Christian Ministry福音

General Information一般资料

Ministry means "service," which is an ideal for all Christians; the image of Christ as servant (Phil. 2:5-7; Mark 10:45) has been extended to the Christian church as a whole. From the beginning, however, certain individuals have been designated to perform spiritual functions within the church. 部的意思是“服务”,这是所有基督徒的理想,基督的仆人(腓2:5-7;马可福音10:45)的形象一直延续到作为一个整体的基督教教堂从一开始,但是。某些人已被指定执行教会内的精神功能。 Those ordained to these special ministries, which are usually full-time occupations, are now called ministers or Priests.这些规定对这些特殊部门,这通常是全职的职业,现在所谓的部长或司铎。Even in its early development, the church was a structured society consisting of the body of the faithful served by a group of individuals charged with particular functions and responsibilities.即使在其发展初期,教会是由一组与特定的职能和职责收取个人担任忠实的身体组成的一个结构化的社会。

The Gospels agree that the first ministers received their commission directly from Jesus Christ, but their ministry was set within the context of the church.福音同意收到的第一部长委员会直接从耶稣基督,但他们的外交部是在教会的背景下设置。The first ministers were called the Twelve, and later, the term Apostle was applied to them and to some other leaders of the community: Matthias, who succeeded Judas, Paul, Barnabas, and others.第一部长被称为十二,后向他们和社会其他一些领导人,长期使徒:马蒂亚斯,谁成功犹大,保罗,巴拿巴,和其他人。One important qualification of the original apostles was to have been eyewitnesses of Jesus Christ.原来的使徒的一个重要条件是已被目击者耶稣基督。The apostles went out from Jerusalem to preach, baptize, and establish churches.来自耶路撒冷的使徒去讲道,施洗,并建立教会。 Other wandering ministers included the 70 sent out by Jesus (Luke 10:1), evangelists such as Philip (Acts 8:5), and charismatic prophets (Acts 11:27).其他流浪部长包括70发送耶稣(路加福音10:1),传道人,如菲利普(使徒行传8:5)和魅力先知(徒11:27)。

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As the church spread and became more institutionalized, local ministries emerged, presided over by prominent converts appointed by the apostles.由于教会的传播变得更加制度化,出现了本地部委主持的使徒任命突出的转换。 The original offices were those of Bishops (overseers) and Presbyters (elders), although to begin with these were not clearly distinguished.原办事处主教(监督员)和长老(长老),虽然开始与这些没有明确区分。Ministers such as Stephen and his companions were also appointed to deal with administrative matters and leave the apostles free for preaching (Acts 6:1-6), although Stephen also preached.如斯蒂芬和他的同伴的部长们还任命了处理行政事项,并留下说教自由的使徒(使徒行传6:1-6),虽然斯蒂芬还鼓吹。 They have been taken as prototypes of Deacons, although not actually called by this name.他们已经采取执事的原型,但实际上不是叫做这个名字。

During the 2d century the peripatetic ministries of apostles, evangelists, and prophets gradually died out and were replaced by a settled ministry situated in various towns and cities.在2D世纪的使徒,传福音的,和先知的巡回各部逐渐死亡,并在各乡镇和城市位于一个结算部取代。 Early in the century, Ignatius of Antioch testified to the increasing power and influence of the bishops, who came to be regarded as the successors to the apostles.在本世纪初,安提阿的伊格作证日益增加的权力和影响力的主教,谁后来被视为宗徒的继承人。Especially in cities where the churches had been founded by apostles, chronological lists of bishops were drawn up, and their unbroken line of succession from an apostolic founder was claimed to be a guarantee of the authenticity of their teaching, as against heretical teachers lacking such pedigree (see Apostolic Succession).特别是在城市教会已成立由使徒,制定了按时间顺序列出的主教,并不间断继承使徒的创始人是自称是保证其教学的真实性,反对邪教教师缺乏这种谱系, (见使徒的继承)。

Under the bishops, presbyters (who were now called priests) performed most of the duties of Christian ministry in the local churches--preaching, administering the sacraments, and providing pastoral care.根据主教,长老(现在称为祭司)执行的职责,在当地教会的事奉 - 说教,管理圣礼,并提供牧灵。The deacons formed an order somewhat apart, with some clerical and some lay characteristics, thus providing a bridge between clergy and laity.执事有些除了形成订单,与一些文书和一些特点,从而提供了一个僧侣和俗人之间的桥梁。The diaconate eventually devolved into a stepping-stone to the presbyterate, until it began to be restored to its original function in recent times. diaconate最终移交到一个踏脚石的presbyterate,直到它开始恢复其原有的功能在近代。

Even in New Testament times some women exercised a ministry similar to that of deacons, although not until the 4th century did they become known as deaconesses.即使在新约时代,一些妇女行使部类似执事,虽然不是直到公元4世纪,他们成为为执事。To what extent the deaconess's office was recognized as an order of ministry comparable to the men's orders is disputable, and practice probably varied from place to place.部与男子订单的顺序确认执事办公室何种程度上是有争议的,和实践从一个地方到另一个地方可能不同。The ancient office of deaconess died out, but it has been revived in modern times.古代的女执事办公室死了,但它已经在近代复兴。

The threefold ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons has been maintained in the Catholic tradition of the church, but at the Reformation most Protestant churches abolished the order of bishops and called their presbyters ministers. 三倍的主教,神父,和执事部一直保持在天主教教会的传统,但在改革的基督教教堂取消了主教的秩序,并呼吁他们的长老部长。These ministers might be assisted by elders or deacons.这些部长们可能会由长老或执事协助

Entry to the full-time ministry now entails a course of theological and practical training leading to ordination, the process by which the candidate is received into the ministerial order.进入全职事奉,现在需要的神学和实践的培训,导致协调的过程,这个过程由候选人收到的部长令。 In the Catholic tradition, ordination is by a bishop, signifying the unity and continuity of the church.在天主教的传统,协调是由一位主教,标志着教会的统一性和连续性。In nonepiscopal Protestant churches, ordination is usually by a collective of ministers acting together.在nonepiscopal新教教会,通常是由一个共同行动的部长集体的协调。

The Catholic tradition emphasizes the priestly and sacramental aspects of ministry, whereas the Protestant churches stress preaching and teaching. In recent times many Protestant churches have admitted women to the ministry. 天主教传统强调祭司和圣事部的各个方面,而新教教会强调说教和教学 。,在最近的时代,许多新教教会承认妇女部。The Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches reject women's ordination; Anglicans, or Episcopalians, are divided on this issue.罗马天主教和东正教教堂拒绝妇女协调;英国圣公会,或圣公会,在这个问题上的划分。

John Macquarrie约翰Macquarrie

Bibliography 参考书目
Kirk, KE, ed., The Apostolic Ministry (1946); Niebuhr, H. Richard, and Williams, Daniel D., eds., The Ministry in Historical Perspective, rev.柯克,卡拉OK,编辑,使徒部(1946年);。尼布尔,H.理查德,和威廉姆斯,丹尼尔D,EDS,从历史的角度,冯部。 ed.编辑。(1983); Osborn, Ronald E., In Christ's Place: Christian Ministry in Today's World (1977); Schillebeeckx, Edward, Church with a Human Face: New and Expanded Theology of Ministry (1985); Steele, DA, Images of Leadership and Authority for the Church (1987); Williams, Daniel D., The Minister and the Care of Souls (1961). (1983年);奥斯本,罗纳德大肠杆菌,在基督的地方:在当今世界基督教部(1977年);施雷贝克,爱德华,人性化的教会:新的和扩展的事工神学(1985年);斯蒂尔,DA,图片领导教会管理局(1987);威廉姆斯,丹尼尔D,部长和灵魂(1961年)的护理。


Ministry

Advanced Information先进的信息

The biblical concept of ministry is service rendered to God or to people.该部圣经的概念是神或人的服务。Ministry in the church has as its goal the edification of individuals with a view toward corporate maturity in Christ (Eph. 4:7-16).在教会部个人观点走向企业的成熟,在基督(弗4:7-16)的熏陶,作为自己的奋斗目标。

