged with disturbing the city, "being Jews", beaten with rods and thrown into prison.他看见保罗和西拉被捕,拖前罗马地方法官,扰乱城市与收费,“被犹太人”,与棒殴打,投入监狱。Luke and Timothy escaped, probably because they did not look like Jews (Timothy's father was a gentile).卢克和提摩太逃脱,可能是因为他们不喜欢看的犹太人(提摩太的父亲是一位非犹太人)。When Paul departed from Philippi, Luke was left behind, in all probability to carry on the work of Evangelist.当保罗从腓离去,卢克被留下,在所有的可能性进行了福音的工作。At Thessalonica the Apostle received highly appreciated pecuniary aid from Philippi (Phil., iv, 15, 16), doubtless through the good offices of St. Luke.在塞萨洛尼卡使徒收到腓(腓,四,15,16)高度赞赏金钱援助,无疑通过圣卢克的斡旋。It is not unlikely that the latter remained at Philippi all the time that St. Paul was preaching at Athens and Corinth, and while he was travelling to Jerusalem and back to Ephesus, and during the three years that the Apostle was engaged at Ephesus.这不是不可能,后者在腓保持所有的时间,圣保罗是在雅典和科林斯的说教,而他前往耶路撒冷,回到以弗所,并在三年,使徒是在以弗所从事。 When St. Paul revisited Macedonia, he again met St. Luke at Philippi, and there wrote his Second Epistle to the Corinthians.当圣保罗重新马其顿,他再次会见了腓圣卢克,并有写他的第二书信向科林蒂安。

St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is "the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches" (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth.圣杰罗姆认为它是最有可能的圣卢克是“兄弟,他们的赞美,通过所有的教堂福音”(林后8:18),他是在给科林斯信轿夫之一。 Shortly afterwards, when St. Paul returned from Greece, St. Luke accompanied him from Philippi to Troas, and with him made the long coasting voyage described in Acts, xx.不久之后,当从希腊返回圣保罗,圣路加陪同他从腓到特罗亚,和他所取得的长期惯性航行在行为,XX描述。He went up to Jerusalem, was present at the uproar, saw the attack on the Apostle, and heard him speaking "in the Hebrew tongue" from the steps outside the fortress Antonia to the silenced crowd.他走到耶路撒冷,是在目前的沸沸扬扬,看到了使徒的攻击,并听到他说“在希伯来文的舌头”之外的堡垒安东尼步骤的沉默的人群。 Then he witnessed the infuriated Jews, in their impotent rage, rending their garments, yelling, and flinging dust into the air.然后,他目睹了激怒了犹太人,在他们的无能愤怒,认定他们的服装,吆喝着,并扔在空中的灰尘。We may be sure that he was a constant visitor to St. Paul during the two years of the latter's imprisonment at Cæarea.我们可以肯定,他是在后者的在Cæarea监禁两年不断访客圣保禄。In that period he might well become acquainted with the circumstances of the death of Herod Agrippa I, who had died there eaten up by worms" (skolekobrotos), and he was likely to be better informed on the subject than Josephus. Ample opportunities were given him, "having diligently attained to all things from the beginning", concerning the Gospel and early Acts, to write in order what had been delivered by those "who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word" (Luke 1:2, 3). It is held by many writers that the Gospel was written during this time, Ramsay is of opinion that the Epistle to the Hebrews was then composed, and that St. Luke had a considerable share in it. When Paul appealed to Cæsar, Luke and Aristarchus accompanied him from Cæsarea, and were with him during the stormy voyage from Crete to Malta. Thence they went on to Rome, where, during the two years that St. Paul was kept in prison, St. Luke was frequently at his side, though not continuously, as he is not mentioned in the greetings of the Epistle to the Philippians (Lightfoot, "Phil.", 35). He was present when the Epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians and Philemon were written, and is mentioned in the salutations given in two of them: "Luke the most dear physician, saluteth you" (Colossians 4:14); "There salute thee .在此期间,他很可能成为对希律亚基帕我,谁死在那里吃了蠕虫“(skolekobrotos)死亡的情况熟悉,他很可能得到更好的关于这一问题的通知比约瑟夫。给予充足的机会他说,“有努力实现从一开始所有的事情”,关于福音和早期行为,为了写什么已经被那些“谁从一开始就被目击者和词的部长”(路加福音1点02分发表, 3),它是由许多作家认为,福音在这段时间写的,拉姆齐是认为,以书信的希伯来人当时组成,而且在它圣卢克了相当的份额。保罗呼吁恺撒,卢克和阿里斯塔克斯陪同下从该撒利亚他,与他同在风雨航程从克里特岛到马耳他。那里他们去到罗马,在那里,在两个圣保罗被关在监狱里,圣卢克是在他频繁一面,虽然不是连续,因为他不是在书信中提到的问候到腓(娜莱,“菲尔”,35),他是目前情况下,向歌罗西书,以弗所书和腓利门被写书信,并提到在其中两个给定的打招呼:“最亲爱的路加医生,saluteth你”(歌罗西书4:14),“有你致敬。 ..Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke my fellow labourers" (Philem., 24). St. Jerome holds that it was during these two years Acts was written.马克,阿里斯塔克斯,底马,路加和我的同胞劳动者“(Philem.,24)。圣杰罗姆认为,它在这两种行为被写多年了。

We have no information about St. Luke during the interval between St. Paul's two Roman imprisonments, but he must have met several of the Apostles and disciples during his various journeys.我们在圣保罗之间的两个罗马监禁间隔没有关于圣路加的信息,但他必须在满足他的各种旅行的使徒和门徒几个。He stood beside St. Paul in his last imprisonment; for the Apostle, writing for the last time to Timothy, says: "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course. . . . Make haste to come to me quickly. For Demas hath left me, loving this world. . . . Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:7-11).他站在旁边圣保禄在他的最后监禁;为使徒,最后一次给提摩太写,说:“我已经打了一场漂亮仗,我已经完成我的课程赶快来找我快。。。对于底马祂所留给我,爱这个世界。只有卢克是与我“(提摩太后书4:7-11)。 It is worthy of note that, in the three places where he is mentioned in the Epistles (Colossians 4:14; Philemon 24; 2 Timothy 4:11) he is named with St. Mark (cf. Colossians 4:10), the other Evangelist who was not an Apostle (Plummer), and it is clear from his Gospel that he was well acquainted with the Gospel according to St. Mark; and in the Acts he knows all the details of St. Peter's delivery--what happened at the house of St. Mark's mother, and the name of the girl who ran to the outer door when St. Peter knocked.这是需要注意的是,在这三个地方,他在书信中提到(歌罗西书4:14;腓利门书24;提摩太后书4:11)的地方,他不愧是圣马可(参歌罗西书4:10),命名为其他传播者谁不是一个使徒(卢默),它是从他的福音,他也清楚的认识福音根据圣马可,并在行为他知道所有的圣彼得的交货细节 - 发生了什么在圣马可的母亲和女孩谁跑到外门时,圣彼得敲名字的房子。He must have frequently met St. Peter, and may have assisted him to draw up his First Epistle in Greek, which affords many reminiscences of Luke's style.他必须经常会见圣彼得大教堂,并可能帮助他画了他在希腊,这使卢克的风格许多回忆第一书信。After St. Paul's martyrdom practically all that is known about him is contained in the ancient "Prefatio vel Argumentum Lucæ", dating back to Julius Africanus, who was born about AD 165.经过圣保罗殉难几乎所有的关于他知道的是包含在古代“Prefatio VEL Argumentum Lucæ”,可以追溯到朱利叶斯Africanus,谁是出生约公元165。This states that he was unmarried, that he wrote the Gospel, in Achaia, and that he died at the age of seventy-four in Bithynia (probably a copyist's error for Bœotia), filled with the Holy Ghost.这说明他是未婚,他写了亚该亚的福音,而且他在庇推尼在年龄74(可能是抄写员对波伊俄提亚错误)与圣灵充满,死亡。 Epiphanius has it that he preached in Dalmatia (where there is a tradition to that effect), Gallia (Galatia?), Italy, and Macedonia.埃皮法尼乌斯有它,他在达尔马提亚(其中有一个传统的影响),Gallia(加拉太?),意大利,马其顿和鼓吹。 As an Evangelist, he must have suffered much for the Faith, but it is controverted whether he actually died a martyr's death.作为一个传播者,他必须遭受的信仰多,但它实际上是controverted他是否死于烈士的死亡。St. Jerome writes of him (De Vir. III., vii).圣杰罗姆写到他(室女德,三,七)。"Sepultus est Constantinopoli, ad quam urbem vigesimo Constantii anno, ossa ejus cum reliquiis Andreæ Apostoli translata sunt [de Achaia?]."“Sepultus EST Constantinopoli,广告华富urbem vigesimo Constantii ANNO,奥萨ejus暨reliquiis Andreæ Apostoli translata必须遵守[DE亚该亚?]”

St. Luke its always represented by the calf or ox, the sacrificial animal, because his Gospel begins with the account of Zachary, the priest, the father of John the Baptist.圣卢克它始终代表小腿或牛,祭祀动物,因为他的福音与扎卡里帐户,牧师,施洗约翰的父亲开始。He is called a painter by Nicephorus Callistus (fourteenth century), and by the Menology of Basil II, AD 980.他被称为由Nicephorus卡利斯图斯(十四世纪)的画家,和由罗勒二,公元980 Menology。A picture of the Virgin in S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, is ascribed to him, and can be traced to AD 847 It is probably a copy of that mentioned by Theodore Lector, in the sixth century.一个在S.玛利亚教堂,罗马圣母的图片,是归因于他,可追溯到公元847这可能是一个由西奥多讲师提到,复制在第六世纪。 This writer states that the Empress Eudoxia found a picture of the Mother of God at Jerusalem, which she sent to Constantinople (see "Acta SS.", 18 Oct.).笔者指出,慈禧多迦在耶路撒冷发现了一个图片的上帝之母,她送往君士坦丁堡(见“SS学报”,10月18日)。As Plummer observes.由于直立观察。it is certain that St. Luke was an artist, at least to the extent that his graphic descriptions of the Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, Shepherds.可以肯定的是圣路加是一个艺术家,至少在程度上,他的图形描述的报喜,探视,耶稣诞生,牧羊人。Presentation, the Shepherd and lost sheep, etc., have become the inspiring and favourite themes of Christian painters.介绍,羊的牧人和丢失等,已成为基督徒画家的启发和喜爱的主题。

St. Luke is one of the most extensive writers of the New Testament.圣路加是新约的最广泛的作家之一。His Gospel is considerably longer than St. Matthew's, his two books are about as long as St. Paul's fourteen Epistles: and Acts exceeds in length the Seven Catholic Epistles and the Apocalypse.他的福音是比圣马太的时间越长,他的两本书是关于如圣保罗十四个书信长:和行为的长度超过七天主教书信和启示。 The style of the Gospel is superior to any NT writing except Hebrews.福音的风格是优于任何除了希伯来NT写作。Renan says (Les Evangiles, xiii) that it is the most literary of the Gospels.雷南说(LES Evangiles,十三),它是最文学的福音。St. Luke is a painter in words.圣卢克是一个字画家。"The author of the Third Gospel and of the Acts is the most versatile of all New Testament writers. He can be as Hebraistic as the Septuagint, and as free from Hebraisms as Plutarch. . . He is Hebraistic in describing Hebrew society and Greek when describing Greek society" (Plummer, introd.).他说:“第三福音和作者的行为是最多才多艺的所有新约作者,他可以像七十Hebraistic,并从普鲁塔克Hebraisms作为自由。Hebraistic他在描述时,希伯来文和希腊社会描述希腊社会“(直立,introd)。 His great command of Greek is shown by the richness of his vocabulary and the freedom of his constructions.他对希腊的大统领是表现出了他的词汇和结构的自由,他的丰富性。

II. II。AUTHENTICITY OF THE GOSPEL真实性的福音

A. Internal EvidenceA.内部证据

The internal evidence may be briefly summarized as follows:内部证据可简要概括如下:

The author of Acts was a companion of Saint Paul, namely, Saint Luke; and作者的行为是圣保罗,即圣路加伴侣;和

the author of Acts was the author of the Gospel.作者的行为是福音的作者。

The arguments are given at length by Plummer, "St. Luke" in "Int. Crit. Com."在给定的参数长度卢默,“圣路加”中的“诠释。暴击。com”。(4th ed., Edinburgh, 1901); Harnack, "Luke the Physician" (London, 1907); "The Acts of the Apostles" (London, 1909); etc.(第4版,爱丁堡,1901年);哈纳克,“路加医生”(伦敦,1907年);“的使徒行传”(伦敦,1909年),等等。

