Gospel According to Matthew根据马太福音第 福音

General Information一般资料

The Gospel According to Matthew is the opening book of the New Testament of the Bible.据马修的福音是新约圣经的开局。Although first in canonical order, it is probably not the earliest Gospel.虽然在规范秩序第一,很可能不是最早的福音。Besides drawing heavily from the Gospel According to Mark, Matthew shapes material from other sources around Mark's narrative outline.除了大量吸取根据马克福音,马修围绕马克的叙事轮廓形状从其他来源的材料。One such source, commonly called Q (from the German quelle, "source"), is thought to have consisted primarily of sayings of Jesus; it was also used by Luke. Material unique to this Gospel relates to the birth of Jesus (1 - 2), the arrangement of the Sermon on the Mount (5 - 7), and Jesus' utterances on the end of the world (24 - 25).这样的一个来源,通常称为Q(从德国Quelle的,“源”),被认为是耶稣的说法,主要包括,它也由卢克这个福音独特的材料涉及到耶稣的诞生(1 - 。 2),安排在山上的讲道(5 - 7),和耶稣的话语世界的尽头(24 - 25) 。

Matthew is generally held to have been written about AD 80, although scholars have argued for dates as early as 65 and as late as 100.马修普遍认为已书面约公元80,尽管学者们主张和日期早在65年底为100。Tradition ascribes authorship to the Apostle Matthew, but modern scholars, acknowledging Matthew as a source, contend that a disciple or school of disciples were responsible for its present form.传统归因作者使徒马太,但现代学者,承认马修,作为源的弟子,弟子或学校负责其目前的形式。

Matthew is the most topical of the Synoptic Gospels. The teachings and sayings of Jesus are gathered into five thematic discourses and structured around Mark's narrative framework. Each discourse is followed by a summary statement (7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 28:1). A prologue and epilogue are added (1 - 2; 28:9 - 20). 马修是最外用观福音耶稣的教诲和熟语聚集到五个专题论述,并围绕马克的叙事框架结构,每一个话语是由一个简要说明(7时28分;。11时01分,13时 53分;添加。19:1,28:1)的序幕和尾声(1 - 2; 28:9 - 20)。Because of the emphasis on law, teaching, and righteousness, scholars believe that Matthew was addressed to a predominantly Jewish audience, presumably in Palestine or Syria.由于法,教,讲正气的重点 ,学者认为,马修是给一个犹太人为主的观众,大概是在巴勒斯坦和叙利亚,。 Jesus is presented as the messianic fulfiller, especially in the role of king, and the teacher of the way of righteousness.耶稣是弥赛亚fulfiller,尤其是在国王的作用,和义路老师。

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Bibliography 参考书目
WG Kummel, Introduction to the New Testament (1975); JL McKenzie, "Matthew," in Jerome Biblical Commentary (1968).WG库慕尔,新约(1975); JL麦肯齐,“马太效应”,杰罗姆圣经评注(1968)。


Gospel According to Matthew马太福音

Brief Outline简述

  1. Birth and early years of the Messiah (1:1-4:16)出生和早年的弥赛亚(1:1-4:16)
  2. Galilean Ministry of Jesus (4:17-18:35)耶稣伽利略部(4:17-18:35)
  3. Perean Ministry (19-20)Perean部(19-20)
  4. Passion Week and Resurrection (21-28)受难周和复活(21-28)


Matthew马修

Advanced Information先进的信息

Matthew, gift of God, a common Jewish name after the Exile.马修,上帝的礼物,一个共同的犹太名字后,流亡国外。He was the son of Alphaeus, and was a publican or tax-gatherer at Capernaum.他是亚勒腓的儿子,和一个税吏或税务采集在迦百农。 On one occasion Jesus, coming up from the side of the lake, passed the custom-house where Matthew was seated, and said to him, "Follow me."一次耶稣,从湖的一侧,通过自定义的内部马修坐在的地方,并且对他说,“跟我来。”Matthew arose and followed him, and became his disciple (Matt. 9:9).马修出现,跟着他,成为他的门徒(太9:9)。Formerly the name by which he was known was Levi (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27); he now changed it, possibly in grateful memory of his call, to Matthew.以前的名字,他被称为是列维(马克2时14分,卢克5时27分);他现在改变了它,可能是在感谢他的电话内存,马修。 The same day on which Jesus called him he made a "great feast" (Luke 5:29), a farewell feast, to which he invited Jesus and his disciples, and probably also many of old associates.同一天,耶稣叫他,他做了一个“伟大的盛宴”(路加福音5:29),一个告别宴,他请耶稣和他的弟子,也可能很多老联营公司。 He was afterwards selected as one of the twelve (6:15).后来他被选定为一体的12个(6:15)。His name does not occur again in the Gospel history except in the lists of the apostles.没有他的名字再次出现在福音的历史,除了使徒的名单。The last notice of him is in Acts 1:13.他最后的通知是在使徒行传1:13。The time and manner of his death are unknown.他的死亡时间和方式是未知之数。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Gospel according to Matthew马太福音

Advanced Information先进的信息

The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears.毫无疑问,这本书的作者是马修,我们的主,他的名字,熊使徒。He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists."他写了基督的福音,根据他自己的计划和目标,并从他自己的观点,也还有其他的“布道者。”As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate.至于其组成时,很少有在福音本身表明。It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and some time after the events it records.显然,这是以前写的破坏耶路撒冷(马太福音24),它记录在事件发生后一段时间。The probability is that it was written between the years AD 60 and 65.的概率是,它是公元60年和65之间。The cast of thought and the forms of expression employed by the writer show that this Gospel was written for Jewish Christians of Palestine.思想的演员,由作家显示,这福音是对巴勒斯坦的犹太基督徒的书面表达形式。His great object is to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised Messiah, and that in him the ancient prophecies had their fulfilment.他的伟大的目的,是要证明,拿撒勒的耶稣所应许的弥赛亚,而且,在他的古老的预言有其履行。

The Gospel is full of allusions to those passages of the Old Testament in which Christ is predicted and foreshadowed.福音是在基督预计埋下了伏笔旧约那些经文典故。The one aim prevading the whole book is to show that Jesus is he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write."prevading全书一个目的是要表明耶稣是他“的人摩西的法律和先知没有写。”This Gospel contains no fewer than sixty-five references to the Old Testament, forty-three of these being direct verbal citations, thus greatly outnumbering those found in the other Gospels.这福音包含不超过六十五个引用旧约,这些直接的口头引文四十三个,从而大大多于那些在其他福音少。The main feature of this Gospel may be expressed in the motto, "I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil."这福音的主要特点可表示的座右铭,“我不来摧毁,但履行的义务。”As to the language in which this Gospel was written there is much controversy.至于在这福音是书面语言有很大的争议。Many hold, in accordance with old tradition, that it was originally written in Hebrew (ie, the Aramaic or Syro-Chaldee dialect, then the vernacular of the inhabitants of Palestine), and afterwards translated into Greek, either by Matthew himself or by some person unknown.许多持有,按照古老的传统,它原本是在希伯来文写的(即阿拉姆或Syro沙尔方言,那么巴勒斯坦居民的白话),事后译成希腊文,无论是由马修本人或一些人未知。

This theory, though earnestly maintained by able critics, we cannot see any ground for adopting.这个理论,虽然能够批评切实维护,我们可以看不到任何理由为采用。From the first this Gospel in Greek was received as of authority in the Church.从第一次收到这在希腊的福音,在教会的权威。There is nothing in it to show that it is a translation.是它没有表明它是一个翻译。Though Matthew wrote mainly for the Jews, yet they were everywhere familiar with the Greek language.虽然马修写道主要是犹太人,但他们与希腊的语言到处都是熟悉的。The same reasons which would have suggested the necessity of a translation into Greek would have led the evangelist to write in Greek at first.会导致同样的原因,建议翻译成希腊文的必要性首先在希腊文写的传播者。It is confessed that this Gospel has never been found in any other form than that in which we now possess it.这是事实供认不讳,这福音从未发现在其中,我们现在拥有比任何其他形式。The leading characteristic of this Gospel is that it sets forth the kingly glory of Christ, and shows him to be the true heir to David's throne.这福音的主要特点是,它阐明了基督君王的荣耀,并显示他是真正的大卫的王位继承人。It is the Gospel of the kingdom.这是天国的福音。

Matthew uses the expression "kingdom of heaven" (thirty-two times), while Luke uses the expression "kingdom of God" (thirty-three times).马修使用的“天国”(32个),而卢克使用了“神的国”(三十三次)。Some Latinized forms occur in this Gospel, as kodrantes (Matt. 5:26), for the Latin quadrans, and phragello (27:26), for the Latin flagello.一些拉丁化的形式出现在本福音,kodrantes(太5:26),拉丁美洲quadrans,和phragello(27:26),拉丁美洲flagello。 It must be remembered that Matthew was a tax-gatherer for the Roman government, and hence in contact with those using the Latin language.必须记住,马修是一个罗马政府的税收采集,并因此与那些使用拉丁语言的接触。As to the relation of the Gospels to each other, we must maintain that each writer of the synoptics (the first three) wrote independently of the other two, Matthew being probably first in point of time.至于对方的福音关系中,我们必须保持独立,每个作家对观福音(前三)写了其他两个,马修可能被第一时间点。"Out of a total of 1071 verses, Matthew has 387 in common with Mark and Luke, 130 with Mark, 184 with Luke; only 387 being peculiar to itself." “出共1071诗句,马修387共同与马克和卢克,130马克,与卢克184;。只有387到其自身特有的”(See Mark; Luke; Gospels.) The book is fitly divided into these four parts: (1.) Containing the genealogy, the birth, and the infancy of Jesus (1; 2). (见马克;卢克;福音。)这本书是恰好分为这四个部分:(1)包含的家谱,出生,和耶稣的起步阶段(1 2)。(2.) The discourses and actions of John the Baptist preparatory to Christ's public ministry (3; 4:11). (2)香港浸会筹备基督的公共事务部(3 4:11)约翰的话语和行动。(3.) The discourses and actions of Christ in Galilee (4:12-20:16).(3)基督在加利利的话语和行动(4:12-20:16)。(4.) The sufferings, death and resurrection of our Lord (20:17-28).(4)的痛苦,死亡和我们的主(20:17-28)复活。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Matthew Chapters 10-12马修章10-12

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

Expansion and Opposition扩建和反对

The King has come, the code of His Kingdom is set forth, His credentials presented, and He now expands the testimony concerning Himself, with the result of increasing opposition.国王已经来了,他的王国的代码进行了阐述,他的凭据提交,和他现在扩大与有关其本人的证词,越来越多的反对的结果。 This expansion is connected with the commission of the twelve disciples (Chap. 10), and the opposition is revealed in various ways in the chapters following.这种扩张是与十二门徒(第10章),委员会和反对各种方式在以下的章节中透露。

The Disciples Commissioned,弟子委托

10 Here we find "apostles" for the first time (v. 2), which means "those sent forth," an indispensable qualification for whose office was that of an eye-witness of the resurrection of Christ (Acts 1: 22; 1 Cor. 9:1). 10在这里,我们第一次(2节),这意味着“那些就差,其办公地点是不可缺少的资格”使徒“,基督的复活(徒1眼见证:22; 1肺心病。9:1)。 The apostles were endued with miraculous powers as credentials of their ministry, and their work at this time was to announce to Israel only, that the Kingdom was at hand (vv. 6, 7).使徒endued与神奇的力量作为其部的凭据,他们在这段时间的工作,只宣布对以色列,英国在手(vv. 6,7)。The Kingdom is the one promised to Israel on this earth, and through Israel to the other nations.英国是以色列在这个地球上的承诺之一,通过以色列向其他国家。This explains things in the chapter, which if rightly understood, will keep us from reading into it that which does not belong there.这就解释了章的事情,如果正确地理解,我们将继续从阅读到它,它不属于有。For example, the power granted in verses 1 and 8 was in connection with this preaching of the Kingdom, and withdrawn when the Kingdom was finally rejected by Israel; although it will be renewed when the faithful remnant of the Jews again go forth during the tribulation to preach the same Kingdom.例如,在1和第8节所授予的权力,在这个王国的说教,并撤回王国终于被以色列拒绝时,虽然这将是延长,犹太人的忠实的残余再次提出在患难宣讲相同的王国。

In the meantime, the preaching of the gospel of grace, especially committed to Paul, who was not of the twelve, is accompanied by gifts of another kind (Eph. 4:10-12).在此期间,恩典的福音传道,尤其是保罗,谁是十二,是伴随着另一种(弗4:10-12)的礼物。Look at verses 11 to 15, where the "worthy" mean those looking for the Messiah promised by the Old Testament prophets.看看诗句11日至15日,“值得”的意思是那些寻找弥赛亚的旧约先知承诺。The gospel of grace is not offered to the "worthy," but to "whomsoever" will accept it.恩典的福音,是不提供的“值得”,但“何人”会接受它。Or, take verses 16-23, which speak of the way the apostles' message would be received, and compare the prophecy they contain with the persecution in the Acts of the Apostles; or look at these verses in the light of the second coming of Christ, to which verse 23 refers.或者,采取诗句16-23,使徒的消息将收到的发言,并比较他们的预言包含在使徒行传的迫害,或在第二次来看看这些经文基督,其中23节是指。

We learned in Daniel and elsewhere, that time is not counted in the history of Israel when she is not in her own land.我们了解到在丹尼尔和其他地方的时间不计算在以色列历史上,当她是不是在自己的土地上。 Hence the testimony here begun by the apostles and continued up to Israel's rejection of the Kingdom, is an unfinished testimony, and will be taken up again when the Church is translated during the tribulation.因此这里的证词开始由使徒,并持续到以色列拒绝王国,是一个未完成的证词,并再次将采取当堂是在患难翻译。

From this point to verse 33 we find encouragement.从这点33节经文中,我们发现的鼓舞。The disciples are identified with their Lord (vv. 24, 25); therefore, they need not fear (vv. 26-28), for He cares for them (vv. 29-33).弟子是确定与他们的主(vv. 24,25);因此,他们不必担心(26-28节),他关心他们(29-33节)。Then follows a description of the age in which we live, a time of war rather than peace (34-36); of separation on the part of Christ's followers (vv. 37, 38), and yet with the prospect of a bright recompense (vv. 39-42).接着描述了我们生活在其中的年龄,战争的时间,而不是和平(34-36),对基督信徒的一部分分离(vv. 37,38),但前景光明的补偿(39-42节)。Modern research throws light on a chapter like this.现代研究会抛出这样的章光。Take verses 9 and 10.以9和第10节。Upon a monument at Kefr-Hanar in Syria, during this same period, one who calls himself "a slave" of the Syrian goddess tells of his begging journeys in her services, and uses the word for his collecting-bag here translated "scrip."在Kefr Hanar在叙利亚的纪念碑,在这同一时期,后,自己叙利亚女神“奴隶”,告诉他在她的服务乞讨的行程,并使用这个词,他收集袋这里翻译“以股代息。 “ He boasts that "each journey brought in seventy bags."他吹嘘说:“每个旅程带来了70袋。”The contrast with the followers of Christ is marked, who were neither to earn nor beg as they went forth with speed to herald His coming., Habershon.基督信徒的对比是显着,既不赚也不乞求他们去来回速度,预示着他的到来,Habershon。

Anxiety of John the Baptist施洗约翰的焦虑

11 We are not surprised that as the testimony of Christ thus expanded (v. 1), John the Baptist in his prison should wonder.11,我们并不感到惊讶,作为基督的证词,从而扩大(1节),施洗约翰在他的监狱应怀疑。"Why, if this be the Christ, does He not take the Kingdom, or why does He not deliver me? Have I been mistaken in my witness to Him?"“为什么,如果这是基督的,他没有采取英国,或为什么不救我吗?我被人误认为,以他在我的见证吗?” John is told to reflect upon the evidence and to wait (vv. 2-6).约翰告诉反思的证据,并等待(2-6节)。How our Lord defends John, lest this act should reflect upon him (vv. 7-15)!我们的主如何保卫约翰,以免这种行为应该反映后,他(7-15节)!Verse 11 has reference to John's relation to the Kingdom.第11节引用约翰王国的关系。The least in the Kingdom of heaven when it shall be set up upon earth, shall be greater than John could be before that time.至少在英国时,应设置在地球上的天堂,比约翰可在上述时间之前应更大。The words do not speak of John in the moral sense, in which he was as great as any man born of woman, but in this dispensational sense.言不说话,约翰在道德意识,在他女人天生任何人的伟大,但在这个时代论意义上的。