The concept of ministry as service is seen in the words diakoneo ("serve") and douleuo ("serve as a slave") and their corresponding nouns.作为服务部的概念的话diakoneo(“服务”)和douleuo(“作为一个奴隶”)和其相应的名词。The word hyperetes indicates one who gives willing service to another, eg, servants of the "word" (Luke 1:2), of Christ (John 18:36; Acts 26:16; I Cor. 4:1), and of Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:5).字hyperetes表明一个人到另一个愿意服务,例如,基督的仆人“字”(路加福音1:2),(约翰福音18:36;徒26:16;林前4:1),和保罗和巴拿巴(使徒行传13:5)。

The word leitourgia and its corresponding verb, leitourgeo, often refer to the priestly service of the OT.字leitourgia和其相应的动词,leitourgeo,往往是指旧约的祭司服务。They are used figuratively in the NT to indicate financial "ministry" (Rom. 15:27; II Cor. 9:12) and the pouring out of Paul's life sacrificially in his ministry (Phil. 2:17).它们被用来在NT比喻表明财政“部”(罗马书15时27分;二林前9:12)和保罗的生命牺牲在他的部倾泻而出(腓2:17)。 This terminology describes Christian service in general, but in the postapostolic period it is increasingly applied to the distinctive service of clergy as the Christian counterpart to the OT Levitical ministers.这个术语描述基督教服务一般,但在postapostolic时期是基督教旧约的利未部长对口神职人员独特的服务越来越多地应用。 This is seen in I Clement and in the Apostolic Constitutions.这是我克莱门特和使徒宪法。

Types of ministry seen in Scripture include the service of priests and Levites in the OT, of apostles, prophets, evangelists, and pastor-teachers in the NT, along with the general ministry of elders and the individual mutual ministries of all believers.在圣经中看到部类型包括服务旧约的祭司和利未人,使徒,先知,传福音的,牧师教师在NT,以及与一般的长老和所有信徒的个人相互部委部。 The term "ministry" therefore refers to the work both of those commissioned to leadership and of the whole body of believers.因此,“经济部”一词是指委托领导和信徒全身的工作。

The ideals of ministry are portrayed in the servant-leadership of Christ.在基督的仆人领导部的理想描绘。Acts 6:3 provides guidelines as to the spiritual qualities sought in leaders, and I Tim.徒6:3领导人在寻求精神素质的指引,我添。3:1-13 (cf. Titus 1:6-9) specifies the necessary qualities in greater detail. 3:1-13(参提多书1:6-9)指定更详细的必要素质。

There is a considerable difference of opinion regarding the historical development of ministry in the NT and in the early church.有一个相当大的差异,有关部在NT和在早期教会历史发展的意见。Many have seen a development from a simple charismatic ministry, exercised by every Christian in an individual way, to an organized or "official" ministry restricted to a few, ultimately issuing in the monarchial episcopate in the postapostolic period.很多人看到的发展,从每一个基督徒在个人的方式行使,一个简单的魅力部,一个组织或仅限于少数,最终在君权主教在postapostolic期间发行的“官方”部。 The Reformation reversed this trend to a degree.改革在一定程度上扭转了这一趋势。From time to time in the history of the church and again in recent times various groups have emphasized the charismatic aspect of ministry.从时间在教会的历史时间,并再次在近代,各种团体都强调部的魅力方面。Most recently, concepts of ministry have been modified by such diverse movements as the worker priests, the stress on lay leadership and ministries, the development of multiple church staffs, and the modern charismatic movement.最近,外交部概念已被修改,由工人的祭司,奠定领导和部委的压力,多个教会员工发展,与现代魅力的运动等不同运动。

It is far from certain, however, that the NT church experienced a linear development from charismatic to institutional ministry, and even less plausible that there was an antithesis in the early church between these tow forms of ministry such as postulated by E. Kasemann and others.这是远一些,不过,新台币教堂魅力的线性发展经历了一个机构部,甚至不太合理的,有在早期教会部之间的这些拖车形式,如E.凯士曼和其他假设一个对立面。 It is true that there is little indication in most of Paul's letters of an institutional ministry, and that elders and deacons are mentioned mainly in the Pastorals (often considered non-Pauline) and Acts (often considered an "early catholic" work).这是事实,有迹象显示,在大部分机构部的保罗的书信,和,长老和执事是在Pastorals(往往被视为非波利娜)和行为(通常被认为是“早期天主教”工作),主要提及。 However, the mention in Phil.不过,在提到菲尔。1:1 of elders and deacons accords with the picture in Acts of Paul ordaining elders in every church. 1:1的图片保罗祝圣长老的行为,在每一个教会的长老和执事符合。Also the passages in the Pastorals concerning elders and deacons stress their character and function, not their "office."此外,有关长老和执事Pastorals的段落,强调他们的性格和功能,而不是他们的“办公室”。Further, the specific function exercised by elders, deacons, apostles, prophets, evangelists, and pastor-teachers is never set over against, or intended to eclipse, the mutual ("one another") ministries of the individual Spirit-gifted believers.此外,长老,执事,使徒,先知,福音使者,和牧师,教师行使的具体功能是从来没有设置过反对,或打算偏食,相互(“彼此”)的个体精神天赋的信徒部委。

There are a number of additional issues surrounding the theology of ministry.有周围的神学部的其他问题。These include (1) whether the NT ever described a prerequisite "call" to ministry other than the general commands of Christ and the recognition of the local church; (2) whether women were admitted to ministry in the NT (and consequently should be today); (3) whether life style (eg, homosexuality) or prior experiences such as divorce should preclude ministry; and (4) what honor and authority should accrue to "full-time" ministers of Christ above those which belong to any faithful follower of the Lord.这些措施包括(1)是否新台币以往描述的一个先决条件“称之为”部比其他一般命令基督和地方教会的认可;(2)妇女是否承认在NT部(并因此今天应该);(3)无论是生活方式(如同性恋)或以前的经验,如离婚,应排除部;和(4)什么荣誉和权力应归于上述那些属于任何忠实追随者的“全职”基督部长主。 Some of these questions revolve around the institutional aspect of ministry.其中一些问题,围绕部的体制方面。A further question is whether there is a sacramental aspect to ministry which is restricted to those ordained as priests by the church.另一个问题是,是否有一个圣礼方面部,这是限制那些由教会神父祝圣。

A dual view of ministry, ie, that all believers were to exercise a ministry in accordance with their spiritual gift, but that authoritative teaching, leadership, and discipline were limited to a recognized body of elders, paves the way for an answer to the above questions.一个部,即所有信徒行使部在按照自己的精神礼物,但仅限于一个公认机构的长者,权威教学,​​领导和纪律,双视图铺平了道路,为回答上述的方式的问题。 Paul restricted women from authoritative teaching positions, for example (I Tim. 2:12), but the universal testimony of both the OT and NT is that they exercised a variety of significant ministries.保罗限制妇女权威教学岗位,例如(一添。2:12),但催产素和NT的普遍证词,他们行使各种重大部委。There are some significant instances also of women leaders in the early centuries of the church.在教堂世纪初的妇女领导人也有一些显着的实例。Whether Paul's restrictions were intended to apply beyond the time when the NT was completed and when all ministries were more regulated is open to question.无论保罗的限制,目的是超越时间的申请时NT已经完成,各部委时更加规范,是值得商榷的。Ministry, by whatever persons and in whatever form, is essentially a continuation of the servant ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ.部,由任何人,不论什么形式,本质上是一个延续的主耶稣基督的仆人部。In Protestant evangelicalism it is also largely a ministry of the Word of God.在新教福音派很大程度上也是一个神的话语部。The purpose of ministry extends, of course, even beyond the edification of the church.部的目的,范围,当然,甚至超越了教会的熏陶。It is, as in all Christian activity, the glory of God.在所有基督教的活动,这是神的荣耀。