(1) The Author of Acts was a companion of Saint Paul, namely, Saint Luke There is nothing more certain in Biblical criticism than this proposition. (1)作者的行为是圣保罗,即圣路加同伴没有什么比这更主张圣经的批评肯定。The writer of the "we" sections claims to be a companion of St. Paul.而“我们”的部分作家自称是圣保罗的伴侣。The "we" begins at Acts, xvi, 10, and continues to xvi, 17 (the action is at Philippi). “我们”始于行为,十六,10,并继续十六,17(动作是在腓立)。It reappears at xx, 5 (Philippi), and continues to xxi, 18 (Jerusalem).它再次出现在XX,5(腓),并继续XXI,18(耶路撒冷)。 It reappears again at the departure for Rome, xxvii, 1 (Gr. text), and continues to the end of the book.它再次重新出现在罗马,二十七,1(希腊语文本)出发,并继续在书的结尾。

Plummer argues that these sections are by the same author as the rest of the Acts:普拉默认为,这些部分由作为其余的事作者是:

from the natural way in which they fit in;从自然的方式在他们适应;

from references to them in other parts; and从对它们的引用在其他地区,以及

from the identity of style.从风格特征。

The change of person seems natural and true to the narrative, but there is no change of language.改变的人很自然和真实的叙述,但没有语言的变化。The characteristic expressions of the writer run through the whole book, and are as frequent in the "we" as in the other sections.对作家的特征表现贯穿全书,并在“我们”中的其他部分为频繁。There is no change of style perceptible.没有风格的可察觉的变化。Harnack (Luke the Physician, 40) makes an exhaustive examination of every word and phrase in the first of the "we" sections (xvi, 10-17), and shows how frequent they are in the rest of the Acts and the Gospel, when compared with the other Gospels.哈尔纳克(路加医生,40)使每一个字和一个在“我们”的部分(十六,10月17日)前半句详尽的检查,并演示如何频繁,他们在其余的事和福音的是,相比与其他福音。 His manner of dealing with the first word (hos) will indicate his method: "This temporal hos is never found in St. Matthew and St. Mark, but it occurs forty-eight times in St. Luke (Gospels and Acts), and that in all parts of the work."他与第一个字(居屋)交易方式将他的方法表示:“这是从来没有发现颞居屋在圣马修和圣马克,但它发生在圣路加(福音和行为)48次,在所有的工作部分。“ When he comes to the end of his study of this section he is able to write: "After this demonstration those who declare that this passage was derived from a source, and so was not composed by the author of the whole work, take up a most difficult position. What may we suppose the author to have left unaltered in the source? Only the 'we'. For, in fact, nothing else remains. In regard to vocabulary, syntax, and style, he must have transformed everything else into his own language. As such a procedure is absolutely unimaginable, we are simply left to infer that the author is here himself speaking."当他谈到了他对这一节他能写读书的结尾:“在此演示那些谁宣布这段话是从源区,所以没有被整个作品的作者组成,采取了最困难的境地。什么可能我们假设作者已离开源不变?只因为,“我们” 其实,没有别的存在。至于词汇,语法和风格,他必须改变一切成他自己的语言,因此程序是绝对不可想象的,我们只是左推断,笔者在这里自己说话。“ He even thinks it improbable, on account of the uniformity of style, that the author was copying from a diary of his own, made at an earlier period.他甚至认为这不可能,对风格的统一帐户,作者是从他自己的日记在较早期间提出,复制。After this, Harnack proceeds to deal with the remaining "we" sections, with like results.在此之后,哈尔纳克收益处理余下的“我们”的部分,与类似的结果。But it is not alone in vocabulary, syntax and style, that this uniformity is manifest.但它不是唯一的词汇,语法和风格,这是明显的一致性。In "The Acts of the Apostles", Harnack devotes many pages to a detailed consideration of the manner in which chronological data, and terms dealing with lands, nations, cities, and houses, are employed throughout the Acts, as well as the mode of dealing with persons and miracles, and he everywhere shows that the unity of authorship cannot be denied except by those who ignore the facts.在“在使徒行传”,哈尔纳克致力于多页到在其中年代数据,并与土地方面,国家,城市,房屋买卖,是整个雇用行为方式详细考虑,以及对模式处理人与奇迹,他到处可见,作者的统一不能只能由那些谁无视事实否认。 This same conclusion is corroborated by the recurrence of medical language in all parts of the Acts and the Gospel.同样的结论证实了复发的医学语言的行为和福音的所有部分。

That the companion of St. Paul who wrote the Acts was St. Luke is the unanimous voice of antiquity.这是圣保罗的同伴是谁写的行为是圣路加是古代的一致呼声。His choice of medical language proves that the author was a physician.他的医学语言的选择证明了作者是一个医生。Westein, in his preface to the Gospel ("Novum Test. Græcum", Amsterdam, 1741, 643), states that there are clear indications of his medical profession throughout St. Luke's writings; and in the course of his commentary he points out several technical expressions common to the Evangelist and the medical writings of Galen. Westein,在他的序言福音(“。Novum酒店测试Græcum”,阿姆斯特丹,1741,643),国家有明确的迹象表明他的整个医学界的圣路加的著作,并在他的评论当然,他点了几个共同的传播者和盖伦的医学著作中的技术用语。 These were brought together by the Bollandists ("Acta SS.", 18 Oct.).这些人聚集的Bollandists(“SS学报”,10月18日)。In the "Gentleman's Magazine" for June, 1841, a paper appeared on the medical language of St. Luke.在“君子杂志”六月,1841年,一纸出现在圣路加医疗语言。To the instances given in that article, Plummer and Harnack add several others; but the great book on the subject is Hobart "The Medical Language of St. Luke" (Dublin, 1882).在该文章中给出的实例,卢默和哈尔纳克添加其他几个人,但关于这一问题的伟大的书是霍巴特“的圣卢克医学语言”(都柏林,1882年)。 Hobart works right through the Gospel and Acts and points out numerous words and phrases identical with those employed by such medical writers as Hippocrates, Arctæus, Galen, and Dioscorides.霍巴特的作品的权利,通过了一系列的福音,单词和短语作为与希波克拉底,Arctæus,盖伦,作家和Dioscorides等医疗行为和就业的一致点。 A few are found in Aristotle, but he was a doctor's son.一些被发现在亚里士多德,但他是医生的儿子。The words and phrases cited are either peculiar to the Third Gospel and Acts, or are more frequent than in other New Testament writings.单词和短语引要么特有的第三福音和行为,或者是比其他新约著作频繁。The argument is cumulative, and does not give way with its weakest strands.其论据是累积的,不给其最弱链方式。When doubtful cases and expressions common to the Septuagint, are set aside, a large number remain that seem quite unassailable.当可疑病例和表达共同的译本,是预留,大量留,似乎相当无懈可击。Harnack (Luke the Physician! 13) says: "It is as good as certain from the subject-matter, and more especially from the style, of this great work that the author was a physician by profession. Of course, in making such a statement one still exposes oneself to the scorn of the critics, and yet the arguments which are alleged in its support are simply convincing. . . . Those, however, who have studied it [Hobart's book] carefully, will, I think, find it impossible to escape the conclusion that the question here is not one of merely accidental linguistic coloring, but that this great historical work was composed by a writer who was either a physician or was quite intimately acquainted with medical language and science. And, indeed, this conclusion holds good not only for the 'we' sections, but for the whole book."哈纳克(!路加医师13)说:“这是一样好,一定从标的物,更特别是从作风这个伟大的工作,认为作者是一个由专业医师当然,在作出有关。声明一个仍然暴露了自己的批评嗤之以鼻,而这却是在其支持所谓的论点只是说服力。。这些,但是,谁研究过它[霍巴特的书]小心,意志,我觉得,觉得跳不出的结论是,这里的问题不是仅仅是偶然的着色语言之一,但这个伟大的历史著作是由一个作家谁是无论是医生还是很密切的医疗和科学认识的语言组成的,而事实上,这结论的成立,不仅为“我们”的栏目不错,但整个书“。 Harnack gives the subject special treatment in an appendix of twenty-two pages.哈纳克给出了一个22页的附录受到特殊待遇。 Hawkins and Zahn come to the same conclusion.Hawkins和赞恩得出相同的结论。The latter observes (Einl., II, 427): "Hobart has proved for everyone who can appreciate proof that the author of the Lucan work was a man practised in the scientific language of Greek medicine--in short, a Greek physician" (quoted by Harnack, op. cit.).后者观察(Einl.,II,427):“霍巴特已为大家谁可以欣赏证明的卢坎作品的作者是在希腊医学科学的语言实践证明了一个人 - 总之,希腊医生”(引述哈尔纳克,同前)。

In this connection, Plummer, though he speaks more cautiously of Hobart's argument, is practically in agreement with these writers.在这方面,直立,虽然他说话比较谨慎的霍巴特的说法,实际上是在与这些作家的协议。He says that when Hobart's list has been well sifted a considerable number of words remains.他说,当霍巴特的名单已筛选以及相当数量的字依然存在。"The argument", he goes on to say "is cumulative. Any two or three instances of coincidence with medical writers may be explained as mere coincidences; but the large number of coincidences renders their explanation unsatisfactory for all of them, especially where the word is either rare in the LXX, or not found there at all" (64). “的说法”,他接着说:“是累积的医疗作家巧合任何两个或三个实例可能被视为单纯的巧合解释;但大量的巧合呈现他们的解释为所有这些不理想,尤其是在词要么是罕见的LXX,或没有发现所有的“(64)有。 In "The Expositor" (Nov. 1909, 385 sqq.), Mayor says of Harnack's two above-cited works: "He has in opposition to the Tübingen school of critics, successfully vindicated for St. Luke the authorship of the two canonical books ascribed to him, and has further proved that, with some few omissions, they may be accepted as trustworthy documents. . . . I am glad to see that the English translator . . . has now been converted by Harnack's argument, founded in part, as he himself confesses, on the researches of English scholars, especially Dr. Hobart, Sir WM Ramsay, and Sir John Hawkins."在“解释者”( 1909年11月,385 SQQ),市长说,哈尔纳克的两个以上列举的作品:“他反对的批评蒂宾根学校,成功地为圣卢克平反了两个典型的书籍作者归因于他,并进一步证明了一些少数不作为,他们可能会被接纳为值得信赖的文件。。我很高兴地看到,英文翻译。现已转为由哈尔纳克的说法,部分成立,正如他自己坦承的英语学者,特别是博士霍巴特,WM拉姆齐爵士,爵士和约翰霍金斯的研究。“ There is a striking resemblance between the prologue of the Gospel and a preface written by Dioscorides, a medical writer who studied at Tarsus in the first century (see Blass, "Philology of the Gospels").之间存在着福音的序言和Dioscorides,医疗作家谁在塔尔苏斯在第一世纪的研究(见布拉斯,“文学的福音”)写的序言中惊人的相似之处。 The words with which Hippocrates begins his treatise "On Ancient Medicine" should be noted in this connection: 'Okosoi epecheiresan peri iatrikes legein he graphein, KTL (Plummer, 4).与之希波克拉底的话开始他的论文“论古代医学”应注意在这方面:“Okosoi epecheiresan城郊iatrikes legein他graphein,KTL(直立,4)。When all these considerations are fully taken into account, they prove that the companion of St. Paul who wrote the Acts (and the Gospel) was a physician.当所有这些因素都充分考虑到,他们证明了圣保罗的同伴是谁写的行为(和福音)是一个医生。Now, we learn from St. Paul that he had such a companion.现在,我们从圣保罗说,他这样的伴侣。Writing to the Colossians (iv, 11), he says: "Luke, the most dear physician, saluteth you."以书面形式向歌罗西书(四,11),他说:“卢克,最亲爱的医生,saluteth你。”He was, therefore, with St. Paul when he wrote to the Colossians, Philemon, and Ephesians; and also when he wrote the Second Epistle to Timothy.他是,因此,当他与圣保禄写信给歌罗西书,腓利门书,和以弗所书,也当他写了第二书信给提摩太。From the manner in which he is spoken of, a long period of intercourse is implied.从他所讲的方式,长期的交往是隐含的。