Verse twelve is capable of two interpretations, an external and an internal one.诗十二个月的两种解释,外部和内部的能力。In the first, the enemies of Jesus and John are the "violent" who are rejecting the Kingdom by force; in the second, the "violent" are those who in face of the opposition are pressing into the Kingdom.在第一,耶稣和约翰的敌人是“暴力”,拒绝以武力王国;在第二,“暴力”是指那些在面对反对派到英国施压。A description of that generation follows as a foolish one (vv. 16-19), but there were some who believed and are referred to in the words "wisdom is justified of her children."那一代人的描述如下作为一个愚蠢的(16-19节),但也有一些谁相信,在词被称为“智慧是她的孩子合理。” As the judge of that generation our Lord now speaks (vv. 20-27).作为这一代的法官,现在我们的主讲话(20-27节)。"Woe," is heard for the first time.“荣辱与共”,是为第一次听到。In the coming day there will be different degrees of punishment (vv. 22, 24), responsibility being gauged by privilege.在未来数日将有不同程度的处罚(vv. 22,24),责任由特权来衡量。

From the "wise and prudent" in their own eyes, ie, the self-righteous Pharisees, these things were hidden, but were revealed unto "babes," the poor in spirit conscious of their need (v. 25).从“明智和审慎的”在自己的眼睛,即自以为是的法利赛人,这些东西被隐藏,但所不欲“辣妹”穷人的精神意识到自己的需要(25节)透露。 Our Lord now turns toward these in verses 28-30, in which he offers no longer the Kingdom, but rest and service to them that come to Him.现在我们的主转向这些诗句28-30,他在其中提供了不再王国,但他们的休息和服务,来到他面前。Practically He has been rejected by the nation, and is approaching the turning point in His ministry, when the proclamation of the Kingdom shall cease.实际上,他已经拒绝了由国家,并正在接近转折点,在他的部时宣布的英国应停止。

Opposition Expressed反对党表达

12 The enmity is coming to a head.12的敌意来一个头。In 1-8, the Lord of the Sabbath is unjustly accused of Sabbath-breaking, and answers His accusers by facts of Holy Writ.1-8,在安息日的主,是不公正的指责安息日打破,圣经事实回答了他的控告。David, as the rejected king in his time, ate the shew-bread, and "Great David's greater Son" in His rejection is correspondingly guiltless.大卫,拒绝国王在他的时间,吃的萧文面包,和“大大卫的儿子”在他的拒绝相应无罪。 Next comes the temptation of 9-14, with the result that the opposition now becomes organized (v. 14), and the Lord withdraws Himself for His hour is not yet come.接下来的结果9-14诱惑,反对现在变成了有组织的(14节),和主撤回自己的小时是尚未到来。

As He is departing, the incident of 22-30 takes place, when He is again charged as the representative of Satan (v. 24, compared with 9:34).因为他是离境,22-30事件发生后,当他再次被控为代表的撒旦(24节,相比9时34)。The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost consists in attributing His work to Satan (vv. 31, 32).对圣灵的亵渎,由他的作品归于撒旦(vv. 31,32)。"A word against the Son of Man" might be forgiven, for the Holy Spirit still remained to convict one of that sin by testifying to Christ.“一个字对人子”可能被宽恕,圣灵仍然见证基督,罪定罪。But when the testimony of the Holy Spirit to Christ was rejected as in this case, there was no hope left.但在这种情况下拒绝圣灵的见证基督,有没有希望。

The opposition increases by the demand for a sign (vv. 38-42).反对增加一个标志(38-42节)的需求。Had He not given sufficient signs?他没有给予足够的迹象?Jonah is a type of His own death and resurrection and He will give him as a sign.乔纳是他自己的死亡和复活的类型,他会给他作为一个标志。The Queen of Sheba is another sign.示巴女王的另一个迹象。But Israel is like a man out of whom a demon had gone of his own accord, and comes back to find the place unoccupied and brings seven other worse spirits to fill the former abode.但是,以色列是像自己的经历,其中一个恶魔的人,回来寻找空置的地方,带来了其他七个更糟的精神,以填补前居留权。The nation, in other words, had been cured of idolatry by the Babylonian captivity, but now it was boasting of forms and ceremonies, traditions and self-righteousness.民族的,换句话说,已经治愈的偶像崇拜的巴比伦囚禁,但现在它被吹嘘的形式和仪式,传统和自以为是。 It was empty so far as the fear of Jehovah was concerned, and by and by the evil spirit would return, and the end of Israel, ie, the period of the tribulation, would be worse than the first.它是空的敬畏耶和华的关注,到目前为止,由邪恶的精神将返回,并结束以色列,苦难的时期,即会比第一次更糟糕。

The Lord is rejected even by His family, as we judge by comparing the closing verses of this chapter with the reason in Mark 3:21.耶和华是拒绝,即使他的家人为我们判断,在马可福音3:21的原因比较本章闭幕诗句。He declines to see them, and intimates the formation of a new family of faith.他拒绝见他们,和内衣形成一个新的家庭信仰。

Questions 1.问题 1。What is an essential qualification for an apostle?什么是使徒的基本资格?2.2。What is the limitation of the apostles' commission at this time?什么是使徒的佣金在​​此时间的限制?3.3。How does that limitation affect the teaching of chapter 10?这种限制是如何影响第10章的教学?4.4。How may "violent" be interpreted in chapter 11?怎么可能“暴力”的解释在第11章?5.5。On what principle will future retribution be rendered?在未来的报应呈现什么原则?6.6。What is the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost?什么是对圣灵的亵渎?7.7。How would you explain verses 43-45?你会如何​​解释经文43-45?8.8。How would you explain Jesus' reference to His mother and His brethren?你会如何​​解释耶稣他的母亲和他的弟兄们参考?


Matthew Chapter 28马修章28

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

Resurrection复活

Perhaps the most important comment we can make on this chapter will be the order of the ten events on the day of which it speaks.也许最重要的评论,我们可以在本章讲的那一天,它的十大事件的顺序。

Another comment of interest is the order of the appearances of Jesus on this day.感兴趣的另一个意见,是为了耶稣的出现,在这一天。

In dividing the chapter we have在分裂我们的章

We can only touch upon the most important things, one of which is Christ's reference to His disciples as His "brethren" (v. 10).我们只能触及最重要的事情,其中​​之一是基督的门徒,他的“兄弟”(10节)。For the first time does he use that word in such connection, showing that until His death and resurrection on their behalf the relationship had not become possible.对于他的首次使用,在这样的连接的字,显示,直到他的死亡和复活代表他们的关系还没有成为可能。(Compare Ps. 22: 22 and Heb. 2:11, 12.) Another important thing is verse 13, "Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole Him away while we slept."(比较PS 22:22和希伯来书2:11,12)另一个重要的事情是13节,“说你们,他的弟子来到夜间,并偷走了他带走,而我们睡觉。”

We give excerpts from Gaebelein on this verse:我们这节经文给Gaebelein摘录:
"The watch recover from their fright, and some hasten to the city. Surely something happened or why should they leave their post to make a report? Then it is strange they went to the priests first and not the Roman governor. This was an irregular proceeding, from which we conclude that what they had to report was of greater importance for the priests than Pilate. Who knows but these priests had instructed the guard that if He should come forth they were to come to them first of all? Their report was a witness of the resurrection and that the tomb was empty." “手表从他们的惊吓中恢复,以及一些加快城市。当然的事情发生,或作报告,他们为什么要离开他们的岗位?,然后奇怪的是他们去的祭司,而不是罗马总督,这是一个不规则的出发,从中我们得出结论,他们的报告比彼拉多祭司更重要的是,谁知道,但这些神职人员已指示后卫,如果他应该站出来,他们首先来到他们?他们的报告一个证人的复活和墓是空的。“

"The Sanhedrin was hastily summoned to receive the report in an offical way. The straightforward statement, as men of military training are apt to report, made doubt about veracity impossible. To impeach them would have been insane. But what would happen if this truth got out among the people?" “公会是匆忙召见收到在一个正式的方式的报告。直截了当的声明,作为军事训练的男性很容易报告,无法左右的真实性表示怀疑。弹劾他们将被疯狂的,但会发生什么事,如果这个道理在人民群众中吗?“

"The resurrection must be denied which could only be by inventing a lie. The only possible lie was that His disciples stole the body. The story is incredible. It is easier to believe He arose from the dead than to believe what the Jews invented about His resurrection. The disciples had forgotten about the resurrection promised and they were a scattered, poor, timid lot of people. But even if they had been anxious to steal the body, how could they have done it? Here was the company of armed men. Then there was the sealed, heavy stone." “复活必须拒绝只能通过发明一种谎言。唯一可能的谎言,他的门徒偷走了身体的故事是令人难以置信的,这是比较容易相信他从死里出现,而不是相信什么犹太人发明他的复活。门徒们被遗忘的复活有关承诺和他们散,差,胆小的人很多,但即使他们被急于窃取的身体,怎么可能做呢?这是该公司的武装人员然后又是密封的,沉重的石头。“

"But the ridiculous side of the lie came out with the report the soldiers were to circulate. The disciples came and stole the body, while they were sleeping! It is incredible that all these men had fallen asleep at the same time, and so fast asleep that the commotion of rolling away the stone and the carrying away of the dead did not disturb them. Furthermore, sleeping at a post meant death for the Roman soldier. One might have nodded and risked his life, but that all slept is an impossiblity. But the report is foolish; they were asleep, and while asleep witnessed how the disciples stole the body of Jesus! It was a miserable lie, and is continued to the present day." “,但可笑的谎言一边来到了士兵分发的报告。门徒偷走了身体,而他们​​睡觉!令人难以置信的是,所有这些人在同一时间倒下睡着了,这么快睡着了,滚动石头挪开,并带走死者没有打扰他们的骚动。此外,在后睡觉意味着罗马士兵死亡。有人可能会纷纷点头,并冒着生命危险,但所有睡是impossiblity ,但是,该报告是愚蠢的,他们都睡了,睡觉时目睹的门徒偷走了耶稣的身体,这是一个悲惨的谎言,并持续至今!“。

We might mention here the testimony of Josephus, who says in his Antiquities: "He appeared to them alive on the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning Him."我们可能会在这里提到的约瑟夫说,在他的古物,谁的证言:“他似乎他们活着的第三天,作为神圣的先知曾预言这些和近万的关于他的美好的事物。”

A third matter of importance is the "Great Commission" as it is called (vv. 19, 20).第三个问题是一个重要的“大使命”,因为它是所谓的(vv. 19,20)。Note the word "Name" as indicative of the Trinity.请注意的“名”字作为三位一体的指示。It is not names but " Name ."这不是名字,但“ ”。"Father, Son and Holy Spirit is the final name of the one true God. The conjunction in one name of the three affirms equality and oneness of substance." “圣父,圣子和圣灵是一真神的最后名称。,在三个名称的联合申明,平等和物质统一性。“

Note the peculiarity of the terms.请注意条款的特殊性。This is the Kingdom commission, as another expresses it, not the Christian commission.这是英国委员会,作为另一种表达,而不是基督教委员会。The latter is in Luke, distinctively the Gentile Gospel, but not here, which is distinctively the Jewish Gospel.后者是在路加福音,鲜明的詹蒂莱福音,但不是在这里,这是独特的犹太福音And this is all the more remarkable because in Luke, the disciples are commanded to go to the Jews (24:47), while here they are commanded to go to "all nations."这是更为显着,因为在路加福音,门徒吩咐去犹太人(24:47),而在这里,他们吩咐到“所有国家。”It points to the close of the age when the commission will be carried out by the faithful remnant of the Jews so often spoken about.它指向的年龄时,委员会将进行经常谈到犹太人的忠实残余结束。It has not yet been carried out.它至今尚未开展。The story of the Acts is not its fulfilment.故事的行为是不是其履行。Its accomplishment has been interrupted, but will be taken up before the Lord comes to deliver Israel at the last.它的成就已被中断,但将采取主来之前交付以色列在最后。

Questions 1.问题 1。Repeat the order of the events on the day of resurrection.重复复活的日子,事件的顺序。2.2。Do the same with reference to the appearances of Jesus.与耶稣的外观相同。3.3。Divide the chapter into three parts.本章分为三个部分。4.4。How would you answer the argument that the disciples stole the body of Jesus?你会如何​​回答的说法,门徒偷走了耶稣的身体? 5.5。What is the significance of the word "Name" in the "Great Commission"?“姓名”,“大统”字的意义是什么?6.6。How do you distinguish the "Commission" in Matthew from that in Luke?你如何区分“委员会”,在卢克马修?


Gospel of St. Matthew福音的圣马太

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. CANONICITY一,正规

The earliest Christian communities looked upon the books of the Old Testament as Sacred Scripture, and read them at their religious assemblies.圣经旧约的书,最早的基督教社区的白眼和阅读他们的宗教集会。That the Gospels, which contained the words of Christ and the narrative of His life, soon enjoyed the same authority as the Old Testament, is made clear by Hegesippus (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", IV, xxii, 3), who tells us that in every city the Christians were faithful to the teachings of the law, the prophets, and the Lord.这福音,其中载有基督和他的生活叙事的话,很快就享有相同的权力,作出了明确规定Hegesippus(优西比乌,“组织胺。传道书”,四,22,3),旧约告诉我们,在每一个城市的基督徒忠实于法律,先知,主的教导。 A book was acknowledged as canonical when the Church regarded it as Apostolic, and had it read at her assemblies.一书承认作为规范时,都把它作为使徒教会,并读她的集会。Hence, to establish the canonicity of the Gospel according to St. Matthew, we must investigate primitive Christian tradition for the use that was made of this document, and for indications proving that it was regarded as Scripture in the same manner as the Books of the Old Testament.因此,建立正规的根据马太的福音,我们必须对本文件的使用调查原始基督教传统,和迹象证明,它被视为圣经的书籍以同样的方式旧约。 The first traces that we find of it are not indubitable, because post-Apostolic writers quoted the texts with a certain freedom, and principally because it is difficult to say whether the passages thus quoted were taken from oral tradition or from a written Gospel.第一的痕迹,我们发现它是不不容置疑的,因为后使徒作家引述具有一定的自由文本,主要是因为它是很难说是否引述段落从口头传统或书面的福音。 The first Christian document whose date can be fixed with comparative certainty (95-98), is the Epistle of St. Clement to the Corinthians.第一个基督教的文件的日期可以比较肯定(95-98)固定,是圣克莱门特给哥林多教会的书信。 It contains sayings of the Lord which closely resemble those recorded in the First Gospel (Clement, 16:17 = Matthew 11:29; Clem., 24:5 = Matthew 13:3), but it is possible that they are derived from Apostolic preaching, as, in chapter xiii, 2, we find a mixture of sentences from Matthew, Luke, and an unknown source.它包含主酷似那些记录在第一福音(克莱门特,16时17分=马修11时29分;克莱姆,24:5 =马太13时03分)的说法,但却是可能的,他们是从使徒派生的说教,在第十三章,2,我们发现一个句子从马太,路加的混合物,和来源不明的。Again, we note a similar commingling of Evangelical texts elsewhere in the same Epistle of Clement, in the Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles, in the Epistle of Polycarp, and in Clement of Alexandria.同样,我们注意到一个类似搀和在相同的克莱门特书信福音文本,在十二使徒的教义,在波利卡普书信,并在克莱门特的亚历山德里亚。 Whether these these texts were thus combined in oral tradition or emanated from a collection of Christ's utterances, we are unable to say.无论这些这些文本,因此在口头传统相结合,或从一个基督的话语收集所产生的,我们都不能说。

The Epistles of St. Ignatius (martyred 110-17) contain no literal quotation from the Holy Books; nevertheless, St. Ignatius borrowed expressions and some sentences from Matthew ("Ad Polyc.", 2:2 = Matthew 10:16; "Ephesians", 14:2 = Matthew 12:33, etc.).圣依纳爵的书信(烈属110-17)的报价不包含从圣书文字,不过,圣依纳爵借来的表情和一些句子马修(2:2 =马修10:16“广告Polyc。”;“以弗所书“,14:2 =马太12时33分,等)。In his "Epistle to the Philadelphians" (v, 12), he speaks of the Gospel in which he takes refuge as in the Flesh of Jesus; consequently, he had an evangelical collection which he regarded as Sacred Writ, and we cannot doubt that the Gospel of St. Matthew formed part of it.在他的“书信的费城”(v,12),他讲的福音中,他需要耶稣的肉避难因此,他有一个福音收集其中,他认为作为神圣的令状,和我们不能怀疑,马太的福音形成的一部分。

