Book of Malachi, Malachias书玛拉基书

General Information一般资料

Malachi is the last of the 12 books of the Minor Prophets in the Old Testament of the Bible.玛拉基是在旧约圣经中的小先知书的最后。Malachi means "my messenger" in Hebrew, and few scholars believe that it is the actual name of the prophet.玛拉基意味着在希伯来文的“我的使者”,而很少有学者认为,这是先知的实际名称。The prophet's themes include the ritual purity of sacrifices, the evils of mixed marriages and divorce, and the coming day of judgment.先知的主题包括仪式纯度牺牲,混合婚姻和离婚的罪恶,并判断未来的一天。The book, consisting of six oracles, is believed to have been written after the reconstruction of the Temple (516 BC) and before the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 450 BC).书,6个神谕组成,被认为已书面后重建圣殿(公元前516)和以斯拉和尼希米(约公元前450年)之前的改革。

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Book of Malachi, Malachias预订玛拉基,玛拉基亚亚

Brief Outline简述

  1. Sins of the Priests (1:1-2:9)祭司的罪孽(1:1-2:9)
  2. Sins of the people (2:10-4:1)人民罪(2:10-4:1)
  3. Coming of the Son of Righteousness (4:2-6)未来的义子(4:2-6)


Malachi玛拉基书

Advanced Information先进的信息

Malachi, messenger or angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament canon (Mal. 4:4, 5, 6).玛拉基,Messenger或天使,最后小先知,和旧约佳能(玛拉基书4时04分,5,6)的最后一本书的作家。Nothing is known of him beyond what is contained in his book of prophecies.没有人知道他超出了他的预言书所载。Some have supposed that the name is simply a title descriptive of his character as a messenger of Jehovah, and not a proper name.有些人以为的名字仅仅是一个标题,描述他作为耶和华的使者,而不是一个合适的名字的字符。There is reason, however, to conclude that Malachi was the ordinary name of the prophet.然而,我们有理由得出这样的结论玛拉基先知的普通名称。He was contemporary with Nehemiah (comp. Mal. 2:8 with Neh. 13:15; Mal. 2:10-16 with Neh. 13:23).他是当代与尼希米记(comp.玛2:8 NEH 13:15;。玛2:10-16与尼13时23分)。No allusion is made to him by Ezra, and he does not mention the restoration of the temple, and hence it is inferred that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah, and when the temple services were still in existence (Mal. 1:10; 3:1, 10).由Ezra没有提到他,和他没有提到恢复寺庙,并因此推断,他之后,哈该和撒迦利亚预言,当寺服务仍然存在(玛1:10; :1,10)。It is probable that he delivered his prophecies about BC 420, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia (Neh. 13:6), or possibly before his return.这是可能的,他发表了约公元前420第二次返回尼希米从波斯(尼13:6),或可能之前,他返回后,他的预言。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Prophecies of Malachi预言玛拉基

Advanced Information先进的信息

The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters.书的内容由四个章节组成。In the Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the AV) form but one.在希伯来文中的第三和第四章(的AV)的形式,而是一个。 The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an introduction (Mal. 1:1-5), in which the prophet reminds Israel of Jehovah's love to them.整个包括三个部分,前面介绍(玛拉基书1:1-5),在先知提醒以色列对耶和华的爱给他们。 The first section (1:6-2:9) contains a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his worship and from the covenant, and for their partiality in administering the law.第一部分(1:6-2:9)包含给牧师曾藐视耶和华的名字,并在出发从他的崇拜和“盟约”的领导人的严厉训斥,并为他们的偏袒管理法。 In the second (2:9-16) the people are rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen.在第二个(2:9-16)的人都斥责他们崇拜偶像的异教徒通婚。In the third (2:17-4:6) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the advent of the Messiah.他在第三个(2:17-4:6)地址作为一个整体的人,并警告他们的未来判断的神,前面的弥赛亚的来临。This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament (Matt. 11:10; 17:12; Mark 1:2; 9:11, 12; Luke 1:17; Rom. 9:13).这本书是在新约中经常提到(马太福音11:10; 17时12分,马克1:2; 9:11,12;路加福音1:17;罗9:13)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Prophecies of Malachi预言玛拉基

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

This book is a continuous discourse, so that, properly speaking, there are no intervening events.本书是一个连续的话语,所以说,正确来说有没有介入事件。The prophet is a contemporary of Nehemiah, following closely Zechariah and Haggai.先知是当代尼希米,紧随撒迦利亚和哈。The evidence of this is chiefly internal and gathered from two facts: (1) That the second temple was evidently in existence at the time, and (2) That the evils condemned by Nehemiah are those which he also condemns.这方面的证据主要是内部的聚集,并从两个事实:(1)(2),第二圣殿显然是存在的时候,和尼希米谴责的罪恶,他还谴责。 This will appear as we proceed, but compare Malachi 1:7, 8; 2:11-16; 3:8-10 with the last chapter of Nehemiah, especially verses 10-14, 23-29.这会出现在我们进行的,但比较玛拉基书1:7,8;尼希米的最后一章,特别是诗句10-14,23-29 3:8-10; 2:11-16。Following an outline by Willis J. Beecher, we have:一个由Willis J.比彻的轮廓之后,我们有:

The Introduction引言

1:1-5 What word in verse 1 indicates that the message, or messages, are in the nature of rebuke rather than comfort?1:1-5什么第一节字的消息,或消息,是在训斥的性质,而不是舒适?With what declaration does verse 3 begin?第3节开始什么宣言?While Jehovah thus declares Himself towards His Israel, how do they receive it?虽然耶和华从而宣告自己对他的以色列,他们如何接受呢?This skeptical insinuation in the interrogation, "Wherein hast thou loved us?"这在审讯怀疑影射“,其中祢爱我们吗?” is a peculiarity of the book, and shows the people to have been in a bad spiritual frame, calculated to give birth to the practical sins enumerated later.一书的特点,显示了在一个坏的精神帧,计算生出后列举了实际的罪孽,的人。

Be careful not to read a wrong meaning into that reference to Esau, as though God caused him to be born simply to have an object on which He might exercise His hate, or as if that hate condemned the individual Esau to misery in this life and eternal torment beyond.要小心,不要读,扫到一个错误的含义,仿佛上帝使他出生,只是有一个对象上,他可能行使他的仇恨,或如果仇恨谴责个别扫在此生活的苦难和永恒的折磨超越。 The hate of Esau as an individual is simply set over against the choice of Jacob as the heir to the promised seed of Abraham.作为个人最讨厌的就是简单的设置以扫对雅各的承诺种子亚伯拉罕的继承人的选择。Esau did not inherit that promise, the blessing to the world did not come down in his line, but that of his brother Jacob, and yet Esau himself had a prosperous life; nor are we driven to the conclusion by anything the Bible says that he was eternally lost.扫并未继承这一承诺,世界的祝福没有在他的线下来,但他的兄弟雅各,但以扫自己有富足的生活;我们也不是由什么驱动的结论“圣经”说,他是永远失去了。