WL Liefeld轮候册Liefeld
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
P. Achtemeier, "The Ministry of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels," Int 35:157-69; HW Beyer, TDNT, II, 81-93; FJA Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; JB Lightfoot, "The Christian Ministry," in Saint Paul's Epistle to the Philippians; TM Lindsay, The Church and the Ministry in the Early Centuries; TW Manson, The Church's Ministry; JKS Reid, The Biblical Doctrine of the Ministry; E. Schillebeeckx, Ministry; E. Schweizer, Church Order in the NT; EE Shelp and A. Sunderland, eds., A Biblical Basis for Ministry; H. Strathmann, TDNT, IV, 215-31; HB Swete, ed., Essays on the Early History of the Church and the Ministry.P. Achtemeier,“耶稣在天气福音部,”诠释35:157-69;硬件拜尔,TDNT,二,81-93; FJA园艺,基督教教会,巴顿娜莱,“福音”圣保禄书信的腓利商标林赛罗;世纪初,教堂和部TW曼森,教会的部JKS的里德,该部圣经的教义; E.施雷贝克部; E.施韦策,教会订购新台币; EE Shelp和A.桑德兰,EDS一个部的圣经基础; H. Strathmann,TDNT,四,215-31; HB Swete,主编,教会的早期历史和部散文。


Priest牧师

General Information一般资料

The office of a priest is essentially that of a mediator; he interprets God (or the gods or other supernatural forces) to the adherents of a religion and represents them before God, usually as the one who offers sacrifice on their behalf.一个牧师的办公室基本上是一个调停者,他解释神(或神或其他超自然的力量),以一种宗教的信徒,并代表他们在神面前,通常作为一个人代表他们的牺牲。 All ancient religions had their priests, and these priests exercised great influence, not only as custodians of the sacred mysteries but often as the only literate members of society.所有古老的宗教的神父,这些神父不仅神圣奥秘的保管人,但往往只有有文化的社会成员行使很大的影响,。Many present-day religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, and Shinto have priests, but others, notably Islam, do not.当今许多宗教,如佛教​​,印度教,和神道的祭司,但其他人,特别是伊斯兰教,不。Judaism had priests until the destruction of the Temple.犹太教祭司,直到圣殿被毁。

In Christianity the word priest comes from two distinct Greek terms, one meaning elder or presbyter and the other meaning priest in the traditional sense of mediator.一词在基督教牧师来自两个不同的希腊而言,一个意义长老或牧师和其他传统意义上的调停的含义牧师。 Roman Catholics, Anglicans (Episcopalians), and Eastern Orthodox commonly refer to as priests those who have been ordained; they correspond roughly to those whom Protestants call ministers or sometimes presbyters.罗马天主教,英国圣公会(圣公会)和东正教通常是指那些被规定着教士,他们大致相当于人新教徒部长或有时长老。 The word priest in its traditional hieratical sense is used in the New Testament to refer to Jesus Christ, the mediator of the new Covenant and also of the whole Church, which exercises a collective priesthood.字牧师在其传统的hieratical意义,是在新约,是指耶稣基督,新的公约和整个教会,行使集体祭司的调停。 Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and Eastern Orthodox recognize also a special hieratical priesthood of bishops and presbyters, expressed in their sacramental ministry and especially in the offering of the eucharistic sacrifice.罗马天主教,英国圣公会和东正教也承认,在他们的圣礼部,特别是在圣体圣事的牺牲提供的主教和长老的特殊hieratical祭司。

John Macquarrie约翰Macquarrie

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Fischer, James A., Priests: Images, Ideals and Changing Roles (1987); James, Edwin O., The Nature and Function of Priesthood Kung, Hans, Why Priests?, trans.埃德温菲舍尔,詹姆斯A,祭司图片,理想和不断变化的作用(1987年);詹姆斯,澳,圣职贡,汉斯的性质和功能,为什么牧师,反? by John Cumming (1972); Power, David N., Minister of Christ and His Church: The Theology of Priesthood (1969); Rahner, Karl, The Priesthood, trans.由约翰卡明(1972年);电源,大卫N.,基督部长和他的教会圣职的神学(1969);拉纳,卡尔,圣职,跨。by Edward Quinn (1970; repr. 1973).爱德华奎因(1970年,1973年再版)。


Priesthood圣职

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term "priest" is identical in origin with the word "presbyter," which literally means "elder"; but in the English language it has become associated for the most part with the religious official whose main function is the offering up of sacrifices, though the English Reformers of the sixteenth century hoped that the retention of the term "priest" in the Book of Common Prayer would effect the restoration of its proper meaning of elder. “牧师”一词是单词“长老”的字面意思是“长老”的起源相同,但在英语中,它已成为大部分与宗教官员,其主要功能是提供牺牲,虽然十六世纪的英语改革者希望保留在共同祈祷书的“祭司”会影响恢复其长辈应有之义。

This confusion was occasioned by the strange fact that the English language has not kept in common usage any term corresponding to the Latin sacerdos, which precisely designates one who offers up sacrifices (hence "sacerdotal").这种混乱所引起的奇怪的事实,英语不常见的用法相应的拉丁sacerdos,​​这恰恰指定提供高达牺牲(因此“sacerdotal”)的长期保存。 In the English of the OT and NT "priest" denotes a sacerdos and "priesthood" his sacerdotal ministry.在催产素和NT“祭司”的英文表示sacerdos和“祭司”他sacerdotal部。Thus the duty belonging to priesthood is defined in Heb.因此属于祭司的责任是指在希伯来书。5:1 as follows: "Every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins"; and on the basis of this principle it is argued concerning the priesthood of Christ that "therefore it is necessary for this priest also to have something to offer" (Heb. 8:3). 5:1为如下:“每次从男性中挑选的大祭司获委任署理代表男性的上帝,提供礼品和牺牲的罪过”;关于圣职,有人认为这一原则的基础上基督说,“因此,这个牧师是必要的,也有一些提供”(希伯来书8:3)。 The Christian doctrine of priesthood and of the relationship between the priesthood of the OT and that of the NT is most fully expounded in the Epistle to the Hebrews, which has been called "the Epistle of Priesthood."神职人员和基督教教义的旧约的祭司和新台币之间的关系是最充分地阐述了在书信的希伯来人,被称为“圣职的书信。”

The Necessity of Priesthood圣职的必要性

It is the universal sinfulness of man which makes a sacrificing priesthood a necessity.这是一个牺牲的祭司必需品的人的普遍的罪恶。The sacrifices offered up effect, or symbolize the means of effecting, reconciliation between sinful man and his holy Creator.牺牲所提供的效果,或象征的手段有效,罪孽深重的人,他的神圣的造物主之间的和解。The function of priesthood, accordingly, is a mediatorial function.圣职的功能,因此,是中保的功能。The giving of the law through Moses and the institution of the Aaronic or Levitical priesthood belong together.给予法律通过摩西和亚伦或利未祭司机构属于一起。Law and priesthood are simultaneous in origin and inseparable in operation (Heb. 7:11ff.).法律和祭司是同时起源和运作分不开的(希伯来书7:11 FF)。的。The reason for this is that the Israelites, like the rest of mankind, were sinners and therefore when confronted with the law, which is God's standard of righteousness, lawbreakers.这样做的原因是以色列人,就像人类的其余部分,是罪人,因此当面对法律,这是神的公义标准,违法。

Certainly the Godgiven law is holy and just and good and spiritual (Rom. 7:12, 14) and as such marks out the way of life: by faithfully keeping its precepts a man shall live (Lev. 18:5; Neh. 9:29; Matt. 19:16-17; Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12).当然Godgiven法律是神圣的,公正和良好的和精神的(罗马书7:12,14),一个人出生命的方式:如商标,忠实地保持其规则应生活(利未记18:5;尼9。 :29;。马特19:16-17;罗10:5;加拉太3:12)。But man's radical problem is that he is a sinner.但人的根本问题是,他是个罪人。The law shows him up for what he is, a lawbreaker, and "the wages of sin is death" (Rom. 6:23; cf. Ezek. 18:4, 20; Gen. 2:17).法表明他对他是什么,一个坏人,“罪的工价就是死”(罗马书6:23;。比照以西结书18:4,20;创2:17)。 Consequently Paul writes, "The very commandment which promised life proved to be death to me" (Rom. 7:10), not that there is anything wrong with the law; the fault is in man who breaks the law (Rom. 7:13).因此保罗写道:“非常诫命许诺生活证明是我死”(罗马书7:10),而不是有任何法律问题,故障是触犯刑律的人(罗马书7: 13)。Hence the necessity for the formulation of the law to be accompanied by the institution of a priesthood to mediate redemptively between God and the sinner who has broken his law, and who needs to be restored from death to life.因此,制定法律的必要性伴随着由神职人员之间进行调停,上帝的罪人,谁打破了他的法律救赎的机构,以及谁需要恢复从死亡的生命。