In the Epistle of Polycarp (110-17), we find various passages from St. Matthew quoted literally (12:3 = Matthew 5:44; 7:2 = Matthew 26:41, etc.).波利卡普(110-17)的书信中,我们发现从马太的各个段落逐字引述(12:3马太福音5:44; 7:2 =马修26:41等)。The Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles (Didache) contains sixty-six passages that recall the Gospel of Matthew; some of them are literal quotations (8:2 = Matthew 6:7-13; 7:1 = Matthew 28:19; 11:7 = Matthew 12:31, etc.).该学说的十二门徒(十二使徒遗训)记得马太福音包含66通道;其中一些字面报价(8:2 =马修6:7-13; 7:1 =马修28:19; 11: 7 =马修12:31,等等)。In the so-called Epistle of Barnabas (117-30), we find a passage from St. Matthew (xxii, 14), introduced by the scriptural formula, os gegraptai, which proves that the author considered the Gospel of Matthew equal in point of authority to the writings of the Old Testament.巴拿巴(117-30)在所谓的书信中,我们发现圣马太(22,14),由圣经的配方,OS gegraptai,这证明笔者认为马修等于点的福音介绍,一段话权威旧约的著作。

The "Shepherd of Hermas" has several passages which bear close resemblance to passages of Matthew, but not a single literal quotation from it. “牧人书”承担近似马太通道的几个段落,但不能单从字面报价。In his "Dialogue" (xcix, 8), St. Justin quotes, almost literally, the prayer of Christ in the Garden of Olives, in Matthew, xxvi, 39,40.在他的“对话”(xcix 8),圣贾斯汀报价,几乎从字面上看,基督在橄榄园的祷告,在马太,26,39,40。A great number of passages in the writings of St. Justin recall the Gospel of Matthew, and prove that he ranked it among the Memoirs of the Apostles which, he said, were called Gospels (I Apol., lxvi), were read in the services of the Church (ibid., i), and were consequently regarded as Scripture.一个段落圣贾斯汀的著作大量记得马太福音,证明他的回忆录,他说,被称为福音的使徒(我APOL,LXVI)名列,在读因而被视为圣经教会(同上,I),和服务。

In his "Legatio pro christianis", xii, 11, Athenagoras (117) quotes almost literally sentences taken from the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:44).在他的“Legatio亲christianis”,第十二章,11哥拉(117)报价几乎是逐字地从山的讲道(马太福音5:44)采取的句子。 Theophilus of Antioch (Ad Autol., III, xiii-xiv) quotes a passage from Matthew (v, 28, 32), and, according to St. Jerome (In Matt. Prol.), wrote a commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew.西奥菲勒斯安提阿(广告Autol,三,十三,十四)引述一段话,马修(V,28,32),根据圣杰罗姆(在马特海峡。),圣福音写的评论马修。

We find in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs--drawn up, according to some critics, about the middle of the second century--numerous passages that closely resemble the Gospel of Matthew (Test. Gad, 5:3; 6:6; 5:7 = Matthew 18:15, 35; Test. Joshua 1:5, 6 = Matthew 25:35-36, etc.), but Dr. Charles maintains that the Testaments were written in Hebrew in the first century before Jesus Christ, and translated into Greek towards the middle of the same century.我们发现在圣经十二始祖 - 拟定,按照一些批评家,有关的第二个世纪中叶 - 许多段落,酷似福音的马修(Test.盖德,5时03分,6时06分;约书亚1:5,5:7 =马太福音18:15,35;测试6 =马太25:35-36等),但查尔斯博士认为,在希伯来文写在第一世纪的圣经,耶稣基督之前,并翻译成希腊对同一世纪中叶。In this event, the Gospel of Matthew would depend upon the Testaments and not the Testaments upon the Gospel.在这种情况下,将取决于圣经和福音后的圣经马太福音。The question is not yet settled, but it seems to us that there is a greater probability that the Testaments, at least in their Greek version, are of later date than the Gospel of Matthew, they certainly received numerous Christian additions.问题是尚未解决,但在我们看来,有一个更大的概率圣经,至少在他们的希腊文版本,日期最迟马太福音,他们肯定获得了无数的基督徒增加。

The Greek text of the Clementine Homilies contains some quotations from Matthew (Hom. 3:52 = Matthew 15:13); in Hom.希腊文克莱门汀讲道包含一些报价马修(Hom. 3:52 =马修15:13);在坎。 xviii, 15, the quotation from Matthew 13:35, is literal.十八,15,报价从马太13时35分,是文字。

Passages which suggest the Gospel of Matthew might be quoted from heretical writings of the second century and from apocryphal gospels--the Gospel of Peter, the Protoevangelium of James, etc., in which the narratives, to a considerable extent, are derived from the Gospel of Matthew.马太福音的通道,这表明可能的第二个世纪的异端著作援引未经证实的福音 - 彼得福音,詹姆斯Protoevangelium等,其中的叙述,在相当程度上,来自马太福音。

Tatian incorporated the Gospel of Matthew in his "Diatesseron"; we shall quote below the testimonies of Papias and St. Irenæus.塔蒂安纳入他的“Diatesseron”马太福音,我们将报价低于帕皮亚和圣Irenæus的证词。For the latter, the Gospel of Matthew, from which he quotes numerous passages, was one of the four that constituted the quadriform Gospel dominated by a single spirit.对于后者,马太的福音,从他引用了许多段落,四个构成由单一的精神为主导的quadriform福音之一。Tertullian (Adv. Marc., IV, ii) asserts, that the "Instrumentum evangelicum" was composed by the Apostles, and mentions Matthew as the author of a Gospel (De carne Christi, xii).特土良(Adv.马克,四,二)称,“Instrumentum evangelicum”是由使徒,和马修提到一个福音的作者(德卡尔内斯蒂,XII)组成。

Clement of Alexandria (Strom., III, xiii) speaks of the four Gospels that have been transmitted, and quotes over three hundred passages from the Gospel of Matthew, which he introduces by the formula, en de to kata Maththaion euaggelio or by phesin ho kurios.克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(Strom.,三,十三)谈到了四福音已发送,报价超过三百名来自马太福音通道,这是他通过公式,EN DE卡塔Maththaion euaggelio或phesin议员介绍kurios。

It is unnecessary to pursue our inquiry further.进一步追求我们的调查,这是不必要的。About the middle of the third century, the Gospel of Matthew was received by the whole Christian Church as a Divinely inspired document, and consequently as canonical.约马太福音的第三个世纪中叶,是受到整个基督教教会作为神的启发文件,因此作为规范。The testimony of Origen ("In Matt.", quoted by Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", III, xxv, 4), of Eusebius (op. cit., III, xxiv, 5; xxv, 1), and of St. Jerome ("De Viris Ill.", iii, "Prolog. in Matt.,") are explicit in this repsect.奥利的证词(“马特”,尤西比乌斯引述“。组织胺传道书”,三,二十五,4),优西比乌(前引书,三,二十四,五,十五,1),和圣杰罗姆(“德Viris伊利诺伊州”,三“的Prolog在马特。”)在此repsect明确。 It might be added that this Gospel is found in the most ancient versions: Old Latin, Syriac, and Egyptian.它可能会增加,这福音是:旧拉丁美洲,叙利亚,埃及发现的最古老的版本。Finally, it stands at the head of the Books of the New Testament in the Canon of the Council of Laodicea (363) and in that of St. Athanasius (326-73), and very probably it was in the last part of the Muratorian Canon.最后,它代表的头在佳能的老底嘉(363)理事会和新约圣athanasius(326-73)书刊,并很可能在最后一部分的穆拉多利佳能。 Furthermore, the canonicity of the Gospel of St. Matthew is accepted by the entire Christian world.此外,正规的圣马太的福音,是整个基督教世界所接受。

II.二。AUTHENTICITY OF THE FIRST GOSPEL第一福音的真实性

The question of authenticity assumes an altogether special aspect in regard to the First Gospel.真实性的问题,假设一个完全特殊的方面,关于第一福音。The early Christian writers assert that St. Matthew wrote a Gospel in Hebrew; this Hebrew Gospel has, however, entirely disappeared, and the Gospel which we have, and from which ecclesiastical writers borrow quotations as coming from the Gospel of Matthew, is in Greek.早期基督教作家断言,圣马太写在希伯来文的福音;然而,这个希伯来福音,完全消失,和我们的福音,教会作家借用报价来自马太福音,是在希腊。 What connection is there between this Hebrew Gospel and this Greek Gospel, both of which tradition ascribes to St. Matthew?这个希伯来福音,这个希腊福音,这两个传统赋予圣马太之间有什么联系呢?Such is the problem that presents itself for solution.就是这样的问题,提出了解决方案本身。Let us first examine the facts.首先,让我们研究的事实。

A. TESTIMONY OF TRADITIONA.传统的证​​词

According to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., 111, xxxix, 16), Papias said that Matthew collected (synetaxato; or, according to two manuscripts, synegraphato, composed) ta logia (the oracles or maxims of Jesus) in the Hebrew (Aramaic) language, and that each one translated them as best he could.据尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,111,三十九,16),帕皮亚说,马修收集(synetaxato;或根据两个手稿,synegraphato,组成)TA logia(耶稣的圣言或格言)在希伯来文(阿拉姆)的语言,而且,每一个翻译最好的,他可以​​。

Three questions arise in regard to this testimony of Papias on Matthew: (1) What does the word logia signify?关于这一证词帕皮亚马修出现三个问题:(1)字logia意味着什么?Does it mean only detached sentences or sentences incorporated in a narrative, that is to say, a Gospel such as that of St. Matthew?难道只有超脱的句子或句子在叙事中,也就是说,如圣马太的福音?Among classical writers, logion, the diminutive of logos, signifies the "answer of oracles", a "prophecy"; in the Septuagint and in Philo, "oracles of God" (ta deka logia, the Ten Commandments).在经典作家的名言,身材矮小的标志,象征的“神谕回答”,一个“预言”;在七十和斐洛,“神谕神”(TA DEKA logia,十诫)。It sometimes has a broader meaning and seems to include both facts and sayings.有时,它具有更广泛的含义,似乎既包括事实和熟语。In the New Testament the signification of the word logion is doubtful, and if, strictly speaking, it may be claimed to indicate teachings and narratives, the meaning "oracles" is the more natural.在新约中的意义这个词的名言是值得怀疑的,并且,如果严格来说,它可能是声称表明教义和叙述,意思是“神谕”是更自然。 However, writers contemporary with Papias--eg St. Clement of Rome (Ad Cor., liii), St. Irenæus (Adv. Hær., I, viii, 2), Clement of Alexandria (Strom., I, cccxcii), and Origen (De Princip., IV, xi)--have used it to designate facts and savings.然而,当代作家与帕皮亚 - 如罗马的圣克莱门特(广告心病,LIII),圣irenæus(Adv. Hær,我,八,2),克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(Strom.,我cccxcii)和奥利(德普林西普,四,十一) - 用它来指定事实和储蓄。 The work of Papias was entitled "Exposition of the Oracles" [logion] of the Lord", and it also contained narratives (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", III, xxxix, 9). On the other hand, speaking of the Gospel of Mark, Papias says that this Evangelist wrote all that Christ had said and done, but adds that he established no connection between the Lord's sayings (suntaxin ton kuriakon logion). We may believe that here logion comprises all that Christ said and did. Nevertheless, it would seem that, if the two passages on Mark and Matthew followed each other in Papias as in Eusebius, the author intended to emphasize a difference between them, by implying that Mark recorded the Lord's words and deeds and Matthew chronicled His discourses. The question is still unsolved; it is, however, possible that, in Papias, the term logia means deeds and teachings.工作帕皮亚题为“博览会”神谕的名言]主“,它也包含了叙事(优西比乌,”组织胺。传道书“,三,三十九,9)。另一方面,在发言马可福音,帕皮亚说,这传播者写道,基督有说和做,但补充说,他建立了主的熟语(suntaxin吨kuriakon名言)之间没有联系。我们可能会认为,这里名言包括所有的,基督说和做。不过,它会似乎认为,如果马克和马修的两个通道随后在帕皮亚在尤西比乌斯对方,笔者拟以强调通过暗示,马克它们之间的不同,记录主的言行和马修记载他的话语。的问题仍然没有解决,但是,有可能,在帕皮亚,任期logia手段先进事迹和教诲。

(2) Second, does Papias refer to oral or written translations of Matthew, when he says that each one translated the sayings "as best he could"? (2)第二,帕皮亚指口头或书面翻译马修时,他说,每一个翻译“他”的谚语吗?As there is nowhere any allusion to numerous Greek translations of the Logia of Matthew, it is probable that Papias speaks here of the oral translations made at Christian meetings, similar to the extemporaneous translations of the Old Testament made in the synagogues.由于无处任何典故众多的希腊翻译马修Logia,这是可能的,帕皮亚谈到这里的基督教会议所作的口头翻译,类似的即席翻译旧约在犹太教堂。 This would explain why Papias mentions that each one (each reader) translated "as best he could".这可以解释为什么帕皮亚提到,每一个(每个读者)翻译的“最好他能”。

(3) Finally, were the Logia of Matthew and the Gospel to which ecclesiastical writers refer written in Hebrew or Aramaic? (3)最后,是Logia的马修和到教会作家是指在希伯来文或阿拉姆语书面的福音?Both hypotheses are held.两种假设都举行。Papias says that Matthew wrote the Logia in the Hebrew (Hebraidi) language; St. Irenæus and Eusebius maintain that he wrote his gospel for the Hebrews in their national language, and the same assertion is found in several writers.帕皮亚说,马修在希伯来文(Hebraidi)语言写道Logia;圣Irenæus和优西比乌认为他写他的福音,希伯来人在他们国家的语言和相同的说法是在几位作家。 Matthew would, therefore, seem to have written in modernized Hebrew, the language then used by the scribes for teaching.马修,因此,似乎都写在现代化的希伯来文,然后由文士教学使用的语言。But, in the time of Christ, the national language of the Jews was Aramaic, and when, in the New Testament, there is mention of the Hebrew language (Hebrais dialektos), it is Aramaic that is implied.但是,在基督的时间,犹太人的民族语言是阿拉姆语,和的时候,在新约中,有提到希伯来语(Hebrais dialektos),它是阿拉姆是隐含的。Hence, the aforesaid writers may allude to the Aramaic and not to the Hebrew.因此,上述作家可能提到的阿拉姆语和希伯来文。Besides, as they assert, the Apostle Matthew wrote his Gospel to help popular teaching.此外,他们断言,使徒马太写他的福音,帮助流行的教学。To be understood by his readers who spoke Aramaic, he would have had to reproduce the original catechesis in this language, and it cannot be imagined why, or for whom, he should have taken the trouble to write it in Hebrew, when it would have had to be translated thence into Aramaic for use in religious services.理解他的读者谁发言阿拉姆,他也有重现的这种语言的原始教理讲授,和它可以不被想象为何,或对谁,他应该有麻烦,以写在希伯来语它,时,将有那里被翻译成阿拉姆在利用宗教服务。

Moreover, Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, xxiv, 6) tells us that the Gospel of Matthew was a reproduction of his preaching, and this we know, was in Aramaic.此外,尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,三,24,6)告诉我们,马太福音再现了他的说教,这个大家都知道,在阿拉姆。 An investigation of the Semitic idioms observed in the Gospel does not permit us to conclude as to whether the original was in Hebrew or Aramaic, as the two languages are so closely related.在福音中所观察到的犹太人的成语调查不允许我们结束是否原来是在希伯来文或阿拉姆语,因为这两种语言是如此密切相关。 Besides, it must be home in mind that the greater part of these Semitisms simply reproduce colloquial Greek and are not of Hebrew or Aramaic origin.此外,它必须是家庭记住,大部份的这些Semitisms只需复制口语希腊和希伯来文或阿拉姆起源。However, we believe the second hypothesis to be the more probable, viz., that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Aramaic.然而,我们相信第二个假设,更多的可能,即,马修在亚拉姆语写他的福音。