Moreover, the particular reference is not so much to Esau as a man as to the national descendants of Esau, the Edomites, who had not only been carried into captivity as Israel had been, but whose efforts to rebuild their waste places would not be successful as in the case of Israel, because the divine purposes of grace lay in another direction.此外,特别提到的是没有这么多,作为一个国家以扫的后裔以东人,他不仅被囚禁作为以色列一直进行的男子以扫,但他们的努力,以重建其废物的地方就不会取得成功在以色列的情况下,因为恩典的神圣目的在于在另一个方向。

The Second Division第二分部

1:6-3:4 consists of an address to the priests and Levites, more especially the former, in which they are charged with three kinds of offenses.1:6-3:4由祭司和利未人,尤其是前者,他们被控与3种罪行的地址。The first is neglect of their temple duties, see chapter 1:6-2:9.首先是忽视了他们的寺庙职责,见第一章1:6-2:9。The character of the offense is seen in verses 7 and 8, and 12 and 13 of chapter 1, while the punishment in the event of impenitence is in chapter 2:1-9.罪行的性质是7和第8和第12和第1章13节,而不知悔改的事件的处罚是章2:1-9。The second offense concerns unholy marriages, verses 10-16 of chapter 2.第二次违法的关注圣洁的婚姻,第2章10-16节。 It was for this sin as well as the preceding one that Jehovah refused to accept their offerings (13, 14).这是此罪耶和华拒绝接受他们的产品(13,14),以及前一个。

Notice the strong argument against divorce found in verse 15.请注意15节发现了有力的论据反对离婚。 God made one wife for one man at the beginning though He had the power to make more, and He did this because of the godly seed He desired.上帝创造了一个妻子,一个人在开始时,虽然他有权力,使更多的,他并没有因为他想要这个神圣的种子。The third offense is that of skepticism, and as Beecher calls it, a bad skepticism, for there is a species of doubt which deserves compassionate treatment and which cannot be called evil in its spirit and motive.第三项罪行的怀疑,比彻的话来说,一个坏的怀疑,有一个疑问种值得体恤治疗和不能称为邪在它的精神和动机。That, however, is hardly the kind of doubt now under consideration (See chapter 2:17).然而,这几乎没有疑问,目前正在审议(见本章2时17分)。This division closes, as does the division following, by a prediction "concerning a day in which the obedient and disobedient shall be differentiated and rewarded."这种分工关闭预测,如不师以下,“关于在其中听话和不听话的,应区别和奖励的一天。”

This "day" we have often recognized as the "day of the Lord" still in the future both for Israel and the Gentile nations (3:1-4).这“天”我们经常确认为“主的日子”,仍然在以色列和外邦国家(3:1-4)的未来。Notice the partial fulfillment of verse 1 in the career of John the Baptist, as indicated in the words and context of Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Luke 1: 76.请注意,在第一节的部分履行约翰在马太11时10分的话,上下文所指出的浸信会,职业生涯;马克1时02分,卢克1:76。 But the concluding verses of the prediction show that a complete fulfillment must be ahead.但预测的结论诗句表明,一个完整的履行必须提前。The offering of Judah and Jerusalem has not yet been so purified by divine judgments as to be pleasant unto the Lord as in the days of old, but it shall yet come to pass.提供犹大和耶路撒冷尚未如此纯化神圣的判断,你们作为主在天老愉快,但尚未来通过。

The Third Division第三分部

3:5-4:3 consists of an address to the people as a whole, who like the priests, are charged with three kinds of offenses.3:5-4:3组成的一个地址作为一个整体的人,他们的祭司一样,收取3种罪行。The first is certain public wrongs in which are grouped false swearing, adultery, oppression and injustice (3:5-7).首先是在分组虚假宣誓就职,通奸,压迫和不公正(3:5-7)的某些公共是非。The second is the failure to support the temple and its ministers (3:8-12), in which case notice the charge of divine robbery, and the blessing promised to faithfulness in tithes.二是不支持的寺庙和其部长的(3:8-12),在这种情况下,通知负责的神圣抢劫,并承诺在什一奉献忠诚的祝福。The third is the same kind of skepticism as with the priests (3:13-15).三是同类的怀疑与祭司(3:13-15)。 The prediction concluding this section covers verses 3:16-4:3, and is more comforting in character than the preceding one.本节结束的预测涵盖的诗句3:16-4:3,比前一个字符安慰。

The Fourth Division第四分部

4:4-6 is a grand conclusion in which the great day of the Lord is once more referred to, and Elijah the prophet named as His forerunner.4:4-6是一项宏大的结论,其中主伟大的一天,再一次提到,以利亚先知命名为他的前身。 We learn from Matt.我们从马特。 11: 14, Mark 9:11 and Luke 1:17 that John the Baptist is to be considered the type of this forerunner, but that Elijah is to come again to this earth is the opinion of many. 11:14,马克9:11路加福音1点17分,施洗约翰是要考虑这个先导的,但以利亚再次来到这个地球上,是许多人认为。There are those who believe that he and Moses are the two witnesses in Revelation 11 that shall do wonders in Jerusalem during the reign of the Antichrist.有那些相信他和摩西是在启示录11的两名证人,应敌基督统治期间在耶路撒冷奇迹。

Questions 1.问题 1。What is the peculiarity of this book?这本书的特点是什么?2.2。Give the proof that Malachi is contemporary with Nehemiah.给证明玛拉基是当代与尼希米。3.3。How do you explain God's "hatred" of Esau?你如何解释神的“仇恨”以扫?4.4。What argument against divorce is found here?什么反对离婚的说法是在这里找到呢?5.5。How do some interpret the prediction about Elijah?如何做一些解释以利亚的预测?


Malachias (Malachi)玛拉基亚亚(玛拉基书)

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Hebrew Mál'akhî), one of the twelve minor prophets. (希伯来文Mál'akhî),十二小先知之一。