OT Priesthood旧约圣职

The priesthood of the old covenant could not effect the reality of reconciliation portended by its sacrificial function.旧约的祭司不能影响现实的和解预示其祭祀功能。Its character was preparatory; it portrayed the principle of propitiatory sacrifice but not the fulfillment of that principle.其特点是预备的,它描绘了和解的牺牲原则,但不履行这一原则。Its imperfection, which aroused the longing for and the expectation of the provision of the perfect priesthood, was apparent for the following reasons.它的缺陷,这引起了向往和期望提供完美的神职人员,是明显的,原因如下。

Christ as Priest基督祭司的职

The purpose of the old order of priesthood was to teach the people that atonement for sins requires the provision of an innocent victim in the sinner's place and the shedding of blood as that victim dies the death due to the sinner.祭司的旧秩序的目的是教人的罪孽赎罪需要一个无辜的受害者提供罪人的地方,和血脱落,受害人死亡死亡原因的罪人。The Levitical order could not accomplish this atonement, but it kept alive the expectation of the coming of the prefect priest and the offering of the perfect sacrifice in fulfillment of the gospel promises contained in the Scriptures of the OT.利未秩序不能达到这个目标,赎罪,但它一直活着知府牧师未来的期望和提供完善的牺牲在旧约圣经中的福音承诺的履行。The new order of priesthood is that of Melchizedek, and it is comprehended in the single person of our Redeemer Jesus Christ (Heb. 7).是麦基洗德圣职的新秩序,这是我们的救主耶稣基督(希伯来7)单人理解。

The perfection of his priesthood is confirmed by the fact that it is forever (Ps. 110:4), that the sacrifice he offered is once for all (Heb. 7:27), and that, his work of atonement completed, he is now enthroned in celestial glory (Heb. 1:3; 10:12; 12:2).完善他的圣职是事实,这是永远(诗篇110:4),他提供的牺牲是一次对所有(希伯来书7:27),并证实,他赎罪的工作完成,他是现在登基天体的荣耀(希伯来书1:3; 10:12; 12:2)。The perfection of his priesthood is established by the sinlessness of his earthly life as the incarnate Son, our fellow human being.建立完善他的圣职由他的儿子的化身,我们的同胞的人的现世生活的清白。This means that in contrast to the first Adam, who suffered defeat and dragged down the human race in his fall, Jesus, "the last Adam, (I Cor. 15:45, 47), took our humanity to himself in order to redeem it and to raise it in himself to the glorious destiney for which it was always intended.这意味着,在对比的第一个亚当,谁遭受的失败,并拖累在他的秋天“末后的亚当(我肺心病。15:45,47),耶稣,人类,我们人类为了挽救自己它,并提高自己,它总是打算光荣destiney。

It means that in going to the cross he who was without sin took our sins upon himself and suffered the rejection and the death due us sinners, "the righteous for the unrighteous" (I Pet. 2:22-24; 3:18; Heb. 4:15; 7:26-27), as the innocent victim provided by God's grace and mercy (I Pet. 1:18-19).这意味着,在交叉的他谁是没有罪的发生在自己身上的罪,遭到拒绝和死亡由于我们罪人,“义不义”(彼前2:22-24;三时18;希伯来书4:15; 7:26-27),神的恩典和怜悯(彼前1:18-19)。无辜的受害者。And it means, further, that he is not only our sacrificing priest but also the sacrifice itself, for it was himself that he offered up for us, and thus in him we have the provision of the perfect substitute, a genuine equivalent, our fellow man (Heb. 2:14-15), who truly takes our place.这意味着,进一步的,他不仅是我们的牺牲牧师也牺牲自己,因为它是自己,他为我们提供了起来,从而在他身上,我们有提供完美的替代品,相当于一个真正的,我们的同胞男子(希伯来书2:14-15),谁真正需要我们的地方。 Accordingly we are assured that by the will of God "we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all," who "by a single offering has perfected for all time those who are sanctified" (Heb. 10:10, 14).因此,我们确信神的旨意,“我们已经成圣通过耶稣基督的身体提供所有一次,”谁“由一个单一的产品 所有那些成圣完善”(希伯来书10:10,14)。

The new order of priesthood fulfilled in the single person of Christ has, of course, completely superseded the old order.当然,在基督的单人完成的新秩序的祭司,完全取代旧秩序。With Christ as our one great high priest who lives forever there is now no place or need for any succession of sacrificing priests.随着基督作为我们的一个伟大的大祭司长存现在有没有地方或需要的任何牺牲的祭司继承。Now that he has offered up the one perfect sacrifice of himself there is room for no other sacrifice nor for any repetition of sacrifices.现在,他提供了一个牺牲自己的完美,有没有其他的牺牲,也没有任何重复的牺牲空间。 In Christ both priesthood and sacrifice have been brought to fulfillment and to finality.神职人员和牺牲在基督里得到实现和终局性。

.

The Priesthood of Believers神职人员的信徒

There remains, however, a priesthood which belongs to those who through faith have been united to Christ.然而,仍然有一个祭司属于那些通过信仰已经与基督联合。This has commonly been designated " the priesthood of all believers ."这通常被指定为“ 所有信徒的祭司。 “Thus Peter describes Christians as "a holy priesthood" whose function is "to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ" (I Pet. 2:5; cf. vs. 9).因此,彼得介绍基督徒为“圣洁的祭司”,其职能是“提供接受上帝通过耶稣基督的灵祭”(我宠物2:5。CF比9)。 These spiritual sacrifices are not in any sense redemptive sacrifices but sacrifices of gratitude to God for the one all-sufficient redemptive sacrifice of Christ's self-offering at Calvary for us sinners.这些精神的牺牲是不是在任何意义上的赎罪的牺牲,但牺牲一个基督在各各他为我们罪人自我提供足够的救赎牺牲的感谢上帝。 Thus we are exhorted to "present our bodies," ie, ourselves, "as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God" (Rom. 12:1); and as we willingly offer ourselves we express our spiritual priesthood in acts of praise and thanksgiving and in the selfless service of our fellow men as we minister to their needs.因此,我们告诫“目前,我们的身体”,即自己,“作为一个活祭,是圣洁和接受神”(罗马书12:1);,因为我们愿意提供自己的,我们对此表示赞美的行为在我们的精神祭司和感恩节和在我们的男同胞们无私的服务,我们部长他们的需求。 The exercise of this priesthood is summed up in the words of Heb.行使这项祭司是在希伯来书的话总结了。13:15-16: "Through him [Christ] then let us continually offer up a sacrifice or praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that acknowledge his name. Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God." 13:15-16:“通过他[基督],然后让我们不断地提供牺牲或赞美神,那就是,嘴唇,承认他的名字的水果,不要忽视做的好,并分享你有什么,这种牺牲,是神所喜悦的。“

In his celebrated essay "The Christian Ministry," JB Lightfoot not only insists that "as individuals, all Christians are priests alike," he also draws attention to the fact that in the ministerial offices enumerated in I Cor.在他的著名散文“福音”,巴顿娜莱不仅坚持认为,“作为个人,所有的基督徒牧师一样,”他还提请注意,在部长办公室列举的事实,我肺心病。 12:28 and Eph.十二时28分和弗。 4:11 "there is an entire silence about priestly functions: for the most exalted office in the Church, the highest gift of the Spirit, conveyed no sacerdotal right which was not enjoyed by the humblest member of the Christian community." 4:11“有一个关于整个沉默祭司职能:在教会的最崇高的办公室,最高的精神礼物,转达没有sacerdotal不是由不起眼的基督教社会成员享有的权利。” His affirmation concerning the kingdom of Christ in the opening paragraph of the essay is no less emphatic: "Above all it has no sacerdotal system. It interposes no sacrificial tribe or class between God and man, by whose intervention alone God is reconciled and man forgiven. Each individual member holds personal communion with the Divine Head. To him immediately he is responsible, and from him directly he obtains pardon and draws strength."的作文首段中关于基督的国度,他肯定是没少强调:“最重要的是它没有sacerdotal系统插入牺牲部落或类神与人之间,没有干预的单独上帝是不甘心和男子原谅。每个成员拥有个人共融与神头。立即给他,他是负责,并直接从他那里,他获得赦免,并提请实力。“ These words of a great churchman and NT scholar admirably present the position of the apostolic church on the subject of priesthood.一个伟大的牧师和NT学者这些话令人钦佩目前的使徒教会的神职人员的主题地位。