Let us now recall the testimony of the other ecclesiastical writers on the Gospel of St. Matthew.现在,让我们记得福音的圣马太教会作家的证词。St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, i, 2) affirms that Matthew published among the Hebrews a Gospel which he wrote in their own language.圣irenæus(Adv. Haer,第三,我2)申明马修之间的希伯来人发表了福音,这是他在用自己的语言写的。Eusebius (Hist. eccl., V, x, 3) says that, in India, Pantænus found the Gospel according to St. Matthew written in the Hebrew language, the Apostle Bartholomew having left it there.尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,V,X,3)说,在印度,Pantænus据圣马太在希伯来语言编写的福音,使徒巴塞洛缪左有。 Again, in his "Hist. eccl."同样,在他的“组织胺。传道书”。(VI xxv, 3, 4), Eusebius tells us that Origen, in his first book on the Gospel of St. Matthew, states that he has learned from tradition that the First Gospel was written by Matthew, who, having composed it in Hebrew, published it for the converts from Judaism. (六十五,3,4),尤西比乌斯告诉我们,奥利,在他的第一本书,由希伯来文圣马太的福音,他已经从传统据悉,第一福音马修书面的状态,从犹太教皈依它出版。 According to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, xxiv, 6), Matthew preached first to the Hebrews and, when obliged to go to other countries, gave them his Gospel written in his native tongue.据尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,三,24,6),马修鼓吹第一希伯来人,责任到其他国家时,给他写在他的母语的福音。 St. Jerome has repeatedly declared that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew ("Ad Damasum", xx; "Ad Hedib.", iv), but says that it is not known with certainty who translated it into Greek.圣杰罗姆一再宣称,马修在希伯来文中写道他的福音(“广告Damasum”,XX;“广告Hedib”,IV),但说,这是不确定性译成希​​腊文。 St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Epiphanius, St. John Chrysostom, St. Augustine, etc., and all the commentators of the Middle Ages repeat that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew.圣西里尔耶路撒冷,圣格雷戈里的nazianzus,圣埃皮法尼乌斯,圣约翰金口,圣奥古斯丁,等等,所有的中世纪重复评论员马修在希伯来文中写道他的福音。 Erasmus was the first to express doubts on this subject: "It does not seem probable to me that Matthew wrote in Hebrew, since no one testifies that he has seen any trace of such a volume."伊拉斯谟是第一次来表达对这个问题的疑惑:“这似乎并不可能,我认为马修在希伯来文中写道,因为没有人证明,他已经看到任何一丝卷” This is not accurate, as St. Jerome uses Matthew's Hebrew text several times to solve difficulties of interpretation, which proves that he had it at hand.这是不准确的,圣杰罗姆使用马修的希伯来文多次来解释,这证明他在手解决困难。Pantænus also had it, as, according to St. Jerome ("De Viris Ill.", xxxvi), he brought it back to Alexandria. Pantænus也有它,因为,根据圣杰罗姆(“德Viris伊利诺伊州”,三十六),他带来了回亚历山大。However, the testimony of Pantænus is only second-hand, and that of Jerome remains rather ambiguous, since in neither case is it positively known that the writer did not mistake the Gospel according to the Hebrews (written of course in Hebrew) for the Hebrew Gospel of St. Matthew.然而,Pantænus证词是二手,杰罗姆仍然比较模糊,因为在上述两种情况下,无论是积极的,作家没有错误的希伯来福音根据希伯来人(希伯来文写的,当然)福音的圣马太。 However all ecclesiastical writers assert that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew, and, by quoting the Greek Gospel and ascribing it to Matthew, thereby affirm it to be a translation of the Hebrew Gospel.然而,所有的教会作家声称马修在希伯来文中写道他的福音,并引述希腊福音归咎于马修,从而确认这是一个翻译希伯来文的福音。

B. EXAMINATION OF THE GREEK GOSPEL OF ST.B.审查希腊福音的ST。MATTHEW马太

Our chief object is to ascertain whether the characteristics of the Greek Gospel indicate that it is a translation from the Aramaic, or that it is an original document; but, that we may not have to revert to the peculiarities of the Gospel of Matthew, we shall here treat them in full.我们的主要对象,以确定是否希腊福音的特点,表明它是一个从阿拉姆语,或者说是原始文件的翻译,但我们可能没有恢复到马太福音的特殊性,我们将在这里全面对待他们。

(1) The Language of the Gospel(1)语言的福音

St. Matthew used about 1475 words, 137 of which are apax legomena (words used by him alone of all the New Testament writers).马太约1475字,其中有137 APAX legomena(由他单独所有的新约作者使用的词语)使用。Of these latter 76 are classical; 21 are found in the Septuagint; 15 (battologein biastes, eunouchizein etc.) were introduced for the first time by Matthew, or at least he was the first writer in whom they were discovered; 8 words (aphedon, gamizein, etc.) were employed for the first time by Matthew and Mark, and 15 others (ekchunesthai, epiousios, etc.) by Matthew and another New Testament writer.这后者的76经典; 21在七十; 15(battologein biastes,eunouchizein等),首次推出由马修,或至少他是第一个作家,在他们被发现; 8个字(aphedon gamizein,等)被雇用首次由马修和马克,15人(ekchunesthai,epiousios等),马修和其他新约作家。It is probable that, at the time of the Evangelist, all these words were in current use.这是可能的,在时间的传播者,目前使用的所有的这些话。Matthew's Gospel contains many peculiar expressions which help to give decided colour to his style.马太福音包含了许多奇特的表情,这有助于他的风格决定颜色。Thus, he employs thirty-four times the expression basileia ton ouranon; this is never found in Mark and Luke, who, in parallel passages, replace it by basileia tou theou, which also occurs four times in Matthew.因此,他表达basileia吨ouranon采用了三四倍,这是从来没有发现在马可和路加的人,在平行通道,更换basileia头theou,这也发生在马修四次。 We must likewise note the expressions: ho pater ho epouranions, ho en tois ouranois, sunteleia tou alonos, sunairein logon, eipein ti kata tinos, mechri tes semeron, poiesai os, osper, en ekeino to kairo, egeiresthai apo, etc.同样,我们必须注意的表达式:sunteleia头alonos,何恩tois ouranois,何佩特何epouranions sunairein登录,eipein TI卡塔TINOS mechri工商业污水附加费semeron,poiesai OS,osper,EN ekeino到kairo,egeiresthai APO等

The same terms often recur: tote (90 times), apo tote, kai idou etc. He adopts the Greek form Ierisiluma for Jerusalem, and not Ierousaleu, which he uses but once.相同的条款经常复发:手提包(90倍),载脂蛋白手提包,启艾都安等他采用对耶路撒冷的希腊形式Ierisiluma,而不是Ierousaleu,他使用,但一旦。 He has a predilection for the preposition apo, using it even when Mark and Luke use ek, and for the expression uios David.他有一个介词APO偏爱,使用它,即使当马克和卢克使用EK,并表达uios大卫。Moreover, Matthew is fond of repeating a phrase or a special construction several times within quite a short interval (cf. ii, 1, 13, and 19; iv, 12, 18, and v, 2; viii, 2-3 and 28; ix, 26 and 31; xiii, 44, 4.5, and 47, etc.).此外,马修喜欢在相当短的时间间隔(见二,1,13和19重复一个短语或一个特殊的几次建设;四,12,18,和V,2;第八,2-3和28九,26日和31日;十三,44,4.5,和47等)。 Quotations from the Old Testament are variously introduced, as: outos, kathos gegraptai, ina, or opos, plerothe to rethen uto Kuriou dia tou prophetou, etc.从旧约的报价是不同的:outos,kathos gegraptai,INA,或OPOS,plerothe rethen反对派Kuriou直径头prophetou等介绍,

These peculiarities of language, especially the repetition of the same words and expressions, would indicate that the Greek Gospel was an original rather than a translation, and this is confirmed by the paronomasiæ (battologein, polulogia; kophontai kai ophontai, etc.), which ought not to have been found in the Aramaic, by the employment of the genitive absolute, and, above all, by the linking of clauses through the use of men .语言,特别是重复相同的词语,这些特点表明,希腊福音,而不是原来的翻译,这是由paronomasiæ(battologein,polulogia; kophontai启ophontai等)证实,应该没有被发现在阿拉姆所有格绝对的就业,的,而且,上述所有条款的链接,通过使用男性。..oe, a construction that is peculiarly Greek.OE,是独有的希腊建筑。However, let us observe that these various characteristics prove merely that the writer was thoroughly conversant with his language, and that he translated his text rather freely.然而,让我们观察,这些不同的特点只是证明,作家被彻底熟悉他的语言,他翻译他的文字,而自由。

Besides, these same characteristics are noticeable in Christ's sayings, as well as in the narratives, and, as these utterances were made in Aramaic, they were consequently translated; thus, the construction men .此外,这些相同的特征是明显的在基督里的格言,以及在叙述,并且,这些话是在阿拉姆,他们因此被翻译,因此,施工的男子。..de (except in one instance) and all the examples of paronomasia occur in discourses of Christ. DE(一个实例除外)和所有的双关语的例子发生在基督的话语。The fact that the genitive absolute is used mainly in the narrative portions, only denotes that the latter were more freely translated; besides, Hebrew possesses an analogous grammatical construction.所有格绝对是在叙事部分主要用于的事实,只是表示,后者更自由翻译;此外,希伯来语拥有一个类似的语法结构。 On the other hand, a fair number of Hebraisms are noticed in Matthew's Gospel (ouk eginosken auten, omologesei en emoi, el exestin, ti emin kai soi, etc.), which favour the belief that the original was Aramaic.另一方面,相当数量的Hebraisms注意到,在马太福音(ouk eginosken auten,omologesei EN emoi,EL exestin,TI额敏县偕SOI,等),其中赞成的信念,原来是阿拉姆。Still, it remains to be proved that these Hebraisms are not colloquial Greek expressions.尽管如此,它仍然要证明,这些Hebraisms都是不通俗希腊表达式。

(2) General Character of the Gospel(2)一般性质的福音

Distinct unity of plan, an artificial arrangement of subject-matter, and a simple, easy style--much purer than that of Mark--suggest an original rather than a translation.独特的统一计划,人工安排的标的物,和一个简单的,容易的风格,更纯粹 - - 马克建议,而不是原来的翻译。 When the First Gospel is compared with books translated from the Hebrew, such as those of the Septuagint, a marked difference is at once apparent.当第一个福音是从希伯来文翻译的书籍,如七十相比,有明显的区别是一次明显的。The original Hebrew shines through every line of the latter, whereas, in the First Gospel Hebraisms are comparatively rare, and are merely such as might be looked for in a book written by a Jew and reproducing Jewish teaching.希伯来原文照通过后者的每一行,然而,在第一福音Hebraisms是比较罕见的,而只是在一个犹太人及音响犹太人教学写了一本书,可能看着。 However, these observations are not conclusive in favour of a Greek original.然而,这些意见不是决定性的赞成了希腊原始。 In the first place, the unity of style that prevails throughout the book, would rather prove that we have a translation.首先,风格的统一,贯穿全书的盛行,宁愿证明,我们有一个翻译。It is certain that a good portion of the matter existed first in Aramaic--at all events, the sayings of Christ, and thus almost three-quarters of the Gospel.这是一个良好的部分存在问题的,首先在阿拉姆 - 所有事件,基督的熟语,从而几乎四分之三的福音。Consequently, these at least the Greek writer has translated.因此,这些至少在希腊作家翻译。

And, since no difference in language and style can be detected between the sayings of Christ and the narratives that are claimed to have been composed in Greek, it would seem that these latter are also translated from the Aramaic.而且,基督的说法,声称已在希腊组成的叙事之间的检测,因为没有在语言和风格上的差异可以,它似乎这些后者也从阿拉姆语翻译。 This conclusion is based on the fact that they are of the same origin as the discourses.这一结论是基于事实,他们是同一产地的话语。The unity of plan and the artificial arrangement of subject-matter could as well have been made in Matthew's Aramaic as in the Greek document; the fine Greek construction, the lapidary style, the elegance and good order claimed as characteristic of the Gospel, are largely a matter of opinion, the proof being that critics do not agree on this question.计划和该标的物的人工安排的统一作出马修的希腊文件阿拉姆;罚款希腊建设的宝石风格,优雅和良好的秩序声称福音的特点,都在很大程度上见仁见智,证明,批评不同意在这个问题上。 Although the phraseology is not more Hebraic than in the other Gospels, still it not much less so.虽然用语是不是希伯来比在其他福音,它仍然不是要少得多。To sum up, from the literary examination of the Greek Gospel no certain conclusion can be drawn against the existence of a Hebrew Gospel of which our First Gospel would be a translation; and inversely, this examination does not prove the Greek Gospel to be a translation of an Aramaic original.综上所述,从希腊福音的文学检查没有一定的结论可以得出对一个希伯来福音,而我们的第一福音将是一个翻译的存在;成反比,这个考试并不证明希腊福​​音翻译阿拉姆原。

(3) Quotations from the Old Testament(3)从旧约的语录

It is claimed that most of the quotations from the Old Testament are borrowed from the Septuagint, and that this fact proves that the Gospel of Matthew was composed in Greek.据称,从旧约的报价大部分是借来的,从七十,这一事实证明,马太福音在希腊组成。The first proposition is not accurate, and, even if it were, it would not necessitate this conclusion.第一个命题是不准确的,并且,即使它是,它并不需要这样的结论。Let us examine the facts.让我们来看看事实。As established by Stanton ("The Gospels as Historical Documents", II, Cambridge, 1909, p. 342), the quotations from the Old Testament in the First Gospel are divided into two classes.斯坦顿(“历史文件的福音”,第二,剑桥,1909年,第342页)确立的,从第一福音在旧约的报价分为两大类。 In the first are ranged all those quotations the object of which is to show that the prophecies have been realized in the events of the life of Jesus.在第一不等所有这些报价的对象,这是在耶稣的生命的事件,预言已经实现。They are introduced by the words: "Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet," or other similar expressions.他们推出的话说:“现在所有这一切都做,它可能是应验主借先知发言,”或其他类似表述。The quotations of this class do not in general correspond exactly with any particular text.这一类的报价一般不与任何特定的文本完全对应。

Three among them (ii, 15; viii, 17; xxvii, 9, 10) are borrowed from the Hebrew; five (ii, 18; iv, 15, 16; xii, 18-21; xiii, 35; xxi, 4, 5) bear points of resemblance to the Septuagint, but were not borrowed from that version.其中有3名(二15八,17; XXVII,9,10)是从希伯来文借用;五(18二,四,15,16;第十二18-21;十三,35岁; XXI,4, 5)承担点相似的译本,但并没有从该版本中借来的。In the answer of the chief priests and scribes to Herod (ii, 6), the text of the Old Testament is slightly modified, without, however, conforming either to the Hebrew or the Septuagint.希律王(二,六)祭司长和文士的答案,旧约的文字略作修改,如果没有,不过,符合无论是希伯来文的译本。The Prophet Micheas writes (v, 2): "And thou Bethlehem, Ephrata, art a little one among the thousands of Juda"; whereas Matthew says (ii, 6): "And thou Bethlehem the land of Juda art not the least among the princes of Juda". (V,2)先知Micheas写道:“和你伯利恒,埃夫拉塔,艺术之间的犹大数以千计的小家伙”,而马修说:“(二,六):”和你伯利恒犹大艺术不是至少在土地犹大诸侯“。 A single quotation of this first class (iii, 3) conforms to the Septuagint, and another (i, 23) is almost conformable.一本一流的单引号(三,3)符合的译本,和另一个(I,23)几乎是顺应性。These quotations are to be referred to the first Evangelist himself, and relate to facts, principally to the birth of Jesus (i, ii), then to the mission of John the Baptist, the preaching of the Gospel by Jesus in Galilee, the miracles of Jesus, etc. It is surprising that the narratives of the Passion and the Resurrection of Our Lord, the fulfilment of the very clear and numerous prophecies of the Old Testament, should never be brought into relation with these prophecies.这些报价被称​​为第一传播者本人,而且涉及的事实,主要是耶稣诞生(I,II),然后到了施洗约翰福音的宣讲耶稣在加利利的奇迹的使命耶稣等,这是令人惊讶的激情和我们的主复活的叙述,非常明确和众多的旧约预言的实现,不应该将这些预言的关系带来了。

Many critics, eg Burkitt and Stanton, think that the quotations of the first class are borrowed from a collection of Messianic passages, Stanton being of opinion that they were accompanied by the event that constituted their realization.许多评论家,如伯基特和斯坦顿,认为一流的报价是从弥赛亚经文收集,斯坦顿的意见,他们伴随着其实现由事件构成的借用。 This "catena of fulfilments of prophecy", as he calls it, existed originally in Aramaic, but whether the author of the First Gospel had a Greek translation of it is uncertain.的这一“预言fulfilments系列”,他称之为,存在原本在阿拉姆,但无论是作者的第一福音了希腊的翻译,它是不确定的。 The second class of quotations from the Old Testament is chiefly composed of those repeated either by the Lord or by His interrogators.第二类是从旧约的报价主要由主或审问他反复的。Except in two passages, they are introduced by one of the formula: "It is written"; "As it is written"; "Have you not read?"除在两个通道,他们推出的公式之一:“这是写”;“被写入”,“你没有读过?”"Moses said".“摩西说:”。 Where Matthew alone quotes the Lord's words, the quotation is sometimes borrowed from the Septuagint (v, 21 a, 27, 38), or, again, it is a free translation which we are unable to refer to any definite text (v, 21 b, 23, 43).凡马修单独报价主的话,报价有时借来的译本(V,21日,27,38),或者,再次,它是一个免费的翻译它,我们都不能参考任何明确的文字(v,21 B,23,43)。In those Passages where Matthew runs parallel with Mark and Luke or with either of them, all the quotations save one (xi, 10) are taken almost literally from the Septuagint.在这些段落马修平行与马克和卢克或其中之一,所有的报价节省一(十一10)是从七十几乎从字面上。