I. PERSONAGE AND NAME一,人士和名称

It is the last book of the collection of the twelve Minor Prophets which is inscribed with the name of Malachias.这是十二小先知玛拉基亚亚名称上的集合的最后一本书。As a result, the author has long been regarded as the last of the canonical prophets of the Old Testament.因此,笔者一直被视为规范旧约先知。All that is known of him, however, is summed up in the tenor of his preaching and the approximate period of his ministry.的是他,但是,总结了他的说教和他的部近似周期的男高音。The Jewish schools identified him quite early with the scribe Esdras.犹太学校确定他相当早隶埃斯德拉斯。This identification, which is without historical value and is based according to St. Jerome on an interpretation given to Mal., ii, 7, was at first probably suggested by the tradition which beheld in Esdras the intermediary between the prophets and the "great synagogue", whose foundation was attributed to him and to which he was considered to have transmitted the deposit of doctrine handed down by the prophets (Pirqe Abhôth, I, 2).这种识别,这是没有历史价值和,是基于发作。II,7给予解释,根据圣杰罗姆,起初可能是由传统埃斯德拉斯看见先知和“伟大的犹太教堂之间的中介的建议“,其基础是因为他和他被认为具有传输的先知(Pirqe Abhôth,一,二)传下来的学说的存款。The position of intermediary fully belonged to Esdras on the hypothesis that he was the last of the prophets and the first member of the "great synagogue".中介的立场完全属于埃斯德拉斯上的假设,他是最后的先知和“伟大的犹太教堂”的第一个成员。The name Malachias figures at the head of the book in the Septuagint.在中译本的书头名玛拉基亚亚数字。The Alexandrine translator, however, did not understand Mal., i, 1, to contain the mention of the author's proper name; he translates the passage: "The word of the Lord by the hand of his Angel," so that he has evidently understood the Hebrew expression to be the common noun augmented by the suffix; he has, moreover, read Mál'akhô instead of Mál'akhî.的亚历山大翻译,但并不了解马尔,我,1,包含提到作者的适当的名称;他翻译的通道:。“在他的天使之手字的主,”使他有明显了解希伯来语表达是常见的名词后缀增强;他,此外,读Mál'akhô而不是Mál'akhî。 We cannot say whether this reading and interpretation should not be considered as an effect of Jewish speculations concerning the identity of the author of the book with Esdras, or whether an interpretation of this kind was not at the foundation of the same speculation.我们不能说这是否阅读和解释,不应该考虑作为一个关于犹太人身份的作者与埃斯德拉斯的书,或是否这种解释是不相同的猜测的基础揣测的影响。 However that may be, the interpretation of the Septuagint found an echo among the ancient Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, and even gave rise, especially among the disciples of Origen, to the strangest fancies.但可能解释的septuagint发现古代神父和教会作家之间的回声,甚至上升,尤其是奥利的弟子,奇怪的幻想。

A large number of modern authors likewise refuse to see in Mál'akhî the proper name of the author.一个现代作家的大量同样拒绝看到Mál'akhî作者适当的名称。They point out that in Mal., iii, 1, the Lord announces: "Behold I send my angel (mál'akhî)".他们指出,在发作,三,1,主宣布:“看哪,我给我的天使(mál'akhî )".According to them, it is from this passage that the name Mál'akhî was borrowed by a more recent author, who added the inscription to the book (i, 1).据他们介绍,从这段话,是一个较新的作者,碑文书(I,1)借名Mál'akhî。But, in the first place, this epithet Mál'akhî could not have the same value in i, 1, as in iii, 1, where it is the noun augmented by the suffix (my angel).但是,摆在首位,这个词Mál'akhî可能没有相同的值在I,1,三,1,它是名词后缀(我的天使)增强。For in i, 1, the Lord is spoken of in the third person, and one would expect the noun with the suffix of the third person, as in fact is given in the Septuagint (his angel).对于我,1,主是口语中的第三人,和人们所期望的与第三人的后缀的名词,实际上是在七十(他的天使)。The messenger of the Lord is moreover announced in iii, 1, to arrive thereafter (cf. iv, 5; Hebrew text, iii, 23); consequently no one could have imagined that this same messenger was the author of the book.三,1,主的使者此外宣布以后到达(参见四,中五程度;希伯来文,三,23),因此没有人能够想象,这同样的使者一书的作者。 There would remain the hypothesis that Mál'akhî in i, 1, should be understood as a qualifying word signifying angelicus --- ie he who was concerned with the angel, who prophesied on the subject of the angel (iii, 1).仍将有应作为一个合格的标志angelicus一词的理解,我,1,Mál'akhî假说---即他谁是天使,天使的主题(三,1)预言有关。 This explanation, however, is too far-fetched.然而,这种解释过于牵强。It is at least more probable that Mál'akhî in i, 1, should be understood as the proper name of the author, or as a title borne historically by him and equivalent to a proper name. Mál'akhî在我,1,应理解为作者的正确名称,或作为历史上由他承担,相当于一个合适的名字标题,这是至少有更多的可能。We are no doubt in presence of an abbreviation of the name Mál'akhîyah, that is "Messenger of Yah".我们毫无疑问名称Mál'akhîyah的缩写,即“盐田使者”的存在。

II.二。CONTENTS OF THE BOOK书中的内容

The Book of Malachias in the Hebrew comprises three chapters.在希伯来文玛拉基亚亚“由三个篇章组成。In the Greek Bible and in the Vulgate in contains four, chapter iii, 19 sqq., of the Hebrew forming a separate chapter.在希腊文圣经,在武加大包含四,第三章,19 SQQ的希伯来文,形成一个单独的章节。The book is divided into two parts, the first extending from i, 2, to ii, 16, and the second from ii, 17, to the end.全书分为两部分,从我的第一次延长,2,II,16,II,17,第二结束。In the first the prophet first inveighs against the priests guilty of prevarication in their discharge of the sacrificial ritual, by offering defective victims (i, 6-ii, 4), and in their office of doctors of the Law (ii, 5-9).对犯推诿提供有缺陷的受害者(我6 - II,4),在他们的祭祀仪式后,祭司和他们对法律的医生的办公室在第一先知第一inveighs(II 5-9 )。He then accuses the people in general, condemning the intestine divisions, the mixed marriages between Jews and Gentiles (ii, 10-12), and the abuse of divorce (ii, 13-16).然后,他指责一般的人,谴责肠道的部门,犹太人和外邦人之间的异族通婚(二10-12),和滥用离婚(二13-16)。 The second part contains a discourse full of promise.第二部分包含了一个充满希望的话语。To a first complaint concerning the impunity which the wicked enjoy (ii, 17), Yahweh replies that the Lord and the angel of the New Testament are about to come for the purpose of purifying the sons of Levi and the entire nation (iii, 1-5); if the people are faithful to their obligations, especially with respect to the tithes, they will be loaded with Divine blessings (iii, 6-12).恶人享受(II,17),耶和华篇,主,新约的使者即将来净化列维和整个民族的儿子的有罪不罚的第一个投诉(三,1 -5),如果人是忠实履行其义务,特别是关于什一税,,他们将被载入与神的祝福(三6-12)。To a second complaint concerning the afflictions that fall to the lot of the just, while the wicked succeed in everything (iii, 13), Yahweh gives answer that on the day of his justice the good will take a glorious revenge (iii, 14 sqq.).第二个投诉,有关那年秋天刚刚很多的苦难,而恶人在一切成功(三13),耶和华给出了答案,他绳之以法的那一天的良好意愿采取光荣报复(三,14 SQQ 。)The book closes with a double epilogue; the first recalls the remembrance of Moses, and the laws promulgated on Mount Horeb (iv, 4; Hebrew text, iii, 22); the second announces the coming of Elias before the day of Yahweh (iv, 5-6; Heb., iii, 23-24).本书关闭双尾声;首先回顾纪念摩西,法律何烈山(四,4;希伯来文,三,22);颁布的第二个宣布前一天耶和华的埃利亚斯(四5-6; HEB,三,23-24)。The unity of the book taken as a whole is unquestionable; but many critics consider as the addition of another hand either both the epilogues or at least the second.书作为一个整体的团结,是毋庸置疑的,但许多评论家认为另一只手的另外一方都epilogues或至少第二。There is indeed no connexion between these passages and what goes before, but from this consideration alone no certain conclusion can be drawn.确实是有没有这些经文,然后之间的联接,但单从这样的考虑,没有一定可以得出结论。