(2) The Author of Acts was the Author of the Gospel(2)作者的行为是作者的福音

"This position", says Plummer, "is so generally admitted by critics of all schools that not much time need be spent in discussing it." “这一立场”,普拉默说,“如此普遍,并非所有需要多少时间在学校度过的批评讨论它承认。”Harnack may be said to be the latest prominent convert to this view, to which he gives elaborate support in the two books above mentioned.哈纳克可以说是最新的突出转换这一观点,对此他给出了上述两书阐述的支持。He claims to have shown that the earlier critics went hopelessly astray, and that the traditional view is the right one.他声称已经表明,早期批评了无可救药的歧途,而传统的观点是正确的。This opinion is fast gaining ground even amongst ultra critics, and Harnack declares that the others hold out because there exists a disposition amongst them to ignore the facts that tell against them, and he speaks of "the truly pitiful history of the criticism of the Acts".这种观点正在快速地批评甚至超之间,并哈尔纳克宣布,持有人,因为他们之间存在的产权处置无视事实,对他们说,和他的“的批评的行为真正可怜讲历史“。 Only the briefest summary of the arguments can be given here.只有最短的论点摘要可以在这里得到。The Gospel and Acts are both dedicated to Theophilus and the author of the latter work claims to be the author of the former (Acts 1:1).福音和行为都是致力于西奥菲勒斯和后者的作品的作者声称自己是前作者(徒1:1)。The style and arrangement of both are so much alike that the supposition that one was written by a forger in imitation of the other is absolutely excluded.的风格和两个安排是如此相像的,一个是由在其他仿制伪造书面假设是完全排除在外。The required power of literary analysis was then unknown, and, if it were possible, we know of no writer of that age who had the wonderful skill necessary to produce such an imitation.对文学分析所需的功率是当时未知,而且,如果有可能,我们知道有没有这个年龄谁的精彩技巧才能产生这样的模仿作家。 It is to postulate a literary miracle, says Plummer, to suppose that one of the books was a forgery written in Imitation of the other.它是假设一个文学奇迹,普拉默说,以假设的书籍之一是在其他仿书面伪造的。Such an idea would not have occurred to anyone; and, if it had, he could not have carried it out with such marvellous success.这种想法就不会发生任何人;,如果有,他不可能有如此奇妙的成功实施出来。If we take a few chapters of the Gospel and note down the special, peculiar, and characteristic words, phrases and constructions, and then open the Acts at random, we shall find the same literary peculiarities constantly recurring.如果我们把福音的几章,记下特殊的,独特,特征词,短语和结构,然后打开随机的行为,我们会发现同样的不断反复出现的文学特点。 Or, if we begin with the Acts, and proceed conversely, the same results will follow.或者,如果我们开始与行为,进而反过来,同样的结果将随之而来。In addition to similarity, there are parallels of description, arrangement, and points of view, and the recurrence of medical language, in both books, has been mentioned under the previous heading.除了相似性,有相似的描述,安排,和观点,以及医疗语言复发,在这两种书,已根据以前的标题提及。

We should naturally expect that the long intercourse between St. Paul and St. Luke would mutually influence their vocabulary, and their writings show that this was really the case.我们理应期望之间的圣保罗和圣卢克长期相互交往会影响他们的词汇,他们的著作表明,这是事实。Hawkins (Horæ Synopticæ) and Bebb (Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", sv "Luke, Gospel of") state that there are 32 words found only in St. Matt.霍金斯(海悦Synopticæ)和Bebb(Hast.,“快译通的圣经。”SV“卢克,福音书”)指出,只有在圣马特发现32个字。 and St. Paul; 22 in St. Mark and St. Paul; 21 in St. John and St. Paul; while there are 101 found only in St. Luke and St. Paul.和圣保罗,在圣马克和圣保罗22;在圣约翰和圣保罗21;而只有在圣路加和圣保罗发现101。Of the characteristic words and phrases which mark the three Synoptic Gospels a little more than half are common to St. Matt.的特征词和词组的标记三个天气福音的一半多一点是共同的圣马特。and St. Paul, less than half to St. Mark and St. Paul and two-thirds to St. Luke and St. Paul.和圣保罗,不到一半圣马克和圣保罗和三分之二的圣路加和圣保罗。Several writers have given examples of parallelism between the Gospel and the Pauline Epistles.几位作家都给予之间的福音和保罗书信并行的例子。Among the most striking are those given by Plummer (44).其中最引人注目的是由直立式(44)给出的。The same author gives long lists of words and expressions found in the Gospel and Acts and in St. Paul, and nowhere else in the New Testament.作者给出了同样的话,在福音和行为,并在圣保罗发现表达式长的列表,和无处在新约。 But more than this, Eager in "The Expositor" (July and August, 1894), in his attempt to prove that St. Luke was the author of Hebrews, has drawn attention to the remarkable fact that the Lucan influence on the language of St. Paul is much more marked in those Epistles where we know that St. Luke was his constant companion.但比这更多的,在“解释者”(七月和八月,1894年)在他试图证明,圣卢克是希伯来书的作者,跃跃欲试,已提请注意的显着事实,即对ST语言卢坎影响保罗是更明显的书信,我们知道,圣卢克是他忠实的伙伴。 Summing up, he observes: "There is in fact sufficient ground for believing that these books. Colossians, II Corinthians, the Pastoral Epistles, First (and to a lesser extent Second) Peter, possess a Lucan character."总结起来,他指出:“有,其实是相信这些书歌罗西书,哥林多后书的教牧书信,第一个(在较小程度上第二)彼得,拥有卢坎性质的充分理由。” When all these points are taken into consideration, they afford convincing proof that the author of the Gospel and Acts was St. Luke, the beloved physician, the companion of St. Paul, and this is fully borne out by the external evidence.当所有这些问题都考虑到,他们买得起令人信服的证据,证明了福音和使徒的作者是圣卢克,心爱的医生,在圣保罗的伴侣,这是充分承担外部证据出来。

B. External EvidenceB.外部证据

The proof in favour of the unity of authorship, derived from the internal character of the two books, is strengthened when taken in connection with the external evidence.在作者的统一有利于证明,从两书内部字符派生,是加强与外部时所采取的证据。Every ancient testimony for the authenticity of Acts tells equally in favour of the Gospel; and every passage for the Lucan authorship of the Gospel gives a like support to the authenticity of Acts.每对行为的真实性同样古老的证词中讲述的福音青睐,并为每一个福音卢坎作者通过给予支持,这样的行为的真实性。Besides, in many places of the early Fathers both books are ascribed to St. Luke.此外,在早期的教父两本书很多地方都归因于圣卢克。The external evidence can be touched upon here only in the briefest manner.外部证据可以触及这里只在最短的方式。For external evidence in favour of Acts, see ACTS OF THE APOSTLES.对于有利于外部证据的行为,见使徒行传。

The many passages in St. Jerome, Eusebius, and Origen, ascribing the books to St. Luke, are important not only as testifying to the belief of their own, but also of earlier times.在圣杰罗姆,尤西比乌斯,和奥利的许多段落,归咎于书圣路加,不仅是作为见证自己的信念很重要,但时间也较早。St. Jerome and Origen were great travellers, and all three were omniverous readers.圣杰罗姆和奥利是伟大的旅客,这三个人都是杂食性的读者。They had access to practically the whole Christian literature of preceding centuries; but they nowhere hint that the authorship of the Gospel (and Acts) was ever called in question.他们获得了几乎整个上世纪基督教文学,但他们无处暗示的福音(和行为)的作者是曾经在质疑。This, taken by itself, would be a stronger argument than can be adduced for the majority of classical works.这本身采取的,将是一个强大的参数比可以为广大的经典作品援引。But we have much earlier testimony.但是,我们要早得多的证词。Clement of Alexandria was probably born at Athens about AD 150.克莱门特亚历山大可能是出生于约公元150雅典。He travelled much and had for instructors in the Faith an Ionian, an Italian, a Syrian, an Egyptian, an Assyrian, and a Hebrew in Palestine.他走过多少,以及在信仰的导师有一个爱奥尼亚,意大利,叙利亚,埃及,亚述人,在巴勒斯坦和希伯来语。"And these men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed teaching directly from Peter and James, John and Paul, the holy Apostles, son receiving it from father, came by God's providence even unto us, to deposit among us those seeds [of truth] which were derived from their ancestors and the Apostles". “而这些人,保留直接从彼得和詹姆斯,约翰和保罗,圣使徒,儿子接到父亲吧,保佑的教学真正传统来到上帝的普罗维登斯甚至祂对我们,对我们中间存款的种子[真相]这是从他们的祖先和使徒派生出来的“。 (Strom., I, i, 11: cf. Euseb., "Hist. Eccl.", V, xi).(Strom.,我,我,11:比照Euseb,“组织胺传道书 ”,五,十一)。 He holds that St. Luke's Gospel was written before that of St. Mark, and he uses the four Gospels just as any modern Catholic writer.他认为,圣卢克的福音圣马克前写的,他只使用任何现代天主教作家的四福音。Tertullian was born at Carthage, lived some time in Rome, and then returned to Carthage.良出生在迦太基,住在罗马的一些时间,然后返回迦太基。His quotations from the Gospels, when brought together by Rönsch, cover two hundred pages.从他的福音报价时带来的Rönsch在一起,覆盖200页。He attacks Marcion for mutilating St. Luke's Gospel.他攻击的毁损圣卢克的福音马吉安。and writes: "I say then that among them, and not only among the Apostolic Churches, but among all the Churches which are united with them in Christian fellowship, the Gospel of Luke, which we earnestly defend, has been maintained from its first publication" (Adv. Marc., IV, v).并写道:“我说然后他们中间,和不仅在使徒教会,但在所有这些都与他们团结在团契中,卢克,这是我们切实维护福音,教会一直保持其首次出版“(Adv.马克。,四,五)。

The testimony of St. Irenæus is of special importance.而圣irenæus证明具有特殊的重要性。He was born in Asia Minor, where he heard St. Polycarp give his reminiscences of St. John the Apostle, and in his numerous writings he frequently mentions other disciples of the Apostles.他出生于小亚细亚,在那里他听说圣波利卡普给使徒圣约翰他的回忆,在他的许多著作中,他经常提到的使徒其他弟子。 He was priest in Lyons during the persecution in 177, and was the bearer of the letter of the confessors to Rome.他在里昂牧师期间在177迫害,并且是在对罗马的忏悔书旗手。His bishop, Pothinus, whom be succeeded, was ninety years of age when he gained the crown of martyrdom in 177, and must have been born while some of the Apostles and very many of their hearers were still living.他的主教,Pothinus,谁是成功的,是九十周岁时,他获得了177的殉难冠,且必须是出生时的一些使徒和他们的听众非常许多人仍然生活。 St. Irenæus, who was born about AD 130 (some say much earlier), is, therefore, a witness for the early tradition of Asia Minor, Rome, and Gaul.圣irenæus,谁是约公元130(一说要早得多)出生,因此,为小亚细亚,罗马和高卢早期传统的见证。He quotes the Gospels just as any modern bishop would do, he calls them Scripture, believes even in their verbal inspiration; shows how congruous it is that there are four and only four Gospels; and says that Luke, who begins with the priesthood and sacrifice of Zachary, is the calf.他引用了福音就像任何现代主教会做,他呼吁他们圣经,即使是在他们的口头灵感认为,它显示了如何一并考虑的是,有四个,只有四福音,并说,卢克,谁与神职人员和牺牲开始的扎卡里,是小腿。 When we compare his quotations with those of Clement of Alexandria, variant readings of text present themselves.当我们比较与克莱门特的亚历山德里亚的他的语录,变读的文字展示自己。There was already established an Alexandrian type of text different from that used in the West.目前已经建立了一个文本亚历山大类型从西方所用的不同。The Gospels had been copied and recopied so often, that, through errors of copying, etc., distinct families of text had time to establish themselves.福音被复制和重新复制经常,即通过复制等错误,文字不同家庭有时间来建立自己。The Gospels were so widespread that they became known to pagans.福音是如此普遍,他们成为众所周知的异教徒。Celsus in his attack on the Christian religion was acquainted with the genealogy in St. Luke's Gospel, and his quotations show the same phenomena of variant readings.在他的基督教攻击塞尔苏斯是熟悉的圣路加的福音家谱,他的报价单显示的读数相同的变异现象。