(4) Analogy to the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke(4)比喻的圣马可广场和圣路加福音

From a first comparison of the Gospel of Matthew with the two other Synoptic Gospels we find与其他两个观福音,我们发现从马太福音第一次比较

that 330 verses are peculiar to it alone; that it has between 330 and 370 in common with both the others, from 170 to 180 with Mark's, and from 230 to 240 with Luke's; 330诗句独自特有的,它已经在330和370之间的共同点与他人,从170至180马克,与卢克的从230到240;

that in like parts the same ideas are expressed sometimes in identical and sometimes in different terms; that Matthew and Mark most frequently use the same expressions, Matthew seldom agreeing with Luke against Mark.像部分表达同样的想法有时是相同的,有时在不同的条款,马修和马克最常使用相同的表达式,马修很少同意卢克对马克。The divergence in their use of the same expressions is in the number of a noun or the use of two different tenses of the same verb.在他们使用相同的表达式的分歧是一个名词或使用相同的动词的两种不同的时态的数目。The construction of sentences is at times identical and at others different.句子的建设是在相同的时间和别人的不同。

That the order of narrative is, with certain exceptions which we shall later indicate, almost the same in Matthew, Mark, and Luke.叙事的顺序是,有一些例外,我们稍后表示,在马太,马克,和卢克几乎相同。

These facts indicate that the three Synoptists are not independent of one another.这些事实表明,不是相互独立的三个Synoptists的。They borrow their subject-matter from the same oral source or else from the same written documents.他们借用相同的口头源相同的书面文件或其他标的物。To declare oneself upon this alternative, it would be necessary to treat the synoptic question, and on this critics have not vet agreed.申报后,这种替代自己,这将需要治疗的天气问题,并在此批评没有审核同意。 We shall, therefore, restrict ourselves to what concerns the Gospel of St. Matthew.因此,我们应限制自己关心的圣马太的福音。 From a second comparison of this Gospel with Mark and Luke we ascertain:从本马克和卢克我们确定福音的第二个比较:

that Mark is to be found almost complete in Matthew, with certain divergences which we shall note;马克是被发现几乎马修完成一定的分歧,我们应注意,;

that Matthew records many of our Lord's discourses in common with Luke;许多我们的上帝的话语与卢克马修记录;

that Matthew has special passages which are unknown to Mark and Luke.马修特别通道,这是未知的马可和路加。

Let us examine these three points in detail, in an endeavour to learn how the Gospel of Matthew was composed.让我们仔细研究这三个点,在努力学习如何马太福音组成。

(a) Analogy to Mark(一)比喻马克

Mark is found complete in Matthew, with the exception of numerous slight omissions and the following pericopes: Mark, i, 23-28, 35-39; iv, 26-29; vii, 32-36; viii, 22-26; ix, 39, 40; xii, 41-44.马克是马修,许多稍有遗漏的异常和以下pericopes:马克,我,23-28,35-39; 26日至29日四,七,32-36;第八22-26日,; IX ,39,40;十二,41-44。In all, 31 verses are omitted.在所有31经文被省略。The general order is identical except that, in chapters v-xiii, Matthew groups facts of the same nature and savings conveying the same ideas.一般的顺序是相同的,但在第五十三,马修团体性质相同的事实和储蓄输送同样的想法。 Thus, in Matthew 8:1-15, we have three miracles that are separated in Mark; in Matthew 8:23-9:9, there are gathered together incidents otherwise arranged in Mark, etc. Matthew places sentences in a different environment from that given them by Mark.因此,在马太福音8:1-15,我们有三个分开的奇迹,在马克;马太8:23-9:9,有聚集事件另有安排马克等马修地方句子在不同的环境,从鉴于由马克。 For instance, in 5:15, Matthew inserts a verse occurring in Mark 4:21, that should have been placed after 13:23, etc.例如,在5:15,马修插入诗句发生在马可福音4:21,本来应该13时23分后放置等

In Matthew the narrative is usually shorter because he suppresses a great number of details.在马太福音的叙述通常较短,因为他抑制大量的细节。Thus, in Mark, we read: "And the wind ceased: and there was made a great calm", whereas in Matthew the first part of the sentence is omitted.因此,马克,我们读到:“风停止:有一个伟大的平静”,而在马修句子的第一部分被省略。 All unnecessary particulars are dispensed with, such as the numerous picturesque features and indications of time, place, and number, in which Mark's narrative abounds.免除所有不必要的细节,如许多风景如画的特点和时间的迹象表明,地方,和数量,其中马克的叙事盛产。

Sometimes, however, Matthew is the more detailed.但是,有时候,马修是更详细的。Thus, in 12:22-45, he gives more of Christ's discourse than we find in Mark, iii, 20-30, and has in addition a dialogue between Jesus and the scribes.因此,在12:22-45,他给基督的话语,比我们发现在20-30马克,三,除了耶稣和文士之间的对话。In chapter xiii, Matthew dwells at greater length than Mark, iv, upon the object of the parables, and introduces those of the cockle and the leaven, neither of which Mark records.第十三章中,马修住马克,IV的长度大于,根据对象的比喻,并介绍拾贝的酵,既不其中马克记录。Moreover, Our Lord's apocalyptic discourse is much longer in Matthew, xxiv-xxv (97 verses), than in Mark, xiii (37 verses).此外,我们的主的启示录般的话语在马太,XXIV - XXV(97诗句),长于马克,第十三(37诗句)。

Changes of terms or divergences in the mode of expression are extremely frequent.条款或分歧的方式表达的变化极为频繁。Thus, Matthew often uses eutheos, when Mark has euthus; men .因此,马修经常使用eutheos,当马克euthus;男子。..de, instead of kai, as in Mark, etc.; the aorist instead of the imperfect employed by Mark. DE,而不是启,马克等;不定过去,而不是由马克雇用的不完善。He avoids double negatives and the construction of the participle with eimi; his style is more correct and less harsh than that of Mark; he resolves Mark's compound verbs, and replaces by terms in current use the rather unusual expressions introduced by Mark, etc.他避免双重否定和建设与EIMI过去分词,他的风格是更正确的,不如马克苛刻,他解决了马克的复合动词,和目前使用的术语取代相当不寻常的表现,由马克介绍,等等。

He is free from the lack of precision which, to a slight extent, characterizes Mark.他是从缺乏精度,轻微程度的特点。Thus, Matthew says "the tetrarch" and not "the king" as Mark does, in speaking of Herod Antipas; "on the third day" instead.of "in three days".因此,马修说:“分封”,而不是“地王”马克,在希律安提帕的发言,“在第三天”instead.of“在三天”。At times the changes are more important.在时代的变化更为重要。Instead of "Levi, son of Alpheus," he says: "a man named Matthew"; he mentions two demoniacs and two blind persons, whereas Mark mentions only one of each, etc.而是“LEVI,河神的儿子,”他说:“名为马修一个人”,他提到了两个demoniacs和两个盲人,而马克只提到每一个等。

Matthew extenuates or omits everything which, in Mark, might be construed in a sense derogatory to the Person of Christ or unfavourable to the disciples.马修extenuates或遗漏,马克,可能会在一定意义上贬低基督的人或不利的弟子解释的一切。Thus, in speaking of Jesus, he suppresses the following phrases: "And looking round about on them with anger" (Mark 3:5); "And when his friends had heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him. For they said: He is beside himself" (Mark 3:21), etc. Speaking of the disciples, he does not say, like Mark, that "they understood not the word, and they were afraid to ask him" (ix, 3 1; cf. viii, 17, 18); or that the disciples were in a state of profound amazement, because "they understood not concerning the loaves; for their heart was blinded" (vi, 52), etc.因此,在耶稣的发言,他抑制以下词组:“寻找一轮他们与愤怒”(马可福音3:5);“时,他的朋友们听说过,他们走了出去,奠定他。他们说:他旁边的自己“(马可福音3:21),等的弟子时,他不说,像马克说:”他们不明白这个词,他们恐怕要问他“(IX,3 1;比照第八,17,18);或弟子们在深刻惊奇的状态,因为“他们不明白有关的面包,他们的心被蒙蔽”(六,52)等

He likewise omits whatever might shock his readers, as the saying of the Lord recorded by Mark: "The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath" (ii, 27).他同样忽略任何可能冲击他的读者,马克记录主说:“安息日是为人,而不是男人的安息日”(二27)。Omissions or alterations of this kind are very numerous.这种遗漏或改动非常多。It must, however, be remarked that between Matthew and Mark there are many points of resemblance in the construction of sentences (Matthew 9:6; Mark 2:10; Matthew 26:47 = Mark 14:43, etc.); in their mode of expression, often unusual. ,但是,它必须被指出,马修和马克之间有很多的相似点建设的句子(马太福音9:6;马克2时10分;马修26:47 =马克14时43等);在其表达方式,往往是不寻常的。and in short phrases (Matthew 9:16 = Mark 2:21; Matthew 16:28 = Mark 9:1; Matthew 20:25 = Mark 10:42); in some pericopes, narratives, or discourses, where the greater part of the terms are identical (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Matthew 26:36-38 = Mark 14:32-34; Matthew 9:5-6 = Mark 2:9-11), etc.和短语(马太福音9:16 =马克2:21;马太福音16点28 =马克9:1;马太20时25 =马克10:42);在一些pericopes,叙述或论述,其中大部份的条款是相同的(马太福音4:18-22;马克1:16-20;马太福音26:36-38 =马克14:32-34;马太福音9:5-6 =马克2:9-11)等。

(b) Analogy to Luke(二)类比卢克

A comparison of Matthew and Luke reveals that they have but one narrative in common, viz., the cure of the centurion's servant (Matthew 8:5-13 = Luke 7:1-10).马修和卢克的比较表明,他们有但一个共同的,即叙事,治好百夫长的仆人(马太福音8:5-13 =路加福音7:1-10)。 The additional matter common to these Evangelists, consists of the discourses and sayings of Christ.额外的问题共同这些福音,由基督的话语和熟语。In Matthew His discourses are usually gathered together, whereas in Luke they are more frequently scattered.在马太,他的话语,通常聚集在一起,而在路加福音他们更频繁地分散。Nevertheless, Matthew and Luke have in common the following discourses: the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7, the Sermon in the Plain, Luke 6); the Lord's exhortation to His disciples whom He sends forth on a mission (Matthew 10:19-20, 26-33 = Luke 12:11-12, 2-9); the discourse on John the Baptist (Matthew 11 = Luke 7); the discourse on the Last Judgment (Matthew 24; Luke 17).不过,马修和卢克有下列共同的话语:山(马太福音5-7,在平原,卢克6讲道)讲道;主的告诫他的弟子,他来回发送的使命(马太福音10人: 19-20,26-33 =路加福音12:11-12,2-9);路加福音17)最后的审判“(马太24话语;话语施洗约翰(马太福音11 =路加福音7)。Moreover, these two Evangelists possess in common a large number of detached sentences, eg, Matt., iii, 7b-19, 12 = Luke.此外,这两个福音拥有大量常见的一个超然的句子,如,马特,三,7B - 19,12 =卢克。iii, 7b-9, 17; Matt., iv, 3-11 = Luke, iv, 3-13; Matt., ix, 37, 38 = Luke x, 2; Matt., xii, 43-45 = Luke, xi, 24-26 etc. (cf. Rushbrooke, "Synopticon", pp. 134-70). 7B - 9,17三,四,3-11 =卢克,四,3-13;马特,马特,IX,37,38 =卢克X,2;。马特,十二,43-45 =路加福音十一,24-26等(参见Rushbrooke,“Synopticon”,第134-70页)。

However, in these parallel passages of Matthew and Luke there are numerous differences of expression, and even some divergences in ideas or in the manner of their presentation.然而,在这些平行通道的马修和卢克有许多差异的表达,并在思想或在其发言的方式,甚至一些分歧。It is only necessary to recall the Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-12 = Luke 6:20b-25): in Matthew there are eight beatitudes, whereas in Luke there are only four, which, while approximating to Matthew's In point of conception, differ from them in general form and expression.它是只需要记得讲到(=路加福音六时二十B - 25):在马太有八个八福,而在路加福音只有四个,而受孕点逼近马修,马修5:3-12从他们的一般形式和表达不同。In addition to having in common parts that Mark has not, Matthew and Luke sometimes agree against Mark in parallel narratives.此外,马克没有公用部分,马修和卢克有时同意对马克的平行叙事。There have been counted 240 passages wherein Matthew and Luke harmonize with each other, but disagree with Mark in the way of presenting events, and particularly in the use of the same terms and the same grammatical emendations.已计240通道,其中马太和路加相互协调,但不同意的方式呈现事件与马克,特别是在使用相同的条款和相同的语法emendations。 Matthew and Luke omit the very pericopes that occur in Mark.马修和卢克省略非常pericopes马克发生。

(c) Parts peculiar to Matthew(三)部分特有的马修

These are numerous, as Matthew has 330 verses that are distinctly his own.这些多不胜数,如马修有330诗句,有明显自己。Sometimes long passages occur, such as those recording the Nativity and early Childhood (i, ii), the cure of the two blind men and one dumb man (ix, 27-34), the death of Judas (xxvii, 3-10), the guard placed at the Sepulchre (xxvii, 62-66), the imposture of the chief priests (xxviii, 11-15), the apparition of Jesus in Galilee (xxviii, 16-20), a great portion of the Sermon on the Mount (v, 17-37; vi, 1-8; vii, 12-23), parables (xiii, 24-30; 35-53; xxv, 1-13), the Last Judgment (xxv, 31-46), etc., and sometimes detached sentences, as in xxiii, 3, 28, 33; xxvii, 25, etc. (cf. Rushbrooke, "Synopticon", pp.171-97).有时长期通道发生,如这些录音的降生和儿童早期(I,II),治愈两个瞎子和一个哑巴(九27-34),犹大的死亡(XXVII,3-10) ,放置在圣墓(二十七,62-66),祭司长的骗局(XXVIII,11-15),耶稣在加利利的幽灵(XXVIII 16-20),很大一部分的说教上守卫山(V,17-37; 1-8六,七,12-23),寓言(十三24-30; 35-53; XXV 1-13),最后的审判(XXV,31-46 )等,有时脱离句子,如二十三,3,28,33;十七,25等(参见Rushbrooke,“Synopticon”,pp.171 - 97)。 Those passages in which Matthew reminds us that facts in the life of Jesus are the fulfilment of the prophecies, are likewise noted as peculiar to him, but of this we have already spoken.这些段落中,马修提醒我们,在耶稣的生命的事实实现的预言,也同样注意到他特有的,但这个我们已经谈过。

These various considerations have given rise to a great number of hypotheses, varying in detail, but agreeing fundamentally.这些多方面的考虑,引起大量的细节不同的假设,,但同意从根本上。 According to the majority of present critics--H.根据大多数目前批评 - H。Holtzmann, Wendt, Jülicher, Wernle, von Soden, Wellhausen, Harnack, B. Weiss, Nicolardot, W. Allen, Montefiore, Plummer, and Stanton--the author of the First Gospel used two documents: the Gospel of Mark in its present or in an earlier form, and a collection of discourses or sayings, which is designated by the letter Q. The repetitions occurring in Matthew (v, 29, 30 = xviii, 8, 9; v, 32 xix, 9; x, 22a = xxiv, 9b; xii, 39b = xvi, 4a, etc.) may be explained by the fact that two sources furnished the writer with material for his Gospel. HOLTZMANN,温特,Jülicher,Wernle,冯索登,豪森,哈纳克,B.魏斯,Nicolardot,W.艾伦,蒙蒂菲奥里,Plummer表示,和斯坦顿 - 第一福音的作者用了两个文件:马克在其目前的福音或在前面的形式,收集的话语或格言,这是由指定的一封信,问:重复发生在马修(V,29,30 =十八,8,9; V,32十九,9,X,22A = XXIV,9B条;第十二,39B =十六,4A等)的原因可能是,配有两个来源材料的作家为他的福音。Furthermore, Matthew used documents of his own.此外,马修用他自己的文件。In this hypothesis the Greek Gospel is supposed to be original.在这个假设希腊福音应该是原来的。and not the translation of a complete Aramaic Gospel.而不是一个完整的阿拉姆语福音的翻译。It is admitted that the collection of sayings was originally Aramaic, but it is disputed whether the Evangelist had it in this form or in that of a Greek translation.这是承认,最初的阿拉姆语的谚语集合,但它是有争议的传播者是否在本表格,或在一个希腊翻译的。