III.三。DATE OF COMPOSITION构成日期

The opinion brought forward some time ago, that the book of Malachias was composed in the second century BC, has received no support. “意见”提出了前一段时间,玛拉基亚亚书组成,在公元前二世纪,已经收到不支持。Critics are practically agreed in dating the book from about the middle of the fifth century BC The text itself does not furnish any explicit information, but many indications are in favour of the assigned date:批评实际上同意约会书从文本本身的公元前五世纪中叶左右,不提供任何明确的信息,但许多迹象表明,赞成在指定日期:

(a) mention of the Peha (i, 8), as the political head of the people takes us back to the Persian period; the title of Peha was indeed that borne by the Persian governor especially at Jerusalem (Haggai 1:1; Ezra 5:14; Nehemiah 5:14-15); (一)提的Peha(I,8),作为政治头脑的人把我们带回到波斯时期; Peha标题确实,由波斯总督的负担,尤其是在耶路撒冷(哈1:1;以斯拉5:14;尼希米记5:14-15);

(b) the book was not composed during the first years that followed the return from the Babylonian captivity, because not only the Temple exists, but relaxation in the exercise of worship already prevails (Malachi 1:6 sqq.); (二)书是不是由在随后返回从巴比伦囚禁的头几年,因为不仅寺存在,但在放宽行使崇拜已经盛行(玛拉基1时06 SQQ);

(c) on the other hand it is hardly probable that the discourses of Malachias are of later date than Nehemias.(c)在另一方面,它是很难可能比内赫米亚斯日后玛拉基亚亚的话语。In the great assembly which was held during the first sojourn of Nehemias at Jerusalem, among other engagements, the people had taken that of paying the tithes regularly (Nehemiah 10:38), and history testifies that in this respect the adopted resolutions were faithfully carried out, although in the distribution of the tithes the Levites were unjustly treated (Nehemiah 13:5, 10, 13).伟大内赫米亚斯在耶路撒冷逗留期间举行的大会,人民之间的其他约定,已采取的定期支付什一税(尼希米记10:38),历史证明,在这方面通过的各项决议,忠实履行指出,虽然分布在什一税的利未人被不公正地对待(尼希米13时05分,10,13)。 Now Malachias complains not of the injustice of which the Levites were the object, but of the negligence on the part of the people themselves in the payment of the tithes (iii, 10).现在玛拉基亚亚抱怨的不公正的利未人的对象不,但人本身在支付什一税的一部分的疏忽(三10)。Again, Malachias does not regard mixed marriages as contrary to a positive engagement, like that which was taken under the direction of Nehemias (Nehemiah 10:30); he denounces them on account of their unhappy consequences and of the contempt which they imply for the Jewish nationality (Malachi 2:11, 12);再次,玛拉基亚亚不视为违背一个积极的参与通婚,这样内赫米亚斯(尼希米记10:30)的指导下采取;他谴责不幸的后果,他们的蔑视,他们的暗示犹太人国籍(玛拉基书2:11 12);

(d) it is not even during the sojourn of Nehemias at Jerusalem that Malachias wrote his book.(d)它甚至不是在耶路撒冷逗留期间的内赫米亚斯玛拉基亚亚写他的书。Nehemias was Peha, and he greatly insists upon his disinterestedness in the exercise of his functions, contrary to the practices of his predecessors (Nehemiah 5:14 sqq.); but Malachias gives us to understand that the Peha was severely exacting (i, 8);内赫米亚斯Peha是,他非常坚持他的无私在行使其职能,相反,他的前任的做法“(尼希米记5时14 SQQ。),但玛拉基亚亚使我们明白,Peha严重的是严格的(我,8 );

(e) The date of composition can only fall within some short time before the mission of Nehemias.(E)组成的日期只能属于一些短的时间内内前内赫米亚斯使命。The complaints and protestations to which this latter gives expression (Nehemiah 2:17; 4:4 sq.; 5:6, sqq., etc.) are like an echo of those recorded by Malachias (iii, 14, 15).的投诉和抗议,后者体现(尼希米记2:17; 4点04平方米; 5:6,SQQ等),如玛拉基亚亚(III,14,15)所录得的回声。The misfortune that weighted so heavily upon the people in the days of Malachias (iii, 9 sqq.) were still felt during those of Nehemias (Nehemiah 5:1 sqq.).仍然认为内赫米亚斯(尼希米记5时01分SQQ)。期间,加权后玛拉基亚亚天的人(三,9 SQQ。)如此严重的厄运。 Lastly and above all, the abuses condemned by Malachias, namely, the relaxation in religious worship, mixed marriages and the intestine divisions of which they were the cause (Malachi 2:10-12; cf. Nehemiah 6:18), the negligence in paying the tithes, were precisely the principal objects of the reforms undertaken by Nehemias (Nehemiah 10:31, 33, sqq., 10:38 sqq.).最后,高于一切,谴责虐待玛拉基亚亚,即在宗教崇拜,异族通婚,他们的事业(玛拉基书2:10-12;比照尼希米6点18分)在肠道部门放松,疏忽支付什一税,正是内赫米亚斯(尼希米10时31分,33,SQQ,SQQ 10时38分)。进行的改革的主要对象。As the first mission of Nehemias falls in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes I (Nehemiah 2:1), that is in 445 BC, it follows that the composition of the Book of Malachias may be placed about 450 BC由于内赫米亚斯第一使命落在我亚达薛西(尼希米记2:1),445公元前20年,它遵循玛拉基亚亚图书的成分可能会放置约公元前450年

IV.四。IMPORTANCE OF THE BOOK这本书的重要性

The importance lies (1) in the data which the book furnishes for the study of certain problems of criticism concerning the Old Testament, and (2) in the doctrine it contains.书furnishes关于旧约批评某些问题的研究在数据的重要性在于:(1),和(2)的学说,它包含了。