The next witness, St. Justin Martyr, shows the position of honour the Gospels held in the Church, in the early portion of the century.接下来的证人,圣贾斯汀烈士,显示了荣誉福音教会举行,在本世纪初的一部分的立场。Justin was born in Palestine about AD 105, and converted in 132-135.贾斯汀出生在巴勒斯坦约公元105,并在132-135转换。In his "Apology" he speaks of the memoirs of the Lord which are called Gospels, and which were written by Apostles (Matthew, John) and disciples of the Apostles (Mark, Luke).在他的“道歉”,他谈到了被称为福音,并分别由使徒(马太,约翰)和使徒的门徒(马可,路加)编写主的回忆录。In connection with the disciples of the Apostles he cites the verses of St. Luke on the Sweat of Blood, and he has numerous quotations from all four.在与使徒的门徒方面,他列举了在流血流汗的圣卢克的诗句,他已经从所有四个众多的报价。Westcott shows that there is no trace in Justin of the use of any written document on the life of Christ except our Gospels.韦斯科特表明,没有贾斯汀的任何关于基督福音的生活,除了我们的书面文档的使用痕迹。"He [Justin] tells us that Christ was descended from Abraham through Jacob, Judah, Phares, Jesse, David--that the Angel Gabriel was sent to announce His birth to the Virgin Mary--that it was in fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah . . . that His parents went thither [to Bethlehem] in consequence of an enrolment under Cyrinius--that as they could not find a lodging in the village they lodged in a cave close by it, where Christ was born, and laid by Mary in a manger", etc. (Westcott, "Canon", 104). “他[贾斯汀]告诉我们,基督是亚伯拉罕的后裔,从通过雅各,犹大,Phares,杰西,大卫 - 即天使加布里埃尔被送往宣布他的出生的圣母玛利亚 - 它的预言实现了以赛亚书,他的父母去到那里[伯利恒]在根据Cyrinius入学的后果 - 。说,他们无法找到他们提出的在它附近的一个山洞里,在基督出生村的住宿,并奠定了玛丽在马槽“等(韦斯科特,”佳能“,104)。There is a constant intermixture in Justin's quotations of the narratives of St. Matthew and St. Luke.有一个在圣马修和圣路加叙述贾斯汀的报价不断混合液。As usual in apologetical works, such as the apologies of Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Cyprian, and Eusebius, he does not name his sources because he was addressing outsiders.正如apologetical作品,如塔蒂安,那哥拉,西奥菲勒斯,良,亚历山大,塞浦路斯克莱门特和尤西比乌斯的歉意,平时,他不姓他的消息来源,因为他正在处理外人。 He states, however, that the memoirs which were called Gospels were read in the churches on Sunday along with the writings of the Prophets, in other words, they were placed on an equal rank with the Old Testament.他指出,然而,这被称为福音的是在上周日教会陪读的先知的著作回忆录,换句话说,他们在与旧约同等级别上。In the "Dialogue", cv, we have a passage peculiar to St. Luke.在“对话”,简历,我们有一个通过特有的圣卢克。"Jesus as He gave up His Spirit upon the Cross said, Father, into thy hands I commend my Spirit' [Luke, xxiii. 46], even as I learned from the Memoirs of this fact also." “耶稣为他放弃了在十字架上他的灵说,父亲,我把你的手我的灵魂”[路加福音,二十三,46],尽管我从这一事实的回忆录也学。“These Gospels which were read every Sunday must be the same as our four, which soon after, in the time of Irenæus, were in such long established honour, and regarded by him as inspired by the Holy Ghost.这其中每个星期天读福音必须与我们的四个,这之后不久,在爱任纽的时候,是在长期建立这样的荣誉,并通过由圣灵启发他视为相同。 We never hear, says Salmon, of any revolution dethroning one set of Gospels and replacing them by another; so we may be sure that the Gospels honoured by the Church in Justin's day were the same as those to which the same respect was paid in the days of Irenæus, not many years after.我们从来没有听到说,鲑鱼,任何革命拉下马一个福音设置和更换由另一他们,所以我们可以相信,通过在贾斯汀的一天教会荣幸的福音是为那些同样以这同样的尊重是在支付在爱任纽天,不经过许多年。 This conclusion is strengthened not only by the nature of Justin's quotations, but by the evidence afforded by his pupil Tatian, the Assyrian, who lived a long time with him in Rome, and afterwards compiled his harmony of the Gospels, his famous "Diatessaron", in Syriac, from our four Gospels.这一结论得到加强,不仅由贾斯汀的报价性质,而是由他的学生塔蒂安,亚述人,谁住在一起,他很长一段时间在罗马,事后编他的福音的和谐,他的著名的“Diatessaron”提供的证据在叙利亚,从我们的四福音。 He had travelled a great deal, and the fact that he uses only those shows that they alone were recognized by St. Justin and the Catholic Church between 130-150.他游历了很多,而事实上,他只使用那些只有他们被圣贾斯汀和130-150之间的天主教会承认节目。This takes us back to the time when many of the hearers of the Apostles and Evangelists were still alive; for it is held by many scholars that St. Luke lived till towards the end of the first century.这使我们回到了当年的使徒和福音的听众许多人仍然活着,因为它是由该圣卢克直到实现第一世纪末居住许多学者举行。

Irenæus, Clement, Tatian, Justin, etc., were in as good a position for forming a judgment on the authenticity of the Gospels as we are of knowing who were the authors of Scott's novels, Macaulay's essays, Dickens's early novels, Longfellow's poems, no.爱任纽,克莱门特,塔蒂安,贾斯汀等,好位置都为形成一个对福音,因为我们得知谁是斯科特的小说的作者是真实性的判断,麦考利的散文,狄更斯早期的小说,朗费罗的诗,没有。 xc of "Tracts for the Times" etc. But the argument does not end here.的“为时代大港”XC等,但并没有结束的说法在这里。Many of the heretics who flourished from the beginning of the second century till AD 150 admitted St. Luke's Gospel as authoritative.对异端谁从公元150至公元二世纪开始蓬勃发展,许多接纳为权威的圣路加的福音。This proves that it had acquired an unassailable position long before these heretics broke away from the Church.这证明,它已获得了至高无上的地位很久,这些异端冲破教会了。The Apocryphal Gospel of Peter, about AD 150, makes use of our Gospels.彼得的猜测福音,约公元150,使得我们的福音使用。About the same time the Gospels, together with their titles, were translated into Latin; and here, again, we meet the phenomena of variant readings, to be found in Clement, Irenæus, Old Syriac, Justin, and Celsus, pointing to a long period of previous copying.大约在同一时间的福音,连同他们的头衔,被翻译成拉丁文,并在这里,我们再次见面的变读的现象,在克莱门特发现,爱任纽,古叙利亚文,贾斯汀,和塞尔苏斯,指着一个长期前复制。 Finally, we may ask, if the author of the two books were not St. Luke, who was he?最后,我们可能会问,如果两书的作者没有圣卢克,他是谁?

Harnack (Luke the Physician, 2) holds that as the Gospel begins with a prologue addressed to an individual (Theophilus) it must, of necessity, have contained in its title the name of its author.哈尔纳克(路加医生,2)认为,作为与福音给个人(西奥菲勒斯)它必须,必然,在它的标题,其作者的名字包含了序幕开始。 How can we explain, if St. Luke were not the author, that the name of the real, and truly great, writer came to be completely buried in oblivion, to make room for the name of such a comparatively obscure disciple as St. Luke?我们如何解释,如果圣卢克是不是作者,认为真正的,真正伟大的作家的名字后来被完全遗忘埋,使作为圣卢克为这样一个相对模糊的弟子的名字空间? Apart from his connection, as supposed author, with the Third Gospel and Acts, was no more prominent than Aristarchus and Epaphras; and he is mentioned only in three places in the whole of the New Testament.除了他的连接,像预想的那样作者与第三福音和行为,是不超过阿里斯塔克斯和Epaphras突出,而他只在三个新约整个地方提及。 If a false name were substituted for the true author, some more prominent individual would have been selected.如果一个假名字被替换为真正的作者,一些比较突出的个人将被选中。

III. III。INTEGRITY OF THE GOSPEL完整性的福音

Marcion rejected the first two chapters and some shorter passages of the gospel, and it was at one time maintained by rationalistic writers that his was the original Gospel of which ours is a later expansion.马吉安否决了前两章的福音和一些较短的通道,并在由他的是原来的福音,其中我们是后来扩展理性的作家保持一次了。 This is now universally rejected by scholars.这是现在普遍拒绝学者。St. Irenæus, Tertullian, and Epiphanius charged him with mutilating the Gospel; and it is known that the reasons for his rejection of those portions were doctrinal.圣Irenæus,良,和埃皮法尼乌斯指控他残害的福音,这是众所周知,对于他的那些部分拒绝的理由是较浓。 He cut out the account of the infancy and the genealogy, because he denied the human birth of Christ.他切出的婴儿和家谱帐户,因为他否认基督的人的诞生。As he rejected the Old Testament all reference to it had to be excluded.当他拒绝了旧约所有对它的引用必须被排除在外。That the parts rejected by Marcion belong to the Gospel is clear from their unity of style with the remainder of the book.这部分由马吉安拒绝属于福音是清楚自己的风格的统一与书的其余部分。The characteristics of St. Luke's style run through the whole work, but are more frequent in the first two chapters than anywhere else; and they are present in the other portions omitted by Marcion.圣卢克的风格特点贯穿于整个工作,但在头两章比别处更加频繁,而他们都是由马吉安省略了其他部分存在。No writer in those days was capable of successfully forging such additions.没有当年的作家是能够成功地建立这种补充。The first two chapters, etc., are contained in all the manuscripts and versions, and were known to Justin Martyr and other competent witnesses.前两章,等等,都包含在所有的手稿和版本,并知道贾斯汀烈士和其他主管证人。 On the authenticity of the verses on the Bloody Sweat, see AGONY OF CHRIST.在上流血流汗的经文的真实性,看到基督的痛苦。

IV. IV。PURPOSE AND CONTENTS用途和内容

The Gospel was written, as is gathered from the prologue (i, 1-4), for the purpose of giving Theophilus (and others like him) increased confidence in the unshakable firmness of the Christian truths in which he had been instructed, or "catechized"--the latter word being used, according to Harnack, in its technical sense.福音是书面的,因为是从序幕(I,1-4),为使西奥菲勒斯(以及类似的人)增加了在其中,他获指示基督教真理的不可动摇的坚定信心的目的,或“云集catechized“ - 后者正在使用的词,根据哈纳克在其技术意义。The Gospel naturally falls into four divisions:福音自然分为四个部分:

Gospel of the infancy, roughly covered by the Joyful Mysteries of the Rosary (ch. i, ii);福音的婴儿期,大约由玫瑰(章I,II)的快乐之谜覆盖;

ministry in Galilee, from the preaching of John the Baptist (iii, 1, to ix, 50);部在加利利,从施洗约翰讲道(三,1,九,50);

journeyings towards Jerusalem (ix, 51-xix, 27);journeyings对耶路撒冷(九,51十九,27);

Holy Week: preaching in and near Jerusalem, Passion, and Resurrection (xix, 28, to end of xxiv).圣周:在和耶路撒冷附近,热情和复活(十九,28日,结束了二十四)说教。

We owe a great deal to the industry of St. Luke.我们欠了大量的圣卢克产业。Out of twenty miracles which he records six are not found in the other Gospels: draught of fishes, widow of Naim's son, man with dropsy, ten lepers, Malchus's ear, spirit of infirmity.出二十奇迹,他记录6顷没有发现在其他福音:决议草案鱼类,对纳伊姆的儿子的寡妇,人与水肿,十个麻风病人,马尔休斯的耳朵,对体弱的精神。 He alone has the following eighteen parables: good Samaritan, friend at midnight, rich fool, servants watching, two debtors, barren fig-tree, chief seats, great supper, rash builder, rash king, lost groat, prodigal son, unjust steward, rich man and Lazarus, unprofitable servants, unjust judge, Pharisee and publican, pounds.他独自一人有下列十八个比喻:在午夜,丰富的傻瓜,公务员看好撒马利亚人,朋友,两个债务人,无花果树,长座椅,大晚饭,皮疹建筑工地,皮疹王,失去了面包类,浪子,不公正管家,财主和拉撒路,无利可图的仆人,不公正的判断,法利赛人与税吏,磅。 The account of the journeys towards Jerusalem (ix, 51-xix, 27) is found only in St. Luke; and he gives special prominence to the duty of prayer.而对耶路撒冷(九,51十九,27)旅途帐户是发现,只有在圣路加,他给予了特别突出的祈祷责任。