PE Hughes体育休斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Minister部长

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It is the consistent NT teaching that the work of ministers is "for the perfecting of the saints, for the edifying of the body of Christ" (Eph. 4:12).它是一致的NT教学,部长的工作是“成全圣徒,为基督的身体,有启发性的 ”(弗4:12)。The minister is called of God to a position of responsibility rather than privilege, as the words for "minister" show (diakonos, "table waiter"; hyperetes, "under-rower" in a large ship; leitourgos, "servant," usually of the state or a temple).部长被称为神的责任,而不是特权的地位,为显示“部长”(diakonos,“表服务员”的字样; hyperetes,“划船”在一个大型船舶; leitourgos,“仆人”,通常国家或一个寺庙)。

There are two passages in the NT which are of especial importance in this connection, I Cor.在新界有两个通道,其中特别重要的是在这方面,我肺心病。12:28 and Eph.十二时28分和弗。 4:11-12.4:11-12。From the former we gather that included in the ministries exercised in the early church were those of apostleship, prophecy, teaching, miracles, gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues (possibly also interpretations, vs. 30).前我们聚集在早期教会行使各部委包括那些使徒,预言,教学,创造奇迹,医治的礼物,帮助,各国政府,方言的多样性(也可能解释,与30)。 The latter adds evangelists and pastors.后者增加了传福音和牧师。In every case these appear to be the direct gift of God to the church.在每一种情况下这些似乎是上帝的礼物教会。Both passages seem to say this, and this is confirmed elsewhere in the case of some of the people mentioned.这两个段落,似乎这样说,和其他地方的人提到了一些证实了这一点。Thus in Gal.因此,在GAL。 1:1 Paul insists that his apostolate was in no sense from man.1:1保罗坚持认为,在没有人的意识是他的使徒。He entirely excludes the possibility of his receiving it by ordination.他完全排除他收到由协调的可能性。We are to think, then, of a group of men directly inspired by the Holy Spirit to perform various functions within the church by way of building up the saints in the body of Christ.我们去思考,然后,一组直接由圣灵的启发方式,建立基督的身体圣徒教会内执行各种功能的男子,。

But there are others also.但也有其他人也。Thus from early days the apostles made it a habit to appoint elders.因此,从初期的使徒,任命长老,一​​种习惯。Some hold that the seven of Acts 6 were the first elders.有人认为,行为6 7第一长老。This seems very unlikely, but there were certainly elders at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15).这似乎不太可能,但肯定会(15)在耶路撒冷的长者。It is very striking that even on their first missionary journey Paul and Barnabas appointed elders "in every church" (Acts 14:23).这是非常惊人的,即使在他们的第一个传教之旅保罗和巴拿巴任命为“在每一个教会”(徒14:23)中的长老。 There is every reason for thinking that these men were ordained with the laying on of hands, as in the case of the elders of the Jewish synagogue.是每一个有思维,这些人与铺设的手,在犹太教会堂的长者的情况下,被祝圣的原因。Then there were the deacons of whom we read in Phil.然后,有执事,其中我们在菲尔读。1:1 and I Tim.1:1,我添。 3:8ff.3:8 FF。We know nothing of their method of appointment, but it is likely that it also included the laying on of hands, as it certainly did somewhat later in the history of the church.我们完全知道他们的任命方法,但它可能还包括铺设的手,因为它确实有点迟在教会的历史。

It is sometimes said that the first group of ministers is opposed to the second in that they possessed a direct gift from God.人们有时说,第一组的部长反对第二,他们拥有直接来自上帝的礼物。 This, however, cannot be sustained.然而,这不可能持续。In Acts 20:28 we read, "the Holy Ghost has made you bishops," and in I Tim.在使徒行传20:28中,我们读到,“圣灵你主教,”和我添。 4:14 of "the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery."4:14“的礼物,在你身上,这是给你的预言铺设长老手中。”It is clear that the act of ordination was not thought of as in opposition to a gift from God, but as itself the means of the gift from God.很显然,反对来自上帝的礼物,没有想到的协调行为,但作为本身意味着来自上帝的礼物。 Indeed the only reason that a man might minister adequately was that God had given him the gift of ministering.事实上的唯一原因,一个人可能部长充分是上帝给他的服事的恩赐。The picture we get then is of a group of ministers who had been ordained, men like bishops and deacons, and side by side with them (at times no doubt the same people) those who had a special gift of God in the way of prophecy, apostleship, or the like.然后我们得到的图片,一组部长已受戒,男人喜欢主教和执事,并与他们并肩(有时毫无疑问,同样的人),那些预言的方式在一个特殊的礼物神,使徒,或像。 The meaning of some of those gifts has long since perished (eg, prophecy, apostleship).的一些礼物的含义早已灭亡(例如,预言,使徒)。But they witness to the gifts that God gave his church in the time of its infancy.但他们见证的礼物,上帝给他的教会在刚刚起步的时候。

There are some who think of the ministry as constitutive of the church.还有一些部构成教会认为。They emphasize that Christ is the head of the body, and that he gives it apostles, prophets, etc., that it may be built up.他们强调,基督是身体的头,而且,他给它使徒,先知,等,它可能建立起来。They infer that the ministry is the channel through which life flows from the head.他们推断,该部是生活从头部流向的渠道。 This does, however, seem to be reading something into the passage.然而,这似乎是通过读入的东西。It is better to take realistically the NT picture of the church as the body of Christ, as a body, moreover, with a diversity of functions.采取切实新台币图片教会作为基督的身体,作为一个团体,而且具有功能的多样性,这是更好地。 The life of Christ is in it, and the divine power puts forth whatever is needed.在基督的生命,并提出任何需要的神力。 In the Spirit-filled body there will emerge such ministerial and other organs as are necessary.在圣灵充满的身体会出现所必需的部长和其他器官。On this view the ministry is essential, but no more essential than any other function of the body.从这个角度来看该部是必不可少的,但没有超过身体的任何其他功能的重要。And it preserves the important truth that the body is that of Christ, who does what he wills within it.它保留了重要的道理,身体是基督,他的遗嘱内。His blessing is not confined to any particular channel.他的祝福,并不局限于任何特定的通道。

L Morris大号莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
HB Swete, Early History of the Church and Ministry; JB Lightfoot, Commentary on Philippians; KE Kirk, ed., The Apostolic Ministry; TW Manson, The Church's Ministry; S. Neil, ed., The Ministry of the Church; L. Morris, Ministers of God; DT Jenkins, The Gift of Ministry; M. Green, Called to Serve; JKS Reid, The Biblical Doctrine of the Ministry; E. Schweizer, Church Order in the NT.乙肝Swete,早期历史的教会和部; JB娜莱,评上腓柯柯克,编辑,使徒部; TW曼森,教会的部S.尼尔,教会部; L。莫里斯,上帝的部长; DT詹金斯,礼品部; M.绿色,要求担任; JKS的里德,该部圣经的教义; E.施韦策,教会在NT订购。