(1) For the study of the history of the Pentateuch, it is to be remarked that the Book of Malachias is directly connected with Deuteronomy, and not with any of those parts of the Pentateuch commonly designated under the name of priestly documents. (1)对于研究历史的pentateuch,它是要玛拉基亚亚图书直接与申命记连接,与任何的pentateuch祭司文件的名称通常根据指定的部分没有。 Thus Mal., i, 8, where the prophet speaks of the animals unfit for sacrifice, brings to mind Deut., xv, 21, rather than Lev., xxii, 22 sq.; the passage in Mal., ii, 16, relating to divorce by reason of aversion, points to Deut., xxiv, 1. 。因此发作,我,8,先知不宜牺牲的动物说话,使我想起申,XV,21,而不是列弗,22,22平方米;。通过在马累,二,16。有关离婚理由的厌恶,点到申,XXIV,1。 What is even more significant is that, in his manner of characterizing the Tribe of Levi and its relations with the priesthood, Malachias adopts the terminology of Deuteronomy; in speaking of the priests, he brings into evidence their origin not from Aaron but from Levi (ii, 4, 5 sqq.; iii, 3 sq.).什么是更重要的是,在他的部落利维和关系特征与祭司的方式,玛拉基亚亚采用术语申命记的祭司的发言,他带来了其原产地为证据,而不是从亚伦从列维(二,4,5 SQQ;三,3平方米)。Consequently, it would be an error to suppose that in this respect Deuteronomy represents a point of view which in the middle of the fifth century was no longer held.因此,这将是一个错误的假设,在这方面申命记代表一个点的观点在第五世纪中叶已不再举行。Let us add that the first of the two epilogues, with which the book concludes (iv, 4; Hebrew text, iii, 32), is likewise conceived in the spirit of Deuteronomy.让我们添加两个epilogues,与书中的结论(四,4;希伯来文,三,32)的第一,同样是在申命记的精神构思。

The examination of the Book of Malachias may be brought to bear on the solution of the question as to whether the mission of Esdras, related in I Esd., vii-x, falls in the seventh year of Artaxerxes I (458 BC), that is to say, thirteen years before the first mission of Nehemias, or in the seventh year Artaxerxes II (398 BC), and therefore after Nehemias.玛拉基亚亚图书考试可能带来的承担问题的解决方案是否埃斯德拉斯的使命,我防静电有关。VII - X,​​在我亚达薛西(458年),即第七个年头,是说,13年之前的内赫米亚斯的第一个任务,或在第七年亚达薛西二世(公元前398),因此,后内赫米亚斯。 Immediately after his arrival in Jerusalem, Esdras undertakes a radical reform of the abuse of mixed marriages, which are already considered contrary to a positive prohibition (Ezra 10).他在抵达耶路撒冷后,立即埃斯德拉斯进行激进改革的异族通婚的滥用,这是已被认为违背了积极的禁止(以斯拉10)。He tells us also that, supported by the authority of the King of Persia and with the co-operation of the governors beyond the river, he laboured with full success to give to religious worship all its splendour (Ezra 7:14, 15, 17, 20-8:36).他还告诉我们,由波斯国王的权威,支持与合作超出了河流的州长,他取得圆满成功吃力宗教崇拜给所有的辉煌(以斯拉7时14分,15,17 20-8:36)。And nothing whatever justifies the belief that the work of Esdras had but an ephemeral success, for in that case he would not in his own memoirs have related it with so much emphasis without one word of regret for the failure of his effort.没有任何理由相信埃斯德拉斯工作,但一个短暂的成功,在这种情况下,他不会在自己的回忆录与如此强调,没有一个字他的努力的失败表示遗憾。 Can data such as these be reconciled with the supposition that the state of affairs described by Malachias was the immediate outcome of the work of Esdras related in I Esd., vii-x?如这些数据与假设状况玛拉基亚亚描述是对我的esd相关埃斯德拉斯工作的直接结果。VII - X不甘心?

(2) In the doctrine of Malachias one notices with good reason as worthy of interest the attitude taken by the prophet on the subject of divorce (ii, 14-16). (2)在玛拉基亚亚一个很好的理由,值得注意的通知的学说,关于离婚的问题(二,14日至16日)的先知所采取的态度。The passage in question is very obscure, but it appears in v. 16 that the prophet disapproves of the divorce tolerated by Deut., xxvi, 1, viz., for cause of aversion.问题的话是非常模糊的,但它出现在16节先知不赞成由申容忍离婚,26,1,即,厌恶的原因。

The Messianic doctrine of Malachias especially appeals to our attention.玛拉基亚亚弥赛亚主义,特别是吸引我们的注意。In Mal.在发作。iii, 1, Yahweh announces that he will send his messenger to prepare the way before Him.三,1,耶和华宣布,他将派遣他的使者,他面前的准备方式。In the second epilogue of the book (iv, 5, 6; Heb., text, iii, 23 sq.), this messenger is identified with the prophet Elias.在该书的第二尾声(四,5,6;希伯来书,文字,III,23平方米),这个信使是确定先知埃利亚斯。Many passages in the New Testament categorically interpret this double prophecy by applying to John the Baptist, precursor of our Lord (Matthew 11:10, 14; 17:11-12; Mark 9:10 sqq.; Luke 1:17).在新约中的许多段落明确解释申请施洗约翰,我们的主的前身这种双重的预言(马太福音11:10,14; 17:11-12,马可福音9:10 SQQ;路加福音1:17)。The prophecy of Malachias, iii, 1, adds that, as soon as the messenger shall have prepared the way, "the Lord, whom you seek, and the angel of the testament, whom you desire," will come to His temple.玛拉基亚亚的预言,三,1,补充,尽快信使应编制的方式,“主,你寻求的人,和天使的遗嘱,你的愿望,”将来到他的寺庙。 The Lord is here identified with the angel of the testament; this is evident from the construction of the phrase and from the circumstance that the description of the mission of the angel of the testament (vv. 2 sq.) is continued by the Lord speaking of Himself in the first person in v. 5.主在这里确定与天使的遗书,这是从短语的建设和明显的情况下,描述天使的遗书(vv. 2平方米)的使命是继续由主讲对自己在5节的第一人。

A particularly famous passage is that of Mal., i, 10-11.一个特别著名的话玛,我10-11。In spite of a difficulty in the construction of the phrase, which can be avoided by vocalizing one word otherwise than the Massoretes have done (read miqtar, Sept. thymiama, instead of muqtar in verse 11), the literal sense is clear.尽管在建设的短语,可避免发声一个字,否则比Massoretes做(阅读11节thymiama miqtar,9月,而不是muqtar)难度,字面意义是显而易见的。The principal question is to know what is the sacrifice and pure offering spoken of in v. 11.主要问题是要知道什么是在第11节说的牺牲和纯粹提供。A large number of non-Catholic exegetes interpret it of the sacrifices actually being offered from east to west at the time of Malachias himself.一个大量的非天主教exegetes解释实际上提供玛拉基亚亚自己的时间从东到西的牺牲。According to some, the prophet had in view the sacrifices offered in the name of Yahweh by the proselytes of the Jewish religion among all the nations of the earth; others are more inclined to the belief that he signifies the sacrifices offered by the Jews dispersed among the Gentiles.据一些先知在地球的所有国家之间的犹太宗教proselytes在耶和华的名义提供的牺牲;其他人更倾向于相信,他标志着的犹太人提供的牺牲分散在外邦人。 But in the fifth century BC neither the Jews dispersed among the Gentiles nor the proselytes were sufficiently numerous to justify the solemn utterances used by Malachias;但在公元前五世纪,无论是犹太人分散在外邦人中也没有proselytes众多足以证明玛拉基亚亚使用的庄严的话语;