V. SOURCES OF THE GOSPEL; SYNOPTIC PROBLEM五,来源的福音;天气问题

The best information as to his sources is given by St. Luke, in the beginning of his Gospel.作为对他最好的信息源给出的圣路加,在他的福音的开始。As many had written accounts as they heard them from "eyewitnesses and ministers of the word", it seemed good to him also, having diligently attained to all things from the beginning, to write an ordered narrative.由于许多人的书面帐户,因为他们听到“这个词的目击者和部长”他们,似乎对他也不错,有努力实现从开始到所有的事情,写一个有序的叙述。 He had two sources of information, then, eyewitnesses (including Apostles) and written documents taken down from the words of eyewitnesses.他有两个信息来源,那么,目击者(包括使徒)和书面文件采取了从目击者的话。 The accuracy of these documents he was in a position to test by his knowledge of the character of the writers, and by comparing them with the actual words of the Apostles and other eyewitnesses.这些文件的准确性,他是在一个位置,以测试他的性格的作家的知识,并通过比较与使徒和其他目击者的话他们的实际。

That he used written documents seems evident on comparing his Gospel with the other two Synoptic Gospels, Matthew and Mark.他用书面文件上比较似乎与其他两个天气福音,马修和马克福音明显。 All three frequently agree even in minute details, but in other respects there is often a remarkable divergence, and to explain these phenomena is the Synoptic Problem.所有这三个经常同意即使在微小的细节,但在其他方面往往存在显着差异,并解释这些现象是天气问题。St. Matthew and St. Luke alone give an account of the infancy of Christ, both accounts are independent.圣马太和圣卢克单独给一个刚刚起步的基督帐户,两个帐户是独立的。But when they begin the public preaching they describe it in the same way, here agreeing with St. Mark.但是,当他们开始公开宣扬他们所描述的相同方式,在这里与圣马克同意。When St. Mark ends, the two others again diverge.当圣马克结束后,两个人再次出现分歧。They agree in the main both in matter and arrangement within the limits covered by St. Mark, whose order they generally follow.他们同意在无论是在物质和圣马内,其顺序一般按照所涵盖的范围主要安排。Frequently all agree in the order of the narrative, but, where two agree, Mark and Luke agree against the order of Matthew, or Mark and Matthew agree against the order of Luke; Mark is always in the majority, and it is not proved that the other two ever agree against the order followed by him.经常都同意在叙述顺序,但是,如果两个同意,马克和卢克同意反对马太,马克和马修秩序或违反秩序的卢克同意;马克总是在多数,这是不是证明另外两个曾经同意对他遵循的顺序。 Within the limits of the ground covered by St. Mark, the two other Gospels have several sections in common not found in St. Mark, consisting for the most part of discourses, and there is a closer resemblance between them than between any two Gospels where the three go over the same ground.在由圣马可覆盖地面的限制,其他两个福音有几个共同的未发现圣马克,为话语大部分组成部分,并有一个比他们之间更密切的福音之间的任何两个相似的地方三个走在同一地面。 The whole of St. Mark is practically contained in the other two.而圣马克几乎全是包含在其他两个。St. Matthew and St. Luke have large sections peculiar to themselves, such as the different accounts of the infancy, and the journeys towards Jerusalem in St. Luke.圣马太和圣卢克有很大的部分,如在婴儿期的不同的帐户,并在耶路撒冷的圣路加对自己特有的旅程。The parallel records have remarkable verbal coincidences.平行记录有显着的口头巧合。Sometimes the Greek phrases are identical, sometimes but slightly different, and again more divergent.有时,希腊短语是相同的,但有时略有不同,并再次较分歧。There are various theories to explain the fact of the matter and language common to the Evangelists.有各种各样的理论来解释这个问题,并共同语言的福音的事实。Some hold that it is due to the oral teaching of the Apostles, which soon became stereotyped from constant repetition.有的认为这是由于使徒,很快成为从不断重复刻板口语教学。Others hold that it is due to written sources, taken down from such teaching.其他人认为这是由于书面资料,取自这样的教学下来。 Others, again, strongly maintain that Matthew and Luke used Mark or a written source extremely like it.其他人,再次强烈地认为,马太和路加福音使用标志或书面来源极其喜欢它。In that case, we have evidence how very closely they kept to the original.在这种情况下,我们有证据显示他们如何保持非常密切的原件。 The agreement between the discourses given by St. Luke and St. Matthew is accounted for, by some authors, by saying that both embodied the discourses of Christ that had been collected and originally written in Aramaic by St. Matthew.间由圣路加和马太给予的话语协议占,一些作者,说,基督既体现了已被收集和圣马太最初亚拉姆语写的话语。The long narratives of St. Luke not found in these two documents are, it is said, accounted for by his employment of what he knew to be other reliable sources, either oral or written.圣路加没有发现在这两个文件是长期的叙述,这是说,占了他,他知道什么是其他可靠来源,无论是口头或书面的就业。 (The question is concisely but clearly stated by Peake "A Critical Introduction to the New Testament", London, 1909, 101. Several other works on the subject are given in the literature at the end of this article.) (问题是简洁而明确地说明了皮克“批判简介新约”,伦敦,1909年,101。关于这一问题的其他一些作品在文学给予在本文末尾。)

VI. VI。SAINT LUKE'S ACCURACY圣路加的准确性

Very few writers have ever had their accuracy put to such a severe test as St. Luke, on account of the wide field covered by his writings, and the consequent liability (humanly speaking) of making mistakes; and on account of the fierce attacks to which he has been subjected.很少有作家曾经有其准确性提出这样一个严峻的考验的圣卢克在他的著作涉及领域广泛帐户,以及随之而来的责任的决策失误(人的角度而言),以及在激烈的攻击帐户他一直受到。

It was the fashion, during the nineteenth century, with German rationalists and their imitators, to ridicule the "blunders" of Luke, but that is all being rapidly changed by the recent progress of archæological research.这是时尚,在十九世纪,德国的理性主义和他们的模仿,嘲笑的“失误”的卢克,但毕竟是所有正在迅速由考古研究的最新进展发生了变化。 Harnack does not hesitate to say that these attacks were shameful, and calculated to bring discredit, not on the Evangelist, but upon his critics, and Ramsay is but voicing the opinion of the best modern scholars when he calls St. Luke a great and accurate historian.哈尔纳克不犹豫地说,这些攻击是可耻的,并计算带来抹黑不是福音,而是根据他的批评,但是和拉姆齐是清浊的最好的现代学者认为,当他呼吁圣路加一个伟大而准确历史学家。 Very few have done so much as this latter writer, in his numerous works and in his articles in "The Expositor", to vindicate the extreme accuracy of St. Luke.很少有这样做,因为这后者的作家不多,在他的许多作品和在“解释者”他的文章,以维护极端的圣路加的准确性。Wherever archæology has afforded the means of testing St. Luke's statements, they have been found to be correct; and this gives confidence that he is equally reliable where no such corroboration is as yet available.无论考古学给予测试圣卢克报表的手段,因而被认为是正确的,这使他信心,也同样可靠的地方没有这样的佐证是尚未公布。 For some of the details see ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, where a very full bibliography is given.对于一些细节见使徒行传,其中一个很完整的书目给出。

For the sake of illustration, one or two examples may here be given:为了说明起见,一个或两个例子可以在这里得到:

(1) Sergius Paulus, Proconsul in Cyprus(1)谢尔盖保卢斯,在塞浦路斯方伯

St. Luke says (Acts 13) that when St. Paul visited Cyprus (in the reign of Claudius) Sergius Paulus was proconsul (anthupatos) there.圣卢克说(徒13),当圣保罗访问塞浦路斯(在克劳狄斯在位)谢尔盖保卢斯是方伯(anthupatos)那里。Grotius asserted that this was an abuse of language, on the part of the natives, who wished to flatter the governor by calling him proconsul, instead of proprætor (antistrategos), which he really was; and that St. Luke used the popular appellation.格老秀斯称,这是一个语言的滥用对本地人,谁愿意通过调用奉承他方伯省长而不是proprætor(antistrategos),他真的是,一部分;和圣卢克使用流行的称谓。 Even Baronius (Annales, ad Ann. 46) supposed that, though Cyprus was only a prætorian province, it was honoured by being ruled by the proconsul of Cilicia, who must have been Sergius Paulus.即使Baronius(年鉴,广告安46)应该说,虽然塞浦路斯只是一个嫡系省,它是由正由西里西亚,谁一定是谢尔盖保卢斯地方总督​​统治荣幸。 But this is all a mistake.但是,这完全是错误的。Cato captured Cyprus, Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia and Cyprus in 52 BC; Mark Antony gave the island to Cleopatra; Augustus made it a prætorian province in 27 BC, but in 22 BC he transferred it to the senate, and it became again a proconsular province.卡托夺取塞浦路斯,西塞罗是基利家和塞浦路斯方伯在公元前52;马克安东尼给岛埃及艳后,奥古斯都使它成为在公元前27年嫡系省,但在22 BC他转移到参议院,并再次成为地方总督省。This latter fact is not stated by Strabo, but it is mentioned by Dion Cassius (LIII).后者其实是没有说明的斯特拉博,但它是由翁卡修斯(LIII)提及。In Hadrian's time it was once more under a proprætor, while under Severus it was again administered by a proconsul.在哈德良一次被再次下proprætor,而根据西弗勒斯它再由地方总督管理。There can be no doubt that in the reign of Claudius, when St. Paul visited it, Cyprus was under a proconsul (anthupatos), as stated by St. Luke.不可能有任何疑问,在克劳狄斯在位时,圣保罗参观了该中心,塞浦路斯下方伯(anthupatos)由圣路加表示,是。 Numerous coins have been discovered in Cyprus, bearing the head and name of Claudius on one side, and the names of the proconsuls of Cyprus on the other.众多的硬币已在塞浦路斯发现,轴承在一边的头部和克劳狄斯的名称,对其他的塞浦路斯proconsuls的名称。A woodcut engraving of one is given in Conybeare and Howson's "St. Paul", at the end of chapter v. On the reverse it has: EPI KOMINOU PROKAU ANTHUPATOU: KUPRION--"Money of the Cyprians under Cominius Proclus, Proconsul."阿一木刻版画给出科尼比尔和豪森的“圣保罗”在上扭转这种局面已结束第五章:EPI KOMINOU PROKAU ANTHUPATOU: - “下Cominius普罗克洛,方伯的Cyprians钱”KUPRIONThe head of Claudius (with his name) is figured on the other side.而克劳头(与他的名字)是想通的另一面。General Cesnola discovered a long inscription on a pedestal of white marble, at Solvi, in the north of the island, having the words: EPI PAULOU ANTHUPATOU--"Under Paulus Proconsul."一般Cesnola发现了一个很长的白色大理石基座碑文,在Solvi,在岛的北部,有一段话: - “在保卢斯方伯”EPI PAULOU ANTHUPATOULightfoot, Zochler, Ramsay, Knabenbauer, Zahn, and Vigouroux hold that this was the actual (Sergius) Paulus of Acts, xiii, 7.莱特富特,Zochler,拉姆齐,Knabenbauer,赞恩,并Vigouroux认为这是实际的(谢尔盖)保卢斯的行为,十三,7。

(2) The Politarchs in Thessalonica(2)在帖撒罗尼迦的Politarchs

An excellent example of St. Luke's accuracy is afforded by his statement that rulers of Thessalonica were called "politarchs" (politarchai--Acts 17:6, 8).一个圣卢克精度很好的例子是给予他的声明,对萨洛尼卡统治者被称为“politarchs”(politarchai - 徒17:6,8)。The word is not found in the Greek classics; but there is a large stone in the British Museum, which was found in an arch in Thessalonica, containing an inscription which is supposed to date from the time of Vespasian.没有找到这个词在希腊经典;但有一个在大英博物馆大石头,这是在萨洛尼卡拱发现,含有这应该是迄今为止从维斯帕先时的题词。 Here we find the word used by St. Luke together with the names of several such politarchs, among them being names identical with some of St. Paul's converts: Sopater, Gaius, Secundus.在这里,我们发现它们之间是名与圣保罗的转换一些相同的词用的圣路加与几个这样的politarchs的名字一起:Sopater,盖尤斯,Secundus。 Burton in "American Journal of Theology" (July, 1898) has drawn attention to seventeen inscriptions proving the existence of politarchs in ancient times.在“美国神学杂志”(7月,1898年)伯顿引起关注到十七铭文证明了在远古时代politarchs存在。Thirteen were found in Macedonia, and five were discovered in Thessalonica, dating from the middle of the first to the end of the second century.十三,发现在马其顿和五个被发现在萨洛尼卡,约会从第一中旬到第二个世纪末。

(3) Knowledge of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe (3)知识的Pisidian安提阿,伊康,路司得和Derbe