Critics also differ regarding the manner in which Matthew used the sources.评论家也各不相同的方式,马修用来源。Some would have it that Matthew the Apostle was not the author of the First Gospel, but merely the collector of the sayings of Christ mentioned by Papias.一些马修使徒不是作者的第一福音,而仅仅是基督的格言收藏家帕皮亚提及。"However", says Jülicher, "the author's individuality is so strikingly evident in his style and tendencies that it is impossible to consider the Gospel a mere compilation". “但是”,说Jülicher的,“作者的个性是如此惊人地在他的风格和倾向明显,这是不可能考虑福音只是汇编”。Most critics are of a like opinion.多数评论家这样的意见。Endeavours have been made to reconcile the information furnished by tradition with the facts resulting from the study of the Gospel as follows: Matthew was known to have collected in Aramaic the sayings of Christ, and, on the other hand, there existed at the beginning of the second century a Gospel containing the narratives found in Mark and the sayings gathered by Matthew in Aramaic. Endeavours已作出调和传统与从如下福音的研究的事实提供的资料:马修在阿拉姆收集基督的熟语,并开始在另一方面,存在着被称为第二个世纪福音马克和熟语中发现的叙述,聚集在阿拉姆马修。 It is held that the Greek Gospel ascribed to Matthew is a translation of it, made by him or by other translators whose names it was later attempted to ascertain.它认为,希腊福音归咎于马修是它的一个翻译,由他本人或其他译员的名字后来试图确定。

To safeguard tradition further, while taking into consideration the facts we have already noted, it might be supposed that the three Synoptists worked upon the same catechesis, either oral or written and originally in Aramaic, and that they had detached portions of this catechesis, varying in literary condition.为了进一步维护传统,同时考虑到我们已经注意到的事实,它可能会认为这三个Synoptists工作在相同的教理讲授,口头或书面和阿拉姆原来,他们已经脱离本教理讲授的部分,不同的在文学的条件。 The divergences may be explained first by this latter fact, and then by the hypothesis of different translations and by each Evangelist's peculiar method of treating the subject-matter, Matthew and Luke especially having adapted it to the purpose of their Gospel.马修和卢克后者的事实,然后由不同的译本的假说和每个传播者的治疗标的物的奇特方法,首先可以解释的分歧,特别是适应他们福音的目的。 There is nothing to prevent the supposition that Matthew worked on the Aramaic catechesis; the literary emendations of Mark's text by Matthew may have been due to the translator, who was more conversant with Greek than was the popular preacher who furnished the catechesis reproduced by Mark.有是没有预防的假设,马修的阿拉姆理讲授工作;马克的马修文本的文学emendations可能已经被因的翻译,更与希腊熟悉比的流行布道者谁布置由Mark转载的教理讲授。 In reality, the only difficulty lies in explaining the similarity of style between Matthew and Mark.在现实中,唯一的困难在于,在解释的风格马修和马克之间的相似性。First of all, we may observe that the points of resemblance are less numerous than they are said to be.首先,我们可以观察到的相似点是比他们说要少许多。As we have seen, they are very rare in the narratives at all events, much more so than in the discourses of Christ.正如我们所看到的的,他们是非常罕见的,在所有事件的叙述,远远超过了在基督的话语。

Why, then, should we not suppose that the three Synoptists, depending upon the same Aramaic catechesis, sometimes agreed in rendering similar Aramaic expressions in the same Greek words?那么,为什么我们不能假设三个Synoptists,取决于相同的阿拉姆理讲授,有时呈现在同一个希腊字类似的阿拉姆表达式同意吗? It is also possible to suppose that sayings of Christ, which in the three Synoptic Gospels (or in two of them) differed only in a few expressions, were unified by copyists or other persons.它也可以假设,基督的说法,这三观福音(或两个)在不同的仅在几个表达式,统一由抄写员或其他人。To us it seems probable that Matthew's Greek translator used Mark's Greek Gospel, especially for Christ's discourses.对我们来说,似乎有可能马修的希腊翻译,尤其是对马克的希腊福音,基督的话语。Luke, also, may have similarly utilized Matthew's Greek Gospel in rendering the discourses of Christ.卢克,也可能有同样利用马修的希腊福音在基督的渲染话语。Finally, even though we should suppose that Matthew were the author only of the Logia, the full scope of which we do not know, and that a part of his Greek Gospel is derived from that of Mark, we would still have a right to ascribe this First Gospel to Matthew as its principal author.最后,即使我们应该假设马修Logia,我们不知道的全部范围的唯一作者,和他的希腊福音的一部分,是从马克的派生,我们仍然有权利归于这首福音马修作为其主要作者。

Other hypotheses have been put forth.其他假说已提出。In Zahn's opinion, Matthew wrote a complete Gospel in Aramaic; Mark was familiar with this document, which he used while abridging it.赞恩的意见,马修写了一个完整的福音在阿拉姆;马克是熟悉本文档,而剥夺他用。Matthew's Greek translator utilized Mark, but only for form, whereas Luke depended upon Mark and secondary sources, but was not acquainted with Matthew.马修的希腊翻译利用马克,但仅限于形式,而卢克依赖后,马克和第二手资料,但并不了解与马修。According to Belser, Matthew first wrote his Gospel in Hebrew, a Greek translation of it being made in 59-60, and Mark depended on Matthew's Aramaic document and Peter's preaching.据贝尔瑟,马修第一次在希伯来文中写道他的福音,它在59-60,马克​​取决于马修的阿拉姆文件和彼得的说教希腊翻译。 Luke made use of Mark, of Matthew (both in Aramaic and Greek), and also of oral tradition.卢克使用马太,马克,(无论是在阿拉姆语和希腊语),口头传统。According to Camerlynck and Coppieters, the First Gospel in its present form was composed either by Matthew or some other Apostolic writer long before the end of the first century, by combining the Aramaic work of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke.据Camerlynck和Coppieters第一福音,以其目前的形式组成或者马修或作家的第一个世纪结束之前,其他一些使徒长,结合马修的阿拉姆工作和路加福音。

III.三。PLAN AND CONTENTS OF THE FIRST GOSPEL第一福音的计划和内容

The author did not wish to compose a biography of Christ, but to demonstrate, by recording His words and the deeds of His life, that He was the Messias, the Head and Founder of the Kingdom of God, and the promulgator of its laws.笔者不希望组成一个基督的传记,但证明,记录他的话和他一生的事迹,他的messias,头部和上帝的王国的创始人,其法律的发布者。 One can scarcely fail to recognize that, except in a few parts (eg the Childhood and the Passion), the arrangement of events and of discourses is artificial.一个几乎没有认识到,除了在几个部分(如儿童和激情),是人为安排的活动和话语的。Matthew usually combines facts and precepts of a like nature.马修通常结合类似性质的事实和戒律。Whatever the reason, he favours groups of three (thirty-eight of which may be counted)--three divisions in the genealogy of Jesus (i, 17), three temptations (iv, 1-11), three examples of justice (vi, 1-18), three cures (viii, 1-15), three parables of the seed (xiii, 1-32), three denials of Peter (xxvi, 69-75), etc.; of five (these are less numerous)--five long discourses (v-vii, 27; x; xiii, 1-52; xviii; xxiv-xxv), ending with the same formula (Kai egeneto, ote etelesen ho Iesous), five examples of the fulfilment of the law (v, 21-48), etc.; and of seven--seven parables (xiii), seven maledictions (xxiii), seven brethren (xxii, 25), etc. The First Gospel can be very naturally divided as follows:-不管什么原因,他赞成组三(三十八名可算) - 三个师(I,17)在耶稣的家谱,三的诱惑(四1-11),司法三个例子(六1-18),三个八,治愈(1-15),三个种子的比喻(十三1-32),三否认彼得(26,69-75)等;五(这些都是少许多) - 五个长的话语(V - VII,27,X;十三,1-52;十八; XXIV - 25),用相同的公式(启egeneto,OTE etelesen何Iesous)结束,五个例子的实现法律(V,21-48)等;七 - 7个比喻(十三),7 maledictions(XXIII),7个弟兄(22 25),等第一福音,可以很自然地划分为如下: -

A. INTRODUCTION (1-2)A.导言(1-2)

The genealogy of Jesus, the prediction of His Birth, the Magi, the Flight into Egypt, the Massacre of the Innocents, the return to Nazareth, and the life there.耶稣的家谱,他出生的​​预测,贤士,到埃及的航班,屠杀无辜,回到拿撒勒,和那里的生活。

B. THE PUBLIC MINISTRY OF JESUS (3-25)B.耶稣的公共事务部(3-25)

This may be divided into three parts, according to the place where He exercised it.这可分为三个部分,按到的地方,他行使。

(1) In Galilee (3-18)(1)在加利利(3-18)

(a) Preparation for the public ministry of Jesus (3:1 to 4:11) (一)准备为耶稣公安部(3时01分至4时11)

John the Baptist, the Baptism of Jesus, the Temptation, the return to Galilee.施洗约翰,耶稣的洗礼,诱惑,回到加利利。

(b) The preaching of the Kingdom of God (4:17 to 18:35)(二)宣扬神的国度(4时17分至18时35)

(1) the preparation of the Kingdom by the preaching of penance, the call of the disciples, and numerous cures (iv, 17-25), the promulgation of the code of the Kingdom of God in the Sermon on the Mount (v, I-vii, 29); (1)编制苦修的说教,调用的弟子,和众多的治疗方法(四17-25),颁布上帝的王国在登山宝训中的代码(V王国,我七,29);

(2) the propagation of the Kingdom in Galilee (viii, I-xviii, 35). (2)在加利利(第八,我十八,35)英国的传播。He groups together:他组合在一起:

the deeds by which Jesus established that He was the Messias and the King of the Kingdom: various cures, the calming of the tempest, missionary journeys through the land, the calling of the Twelve Apostles, the principles that should guide them in their missionary travels (viii, 1-x, 42);耶稣成立,他的messias和王国国王:各种疗法,平静的暴风雨,通过土地的传教行程,十二使徒的呼吁,原则,要引导他们在他们的传教旅行的事迹(八,1 - X,​​42);

various teachings of Jesus called forth by circumstances: John's message and the Lord's answer, Christ's confutation of the false charges of the Pharisees, the departure and return of the unclean spirit (xi, 1-xii, 50);耶稣的各种教义要求提出的情况:约翰的消息,并主的答案,基督的法利赛人的不实指控confutation,出发和返回不洁的精神(十一,十二,50);

finally, the parables of the Kingdom, of which Jesus makes known and explains the end (xiii, 3-52).最后,王国的比喻,耶稣已知和解释结束(十三,3-52)。

(3) Matthew then relates the different events that terminate the preaching in Galilee: Christ's visit to Nazareth (xiii, 53-58), the multiplication of the loaves, the walking on the lake, discussions with the Pharisees concerning legal purifications, the confession of Peter at Cæsarea, the Transfiguration of Jesus, prophecy regarding the Passion and Resurrection, and teachings on scandal, fraternal correction, and the forgiveness of injuries (xiv, 1-xviii, 35). (3)马修然后与不同的事件,终止在加利利传道:基督的拿撒勒的访问(十三53-58),乘法的面包,在湖面上行走,与有关法律纯化的法利赛的讨论,供认彼得在该撒利亚,变身,预言耶稣的受难和复活,和丑闻,兄弟改正,受伤的宽恕的教义“(1 - XVIII,十四,35)。

(2) Outside Galilee or the way to Jerusalem (19-20)(2)外加利利到耶路撒冷的路上(19-20)

Jesus leaves Galilee and goes beyond the Jordan; He discusses divorce with the Pharisees; answers the rich young man, and teaches self-denial and the danger of wealth; explains by the parable of the labourers how the elect will be called; replies to the indiscreet question of the mother of the sons of Zebedee, and cures two blind men of Jericho.耶稣离开加利利和超越乔丹,他讨论了与法利赛人离婚;答案富有的年轻人,并教导自我否定和财富的危险;劳动者的比喻解释了如何将被称为选举的回复指手划脚的问题,西庇太的儿子,并治愈两个瞎子杰里科的母亲。

(3) In Jerusalem (21-25)(3)在耶路撒冷(21-25)

Jesus makes a triumphal entry into Jerusalem; He curses the barren fig tree and enters into a dispute with the chief priests and the Pharisees who ask Him by what authority He has banished the sellers from the Temple, and answers them by the parables of the two sons, the murderous husbandmen, and the marriage of the king's son.耶稣凯旋进入耶路撒冷的条目,他诅咒的无花果树,并进入与祭司长和法利赛人问他他有什么权力驱逐出寺卖家争端,并回答他们两个比喻儿子的杀气husbandmen,和国王的儿子结婚。 New questions are put to Jesus concerning the tribute, the resurrection of the dead, and the greatest commandment.新的问题是把耶稣有关的贡品,死里复活,而最大的诫命。Jesus anathematizes the scribes and Pharisees and foretells the events that will precede and accompany the fall of Jerusalem and the end of the world.耶稣anathematizes文士和法利赛和预言的事件,将先和陪同秋天耶路撒冷和世界的尽头。

C. THE PASSION AND THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS (26-28)C.激情和耶稣的复活(26-28)

(1) The Passion (26-27)(1)激情(26-27)

Events are now hurrying to a close.活动现在匆匆结束。The Sanhedrin plots for the death of Jesus, a woman anoints the feet of the Lord, and Judas betrays his Master.公会地块为耶稣之死,一个女人anoints主的脚,和犹大背叛他的主人。Jesus eats the pasch with His disciples and institutes the Eucharist.耶稣与他的弟子和机构的圣体吃的Pasch。In the Garden of Olives, He enters upon His agony and offers up the sacrifice of His life.在橄榄园,他进入后,他的痛苦,并提供了他的生命的牺牲。He is arrested and brought before the Sanhedrin.他被逮捕并送交公会。Peter denies Christ; Judas hangs himself.彼得否认基督的犹大挂起自己。Jesus is condemned to death by Pilate and crucified; He is buried, and a guard is placed at the Sepulchre (xxvi, 1-xxvii, 66).耶稣是由彼拉多判处死刑,并钉在十字架上,他被埋葬,和一个后卫是放置在圣墓(1 - 26,二十七,66岁)。

(2) The Resurrection (28)(2)复活(28)

Jesus rises the third day and appears first to the holy women at Jerusalem, then in Galilee to His disciples, whom He sends forth to propagate throughout the world the Kingdom of God.耶稣上升的第三天,首先出现在耶路撒冷的圣地妇女,然后在加利利他的弟子,其中他来回发送到世界各地宣扬上帝的王国。

IV.四。OBJECT AND DOCTRINAL TEACHING OF THE FIRST GOSPEL对象和理论教学的第一福音

Immediately after the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, Peter preached that Jesus, crucified and risen, was the Messias, the Saviour of the World, and proved this assertion by relating the life, death, and resurrection of the Lord.紧随后,使徒的圣灵降临后,彼得鼓吹耶稣,被钉十字架和复活,是的messias,世界的救世主,以及有关主的生命,死亡和复活,证明了这一论断。 This was the first Apostolic teaching, and was repeated by the other preachers of the Gospel, of whom tradition tells us that Matthew was one.这是第一使徒的教诲,和福音传教士,其中的传统告诉我们,马修是一个反复。This Evangelist proclaimed the Gospel to the Hebrews and, before his departure from Jerusalem, wrote in his mother tongue the Gospel that he had preached.这宣告福音的传播者希伯来人,他从耶路撒冷出发前,他的母语写他的福音。Hence the aim of the Evangelist was primarily apologetic.因此,传播者的目的主要是歉疚。He wished to demonstrate to his readers, whether these were converts or still unbelieving Jews, that in Jesus the ancient prophecies had been realized in their entirety.他想证明他的读者,无论这些转换或仍然不信的犹太人在耶稣古老的预言已经全部实现。This thesis includes three principal ideas:这一论断包含了三个主要观点:

Jesus is the Messias, and the kingdom He inaugurates is the Messianic kingdom foretold by the prophets;耶稣的messias,和他开创的王国是由先知预言的弥赛亚王国;

because of their sins, the Jews, as a nation, shall have no part in this kingdom因为他们的罪孽,犹太人,应作为一个国家,没有在这个王国中的一部分

the Gospel will be announced to all nations, and all are called to salvation.福音将宣布所有国家,都是所谓的救赎。