the prophet clearly wants to insist on the universal diffusion of the sacrifice which he has in view.先知明确要坚持普遍扩散的牺牲,他在查看。Hence others, following the example of Theodore of Mopsuestia, think they can explain the expression in v. 11 as referring to the sacrifices offered by the pagans to their own gods or to the Supreme God; those sacrifices would have been considered by Malachias as materially offered to Yahweh, because in fact Yahweh is the only true God.因此别人,以下摩普绥提亚西奥多的例子,认为他们可以解释为是指自己的神或最高神的异教徒提供牺牲在第11节的表达,这些牺牲本来玛拉基亚亚考虑为重大提供耶和华,因为事实上,耶和华是唯一的真神。 But it appears inconceivable that Yahweh should, by means of Malachias, have looked upon as "pure" and "offered to his name" the sacrifices offered by the Gentiles to this or that divinity; especially when one considers the great importance Malachias attaches to the ritual (i, 6 sqq., 12 sqq.; iii, 3 sq.) and the attitude he takes towards foreign peoples (i, 2 sqq.; ii, 11 sq.).但似乎不可思议,耶和华应玛拉基亚亚手段,都视为“纯粹”和“提供给他的名字”外邦人提供这样或那样的神性牺牲后,特别是当一个人认为重视玛拉基亚亚重视的仪式(I,6 SQQ,12 SQQ;三,3平方米)的态度,他对外国人民(I,2 SQQ;二,11平方米)。The interpretation according to which chap.到这章的解释。i, 11, concerns the sacrifices in vogue among the Gentiles at the epoch of Malachias himself fails to recognize that the sacrifice and the pure offering of v. 11 are looked upon as a new institution succeeding the sacrifices of the Temple, furnishing by their very nature a motive sufficient to close the doors of the house of God and extinguish the fire of the altar (v. 10).我,11,关注玛拉基亚亚自己没有认识到的时代盛行的牺牲的牺牲和纯粹提供诉11看着经其非常成功的牺牲寺,家具作为一个新的机构之间的外邦人性质的动机足够接近了神的殿的大门,并扑灭火坛(10节)。

Consequently v. 11 must be considered as a Messianic prophecy.因此,第11节必须被视为一个救世主的预言。The universal diffusion of the worship of Yahweh is always proposed by the prophets as a characteristic sign of the Messianic reign.崇拜耶和华的普遍扩散作为救世主的统治的特征标志的先知总是建议。That the phrase is construed in the present tense only proves that here, as on other occasions, the prophetic vision contemplates its object absolutely without any regard to the events that should go before its accomplishment. ,这句话是在目前紧张的解释只能证明,在这里,在其他场合,先知先觉的考虑,没有任何方面的事件,应该去之前完成它的对象是绝对的。It is true that Mal., iii, 3-4, says that after the coming of the angel of the testament the sons of Levi will offer sacrifices in justice, and that the sacrifice of Juda and Jerusalem will be pleasing to the Lord.这是真实的,玛,三,3-4,说天使的遗书后,利维的儿子将提供正义的牺牲,牺牲的犹大和耶路撒冷将是令人高兴的主。But the new institutions of the Messianic reign might be considered, either inasmuch as they were the realization of the final stage in the development of those of the Old Testament (and in this case they would naturally be described by the help of the images borrowed from the latter), or inasmuch as they implied the cessation of those of the Old Testament in their proper form.但可能被视为救世主的统治新的机构,无论是因为它们实现的最后阶段,在旧约(在这种情况下,他们自然会被借用图像的帮助的人的发展后者),或者因为它们意味着停止在其适当的形式,旧约的。 In Mal., iii, 3-4, the religious institutions of the Messianic reign are considered from the former point of view, because the language is consolatory; in Mal, i, 10, 11, they are considered from the latter point of view, because the language here is menacing. 。发作,三,3-4,救世主的统治宗教机构被认为是前一种观点,因为语言是安慰;发作,我,10,11,他们是从后者的观点认为,因为这里的语言是来势汹汹。

Certain authors, while admitting the Messianic character of the passage, think that it should be interpreted not of a sacrifice in the strict sense of the word, but of a purely spiritual form of devotion.某些作家,同时承认通过弥赛亚字符,认为它在这个词的严格意义上的牺牲​​不应该被解释,而是一个纯粹的奉献精神形态。 However, the terms employed in v. 11 express the idea of a sacrifice in the strict sense.然而,在第11节所雇用的条款表示在严格意义上的牺牲​​的想法。Moreover, according to the context, the censured sacrifices were not considered impure in their quality of material sacrifices, but on account of the defects with which the victims were affected; it is consequently not on account of an opposition to material sacrifices that the offering spoken of in v. 11 is pure.此外,根据上下文,谴责牺牲不考虑他们的物质牺牲质量不纯,但与受到影响的受害者的缺陷,因此它是一个反对的帐户上没有材料,提供口语牺牲在第11节是纯粹的。 It is an altogether different question whether or not the text of Malachias alone permits one to determine in a certain measure the exact form of the new sacrifice.这是一个完全不同的问题,或不单独玛拉基亚亚文本是否允许在一定程度上确定新的牺牲的确切形式。A large number of Catholic exegetes believe themselves justified in concluding, from the use of the term minhah in v. 11, that the prophet desired formally to signify an unbloody sacrifice.大量的天主教exegetes相信自己合理的结论,从第11长期minhah使用,先知所需的正式表示unbloody牺牲。 The writer of the present article finds it so much the more difficult to decide on this question, as the word minhah is several times employed by Malachias to signify sacrifice in the generic sense (i, 13; ii, 12, 13; iii, 3, 4, and in all probability, i, 10).本文作者发现这么多越难以在这个问题上作出决定,因为这个词minhah是由玛拉基亚亚多次表示一般意义上的牺牲​​(I,13; II,12,13;三,3 ,4,在所有的概率,我10)。For the rest, the event has shown how the prophecy was to be realized.对于剩下的,事件的预言是如何实现的。It is of the Eucharistic sacrifice that Christian antiquity has interpreted the passage of Malachias (cf. Council of Trent, Sess. XXII, 1).它是基督教的古代解释玛拉基亚亚(参见理事会的遄达,SESS 22,1)通过圣体圣事的牺牲。

Publication information Written by A. Van Hoonacker.A.凡Hoonacker编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress.转录由托马斯J Bress。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,卷第九。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