Minister部长

Advanced Information先进的信息

A Minister is one who serves, as distinguished from the master.一个部长担任,从主杰出。(1.) Heb.(1)希伯来书。meshereth, applied to an attendant on one of superior rank, as to Joshua, the servant of Moses (Ex. 33:11), and to the servant of Elisha (2 Kings 4:43). meshereth,约书亚,摩西(出埃及记33:11)仆人,仆人以利沙(王下4:43),话务员,优越的排名之一。This name is also given to attendants at court (2 Chr. 22:8), and to the priests and Levites (Jer. 33:21; Ezek. 44:11).这个名字也给服务员(2 CHR 22:8),在法庭上,祭司和利(耶利米书33:21;。以西结书44:11)。 (2.) Heb.(2)希伯来书。pelah (Ezra 7:24), a "minister" of religion.pelah(以斯拉7:24),“部长”宗教。Here used of that class of sanctuary servants called "Solomon's servants" in Ezra 2:55-58 and Neh.这里使用的,称为“所罗门的仆人”以斯拉2:55-58和尼的避难所公务员类。7:57-60.7:57-60。(3.) Greek leitourgos, a subordinate public administrator, and in this sense applied to magistrates (Rom. 13:6).(3)希腊leitourgos,下属的公共管理者,在这个意义上,裁判(罗马书13:6)。It is applied also to our Lord (Heb. 8:2), and to Paul in relation to Christ (Rom. 15:16).它也适用于我们的主(希伯来书8:2),基督(罗马书15:16)保罗。(4.) Greek hyperetes (literally, "under-rower"), a personal attendant on a superior, thus of the person who waited on the officiating priest in the synagogue (Luke 4:20). (4)希腊hyperetes(字面上看,“下划船”),个人服务员卓越,从而等待主礼牧师的人,在犹太教堂(路加福音4:20)。It is applied also to John Mark, the attendant on Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:5).它也适用于约翰马克,保罗和巴拿巴(使徒行传13:5)的服务员。(5.) Greek diaconos, usually a subordinate officer or assistant employed in relation to the ministry of the gospel, as to Paul and Apollos (1 Cor.3:5), Tychicus (Eph. 6:21), Epaphras (Col. 1:7), Timothy (1 Thess. 3:2), and also to Christ (Rom. 15:8). (5)希腊diaconos,通常受雇于福音部的一个下属人员或助理,以Tychicus(弗6:21),保罗和亚波罗(1 Cor.3:5),Epaphras(上校1:7),霍震霆(帖前3:2),基督(罗马书15:8)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Clergy牧师

Advanced Information先进的信息

The word derives from the Greek kleros, "a lot," which points to a method of selection like that in Acts 1:26 (in Acts 1:17 "part" [AV] translates kleros).这个词源于希腊kleros,“了很多,”这点这样的选择方法,在使徒行传1:26(徒1:17“的一部分”[AV]翻译kleros)。 As early as Jerome it was pointed out that the term is ambiguous.早为杰罗姆指出,一词是含糊不清。It may denote those chosen to be God's, the Lord's "lot" (as in Deut. 32:9).这可能意味着选择是上帝的,上帝的“地段”(申命记32:9)。 Or it may signify those whose lot or portion is the Lord (cf. Ps. 16:5).或者它可能意味着其地段或部分是主(参诗16:5)。In the NT the word is not used of a restricted group among the believers, and in I Pet.在NT的字是不使用受限制的组之间的信徒,和我的宠物。5:3 the plural is used of God's people as a whole (God's heritage," AV). But by the time of Tertullian it was used of the ordained office-bearers in the church, viz., bishops, priests, and deacons. Later the word came to include the minor orders, and sometimes, it seems, members of religious orders or even educated people generally. But this use did not last, and the term now denotes regular members of the ordained ministry of the church (without respect to denomination) as distinct from lay people generally. 5:3的复数是用来作为一个整体(神的遗产,“AV)上帝的子民,但德尔图良的时间,有人干事,即教会,主教,神父,和执事晋。后来这个词来包括未成年人的订单,而有时,似乎,宗教界人士,甚至是受过教育的人一般,但这种使用没有最后,现在这个词表示教会祝圣部正式成员(不尊重打下一般人不同面额)为。

L Morris大号莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Clergy, Ministry神职人员,部

Editor's Comment编辑点评

This is a rare contribution to BELIEVE where personal commentary is involved.这是一种罕见的贡献,相信其中涉及个人的评论是。 For that reason, these comments may be ignored, if only because they are only provided by a Pastor and not a lifelong Christian scholar like the thousands of other articles in BELIEVE.出于这个原因,这些意见可能会被忽略,如果仅仅是因为他们只提供了一个牧师,而不是像相信其他文章的成千上万的终身基督教学者。

There seems to be an enormous recent effect, where Christian Ministers seem to believe that they are "absolute authorities" on every possible subject related to Christianity.似乎有一个巨大的近期疗效,基督教的部长们似乎认为他们有关基督教的每一个可能的主题是“绝对权威”。 They attended Divinity School or Bible College or some other educational facility where they received a hopefully good education regarding Christianity.他们参加了神学院或圣经学院或其他教育机构,他们收到了有关基督教的希望良好的教育。However, many seem to have morphed into believing that they "know it all!".然而,许多人似乎都相信他们摇身一变“知道这一切!”。

Many modern Ministers will tolerate zero disagreement with anything they ever say.许多现代的部长们不会容忍任何他们曾经说零的分歧。More, they often become truly vicious in attacking anyone who disagrees with them.多,他们往往成为真正的攻击任何人不同意与他们的恶性。Sadly, that often involves Ministers of other Churches.可悲的是,这往往涉及其他教会部长。Do they not realize what Jesus mist think of their viciously attacking other Christian Clergy?他们不知道什么耶稣薄雾认为其恶毒攻击其他基督教神职人员?How can they think that they can be justified in such attacks?他们怎么能认为他们可以在这种攻击中合理吗?Whether or not they happen to actually be correct or not?无论是否发生实际的正确与否?

Didn't Jesus Teach us to be Tolerant and Compassionate and Patient?没有耶稣教导我们要宽容和富有同情心和耐心呢?Didn't He Teach is to be Humble rather than Arrogant?不是他教的是要谦虚,而不是傲慢?

The SOURCE of this sort of Arrogance seems to be equally troubling.这种傲慢的来源似乎是同样令人不安。IF a Minister had spent a lifetime (say, 30 years) deeply studying some concept such as whether tattoos is sinful or acceptable, it might be appropriate for him to express personal openions.如果部长一辈子(说,30岁),深入研究一些概念,例如是否纹身是有罪还是可以接受的的,它可能是适当的,为他表达个人openions。 But the reality is that, once out of Bible School, most Ministry do very little additional study.但现实情况是,一旦出了圣经学校,大多数部做进一步的研究很少。They have weekly responsibilities of giving Sermons and composing those Sermons, of preparing and giving mid-week Services, and of dealing with the many daily issues regarding operating a Church, attendance, utility bills, snow removal, scheduling Baptisms, etc. Therefore, in general, the basis for his opinions on any subject such as tattoos is from some OTHER Minister who has either written a book or given speeches expressing HIS personal opinions!他们的说教和撰写这些讲道每周职责,准备和周中的服务,并处理许多日常问题与有关经营一所教堂,考勤,水电费,铲雪,调度洗礼等,因此,在一般情况下,对任何主题,如纹身他的意见的基础上,从其他一些部长,要么写了一本书或发言,表达他个人的意见!

Once he hears several different Ministers each express similar opinions, they tend to get absorbed and recorded as "rock solid beliefs".一旦他听到几个不同的部长每个表达类似的意见,他们往往被吸收,并记录为“坚如磐石的信念”。Nearly always, there is also some specific Scripture that has gotten attached as the supposed Biblical basis for such beliefs.几乎总是,也有一些特定的经文,作为假想的“圣经”这种信念的基础已经得到附加。

This situation has resulted in intensely passionate Ministers insisting that abortion is absolutely a sin, but a careful examination of the Scripture cited rarely says anything resembling that!这种情况造成强烈热情的坚持,堕胎绝对是一种罪过部长,但仔细检查的圣经引很少说,任何类似的!Many personal assumptions regarding the interpretation are necessary to arrive at the conclusions that he expresses as absolute fact.很多关于个人假设的解释是必要的,得出的结论,他表示绝对的事实。Indeed, there are other Ministers (rather few) who cite Scripture to passionately insist that (some) abortions are not sinful at all, and interestingly, they sometimes cite the exact same Scripture as alleged basis!事实上,有其他部长(相当少)谁引用圣经热情坚持(某些)堕胎不是罪过可言,和有趣的是,他们有时会举被指控的基础上完全相同的圣经!