The geographical, municipal, and political knowledge of St. Luke, when speaking of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, is fully borne out by recent research (see Ramsay, "St. Paul the Traveller", and other references given in GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE).在圣路加地理,市政,和政治知识,当Pisidian安提阿,伊康,路司得和Derbe讲,就是充分证明了最近的研究(见拉姆齐,“圣保罗旅行者”,和其他参考文献中给出加拉太书,书信的)。

(4) Knowledge of Philippian customs(4)知识的腓海关

He is equally sure when speaking of Philippi, a Roman colony, where the duumviri were called "prætors" (strategoi--Acts 16:20, 35), a lofty title which duumviri assumed in Capua and elsewhere, as we learn from Cicero and Horace (Sat., I, v, 34).他同样相信当立,罗马的殖民地,那里的duumviri被称为“prætors”(strategoi - 徒16:20,35)说,一个崇高的称号而duumviri在卡普阿和其他地方的假设,我们从学习和西塞罗贺拉斯(周六,I,V,34)。They also had lictors (rabsouchoi), after the manner of real prætors.他们也有lictors(rabsouchoi),经过实际prætors方式。

(5) References to Ephesus, Athens, and Corinth(5)参考到以弗所,雅典,科林斯

His references to Ephesus, Athens, Corinth, are altogether in keeping with everything that is now known of these cities.他引用以弗所,雅典,科林斯,共有中的一切,现在是这些城市称为保持。Take a single instance: "In Ephesus St. Paul taught in the school of Tyrannus, in the city of Socrates he discussed moral questions in the market-place. How incongruous it would seem if the methods were transposed! But the narrative never makes a false step amid all the many details as the scene changes from city to city; and that is the conclusive proof that it is a picture of real life" (Ramsay, op. cit., 238).以一个实例:“在以弗所圣保罗讲授的Tyrannus学校,在苏格拉底的城市,他讨论了市场发生的道德问题如何不协调它似乎如果方法被调换,但从未使一个叙述!失足中所有的场景变化,从城市到城市的许多细节,并认为是确凿的证据,这是一个现实生活的图画“(拉姆齐,同上,238)。 St. Luke mentions (Acts 18:2) that when St. Paul was at Corinth the Jews had been recently expelled from Rome by Claudius, and this is confirmed by a chance statement of Suetonius.圣卢克提到(徒18:2),当圣保罗在哥林多是犹太人被驱逐出罗马最近克劳狄斯,这是由苏埃托尼乌斯机会声明证实。 He tells us (ibid., 12) that Gallio was then proconsul in Corinth (the capital of the Roman province of Achaia).他告诉我们(同上,12)加利奥当时在科林斯(在罗马的亚该亚省首府)地方总督。There is no direct evidence that he was proconsul in Achaia, but his brother Seneca writes that Gallio caught a fever there, and went on a voyage for his health.没有直接证据证明他是在亚该亚方伯,但他的弟弟塞内卡写道,加利奥抓了有发热,并在航行了为他的健康。The description of the riot at Ephesus (Acts 19) brings together, in the space of eighteen verses, an extraordinary amount of knowledge of the city, that is fully corroborated by numerous inscriptions, and representations on coins, medals, etc., recently discovered.该防暴以弗所描述(使徒19)汇集了十八诗句空间,一个城市的知识数额特别巨大,这是完全证实了许多铭文,钱币和交涉,奖章等,最近发现。 There are allusions to the temple of Diana (one of the seven wonders of the world), to the fact that Ephesus gloried in being her temple-sweeper her caretaker (neokoros), to the theatre as the place of assembly for the people, to the town clerk (grammateus), to the Asiarchs, to sacrilegious (ierosuloi), to proconsular sessions, artificers, etc. The ecclesia (the usual word in Ephesus for the assembly of the people) and the grammateus or town-clerk (the title of a high official frequent on Ephesian coins) completely puzzled Cornelius a Lapide, Baronius, and other commentators, who imagined the ecclesia meant a synagogue, etc. (see Vigouroux, "Le Nouveau Testament et les Découvertes Archéologiques", Paris, 1890).还有的戴安娜(对世界七大奇迹之一)寺庙典故,但须在以弗所被她的寺庙清扫gloried其实她的看守(neokoros),以作为集会地点为人民剧院,镇书记(grammateus),到Asiarchs,以亵渎(ierosuloi),以地方总督会议,技工等,教会(以弗所在为人民议会一般字)和grammateus或城镇办事员(标题一个高级官员经常对以弗所硬币)完全不解科尼利厄斯a Lapide,Baronius,和其他评论,谁想到的教会意味着犹太教堂等(见Vigouroux,“乐风格约ET LES Découvertes Archéologiques”,巴黎,1890年)。

(6) The Shipwreck(6)海难

The account of the voyage and shipwreck described in Acts (xxvii, xxvii) is regarded by competent authorities on nautical matters as a marvellous instance of accurate description (see Smith's classical work on the subject, "Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul" (4th ed., London, 1880). Blass (Acta Apostolorum, 186) says: "Extrema duo capita habent descriptionem clarissimam itineris maritimi quod Paulus in Italiam fecit: quæ descriptio ab homine harum rerum perito judicata est monumentum omnium pretiosissimum, quæ rei navalis ex tote antiquitate nobis relicta est. V. Breusing, 'Die Nautik der Alten' (Bremen, 1886)." See also Knowling "The Acts of the Apostles" in "Exp. Gr. Test." (London, 1900).的航程和行为(二十七,二十七)描述海难帐户被认为是由主管当局作为一种准确的描述精彩的实例(见史密斯的关于这一主题的经典作品,“海角和沉船的圣保罗”(第四届航海问题。版,伦敦,1880年)布拉斯(ACTA Apostolorum,186)​​说:“极值二人人均habent descriptionem clarissimam itineris maritimi狴保卢斯在Italiam fecit:quæ descriptio AB homine harum rerum贝利托既判力EST monumentum Omnium公司pretiosissimum,quæ REI navalis前手提包antiquitate nobis relicta估五Breusing,“模具Nautik DER Alten”(不来梅,1886年)。“又见Knowling”“中的”地契的使徒的行为。石墨。测试“(伦敦,1900年)。

VII.七。LYSANIAS TETRARCH OF ABILENE LYSANIAS分封的阿比林

Gfrörer, B. Bauer, Hilgenfeld, Keim, and Holtzmann assert that St. Luke perpetrated a gross chronological blunder of sixty years by making Lysanias, the son of Ptolemy, who lived 36 BC, and was put to death by Mark Antony, tetrarch of Abilene when John the Baptist began to preach (iii, 1). Gfrörer,B.鲍尔,Hilgenfeld,凯姆,并断言,HOLTZMANN圣卢克犯下了严重失误,六十年代使Lysanias年来,在托勒密,谁住36年,儿子和被提出的马克安东尼,分封的死亡阿比林当施洗约翰开始鼓吹(三,1)。 Strauss says: "He [Luke] makes rule, 30 years after the birth of Christ, a certain Lysanias, who had certainly been slain 30 years previous to that birth--a slight error of 60 years."斯特劳斯说:“他[路加福音]让规则,30年后的基督,一定Lysanias,谁肯定被杀害30年此之前出生的诞生 - 一个60年的轻微错误。”On the face of it, it is highly improbable that such a careful writer as St. Luke would have gone out of his way to run the risk of making such a blunder, for the mere purpose of helping to fix the date of the public ministry.在它的面前,它是极不可能的这样一个圣卢克小心作家会去他的方式运行作出了这样的失误风险,为帮助修复的目的仅仅是公安部日期。 Fortunately, we have a complete refutation supplied by Schürer, a writer by no means over friendly to St. Luke, as we shall see when treating of the Census of Quirinius.幸运的是,我们有一个完整的反驳的Schürer,作家提供的不超过友好的圣卢克手段,我们将看到当了居里扭普查治疗。 Ptolemy Mennæus was King of the Itureans (whose kingdom embraced the Lebanon and plain of Massyas with the capital Chalcis, between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon) from 85-40 BC His territories extended on the east towards Damascus, and on the south embraced Panias, and part, at least, of Galilee.托勒密Mennæus是其中Itureans国王(其王国接受了黎巴嫩和平原与资本哈尔基斯Massyas之间的黎巴嫩和反黎巴嫩)从公元前85-40在东部延长对大马士革他的领土,并在南部接受Panias ,和部分,至少加利利。Lysanias the older succeeded his father Ptolemy about 40 BC (Josephus, "Ant.", XIV, xii, 3; "Bell Jud.", I, xiii, 1), and is styled by Dion Cassius "King of the Itureans" (XLIX, 32). Lysanias老接替他的父亲约公元前40托勒密(约瑟夫,十四,十二,3“蚂蚁”,“贝尔达瓦慈善会”,我,十三,1),由翁卡修斯“的Itureans王”病急乱投医( XLIX,32)。After reigning about four or five years he was put to death by Mark Antony, at the instigation of Cleopatra, who received a large portion of his territory (Josephus, "Ant.", XV, iv, 1; "Bel. Jud.", I, xxii, 3; Dion Cassius, op. cit.).大约过了四,五年卫冕他被处死的马克安东尼,在埃及艳后,谁收到了他的大片领土的一部分(约瑟夫,教唆,十五,四,1“蚂蚁”,“倍儿达瓦慈善会。”我,22,3;翁凯歇斯,同上)。