TORREY, The Prophecy of Malachi in Journal of Soc.托里,玛拉基的预言SOC杂志。for Biblical Lit.圣经上火。 (1898), pp. 1 sqq.; PEROWNE, Book of Malachi (Cambridge, 1896); REINKE, Der Prophet Maleachi (1856). (1898年),第1 SQQ;扫管笏,玛拉基书(剑桥,1896年); REINKE,DER先知Maleachi(1856年)。Consult also Commentaries on te Minor Prophets by SMITH (1900); DRIVER (Nahum-Malachi; Century Bible); KNABENBAUER (1886); WELLHAUSEN (1898); NOWACK (1904); MARTI (1904); VAN HOONACKER (1908); also Introductions to the Old Testament (see AGGEUS.)咨询史密斯(1900)特小先知也评;驱动程序(Nahum说玛拉基;世纪圣经); KNABENBAUER(1886年);豪森(1898年); NOWACK(1904年);塞马蒂(1904年);凡HOONACKER(1908年);旧约引进(见AGGEUS)


Book of Malachi预订玛拉基

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

Contents.内容。

Prophetic Tone.先知的音调。

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

The Book of Malachi is the last in the canon of the Old Testament Prophets.在佳能的旧约先知玛拉基书是最后。It has three chapters in the Masoretic text, while in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Peshiṭta it has four.它在马所拉文本的三个章节,而中译本,武加大,以及培熹托它有四个。The King James Version also, following the latter versions, has four chapters.国王詹姆斯版本还,后者的版本,有四个章节。As in the books of Isaiah, Lamentations, and Ecclesiastes, the last verse in the Masoretic text is a repetition of the last verse but one.在以赛亚,耶利米哀歌,并传道书书,在马所拉文本的最后一节的最后一节,但一个的重复。The style of the book is more prosaic than that of any of the other prophetical books; the parallelism met with in the others is here less pronounced, and the imagery often lacks force and beauty.书的风格比任何其他预言书更平淡无奇,会见了在别人的并行这里不太明显,图像往往缺乏力量和美感。The method of treatment is rather novel; it approaches the teaching method of the schools; Cornill speaks of it as "casuistic-dialectic."治疗方法是比较新颖;接近学校的教学方法; Cornill谈到它为“诡辩,辩证的。” Thus the prophet first states his proposition; then he follows with remonstrances that might be raised by those he addresses; finally he reasserts his original thesis (comp. i. 2 et seq., 6 et seq.; ii. 13 et seq., 17; iii. 8, 13 et seq.).因此,先知先指出他的主张,那么他与他的地址,可能会提出remonstrances如下,最后他reasserts他原来的论文(comp.岛2等以下,6及以下;。。。二13等条, 17;三第8,13及以下)。This form adds vividness to the argument.这种形式增加了生动的说法。The book may be divided into three sections-(1) i.可分为三个部分:(1)一书1-ii.1 - II。9; (2) ii.9,(2)II。10-17; (3) iii. 10-17;(3)第三。(AV iii. and iv.), the divisions given being those of the Masoretic text. (AV三和四),部门给予被马所拉文本。

Contents.内容。

Ch. CH。i. 2-ii.2 - II。9 represent Yhwh as Ruler and loving Father.9代表作为统治者和慈爱的父亲耶和华。It opens with a tender allusion to the love shown by Yhwh to Judah in the past; yet Judah acted faithlessly, deserting its benefactor.它打开与招标典故耶和华显示在过去的犹大的爱情,但犹太担任faithlessly,遗弃它的恩人。 Malachi then addresses himself to the priests, those who are to lead the people in the way of Yhwh.玛拉基然后针对自己的牧师,那些带领人民在耶和华方式。He castigates them for being derelict in their duty by offering on Yhwh's altars polluted bread and animals that have blemishes.他严惩为他们提供耶和华的祭坛污染面包和有瑕疵的动物,被遗弃在他们的职责。By doing so they show that they despise Yhwh (i. 6-10).通过这样做,他们表明,他们鄙视耶和华(一6-10)。But Yhwh can do without their worship, for the time will come when the whole heathen world will worship Him (i. 11-14).但耶和华也离不开他们的崇拜,时间会来,当整个异教徒世界将崇拜他(一11-14)。If the priests will not heed the admonition, dire punishment will be visited upon them (ii. 1-8).如果牧师不会听从告诫,可怕的惩罚将是访问后,他们(白介素1-8)。

Ch. CH。ii. II。10-17 speaks of Yhwh as the supreme God and Father of all, and inveighs against those who had left their Jewish wives and married heathen women. 10-17对耶和华说,作为至高无上的神和所有的父亲,而对那些已经离开他们的犹太妻子和结婚异教徒妇女inveighs。

Ch. CH。iii. III。(AV iii. and iv.) speaks of Yhwh as the righteous and final Judge. (AV三和四)讲的耶和华的正义和最后的判断。It begins with the announcement that the messenger of Yhwh will come to prepare the way for Him by purifying the social and religious life (1-4).它开始与公布的耶和华的使者会为他准备的方式,通过净化社会和宗教生活(1-4)。Yhwh will call to judgment all those who have transgressed the moral law and have been lax in the observance of the ritual; He invites all who have gone astray to return to Him and receive His blessings (5-15).耶和华将调用来判断所有那些违背道德法律,已在纪念仪式不严;他邀请所有迷途回到他身边,并收到他的祝福(5-15)。 The faithful will be blessed, while those who persist in disobeying the law of God will be punished (16-21).教友们将祝福,而那些坚持不服从上帝的法律,将受到处罚(16-21)。The book closes with a final exhortation to the godly.书中关闭最后的劝告敬虔。

Prophetic Tone.先知的音调。

Malachi, as opposed to the other prophetical books, lays much stress upon ceremonial observance (i. 6 et seq., 13 et seq.; iii. 7 et seq., 22): the priest is Yhwh's messenger (ii. 7, iii. 3 et seq.), and the law of Moses, with its statutes and observances, must be strictly observed (iii. 22).玛拉基书,而不是其他预言书,注重礼仪纪念活动(一6 SEQ等,13等以下; III 7等以下,22。。)后太多的压力:牧师是耶和华的使者(白介素7,三3及以下),和摩西的律法,其章程和庆祝活动,必须严格遵守(III. 22)。 Yet he is not a formalist; the book breathes the genuine prophetic spirit.然而,他不是一个形式主义;书呼吸真正的先知的精神。 Thus, from the idea of the brotherhood of all Israelites he deduces the social duties which they owe to one another (ii. 10).因此,从所有以色列人的兄弟想法,他推导出的社会责任,他们欠(白介素10)。Ceremonial observance is of value in his eyes only so long as it leads to spiritual service.典礼遵守的价值在他的眼里只有这么长,因为它会导致精神服务。In scathing language he lays bare the moral degeneracy of his time, a time given over to adultery, false swearing, oppression of the hireling and the widow and the fatherless (iii. 5 et seq.).在严厉的语言,他奠定暴露了他的时代道德的堕落,通奸的时间,虚假宣誓就职,压迫雇工和的遗孀和孤儿(III. 5起。) Especially severe is he toward those who had entered into wedlock with heathen women (ii. 11-16).尤其严重的是他向那些已进入到非婚生子女与异教徒妇女(白介素11-16)。