This all really makes Protestant Christianity look really bad, as a basic claim has always been that all beliefs are "sola Scriptura", by the Bible alone.这一切真的让基督教新教看起来非常糟糕,作为一项基本要求,所有信仰“唯独圣经”,仅“圣经”一直。This is clearly not what is being done regarding such subjects, on either side of the argument.这显然​​不是正在做什么等科目,有关的说法两侧。

It seems clear to me that ALL Clergy need to remember that Jesus Taught Humility and Tolerance.似乎很清楚,我认为所有的神职人员需要记住,耶稣教导谦卑和宽容。It is therefore inappropriate to demand that others agree with you, even if you are certain that you are correct!因此,这是不恰当的,要求别人同意你的看法,即使你确信你是正确的的!Yes, it is good to have Passion and Devotion to Christianity.是的,这是良好的,有激情和献身基督教。But we are also required (or supposed) to BEHAVE like Christians, or like Christ might have.但是,我们也需要(或应该)像基督徒,或像基督有可能。It is unimaginable that Jesus would have berated or insulted Christians or anyone else for having incorrect or incomplete beliefs.耶稣斥责或侮辱基督徒或任何其他人因不正确或不完整的信念,这是不可想象的的。There is no doubt that He would instead have Patiently attempted to calmly explain important facts.毫无疑问,他反而耐心地试图冷静地解释重要的事实。Why isn't that obvious in today's Churches?为什么不是明显在今天的教会呢?Instead, there is such a ferocious insistence on claiming absolute knowledge of all of God's Plan, a claim that should actually be seen as very foolish.相反,有这样一个凶猛坚持声称绝对知识所有神的计划,实际上应该是非常愚蠢的说法。We are all merely humans.我们都只是人类。


Minister部长

Catholic Information天主教信息

The term minister has long been appropriated in a distinctive way to the clergy.长期部长长期以来一直神职人员在一个独特的方式拨付。The language of I Cor., iv, 1-2; Heb., viii, 2; Matt., xx, 26, etc. must have helped to familiarize the thought that those charged with spiritual functions in the Christian Church were called upon to be the servants (ministri) of their brethren.必须有帮助,我肺心病的语言,四,1-2;希伯来书,第八条,2;。马特,XX,26,等熟悉,被控在基督教教会的精神功能的要求点名的思想他们弟兄的仆人(ministri)。 Even before the Reformation the word minister was occasionally used in English to describe those of the clergy actually taking part in a function, or the celebrant as distinguished from the assistants, but it was not then used sine addito to designate an ecclesiastic.即使在宗教改革字部长偶尔使用英语来形容那些实际上是在一个函数的一部分,或从助理杰出的证婚的神职人员,但它不是然后用正弦addito指定一个教会。 This employment of the term dates from Calvin, who objected to the name priest etc. as involving an erroneous conception of the nature of the sacred office.这种就业的长期日期从卡尔文,谁反对名称牧师等涉及的神圣办公室的性质的错误观念。These Calvinistic views had some influence in England.这些加尔文的观点曾在英国的一些影响。In the Boo of Common Prayer the word minister occurs frequently in the sense of the officiant at a service, and in the thirty-second of the Canons Ecclesiastical (1603) we read "no bishop shall make a person deacon and minister both upon one day", where clearly minister stands as the equivalent of priest.字部长在共同祈祷BOO频繁出现在主祭的服务意识,并在第三十二届的大炮传教士(1603)我们读到:“没有主教应后,有一天一个人的执事和部长“,其中明确部长代表相当于牧师。 As regards modern usage the Hist.至于现代用法的组织胺。Eng.ENG。Dictionary says: "The use of minister as the designation of an Anglican clergyman (formerly extensively current, sometimes with more specific application to a beneficed clergyman) has latterly become rare, and is now chiefly associated with Low Church views; but it is still the ordinary appellation of one appointed to spiritual office in any non-Episcopal communion, especially of one having a pastoral charge".词典说:“部长指定一个圣公会牧师(前身广泛电流,有时更具体的应用程序到beneficed牧师)的使用已latterly成为罕见的,现在主要是低教会意见,但它仍是委任任何非主教共融的精神办公室普通的称谓,尤其是牧区负责“。

As regards Catholic use, minister is the title of certain superiors in various religious orders.至于天主教使用,部长是某些上级在各种不同的宗教订单的标题。The head of the Franciscan Order is known as the minister general, and the superior of the different provinces of the various branches is called minister provincial.济秩序的头被称为部长一般,和上级各分支机构的不同省份被称为部长省。The same is true of the Order of the Trinitarians for the Redemption of Captives and of some other orders.这同样是真正的赎回的俘虏和其他一些订单的三位一体论者的顺序。In the Society of Jesus the second in command in each house, who is usually charged with the internal discipline, the commissariat, etc., is called minister.在耶稣第二次在每间房子的命令,谁是通常的内部纪律,小卖部等收费会,被称为部长。The statement made in Addis and Arnold's "Catholic Dictionary" and thence incorporated into the great Hist.在亚的斯亚贝巴和阿诺德的“天主教辞典”所作的发言,并从那里进入伟大组织胺成立。Eng.ENG。Dictionary that each of the five assistants of the General of the Jesuits is called minister is without foundation.词典,每五名助理耶稣会总称为部长,是毫无根据的。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.赫伯特瑟斯顿编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Bruce C. Berger.转录由Bruce C.伯杰。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Pastor牧师

Catholic Information天主教信息

This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls (cura animarum), that is, who is bound in virtue of his office to promote the spiritual welfare of the faithful by preaching, administering the sacraments, and exercising certain powers of external government, eg, the right of supervision, giving precepts, imposing light corrections -- powers rather paternal in their nature, and differing from those of a bishop, which are legislative, judicial, and coactive.本术语指一个牧师已治愈的灵魂(中城联盟animarum),也就是说,谁必将在凭借他的办公室,以促进​​说教忠实的精神福利,管理圣礼,和外部的政府行使的某些权力,例如,监督权,让戒律,实行轻更正 - 权力,而其性质父亲,并从这些主教,这是立法,司法和coactive不同。A pastor is properly called a parish-priest (parochus) when he exercises the cure of souls in his own name with regard to a determined number of subjects who are obliged to apply to him for the reception of certain sacraments specified in the law.一个牧师是正确称为堂牧师(parochus),当他行使治愈的灵魂,在他自己的名字,对于一个有责任申请在法律规定的某些圣礼接待他的科目确定的号码。 In this article "parish-priest" is always taken in this strict sense.在这篇文章中的“​​教区神父”始终是在这种严格意义上的。 Pastors (whether parish-priests or not) are either irremovable (inamovibiles) or movable (amovibiles ad nutum).牧师(无论是教区的神父或不)不可移动(inamovibiles)或可移动的(amovibiles广告nutum)。 An irremovable pastor or rector is one whose office gives him the right of perpetuity of tenure; that is, he cannot be removed or transferred except for a canonical reason, viz., a reason laid down in the law and, in the case of a criminal charge, only after trial.一个不可移动的牧师或神父是给他的使用权永久的权利,也就是说,他不能删除或转移一个规范的原因,即,在法律规定的原因除外,并在一个案件,。刑事指控后,才审判。 (See IRREMOVABILITY.) A movable pastor or rector is one whose office does not give him this right; but the bishop must have some just and proportionate reason for dismissing or transferring him against his will, and, should the priest believe himself wronged in the matter, he may have recourse to the Holy See, or to its representative where there is one having power in such cases. (见不得撤换)动产牧师或校长是他的办公室并没有给他这种权利,但主教必须有一定的公正和相称的理由解雇或转移他违背自己的意愿,并应祭司相信自己的委屈此事,他可能已经诉诸罗马教廷,或其代表那里是一个在这种情况下,电力。 Moreover, according to some canonists, even movable pastors in case of a criminal charge cannot be absolutely removed from their office without a trial (cf. Pierantonelli, "Praxis Fori Ecclesiastici," tit. iv; Smith, "Elements of Ecclesiastical Law", n. 418.) This, certainly, is the case in the United States of America (Decrees of Propaganda, 28 March, and 20 May, 1887).此外,根据一些圣教法典,一项刑事指控的情况下,即使动产牧师不能完全从自己的办公室中删除未经审判(参见Pierantonelli,“实践的法院地法Ecclesiastici,”针锋相对第四;史密斯,“教会法元素”, N. 418),当然,这是在美利坚合众国的情况下(法令宣传部,3月28日和20日,1887年)。