A. JESUS AS MESSIASA.耶稣的AS弭赛亚

St. Matthew has shown that in Jesus all the ancient prophesies on the Messias were fulfilled.马太表明,在耶稣的所有古老的预言弭赛亚履行。He was the Emmanuel, born of a Virgin Mother (i, 22, 23), announced by Isaias (vii, 14); He was born at Bethlehem (ii, 6), as had been predicted by Micheas (v, 2), He went to Egypt and was recalled thence (ii, 15) as foretold by Osee (xi, 1).他的灵光,一个圣母(I,22,23)伊萨亚斯(七,十四日)宣布,出生,他出生在伯利恒(二,六),已经有人预测Micheas(V,2),他前往埃及和被召回那里(II,15)由Osee预言(第十一,1)。 According to the prediction of Isaias (xl, 3), He was heralded by a precursor, John the Baptist (iii, 1 sqq.); He cured all the sick (viii, 16 so.), that the Prophecy of Isaias (liii, 4) might be fulfilled; and in all His actions He was indeed the same of whom this prophet had spoken (xiii, 1).据伊萨亚斯(XL,3)的预测,他是施洗约翰(三,1 SQQ。)的前兆,预示着他治好的病(第八,16等),伊萨亚斯预言(LIII 4)可能实现;在他所有的行动,他确实是其中先知讲了话(十三,1)。 His teaching in parables (xiii, 3) was conformable to what Isaias had said (vi, 9).他在寓言的教学(第十三,3)符合什么伊萨亚斯说(六,9)。Finally, He suffered, and the entire drama of His Passion and Death was a fulfilment of the prophecies of Scripture (Isaiah 53:3-12; Psalm 21:13-22).最后,他的遭遇,和他的激情和死亡的整个戏剧履行经文(以赛亚书53:3-12;诗篇21:13-22)的预言。 Jesus proclaimed Himself the Messias by His approbation of Peter's confession (16:16-17) and by His answer to the high priest (26:63-64).耶稣自称的messias,他认同彼得的自白(16:16-17),他的回答大祭司(26:63-64)。 St. Matthew also endeavours to show that the Kingdom inaugurated by Jesus Christ is the Messianic Kingdom.马太还努力,表明耶稣基督落成的英国是弥赛亚王国。From the beginning of His public life, Jesus proclaims that the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand (4:17); in the Sermon on the Mount He promulgates the charter of this kingdom, and in parables He speaks of its nature and conditions.从他的公共生活的开始,耶稣宣布天国的手(4:17);在登山宝训中,他颁布本英国的“宪章”,并在比喻他谈到其性质和条件。 In His answer to the envoys of John the Baptist Jesus specifically declares that the Messianic Kingdom, foretold by the Prophets, has come to pass, and He describes its characteristics: "The blind see, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead rise again, the poor have the gospel preached to them."在回答特使约翰施洗耶稣特别声明,先知预言的弥赛亚王国,已经通过,并且他描述了其特点:“瞎子看到,瘸子行走,麻风病人洁净,聋子听见,死的再次崛起,穷人有福音传给他们。“ It was in these terms, that Isaias had described the future kingdom (xxxv, 5, 6; loci, 1).正是在这些方面,伊萨亚斯曾描述未来的英国(XXXV,5,6;位点,1)。St. Matthew records a very formal expression of the Lord concerning the coming of the Kingdom: "But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then is the kingdom of God come upon you" (xii, 28).马太记录一个非常正式的主的关于英国的表达:“但是如果我神的灵赶鬼,然后是神的国临到你”(12,28)。Moreover, Jesus could call Himself the Messias only inasmuch as the Kingdom of God had come.此外,耶稣自称的messias只因为神的国度已经到来。

B. EXCLUSION OF JEWS FROM MESSIANIC KINGDOMB.排斥犹太人的弥赛亚王国

The Jews as a nation were rejected because of their sins, and were to have no part in the Kingdom of Heaven.作为一个民族的犹太人被拒绝,因为他们的罪孽,并没有在天国的一部分。This rejection had been several times predicted by the prophets, and St. Matthew shows that it was because of its incredulity that Israel was excluded from the Kingdom, he dwells on all the events in which the increasing obduracy of the Jewish nation is conspicuous, manifested first in the princes and then in the hatred of the people who beseech Pilate to put Jesus to death.这种拒绝已多次预言的先知和圣马太显示,这是由于其怀疑的是,以色列从英国排除,他居住的所有事件,犹太民族越来越顽固突出,表现在诸侯,然后在求彼拉多把耶稣死刑的人的仇恨。 Thus the Jewish nation itself was accountable for its exclusion from the Messianic kingdom.因此犹太民族本身负责其排除弥赛亚王国。

C. UNIVERSAL PROCLAMATION OF THE GOSPELC.通用宣布的福音

That the pagans were called to salvation instead of the Jews, Jesus declared explicitly to the unbelieving Israelites: "Therefore I say to you that the kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and shall be given to a nation yielding the fruits thereof" (xxi, 43); "He that soweth the good seed, is the Son of man. And the field is the world" (xiii, 37-38).这被称为异教徒的犹太人,而不是救赎,耶稣明确宣布不信的以色列人:“因此,我对你说神的国,应采取的,并应当给予一个国家产生的成果及其”( XXI,43);“他,soweth好种子,是人子,该领域是世界”(十三37-38)。"And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all nations, and then shall the consummation come" (xxiv, 14). “这天国的福音要传遍整个世界所有国家的证明,然后应完善来”(24,14)。Finally, appearing to His Apostles in Galilee, Jesus gives them this supreme command: "All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. Going therefore, teach ye all nations" (xxviii 18, 19).最后,出现他的门徒在加利利,耶稣给他们这个最高命令:“我在天堂和在地球一切权力,因此,教你们所有国家。”(XXVIII 18,19)。These last words of Christ are the summary of the First Gospel.这些基督的最后一句话是总结第一福音。 Efforts have been made to maintain that these words of Jesus, commanding that all nations be evangelized, were not authentic, but in a subsequent paragraph we shall prove that all the Lord's sayings, recorded in the First Gospel, proceed from the teaching of Jesus.已作出努力,以维护耶稣的这些话,指挥,所有国家是福音,不是正宗的,但随后的一段,我们应当证明,所有的主的熟语,记录的第一福音,耶稣的教学进行。

V. DESTINATION OF THE GOSPEL五,目的地的福音

The ecclesiastical writers Papias, St. Irenæus, Origen, Eusebius, and St. Jerome, whose testimony has been given above (II, A), agree in declaring that St. Matthew wrote his Gospel for the Jews.教会作家帕皮亚,圣irenæus,奥利,尤西比乌斯,圣杰罗姆,他们的证词已经由于上述(二A),同意在宣布圣马太写下了他对犹太人的福音。 Everything in this Gospel proves, that the writer addresses himself to Jewish readers.在这福音的一切证明,作家自己的犹太读者。He does not explain Jewish customs and usages to them, as do the other Evangelists for their Greek and Latin readers, and he assumes that they are acquainted with Palestine, since, unlike St. Luke he mentions places without giving any indication of their topographical position.他没有解释犹太人的习俗和惯例,因为这样做对希腊和拉丁的读者的其他福音,他假设他们熟悉与巴勒斯坦,圣卢克,因为不同于他提到的地方,没有任何迹象显示他们的地形位置。 It is true that the Hebrew words, Emmanuel, Golgotha, Eloi, are translated, but it is likely that these translations were inserted when the Aramaic text was reproduced in Greek.这是事实,希伯来文的话,灵光,墓地,埃洛伊,翻译,但它是可能的,这些翻译被插入时,阿拉姆文本在希腊转载。St. Matthew chronicles those discourses of Christ that would interest the Jews and leave a favourable impression upon them.马太记载基督的话语,将感兴趣的犹太人,并给他们留下一个良好的印象。The law is not to be destroyed, but fulfilled (v, 17).法律是不被破坏,但完成(V,17)。He emphasizes more strongly than either St. Mark or St. Luke the false interpretations of the law given by the scribes and Pharisees, the hypocrisy and even the vices of the latter, all of which could be of interest to Jewish readers only.他强调更强烈比圣马克或圣卢克虚假的文士和法利赛人的虚伪,甚至后者的恶习,所有这些都可能是只有犹太读者感兴趣的法律解释。 According to certain critics, St. Irenæus (Fragment xxix) said that Matthew wrote to convert the Jews by proving to them that Christ was the Son of David.圣Irenæus(片段XXIX)根据一定的批评,说,马修写道转换犹太人证明他们说,基督是大卫的儿子。This interpretation is badly founded.这种解释是严重创办的。Moreover, Origen (In Matt., i) categorically asserts that this Gospel was published for Jews converted to the Faith.此外,奥利(在马特,我)斩钉截铁地断言,这福音转换信仰的犹太人发表。Eusebius (Hist. eccl. III, xxiv) is also explicit on this point, and St. Jerome, summarizing tradition, teaches us that St. Matthew published his Gospel in Judea and in the Hebrew language, principally for those among the Jews who believed in Jesus, and did not observe even the shadow of the Law, the truth of the Gospel having replaced it (In Matt. Prol.).尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书三,XXIV)也明确这一点上,和圣杰罗姆,总结传统,教导我们,圣马太出版了他在朱迪亚和希伯来语的福音,主要为犹太人之间的那些谁相信,耶稣,并没有观察到,即使法“的影子,福音的真理取代它(海峡马特。)。 Subsequent ecclesiastical writers and Catholic exegetes have taught that St. Matthew wrote for the converted Jews.随后的教会作家和天主教exegetes的教导,圣马太写的转换犹太人。"However," says Zahn (Introd. to the New Testament, II, 562), "the apologetical and polemical character of the book, as well as the choice of language, make it extremely probable that Matthew wished his book to be read primarily by the Jews who were not yet Christians. It was suited to Jewish Christians who were still exposed to Jewish influence, and also to Jews who still resisted the Gospel". “不过,”赞恩(Introd.新约,二,562)说,“apologetical和论辩书,以及语言的选择性质,它极有可能马修希望他的书,主要读犹太人谁尚未基督徒。适合犹太基督徒谁仍然暴露在犹太人的影响,也对犹太人仍然顶住了福音“。

VI.六。DATE AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION组成的日期和地点

Ancient ecclesiastical writers are at variance as to the date of the composition of the First Gospel.古代教会作家的差异,第一福音组成之日起。Eusebius (in his Chronicle), Theophylact, and Euthymius Zigabenus are of opinion that the Gospel of Matthew was written eight years, and Nicephorus Callistus fifteen years, after Christ's Ascension--ie about AD 38-45.尤西比乌斯在他的纪事,Theophylact和Euthymius Zigabenus意见马太福音写了8年,和Nicephorus卡利斯图斯基督升天后的十五年 - 即约公元38-45。According to Eusebius, Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew when he left Palestine.据尤西比乌斯,马修在希伯来文写了他的福音,当他离开巴勒斯坦。Now, following a certain tradition (admittedly not too reliable), the Apostles separated twelve years after the Ascension, hence the Gospel would have been written about the year 40-42, but following Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, v, 2), it is possible to fix the definitive departure of the Apostles about the year 60, in which event the writing of the Gospel would have taken place about the year 60-68.现在,一定传统(诚然不太可靠),使徒分隔12年后的阿森松岛,因此本来福音书面大约一年40-42,但以下尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,三,五,2 ),它可以修复大约一年的60使徒的权威出发,在此情况下,将采取的福音的写作的地方大约一年60-68。St Irenæus is somewhat more exact concerning the date of the First Gospel, as he says: "Matthew produced his Gospel when Peter and Paul were evangelizing and founding the Church of Rome, consequently about the years 64-67."圣爱任纽是较为确切的关于日期的第一福音,因为他说:“马修生产时,彼得和保罗传福音,并成立有关64-67年的罗马教会,因此他的福音” However, this text presents difficulties of interpretation which render its meaning uncertain and prevent us from deducing any positive conclusion.然而,这段文字解释上的困难,这导致其含义不确定,并阻止我们推断任何积极的结论。In our day opinion is rather divided.在我们今天看来是相当分歧。Catholic critics, in general, favour the years 40-45, although some (eg Patrizi) go back to 36-39 or (eg Aberle) to 37.天主教的批评,在一般情况下,有利于年40-45,虽然有些(如柏德)回到36-39或(如阿伯利)37。Belser assigns 41-42; Conély, 40-50; Schafer, 50-51; Hug, Reuschl, Schanz, and Rose, 60-67.贝尔瑟分配41-42; 40-50; Conély,谢弗,50-51;拥抱,Reuschl,Schanz,和玫瑰,60-67。This last opinion is founded on the combined testimonies of St. Irenæus and Eusebius, and on the remark inserted parenthetically in the discourse of Jesus in chapter xxiv, 15: "When therefore you shall see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place": here the author interrupts the sentence and invites the reader to take heed of what follows, viz.: "Then they that are in Judea, let them flee to the mountains."这最后的意见是成立圣irenæus和尤西比乌斯,合并后的证词,并在24,15章耶稣的话语插入附带的备注:“因此,当你将看到荒凉的可憎,这是由丹尼尔发言先知,站在神圣的地方“:笔者在这里中断了一句,并请读者注意以下,即:”然后,他们在朱迪亚,让他们逃到山上“。 As there would have been no occasion for a like warning had the destruction of Jerusalem already taken place, Matthew must have written his Gospel before the year 70 (about 65-70 according to Batiffol).由于一直没有机会像警告耶路撒冷已经发生的破坏,马修必须有书面前的70年他的福音(约65-70根据以Batiffol)。 Protestant and Liberalistic critics also are greatly at variance as regards the time of the composition of the First Gospel.新教和自由主义的批评也差异很大,至于时间组成的第一福音。Zahn sets the date about 61-66, and Godet about 60-66; Keim, Meyer, Holtzmann (in his earlier writings), Beyschlag, and Maclean, before 70, Bartiet about 68-69; W. Allen and Plummer, about 65-75; Hilgenfeld and Holtzmann (in his later writings), soon after 70; B. Weiss and Harnack, about 70-75; Renan, later than 85, Réville, between 69 and 96, Jülicher, in 81-96, Montefiore, about 90-100, Volkmar, in 110; Baur, about 130-34.赞恩约61-66日期,导丝,约60-66套; HOLTZMANN凯姆,迈尔,在他的早期著作,Beyschlag,和麦克莱恩,70年代以前,大约68-69 Bartiet; W.艾伦和卢默,约65 -75; Hilgenfeld HOLTZMANN(在他后来的著作)后不久,70; B. Weiss和哈尔纳克,大约70-75;雷南,最迟85,Réville,69和96之间,Jülicher,在81-96,蒙特弗洛尔约90-100,福尔克马尔,在110个;鲍尔,约130-34。 The following are some of the arguments advanced to prove that the First Gospel was written several years after the Fall of Jerusalem.以下是一些先进的论据证明耶路撒冷秋季几年后写的第一福音。When Jesus prophesies to His Apostles that they will be delivered up to the councils, scourged in the synagogues, brought before governors and kings for His sake; that they will give testimony of Him, will for Him be hated and driven from city to city (x, 17-23) and when He commissions them to teach all nations and make them His disciples, His words intimate, it is claimed, the lapse of many years, the establishment of the Christian Church in distant parts, and its cruel persecution by the Jews and even by Roman emperors and governors.当耶稣预言他的门徒,他们将交付议会,在会堂里鞭打,前省长和国王为他着想带来;,他们会给他的证词,他恨,从城市到城市带动( X,17-23),当他委托他们教导所有国家,使他们和他的弟子,他的话亲密,它宣称,事隔多年,建立的基督教会在遥远的地方,其残酷迫害犹太人甚至罗马皇帝和省长。 Moreover, certain sayings of the Lord--such as: "Thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church" (xi, 18), "If he [thy brother] will not hear them: tell the Church" (xviii, 10)--carry us to a time when the Christian Church was already constituted, a time that could not have been much earlier than the year 100.此外,某些熟语主 - 如:“你的艺术彼得,并在这磐石上,我将建立我的教会”(十一,18),“如果他[你哥哥]不会听到他们的声音:告诉教会”(十八,10) - 把我们当基督教教会已经构成一个时间,远早于100年,已经不能时间。The fact is, that what was predicted by Our Lord, when He announced future events and established the charter and foundations of His Church, is converted into reality and made coexistent with the writing of the First Gospel.事实是,预测是由我们的主,当他宣布未来事件和建立他的教会的宪章和基础,转化为现实,写的第一福音共存。Hence, to give these arguments a probatory value it would be necessary either to deny Christ's knowledge of the future or to maintain that the teachings embodied in the First Gospel were not authentic.因此,给这些参数probatory的值,就必须否认基督的未来的知识,或认为体现在第一福音的教导,不是正宗的。