The conditions that existed under his predecessors Haggai and Zechariah seem to have existed at the time of Malachi.根据他的前任哈该和撒迦利亚存在的条件似乎都在玛拉基书的时间存在。The Exile is a matter of the past; the Temple is built, and sacrifices are being offered (i. 10, iii. 1-10).流亡是过去的事;寺建成,并提供牺牲(一10,三1-10)。Malachi describes most faithfully the temper of his generation.玛拉基最忠实地描述他那一代人的脾气。The people had strayed away from Yhwh, and sought, by an assumption of indifference and by mockery, to hide their restlessness.人民已经偏离了耶和华和追捧,一个假设的冷漠和嘲弄,隐藏自己的躁动。The exiles had been disillusioned when they found the land of their fathers a wilderness.流亡者已经醒悟的时候,却发现他们的父亲的一片荒野的土地。Drought, locusts, failure of harvests (iii. 10 et seq.) had deepened their discontent.旱灾,蝗灾,丰收的失败(III. 10起)。加深了他们的不满。Yhwh's sanctuary had been rebuilt, but still their condition did not improve; they were growing impatient and were asking for proofs of Yhwh's love (iii. 13 et seq.).耶和华的庇护所已经重建,但仍然没有改善他们的条件,他们越来越不耐烦,耶和华的爱的证明(III. 13起。)要求。 Under the pressure of these unfavorable circumstances, priests and people neglected to show Yhwh the honor due to Him (i. 2 et seq.).在这些不利的情况下,祭司和人们忽视耶和华的荣誉,由于他(岛2起。)压力。Malachi lays stress upon the inevitableness of the Day of Judgment, the coming of which would prove to the skeptical that devotion and fear of God are not in vain, but will be rewarded.玛拉基书规定的审判日inevitableness时强调,未来将证明持怀疑态度,奉献精神和对上帝的敬畏没有白费,但会得到回报。 The messenger of Yhwh and the Last Judgment form the closing theme of Malachi's prophecy.耶和华的使者,最后的审判形式闭幕主题玛拉基的预言。The messenger will come in the person of Elijah, who will regenerate the people and restore them to union with Yhwh.信使会在利亚,他们将重新人民和工会恢复与耶和华他们的人。

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

Malachi is identified with Mordecai by R. Naḥman and with Ezra by Joshua b.玛拉基是确定由R.Naḥman末底改和以斯拉约书亚乙Ḳarḥa (Meg. 15a).Ḳarḥa(Meg. 15A)。Jerome, in his preface to the commentary on Malachi, mentions that in his day the belief was current that Malachi was identical with Ezra ("Malachi Hebræi Esdram Existimant").杰罗姆,在他的序言上玛拉基评论中,提到,在他那个时代的信仰是目前玛拉基与以斯拉(“玛拉基Hebræi Esdram Existimant”)相同。The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel to the words "By the hand of Malachi" (i. 1) gives the gloss "Whose name is called Ezra the scribe."乔纳森奔乌薛Targum玛拉基的手“通过”的字样(一1)给出的光泽“,他的名字叫做以斯拉文士。”According to Soṭah 48b, when Malachi died the Holy Spirit departed from Israel.据Soṭah48B,当玛拉基死亡圣灵离开以色列。 According to RH 19b, he was one of the three prophets concerning whom there are certain traditions with regard to the fixing of the Jewish almanac.根据相对湿度19B,他的三个关于人有固定犹太年历方面的某些传统的先知之一。 A tradition preserved in pseudo-Epiphanius ("De Vitis Proph.") relates that Malachi was of the tribe of Zebulun, and was born after the Captivity.伪埃皮法尼乌斯(“葡萄Proph”)保留了传统与玛拉基西布伦支派,和出生后的囚禁。According to the same apocryphal story he died young, and was buried in his own country with his fathers.根据相同的杜撰的故事,他早逝,是他的父亲葬在自己的国家。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

The name is not a "nomen proprium"; it is generally assumed to be an abbreviation of (="messenger of Yhwh"), which conforms to the Μαλαχίας of the Septuagint and the "Malachias" of the Vulgate.这个名字是不是一个“nomen proprium”,这是一般认为的缩写(=“耶和华的使者”),这符合的septuagintΜαλαχίας和“玛拉基亚亚”武加大。The Septuagint superscription is ὲν χειρὶ ἀγγήλου αὐτοῦ, for .ὲνχειρὶἀγγήλουαὐτοῦ,译本上标。Wellhausen, Kuenen, and Nowack consider ch.豪森,Kuenen,Nowack考虑CH。i.1 a late addition, pointing to Zech.1晚此外,指向撒加利亚。ix.IX。1, xii.1,第十二。1.1。Cornill states that Zech. Cornill国家,撒加利亚。ix.-xiv. ix. - XIV。and Malachi are anonymous, and were, therefore, placed at the end of the prophetical books.玛拉基是匿名的,因此,预言书末。Mal.发作。iii.III。1 shows almost conclusively that the term was misunderstood, and that the proper name originated in amisconception of the word.1给出了几乎得出结论说,在长期被误解,和适当的名称起源字amisconception的。The consensus of opinion seems to point to 432-424 BC as the time of the composition of the book.意见的共识,似乎作为书的组成公元前432-424点。This was the time between the first and second visits of Nehemiah to Jerusalem.这是尼希米第一次和第二次访问耶路撒冷之间的时间。 Some assert that the book was written before 458 BC, that is, before the arrival of Ezra in Jerusalem.有人断言,这本书是写,即公元前前458年之前,以斯拉在耶路撒冷的到来。

Isidore Singer, Adolf Guttmacher伊西多尔歌手,阿道夫古特马赫

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Boehme, in Stade's Zeitschrift, vii.博梅,在体育场的(杂志),第七。210 et seq.; Driver, Introduction: D. Knobel, Prophetismus der Hebräer, i.210及以下;驱动简介:D.克诺贝尔,Prophetismus DER Hebräer岛386, Breslau, 1837; Bleek, Introduction to the Old Testament, 2d ed., i. 386,布雷斯劳,1837年; Bleek,介绍旧约,2D版岛。357; Cornill, Einleitung in das Alte Testament, pp. 205 et seq., Freiburg, 1896; Cornill, The Prophets of Israel, p.357; Cornill,导论,第205页起,弗赖堡,1896年在DAS阿尔特旧约;。Cornill,以色列,第先知 158, Chicago, 1895.SAG 158,芝加哥,1895.SAG



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