As the latter and Porphyry call him "king", it is doubtful whether the coins bearing the superscription "Lysanias tetrarch and high priest" belong to him, for there were one or more later princes called Lysanias.由于后者和斑岩都叫他“王”,这是令人怀疑的硬币上标印有“Lysanias分封和大祭司”属于他的,因为有一个或多个后来王子呼吁Lysanias。 After his death his kingdom was gradually divided up into at least four districts, and the three principal ones were certainly not called after him.他去世后,他的王国逐渐被分成至少四个区,以及三个主要的肯定不是他以后调用。A certain Zenodorus took on lease the possessions of Lysanias, 23 BC, but Trachonitis was soon taken from him and given to Herod.某Zenodorus发生在租赁Lysanias,23 BC的财产,但Trachonitis很快就取自他给希律。On the death of Zenodorus in 20 BC, Ulatha and Panias, the territories over which he ruled, were given by Augustus to Herod.论Zenodorus 20年,Ulatha和Panias死亡,超过他的领土统治,分别给予了奥古斯都到希律王。 This is called the tetrarchy of Zenodorus by Dion Cassius.这就是所谓的Zenodorus由翁凯歇斯tetrarchy。"It seems therefore that Zenodorus, after the death of Lysanias, had received on rent a portion of his territory from Cleopatra, and that after Cleopatra's death this 'rented' domain, subject to tribute, was continued to him with the title of tetrarch" (Schürer, I, II app., 333, i). “由此推论,Zenodorus,后Lysanias死亡,收到的租金是他从埃及艳后领土的一部分,这在埃及艳后之死这个”租“领域,受到表扬,是继续与分封称号给他” (Schürer,I,II的应用程序。,333,I)。Mention is made on a monument, at Heliopolis, of "Zenodorus, son of the tetrarch Lysanias".提到了一个纪念碑,在赫利奥波利斯,着有“Zenodorus,分封Lysanias的儿子”。It has been generally supposed that this is the Zenodorus just mentioned, but it is uncertain whether the first Lysanias was ever called tetrarch.人们普遍推测,这是刚才提到的Zenodorus,但目前尚不能确定是否是有史以来第一次Lysanias称为分封。 It is proved from the inscriptions that there was a genealogical connection between the families of Lysanias and Zenodorus, and the same name may have been often repeated in the family.它证明​​从铭文,有之间的Lysanias和Zenodorus家庭家谱连接,相同的名称可能已经在家庭中经常反复。 Coins for 32, 30, and 25 BC, belonging to our Zenodorus, have the superscription, "Zenodorus tetrarch and high priest.'32,30,公元前25年,属于我们的Zenodorus,硬币有上标“Zenodorus分封和大祭司。”After the death of Herod the Great a portion of the tetrarchy of Zenodorus went to Herod's son, Philip (Jos., "Ant.", XVII, xi, 4), referred to by St. Luke, "Philip being tetrarch of Iturea" (Luke 3:1). Another tetrarchy sliced off from the dominions of Zenodorus lay to the east between Chalcis and Damascus, and went by the name of Abila or Abilene. Abila is frequently spoken of by Josephus as a tetrarchy, and in "Ant.", XVIII, vi, 10, he calls it the "tetrarchy of Lysanias". Claudius, in AD 41, conferred "Abila of Lysanias" on Agrippa I (Ant., XIX, v, 1). In a. D. 53, Agrippa II obtained Abila, "which last had been the tetrarchy of Lysanias" (Ant., XX., vii, 1). "From these passages we see that the tetrarchy of Abila had belonged previously to AD 37 to a certain Lysanias, and seeing that Josephus nowhere previously makes any mention of another Lysanias, except the contemporary of Anthony and Cleopatra, 40-36 BC .之后,希律王死后大的一部分的Zenodorus tetrarchy到希律王的儿子,菲利普(圣何塞,“蚂蚁”,十七,十一,4),简称圣卢克,“菲利普被分封的Iturea” (路加福音3:1)。切片从Zenodorus的领土关闭另一个tetrarchy奠定到东部和大马士革之间的哈尔基斯,并经Abila或阿比林名去了。Abila经常谈到由约瑟夫作为tetrarchy,并在“蚂蚁 “,十八,六,10日,他称之为的”Lysanias tetrarchy“。克劳狄斯,在公元41,授予”Abila的Lysanias“我的阿格里帕(Ant.,十九,五,1)。A. D. 53,阿格里帕二世获得Abila“,这最后一直是Lysanias tetrarchy”(Ant.,XX,,七,1)。“从这些经文我们看到,Abila tetrarchy曾属于以前至公元37至某Lysanias和以前看到的约瑟夫无处使任何提及的另一个Lysanias,除了安东尼和克娄巴特拉,40-36 BC当代。. .criticism has endeavoured in various ways to show that there had not afterwards been any other, and that the tetrarchy of Abilene had its name from the older Lysanias.批评一直努力以各种方式显示,没有事后被任何其他并认为阿比林tetrarchy已经从老Lysanias它的名字。 But this is impossible" (Schürer, 337). Lysanias I inherited the Iturean empire of his father Ptolemy, of which Abila was but a small and very obscure portion. Calchis in Coele-Syria was the capital of his kingdom, not Abila in Abilene. He reigned only about four years and was a comparatively obscure individual when compared with his father Ptolemy, or his successor Zenodorus, both of whom reigned many years. There is no reason why any portion of his kingdom should have been called after his name rather than theirs, and it is highly improbable that Josephus speaks of Abilene as called after him seventy years after his death. As Lysanias I was king over the whole region, one small portion of it could not be called his tetrarchy or kingdom, as is done by Josephus (Bel. Jud., II, xii, 8). "It must therefore be assumed as certain that at a later date the district of Abilene had been severed from the kingdom of Calchis, and had been governed by a younger Lysanias as tetrarch" (Schürer, 337). The existence of such a late Lysanias is shown by an inscription found at Abila, containing the statement that a certain Nymphaios, the freedman of Lysanias, built a street and erected a temple in the time of the "August Emperors". Augusti (Sebastoi) in the plural was never used before the death of Augustus, AD 14. The first contemporary Sebastoi were Tiberius and his mother Livia, ie at a time fifty years after the first Lysanias. An inscription at Heliopolis, in the same region, makes it probable that there were several princes of this name. "The Evangelist Luke is thoroughly correct when he assumes (iii, 1) that in the fifteenth year of Tiberius there was a Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene" (Schürer, op. cit., where full literature is given; Vigouroux, op. cit.).但这是不可能的“(Schürer,337)。Lysanias我继承了父亲托勒密,其中Abila只不过是一个小,很不起眼的一部分Iturean帝国中Coele - 叙利亚Calchis是他的王国的首都,而不是在阿比林Abila他在位只有四年,是一个比较模糊的个体时,他的父亲托勒密,或他的继任者Zenodorus,他们两人统治多年相比,没有任何原因,他的王国的一部分本来应该在他的名字叫,而原因比他们,这是极不可能的约瑟夫谈到阿比林在他死后为他以后叫70年作为Lysanias我是对整个地区的国王,一小部分不能叫他tetrarchy或王国,为完成由约瑟夫(Bel.达瓦慈善会。,二,十二,8)。“因此,它必须被假定为肯定,在以后的阿比林区已经从Calchis王国切断,并已作为一个年轻的Lysanias治理分封“(Schürer,337),而这么晚Lysanias的存在显示了在Abila发现题词,包含的语句一定Nymphaios,弗里德曼的Lysanias,建立了街道,竖立在寺庙的时候”八月皇帝“。Augusti在复数(Sebastoi)是从未有过的奥古斯都,公元14死后才被使用,第一个当代Sebastoi被提比略和他的母亲利维娅,即在五十年后的第一次Lysanias时间在赫利奥波利斯的题词,在同一地区,使得它可能有几个王子这个名字。“卢克的传播者,是彻底纠正,当他假设(三,1),在提庇留十五年有一个阿比林Lysanias分封”(Schürer, 。同上,这里充满文学给出;。Vigouroux,同上)。

VIII.第八。WHO SPOKE THE MAGNIFICAT?讲着尊?

Lately an attempt has been made to ascribe the Magnificat to Elizabeth instead of to the Blessed Virgin.最近尝试已向归咎于伊丽莎白的尊而不是到圣母。All the early Fathers, all the Greek manuscripts, all the versions, all the Latin manuscripts (except three) have the reading in Luke, i, 46: Kai eipen Mariam--Et ait Maria [And Mary said]: Magnificat anima mea Dominum, etc. Three Old Latin manuscripts (the earliest dating from the end of the fourth cent.), a, b, l (called rhe by Westcott and Hort), have Et ait Elisabeth.所有早期的教父,所有希腊手稿,所有的版本中,所有的拉丁手稿(除三)有在卢克,我,46阅读:启eipen玛丽亚姆 - ET AIT玛丽亚[和玛丽说]:尊灵魂测量Dominum等三旧(从第四百分之结束最早的约会。)拉丁手稿,A,B,L(称为韦斯科特和园艺RHE),有ET AIT伊丽莎白。These tend to such close agreement that their combined evidence is single rather than threefold.这些往往会同意他们的这种密切结合的证据,而不是单一的三倍。They are full of gross blunders and palpable corruptions, and the attempt to pit their evidence against the many thousands of Greek, Latin, and other manuscripts, is anything but scientific.他们是严重失误和明显的损坏充分,并试图坑对希腊文,拉丁文,和其他手稿的成千上万的证据,决不是科学的。 If the evidence were reversed, Catholics would be held up to ridicule if they ascribed the Magnificat to Mary.如果证据被逆转,天主教徒将举行长达嘲笑如果他们冲高尊玛丽。The three manuscripts gain little or no support from the internal evidence of the passage.这三个手稿获得很少或根本没有从通过内部证据的支持。The Magnificat is a cento from the song of Anna (1 Samuel 2), the Psalms, and other places of the Old Testament.该尊是从安娜(撒母耳记上2),诗篇和旧约其他地方的歌曲集句。If it were spoken by Elizabeth it is remarkable that the portion of Anna's song that was most applicable to her is omitted: "The barren hath borne many: and she that had many children is weakened."如果它是由伊丽莎白说这是了不起的是,安娜的歌曲是最适用的部分省略她说:“荒芜祂所承担很多:她说有许多儿童被削弱” See, on this subject, Emmet in "The Expositor" (Dec., 1909); Bernard, ibid.见,在这个问题上,埃米特在“解释者”(12月,1909年),伯纳德,同上。(March, 1907); and the exhaustive works of two Catholic writers: Ladeuze, "Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique" (Louvain, Oct., 1903); Bardenhewer, "Maria Verkündigung" (Freiburg, 1905). (三月,1907年)和两个天主教作家详尽的工作:Ladeuze,“歌剧D' histoire ecclésiastique”(鲁汶10月,1903年);巴登黑韦尔,“玛丽亚Verkündigung”(弗赖堡,1905年)。

IX. IX。THE CENSUS OF QUIRINIUS普查的居里扭

No portion of the New Testament has been so fiercely attacked as Luke, ii, 1-5.没有新约部分已如此激烈抨击卢克,二,1-5。Schürer has brought together, under six heads, a formidable array of all the objections that can he urged against it.Schürer汇集,六岁以下的负责人,所有的反对意见,可他呼吁反对强大的阵列。There is not space to refute them here; but Ramsay in his "Was Christ born in Bethlehem?"没有空间来反驳他们这里,但拉姆齐在他的“是基督出生在伯利恒?”has shown that they all fall to the ground:--已经表明,他们都倒在地上: -

(1) St. Luke does not assert that a census took place all over the Roman Empire before the death of Herod, but that a decision emanated from Augustus that regular census were to be made.(1)圣卢克并不断言了各地普查前的希律王死后罗马帝国的地方,但是,从奥古斯都所发出的决定,定期普查要作出。 Whether they were carried out in general, or not, was no concern of St. Luke's.他们是否进行普通,还是不行,没有圣路加的关注。If history does not prove the existence of such a decree it certainly proves nothing against it.如果历史不能证明这样的法令的存在,证明它确实没有反对。It was thought for a long time that the system of Indictions was inaugurated under the early Roman emperors, it is now known that they owe their origin to Constantine the Great (the first taking place fifteen years after his victory of 312), and this in spite of the fact that history knew nothing of the matter.这是想了很久说,Indictions系统是根据早期罗马皇帝成立,它现在已经知道,他们欠其原产地为君士坦丁大帝(前服用15年胜利后,他的312位),而这尽管历史的事实,知道此事无关。 Kenyon holds that it is very probable that Pope Damasus ordered the Vulgate to be regarded as the only authoritative edition of the Latin Bible; but it would be difficult to Prove it historically.肯扬认为,这是很可能教皇达玛斯下令将作为唯一的拉丁版圣经权威视为武加大,但它会很难证明它的历史。 If "history knows nothing" of the census in Palestine before 4 BC neither did it know anything of the fact that under the Romans in Egypt regular personal census were held every fourteen years, at least from AD 20 till the time of Constantine.如果“历史一无所知”前4 BC普查在巴勒斯坦也没有它知道的,在罗马人经常在埃及举行个人普查每14年至少从公元20至君士坦丁的时间,其实任何东西。Many of these census papers have been discovered, and they were called apographai, the name used by St. Luke.这些普查已发现许多论文,他们被称为apographai,由圣路加所使用的名称。They were made without any reference to property or taxation.他们在没有任何财产或征税的参考。The head of the household gave his name and age, the name and age of his wife, children, and slaves.该户主给了他的姓名和年龄,名字和他的妻子,子女和奴隶的时代。He mentioned how many were included in the previous census, and how many born since that time.他提到有多少人包括在以前的普查,以及有多少,因为那个时候诞生了。Valuation returns were made every year.估值收益进行了每年。The fourteen years' cycle did not originate in Egypt (they had a different system before 19 BC), but most probably owed its origin to Augustus, 8 BC, the fourteenth year of his tribunitia potestas, which was a great year in Rome, and is called the year I in some inscriptions.在十四年的周期并不起源于埃及(公元前19前,他们不同的系统),但最可能欠其原产地为奥古斯都,8年,他tribunitia potestas十四年,这是在罗马一个伟大的一年,被称为今年我在一些铭文。Apart from St. Luke and Josephus, history is equally ignorant of the second enrolling in Palestine, AD 6.除了圣卢克和约瑟夫,历史同样是在巴勒斯坦,公元6秒招收一无所知。So many discoveries about ancient times, concerning which history has been silent, have been made during the last thirty years that it is surprising modern authors should brush aside a statement of St. Luke's, a respectable first-century writer, with a mere appeal to the silence of history on the matter.关于古代,关于它的历史,一直保持沉默,那么多的发现已在过去的三十年,这是令人惊讶的现代作家应该摒弃了单纯的吸引了圣路加,一个可敬的第一个世纪作家的声明,对此事保持沉默的历史。

(2) The first census in Palestine, as described by St. Luke, was not made according to Roman, but Jewish, methods.(2)在巴勒斯坦首次人口普查,由圣路加描述,并没有作出根据罗马,但犹太人,方法。 St. Luke, who travelled so much, could not be ignorant of the Roman system, and his description deliberately excludes it.圣卢克,谁走过了这么多,不能罗马系统懵了,他的描述有意排斥它。The Romans did not run counter to the feelings of provincials more than they could help.罗马人并没有违背外省人超过他们可以帮助的感情。Jews, who were proud of being able to prove their descent, would have no objection to the enrolling described in Luke, ii.犹太人,谁是能够证明自己的血统感到自豪,将不反对在路加福音,二所述的招收。Schürer's arguments are vitiated throughout by the supposition that the census mentioned by St. Luke could be made only for taxation purposes. Schürer的论点是败坏了整个圣卢克提到,通过普查可以只为税务目的而作出的假设。His discussion of imperial taxation learned but beside the mark (cf. the practice in Egypt).他的帝国税收的讨论得知,但旁边的标记(参见在埃及的做法)。It was to the advantage of Augustus to know the number of possible enemies in Palestine, in case of revolt.它是在奥古斯都的优势,知道在巴勒斯坦的敌人数量可能在反抗的情况下。