VII.七。HISTORIC VALUE OF THE FIRST GOSPEL第一福音的历史价值

(1) OF THE NARRATIVES(1)叙述

Apart from the narratives of the Childhood of Jesus, the cure of the two blind men, the tribute money, and a few incidents connected with the Passion and Resurrection, all the others recorded by St. Matthew are found in both the other Synoptists, with one exception (viii, 5-13) which occurs only in St. Luke.除了耶稣的童年的叙述,治愈两个瞎子,贡钱,和一些事件的受难和复活的连接,所有其他马太记录同时在其他Synoptists发现,与一个例外(八5-13),只有在圣卢克发生。 Critics agree in declaring that, regarded as a whole, the events of the life of Jesus recorded in the Synoptic Gospels are historic.批评者同意在声明说,作为一个整体,在对观福音书记录了耶稣生活的事件是历史性的。For us, these facts are historic even in detail, our criterion of truth being the same for the aggregate and the details.对于我们来说,这些事实是历史性的,甚至在细节,我们的总量和细节真理的标准。The Gospel of St. Mark is acknowledged to be of great historic value because it reproduces the preaching of St. Peter.圣马克福音,是公认的伟大的历史价值,因为它再现了圣彼得的说教。But, for almost all the events of the Gospel, the information given by St. Mark is found in St. Matthew, while such as are peculiar to the latter are of the same nature as events recorded by St. Mark, and resemble them so closely that it is hard to understand why they should not be historic, since they also are derived from the primitive catechesis.但是,几乎所有的福音事件,圣马克提供的资料,发现在圣马太,而如后者特有的圣马克记录的事件的性质相同,和他们像密切,这是很难理解为什么他们不应该是历史性的,因为他们也是从原始的教理讲授派生。 It may be further observed that the narratives of St. Matthew are never contradictory to the events made known to us by profane documents, and that they give a very accurate account of the moral and religious ideas, the manners and customs of the Jewish people of that time.它可能会进一步观察圣马太的叙述是从来没有矛盾的事件给我们知道亵渎文件,和他们给一个非常准确的道德和宗教观念,犹太人民的礼仪和习俗的帐户那个时候。 In his recent work, "The Synoptic Gospels" (London, 1909), Montefiore, a Jewish critic, does full justice to St. Matthew on these different points.在他最近的工作,“对观福音书”(伦敦,1909年),蒙蒂菲奥里,一个犹太评论家,这些不同点上的正义圣马太。Finally all the objections that could possibly have been raised against their veracity vanish, if we but keep in mind the standpoint of the author, and what he wished to demonstrate.最后消失,可能已对他们的真实性提出异议,如果我们,但请记住作者的立场,他希望证明。The comments we are about to make concerning the Lord's utterances are also applicable to the Gospel narratives.意见,我们提出的关于上帝的言论,也适用于福音的叙述。For a demonstration of the historic value of the narratives of the Holy Childhood, we recommend Father Durand's scholarly work, "L'enfance de Jésus-Christ d'après les évangiles canoniques" (Paris, 1907).示范神圣的童年叙事的历史价值,我们建议父亲杜兰德的学术著作,“L' enfance的耶稣 - 基督D' apr镳LES évangiles canoniques”(巴黎,1907年)。

(2) OF THE DISCOURSES(2)论述

The greater part of Christ's short sayings are found in the three Synoptic Gospels and consequently spring from the early catechesis.基督的短熟语大部份被发现在三个天气福音,因此从早期的教理讲授春季。His long discourses, recorded by St. Matthew and St. Luke, also formed part of an authentic catechesis, and critics in general are agreed in acknowledging their historic value.他长的话语,圣马太和圣卢克记录,也形成了一个真实的教理讲授的一部分,并批评一般都同意在承认其历史价值。There are, however some who maintain that the Evangelist modified his documents to adapt them to the faith professed in Christian communities at the time when he wrote his Gospel.是的,但是保持的传播者修改了他的证件,以适应他们的信仰有些人自称当时的基督教社区,当他写他的福音。They also claim that, even prior to the composition of the Gospels, Christian faith had altered Apostolic reminiscences.他们还声称,甚至之前组成的福音,基督教信仰已经改变了使徒的回忆。Let us first of all observe that these objections would have no weight whatever, unless we were to concede that the First Gospel was not written by St. Matthew.让我们所有的观察,这些反对意见没有什么的,除非我们承认,第一福音圣马太写的重量。And even assuming the same point of view as our adversaries, who think that our Synoptic Gospels depend upon anterior sources, we maintain that these changes, whether attributable to the Evangelists or to their sources (ie the faith of the early Christians), could not have been effected.即使假设我们的敌人,他们认为我们的观福音依赖于前来源的相同点,我们认为,这些变化,是否应占的福音,或它们的来源(即早期的基督徒的信仰),无法已经生效。

The alterations claimed to have been introduced into Christ's teachings could not have been made by the Evangelists themselves.改建声称已经引入到基督的教导,已经不能作出的福音本身。We know that the latter selected their subject-matter and disposed of it each in his own way, and with a special end in view, but this matter was the same for all three, at least for the whole contents of the pericopes, and was taken from the original catechesis, which was already sufficiently well established not to admit of the introduction into it of new ideas and unknown facts.我们知道,后者选择了他们的标的物,它的每一个出售自己的方式,在特殊终端,但所有三个,这个问题是相同的,至少pericopes全部内容,并采取从原来的教理讲授,这是已经充分确定不承认它引入的新思路和未知的事实。 Again, all the doctrines which are claimed to be foreign to the teachings of Jesus are found in the three Synoptists, and are so much a part of the very framework of each Gospel that their removal would mean the destruction of the order of the narrative.同样,所有的教条,它自称是耶稣的教导外国,发现在这三个Synoptists,与其说是一个非常框架每个福音的一部分,他们的搬迁将意味着破坏的叙事顺序。 Under these conditions, that there might be a substantial change in the doctrines taught by Christ, it would be necessary to suppose a previous understanding among the three Evangelists, which seems to us impossible, as Matthew and Luke at least appear to have worked independently of each other and it is in their Gospels that Christ's longest discourses are found.在这些条件下,在基督教的教义中,可能有很大的改变,这将是必要的假设之间的3个福音,这在我们看来似乎不可能的,因为马修和卢克,以前的认识出现至少有独立工作对方,它是基督的最长的话语被发现在他们的福音。 These doctrines, which were already embodied in the sources used by the three Synoptists, could not have resulted from the deliberations and opinions of the earliest Christians.这些理论,这已经体现在三个Synoptists来源,不可能导致从最早的基督徒的审议和意见。First of all, between the death of Christ and the initial drawing up of the oral catechesis, there was not sufficient time for originating, and subsequently enjoining upon the Christian conscience, ideas diametrically opposed to those said to have been exclusively taught by Jesus Christ.首先,基督的死和口头教理讲授的初始绘图,有没有足够的时间为始发,并随后责令呼吁基督徒的良心,这些截然相反的想法说已经完全由耶稣基督的教导。 For example, let us take the doctrines claimed, above all others, to have been altered by the belief of the first Christians, namely that Jesus Christ had called all nations to salvation.例如,让我们看看声称,高于一切,已经改变的第一个基督徒的信仰,即耶稣基督曾呼吁所有国家,以救赎的教义。 It is said that the Lord restricted His mission to Israel, and that all those texts wherein He teaches that the Gospel should be preached throughout the entire world originated with the early Christians and especially with Paul.这是说,上帝限制了他的使命到以色列,并的,他教导我们,应该贯穿整个世界的起源与早期的基督徒,特别是与保罗的福音宣扬其中的所有文本。 Now, in the first place, these universalist doctrines could not have sprung up among the Apostles.现在,摆在首位,这些普遍性的理论不能如雨后春笋般涌现使徒之间。They and the primitive Christians were Jews of poorly developed intelligence, of very narrow outlook, and were moreover imbued with particularist ideas.他们和原始基督徒犹太人不发达的情报,很窄的前景,而且particularist思想灌输。From the Gospels and Acts it is easy to see that these men were totally unacquainted with universalist ideas, which had to be urged upon them, and which, even then, they were slow to accept.从福音和行为很容易地看到,这些人是完全陌生与普遍性的思想,必须在他们的敦促,而且,即使这样,他们慢慢接受。Moreover, how could this first Christian generation, who, we are told, believed that Christ's Second Coming was close at hand, have originated these passages proclaiming that before this event took place the Gospel should be preached to all nations?此外,怎么可能,我们被告知,认为基督的第二次来临近在咫尺,这首基督教的产生,都起源宣布,在此事件之前发生的福音应该鼓吹所有国家的这些经文呢? These doctrines do not emanate from St. Paul and his disciples.这些理论并非来自圣保罗和他的弟子。Long before St. Paul could have exercised any influence whatever over the Christian conscience, the Evangelical sources containing these precepts had already been composed.很久以前,圣保罗可以行使任何影响,无论在基督教的良心,福音来源含有这些戒律已经组成。The Apostle of the Gentiles was the special propagator of these doctrines, but he was not their creator.外邦人的使徒,是特殊的传播者,这些学说,但他不是他们的创造者。Enlightened by the Holy Spirit, he understood that the ancient prophecies had been realized in the Person of Jesus and that the doctrines taught by Christ were identical with those revealed by the Scriptures.圣灵的启发,他了解古代的预言在耶稣的人已经意识到,基督教的教义与圣经显示的相同。

Finally, by considering as a whole the ideas constituting the basis of the earliest Christian writings, we ascertain that these doctrines, taught by the prophets, and accentuated by the life and words of Christ, form the framework of the Gospels and the basis of Pauline preaching.最后,作为一个整体考虑的思想构成的最早的基督教著作的基础上,我们确定这些教义,教先知,并加剧的生命和基督的话,形成的福音的框架和基础宝莲说教。 They are, as it were, a kind of fasces which it would be impossible to unbind, and into which no new idea could be inserted without destroying its strength and unity.他们,因为它是一个样fasces就不可能解除绑定,没有新的想法,并在其中可以插入不破坏它的力量和团结。In the prophecies, the Gospels the Pauline Epistles, and the first Christian writings an intimate correlation joins all together, Jesus Christ Himself being the centre and the common bond.在预言,福音的宝莲书信,和第一个基督教的著作亲密的相关连接一起,耶稣基督中心和共同的纽带。What one has said of Him, the others reiterate, and never do we hear an isolated or a discordant voice.什么人他说,其他重申,决不做,我们听到一个孤立的或不和谐的声音。If Jesus taught doctrines contrary or foreign to those which the Evangelists placed upon His lips, then He becomes an inexplicable phenomenon, because, in the matter of ideas, He is in contradiction to the society in which He moved, and must be ranked with the least intelligent sections among the Jewish people.如果耶稣教教义相反或外国的福音后,放在他的嘴唇,那么他将成为一个令人费解的现象,因为,无论在思想,他在矛盾中,他感动的社会,必须与排名犹太人民之间的智能部分。 We are justified, therefore, in concluding that the discourses of Christ, recorded in the First Gospel and reproducing the Apostolic catechesis, are authentic.因此,我们有理由得出结论认为,基督的话语,记录在第一福音及音响使徒的教理讲授,都是正宗的。We my however, again observe that, his aim being chiefly apologetic, Matthew selected and presented the events of Christ's life and also these discourses in a way that would lead up to the conclusive proof which he wished to give of the Messiahship of Jesus.我们我再观察,不过,他的目的主要是歉疚,马修选择和提出的基督的生命的事件和​​这些话语的方式,将导致以确凿的证据,他想给耶稣的弥赛亚。 Still the Evangelist neither substantially altered the original catechesis nor invented doctrines foreign to the teaching of Jesus.传播者既不大大改变了原来的教理讲授,也没有发明的学说,外国耶稣的教导。His action bore upon details or form, but not upon the basis of words and deeds.孔后,他的行动细节或形式,但不经的言行的基础。

APPENDIX: DECISIONS OF THE BIBLICAL COMMISSION附录:圣经委员会的决定

The following answers have been given by the Biblical Commission to inquiries about the Gospel of St. Matthew: In view of the universal and constant agreement of the Church, as shown by the testimony of the Fathers, the inscription of Gospel codices, most ancient versions of the Sacred Books and lists handed down by the Holy Fathers, ecclesiastical writers, popes and councils, and finally by liturgical usage in the Eastern and Western Church, it may and should be held that Matthew, an Apostle of Christ, is really the author of the Gospel that goes by his name.下面的答案已经圣经委员会查询:在圣马太的福音教会的普遍性和持续的协议,由父亲的证词,题词福音抄本,最古老的版本圣书传世的神父,教会作家,教皇和议会,并终于在东方和西方教会的礼仪用途,它可能会和马修,基督的使者,是真正的作者,应举行的名单的福音,他的名字。 The belief that Matthew preceded the other Evangelists in writing, and that the first Gospel was written in the native language of the Jews then in Palestine, is to be considered as based on Tradition.相信马修之前书面其他福音,和第一福音在犹太人的母语,然后在巴勒斯坦的书面,是被视为传统的基础上。

The preparation of this original text was not deferred until after the destruction of Jerusalem, so that the prophecies it contains about this might be written after the event; nor is the alleged uncertain and much disputed testimony of Irenaeus convincing enough to do away with the opinion most conformed to Tradition, that their preparation was finished even before the coming of Paul to Rome.这个原始文本的准备工作,直到摧毁耶路撒冷后,是不会延迟,因此,它包含有关此预言可能会在事件发生后书面;也不是爱任纽指称的不确定性和多有争议的证词足够的说服力,认为最符合传统,他们的准备,即使保罗来罗马之前完成。 The opinion of certain Modernists is untenable, viz., that Matthew did not in a proper and strict sense compose the Gospel, as it has come down to us, but only a collection of some words and sayings of Christ, which, according to them, another anonymous author used as sources.某些现代主义者看来是站不住脚的,即,马修没有在一个适当的和严格意义上撰写的福音,因为它已经来给我们,但只有一个集合基督的一些词和熟语,而根据他们另一个匿名作者,来源。

The fact that the Fathers and all ecclesiastical writers, and even the Church itself from the very beginning, have used as canonical the Greek text of the Gospel known as St. Matthew's, not even excepting those who have expressly handed down that the Apostle Matthew wrote in his native tongue, proves for certain that this very Greek Gospel is identical in substance with the Gospel written by the same Apostle in his native language.的父亲和所有的教会作家,甚至从一开始就教会本身,作为典型的希腊文被称为圣马太的福音,甚至不是除了那些已明确传世使徒马太所写的在他的母语,证明一定写在他的母语相同的使徒福音的实质内容是一样的,这非常希腊福音。 Although the author of the first Gospel has the dogmatic and apologetic purpose of proving to the Jews that Jesus is the Messias foretold by the prophets and born of the house of David, and although he is not always chronological in arranging the facts or sayings which he records, his narration is not to be regarded as lacking truth.虽然第一个福音的作者向犹太人证明耶稣是先知预言的messias出生大卫家,虽然他并不总是按时间顺序安排的事实或熟语的和教条式的歉意的目的,他记录,他的叙述不被视为缺乏真理。 Nor can it be said that his accounts of the deeds and utterances of Christ have been altered and adapted by the influence of the prophecies of the Old Testament and the conditions of the growing Church, and that they do not therefore conform to historical truth.也可以说,基督的事迹和话语,他的账户已经改变和改编旧约的预言和教会的成长条件的影响,因此他们不符合历史真相。Notably unfounded are the opinions of those who cast doubt on the historical value of the first two chapters, treating of the genealogy and infancy of Christ, or on certain passages of much weight for certain dogmas, such as those which concern the primacy of Peter (xvi, 17-19), the form of baptism given to the Apostles with their universal missions (xxviii, 19-20), the Apostles' profession of faith in Christ (xiv, 33), and others of this character specially emphasized by Matthew.值得注意的是毫无根据的是那些投前两章的历史价值的疑问,基督的家谱和婴儿期的治疗,或对某些教条的重量某些段落,如那些关注彼得的首要地位,意见(十六,17日至19日),由马修特别强调其普遍性的使命(二十八,19日至20日),使徒在基督信仰的职业(14,33),和别人的这种性格使徒的洗礼形式。

Publication information Written by E. Jacquier.大肠杆菌Jacquier编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Ernie Stefanik & Herman F. Holbrook.转录厄尼Stefanik&赫尔曼楼霍尔布鲁克。Omnes sancti Apostoli et Evangelistae, orate pro nobis.义务sancti Apostoli等Evangelistae,orate亲nobis。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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