(3) King Herod was not as independent as he is described for controversial purposes. (3)希律王是不是独立的,因为他是有争议的用途说明。A few years before Herod's death Augustus wrote to him.几年前,希律王死后奥古斯都写信给他。Josephus, "Ant.", XVI, ix., 3, has: "Cæsar [Augustus] . . . grew very angry, and wrote to Herod sharply. The sum of his epistle was this, that whereas of old he used him as a friend, he should now use him as his subject." 。约瑟夫,“蚂蚁”,十六,九,3,有:。。“凯撒[奥古斯都]增长非常生气,并写信给希律急剧他的书信的总和是这样,那老而他用他的一个朋友,他现在应该使用他作为他的主题。“ It was after this that Herod was asked to number his people.这是在此之后的希律王被要求数他的人民。That some such enrolling took place we gather from a passing remark of Josephus, "Ant.", XVII, ii, 4, "Accordingly, when all the people of the Jews gave assurance of their good will to Cæsar [Augustus], and to the king's [Herod's] government, these very men [the Pharisees] did not swear, being above six thousand."这发生了一些这样的招生,我们收集了约瑟夫通过的话,“蚂蚁”,十七,二,四,“因此,当所有的犹太人的人给了他们良好的意愿保证撒[奥古斯都],并国王[希律]政府,这些非常男女[法利]没有发誓,上述6000之中。“ The best scholars think they were asked to swear allegiance to Augustus.最好的学者认为,他们被要求宣誓效忠奥古斯都。

(4) It is said there was no room for Quirinius, in Syria, before the death of Herod in 4 BCC Sentius Saturninus was governor there from 9-6 BC; and Quintilius Varus, from 6 BC till after the death of Herod.(4)这是说,有没有居里扭在叙利亚,房前,希律王在4 BCC Sentius Saturninus死亡州长有从公元前9-6和Quintilius内翻,从6至公元前后的希律王死亡。But in turbulent provinces there were sometimes times two Roman officials of equal standing.但在动荡的省份有有时时候两个同等地位的罗马官员。In the time of Caligula the administration of Africa was divided in such a way that the military power, with the foreign policy, was under the control of the lieutenant of the emperor, who could be called a hegemon (as in St. Luke), while the internal affairs were under the ordinary proconsul.在卡里古拉时间的非洲政府被划分成这样的军事实力与外交政策,下皇帝,谁可以称得上是霸主(如圣路加)中尉控制权,而内部事务都是在普通地方总督。 The same position was held by Vespasian when he conducted the war in Palestine, which belonged to the province of Syria--a province governed by an officer of equal rank.同样的立场是由维斯帕先举行时,他在巴勒斯坦进行的战争,它属于叙利亚省 - 由一个同等级别的官员管辖的一个省。Josephus speaks of Volumnius as being Kaisaros hegemon, together with C. Sentius Saturninus, in Syria (9-6 BC): "There was a hearing before Saturninus and Volumnius, who were then the presidents of Syria" (Ant., XVI, ix, 1).约瑟夫谈到Volumnius作为是Kaisaros霸主,连同C. Sentius Saturninus在叙利亚,(9-6年):“有一个前Saturninus和Volumnius听证会,谁是当时的叙利亚总统”(Ant.,十六,九,1)。 He is called procurator in "Bel. Jud.", I, xxvii, 1, 2.他是在检察称为“美。达瓦慈善会”,我二十七,1,2。Corbulo commanded the armies of Syria against the Parthians, while Quadratus and Gallus were successively governors of Syria.Corbulo指挥帕提亚人对叙利亚的军队,而前方和吊带相继叙利亚总督。Though Josephus speaks of Gallus, he knows nothing of Corbulo; but he was there nevertheless (Mommsen, "Röm. Gesch.", V, 382).虽然约瑟夫的背带说话,他知道Corbulo什么,但尽管如此,他在那里(蒙森,“ROM Gesch。”V,382)。 A similar position to that of Corbulo must have been held by Quirinius for a few years between 7 and 4 BC一个类似的立场的Corbulo必须由居里扭已举办7至4 BC几年

The best treatment of the subject is that by Ramsay "Was Christ Born in Bethlehem?"对这个问题最好的治疗方法是,通过拉姆齐“是基督出生在伯利恒?”See also the valuable essays of two Catholic writers: Marucchi in "Il Bessarione" (Rome, 1897); Bour, "L'lnscription de Quirinius et le Recensement de S. Luc" (Rome, 1897).又见两个天主教作家的宝贵文章:Marucchi在“伊尔Bessarione”(罗马,1897年); Bour,“L' lnscription德居里扭ET LE Recensement DE S. Luc”(罗马,1897年)。Vigouroux, "Le NT et les Découvertes Modernes" (Paris, 1890), has a good deal of useful information. Vigouroux,“乐NT ET LES Découvertes Modernes”(巴黎,1890年),提供了大量有用的大量信息。It has been suggested that Quirinius is a copyist's error for Quintilius (Varus).有人建议,居里扭是抄写员对Quintilius(内翻)错误。

X. SAINT LUKE AND JOSEPHUS十,圣路加和约瑟夫

The attempt to prove that St. Luke used Josephus (but inaccurately) has completely broken down.企图证明圣卢克使用约瑟夫(但不准确)已完全打破了。Belser successfully refutes Krenkel in "Theol. Quartalschrift", 1895, 1896.贝尔瑟成功地驳斥“Theol。Quartalschrift”,1895年,1896年Krenkel。The differences can be explained only on the supposition of entire independence.的差异可以解释只有在整个独立性假设。The resemblances are sufficiently accounted for by the use of the Septuagint and the common literary Greek of the time by both.有足够的相似之处占由七十和共同文学希腊的时间都用。See Bebb and Headlam in Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", s.见哈氏Bebb和Headlam。“快译通。的圣经”,第vv.VV。"Luke, Gospel of" and "Acts of the Apostles", respectively.“卢克,福音”和“使徒行传”,分别。Schürer (Zeit. für W. Th., 1876) brushes aside the opinion that St. Luke read Josephus. Schürer(Zeit.献给W.日。,1876)刷一边认为,圣卢克阅读约瑟夫。When Acts is compared with the Septuagint and Josephus, there is convincing evidence that Josephus was not the source from which the writer of Acts derived his knowledge of Jewish history.当行为与七十和约瑟夫相比,有令人信服的证据表明约瑟夫没有从中得出自己的行为作家的犹太历史知识的来源。There are numerous verbal and other coincidences with the Septuagint (Cross in "Expository Times", XI, 5:38, against Schmiedel and the exploded author of "Sup. Religion").有许多言语和其他与译本(跨在“说明性时报”,第十一,5:38,对Schmiedel和“燮。宗教”爆炸的作者)的巧合。 St. Luke did not get his names from Josephus, as contended by this last writer, thereby making the whole history a concoction.圣卢克没有得到约瑟夫他的名字,由这最后作家主张,从而使整个历史的药汁。Wright in his "Some New Test. Problems" gives the names of fifty persons mentioned in St. Luke's Gospel.在他的“一些新的测试。问题”怀特给出了在圣路加福音提到fifty人的姓名。Thirty-two are common to the other two Synoptics, and therefore not taken from Josephus.第三个是共同的另外两个观福音,因此没有采取由约瑟夫。Only five of the remaining eighteen are found in him, namely, Augustus Cæsar, Tiberius, Lysanias, Quirinius, and Annas.只有剩余的一八○五年在他身上发现,即奥古斯都恺撒,厄斯,Lysanias,居里扭,和亚那。As Annas is always called Ananus in Josephus, the name was evidently not taken from him.由于安纳斯总是叫约瑟夫Ananus,名字取自他显然没有。This is corroborated by the way the Gospel speaks of Caiphas.这证实了该方法的福音Caiphas说话。St. Luke's employment of the other four names shows no connection with the Jewish historian.圣卢克的其他四个名字没有显示就业与犹太历史学家连接。The mention of numerous countries, cities, and islands in Acts shows complete independence of the latter writer.在许多国家,城市和岛屿中提到的行为显示了后者作家完全独立。St. Luke's preface bears a much closer resemblance to those of Greek medical writers than to that of Josephus.圣卢克前言蕴藏着的,而不是医疗的约瑟夫,希腊作家的更接近相似。The absurdity of concluding that St. Luke must necessarily be wrong when not in agreement with Josephus is apparent when we remember the frequent contradictions and blunders in the latter writer.荒谬的结论,圣路加必然是错误的,当不符合约瑟夫协议是明显的,当我们记住了频繁的矛盾和失误,后者作家。

APPENDIX: BIBLICAL COMMISSION DECISIONS附录:圣经委员会的决定

The following answers to questions about this Gospel, and that of St. Mark, were issued, 26 June, 1913, by the Biblical Commission.下面回答这个福音,和圣马可的问题,发放对象,由圣经委员会1913年6月26日。That Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, and Luke, a doctor, the assistant and companion of Paul, are really the authors of the Gospels respectively attributed to them is clear from Tradition, the testimonies of the Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, by quotations in their writings, the usage of early heretics, by versions of the New Testament in the most ancient and common manuscripts, and by intrinsic evidence in the text of the Sacred Books.马克,门徒和彼得解释,和卢克,医生,助手和保罗的同伴,是真正的福音的作者分别归因于他们是从传统明确,神父和教会作家的证词,由报价在他们的著作,早期异端的使用由最古老和常见的手稿新约圣经版本,并在圣书文字内在的证据。 The reasons adduced by some critics against Mark's authorship of the last twelve versicles of his Gospel (xvi, 9-20) do not prove that these versicles are not inspired or canonical, or that Mark is not their author.通过对马克的最后十二他的福音(十六,9-20)versicles作者援引一些评论家的理由没有证明这些versicles没有启发或规范,或者说是不是他们的作者马克。 It is not lawful to doubt of the inspiration and canonicity of the narratives of Luke on the infancy of Christ (i-ii), on the apparition of the Angel and of the bloody sweat (xxii, 43-44); nor can it be proved that these narratives do not belong to the genuine Gospel of Luke.这是不合法怀疑的灵感和对基督(I - II)婴儿的卢克叙述正规对天使幽灵和流血流汗(二十二,43-44);也不能被事实证明,这些叙述不属于卢克真正的福音。

The very few exceptional documents attributing the Magnificat to Elizabeth and not to the Blessed Virgin should not prevail against the testimony of nearly all the codices of the original Greek and of the versions, the interpretation required by the context, the mind of the Virgin herself, and the constant tradition of the Church.很少把这尊伊丽莎白而不是圣母特殊文件不应战胜了几乎所有的希腊原文的版本和抄本的证词,解释所要求的背景下,自己心中的圣母,和教会不断的传统。

It is according to most ancient and constant tradition that after Matthew, Mark wrote his Gospel second and Luke third; though it may be held that the second and third Gospels were composed before the Greek version of the first Gospel.它是根据最古老的和不断的传统,经过马太,马可写他的福音第二和卢克第三;尽管它可能举行的第二和第三福音之前的第一个福音的希腊文版本组成。 It is not lawful to put the date of the Gospels of Mark and Luke as late as the destruction of Jerusalem or after the siege had begun.这是不合法的把它作为作为耶路撒冷围困或之后开始破坏晚的马克和卢克福音日期​​。The Gospel of Luke preceded his Acts of the Apostles, and was therefore composed before the end of the Roman imprisonment, when the Acts was finished (Acts 28:30-31).而卢克福音的使徒之前他的行为,并因此组成前的罗马监禁年底,当行为已经完成(徒28:30-31)。In view of Tradition and of internal evidence it cannot be doubted that Mark wrote according to the preaching of Peter, and Luke according to that of Paul, and that both had at their disposal other trustworthy sources, oral or written.在传统与内部证据认为它不能被怀疑马克写道根据彼得的说教,和卢克根据保罗的,而且无论是在他们的处置其他可靠来源,口头或书面了。

Publication information Written by C. Aherene.出版信息书面由C. Aherene。Transcribed by Ernie Stefanik.转录由厄尼Stefanik。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,体积九。Published 1910.发布1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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