The Council of Trent (Sess. XXIV, cap. xiii, de Ref.) shows it to be the mind of the Church; that dioceses should, wherever it is possible, be divided into canonical parishes (See PARISH), to be governed by irremovable parish-priests.安理会的遄达(。Sess.二十四,第XIII,DE参考)显示它是教会的头脑;教区应,无论它是可能的,划分为规范教区(教区),均受不可移动的教区神父。 In places, therefore, where the Tridentine law cannot be fully carried out, bishops adopt measures which fulfil this requirement as nearly as circumstances allow.因此,在一些地方,律但丁法律不能得到充分的开展,主教采取措施满足这一要求尽量接近的情况下允许。One such measure was the erection of quasi-parishes, districts with defined limits, ordered for the United States in 1868 (Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, n. 124).其中一项措施是竖立准堂区,区确定的界限,美国在1868年(第二次全体会议理事会巴尔的摩,124),下令。Another such was the institution of irremovable rectors (pastors with the right of perpetuity of tenure), ordered for England in 1852 (First Provincial Council of Westminster Decr. xiii), and for the United States in 1886 (Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, n. 33).另一个是不可移动校长(牧师用的永久使用权的权),于1852年(第一省议会威斯敏斯特DECR第十三),英国下令的的机构,并为美国在1886年(第三次全体会议理事会巴尔的摩,N 33段)。

The power to appoint pastors is ordinarily vested in the bishop.在主教任命牧师的权力通常归属。 Among the candidates possessed of the necessary qualifications the appointment should fall on the one who is best fitted for the office.在具备必要的资格的候选人的任命应属于上谁是最好的办公室安装的之一。Moreover, according to the Council of Trent (Sess. XXIV, cap. xviii, de Ref) candidates for the office of parish-priest should (a few cases excepted) pass a competitive examination (concursus).此外,根据安理会的遄达(Sess.第二十四条,第十八章,德REF)为教区神父的办公室候选人应(少数情况下除外)通过竞争性考试(竞合)。 This provision of the Council of Trent is sometimes by particular enactments applied in the selection of candidates for the office of irremovable rectors, as happens in the United States (Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, tit. ii, cap. vi).安理会的遄达的这一规定有时特别适用于不可移动校长办公室的候选人的选择,因为发生在美国(三中全会理事会巴尔的摩第二针锋相对。第六章)的成文法。

With regard to the faculties and powers of pastors, those of parish-priests are sufficiently defined by the law, and hence are ordinary, not delegated.关于牧师的院系和权力,这些教区教士有足够的法律界定,因此是普通的,没有授权。Of these faculties some are called rights strictly parochial, because in a parish they belong exclusively to the parish-priest, so that their subjects cannot with regard to them have recourse to another priest, except with his or the bishop's consent.这些院系的一些被称为严格狭隘的权利,因为在一个教区,他们只属于教区的牧师,使他们的臣民不能他们求助于另外一个牧师,除非他或主教的同意,。 These rights are the following: the right of administering baptism, holy viaticum, and extreme unction in all cases where there is no urgent necessity; the right of administering paschal communion, of proclaiming the banns of marriage, and of blessing marriages.这些权利有以下几种:管理的洗礼,圣viaticum,在所有情况下,有没有迫切需要临终的权利;管理逾越节共融的权利,宣告婚姻的结婚通告,并祝福婚姻。 To the parish-priest are also reserved the celebration of funerals (except in certain cases specified in the law), and the imparting of certain blessings, the chief one being blessing of the baptismal font.教区神父还预留了庆祝活动(在法律规定的某些情况下除外)的葬礼,并传授一定的祝福,行政祝福洗礼。 To pastors, who are not parish-priests, the right of assisting at marriages is given by the law as to parish-priests.牧师,谁不教区神父,协助在婚姻的权利是由法律教区教士。The other rights usually are granted to them by the bishops and are defined in the particular laws; such is very commonly the case in the United States England, and Scotland, with regard to baptism, holy viaticum, extreme unction, and funerals.其他权利通常是给予他们的主教和在特定的法律定义,是非常普遍的情况下在美国的英格兰和苏格兰,关于洗礼,圣洁viaticum,临终和葬礼。 Mention should be made here of the custom which exists in certain dioceses of the United States, whereby the faithful of one district are permitted to receive such sacraments from the pastor of another district if they rent a pew in his church (Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, nn. 117, 124, 227, and the statutes of several diocesan synods).值得一提的是这里存在的习俗,在某些教区美国,即忠实的一个地区,如果他们被允许接收来自其他地区的牧师等圣礼租金在他的教会(第二次全体会议理事会巴尔的摩皮尤NN,117,124,227,和几个教区主教的法规)。 Rights not strictly parochial are those which belong by law to parish-priests, but not exclusively.不严格狭隘的权利属于依法教区神父,但不完全。Such are the faculties of preaching celebrating Mass, low or solemn, hearing confessions, administering Holy Communion.这样的说教学院庆祝弥撒,低或庄严,听口供,管理圣餐。Pastors who are not parish-priests receive these faculties from their bishop.谁不教区教士牧师收到这些院系,从他们的主教。

Pastors are naturally entitled to a salary.牧师自然有权工资。This is furnished by the revenues of the parochial benefice, should there be one; otherwise, it is taken from the revenues of the church or from the offerings.这是狭隘的采邑的收入提供,应该有一个,否则,它是从教会的收入或从产品。Such offerings as the faithful contribute of their own accord, without specifying the purpose of their donation, belong to the pastor.这种产品的忠实自己的贡献,不指定他们捐赠的目的,属于牧师。This assertion is based on the presumption that these gifts are meant to show the gratitude of the faithful towards the priests who spend their lives in caring for the souls committed to their charge.这种说法的基础上推定,这些礼物是为了显示对祭司们花费在致力于他们负责的灵魂关怀他们的生活的忠实感谢。 This presumption, however, ceases wherever custom or law provides that at least a certain portion of these offerings should belong to the church.然而,这一假设,不再习惯或法律规定的地方,至少有这些产品的某些部分应该属于教会。This is generally the case where churches, not possessing other sources of income, depend entirely on the offerings.这是一般的教堂,不拥有其他收入来源,完全取决于对产品的情况下。An illustration of such laws is to be found in the eighth decree of the Second Provincial Council of Westminster, approved by Leo XIII in the Constitution "Romanos Pontifices" of 8 May, 1881.这类法律的一个例证是利奥十三世在“宪法”Romanos Pontifices“,1881年5月8日批准,在威斯敏斯特第二届省议会第八法令。Accordingly, in countries where this is in force, the usual collections taken up in the churches belong to each mission, in addition to the pew-rents, and it is from these revenues that the salaries of pastors and assistants are ordinarily drawn.因此,在生效的国家,通常集合在教堂属于每个任务,除了皮尤租金,并从这些收入是牧师和助手的薪金通常绘制。

Pastors, besides having rights, have also obligations.牧师,除了有权利,也义务。They must preach and take care of the religious instruction of the faithful, especially of the young, supply their spiritual needs by the administration of the sacraments, reside in their parish or mission, administer diligently the property entrusted to their care, watch over the moral conduct of their parishioners, and remove, as far as possible, all hindrances to their salvation.他们必须宣扬和照顾宗教指令的忠实,特别是年轻人,供应管理的圣礼,他们的精神需求,居住在他们的本堂或使命,勤奋管理的财产委托给他们照顾,在道德观看他们的教区,进行删除,尽可能,所有阻碍他们的得救。 Moreover, parish-priests must make a profession of faith and take the oath prescribed by Pius X in his "Motu Proprio", 1 Sept., 1910; they must also offer the Holy Sacrifice on behalf of their flock on Sundays and certain holydays set down in the law.此外,教区教士必须作出的信仰和他的“莫图Proprio”,1 9月,1910年碧岳X规定的誓言;他们还必须提供上代表他们的羊群在星期日,并设置了一定的holydays的圣祭法律。When the number of the faithful entrusted to the care of the pastor is so large that he alone cannot fulfil all the duties incumbent on his office, the bishop has the right to order him to take as many priests to help him as may be necessary.如此大的,他仅可以不履行的所有责任在他办公室的现任数量的忠实委托照顾的牧师后,主教已到为了他,以采取为许多神父以帮助他为可能是必要的权利。 These are called assistants or auxiliary priests, and differ both from coadjutors who are given to pastors for other reasons determined by the law, and from administrators who take charge of a parish during its vacancy, or the absence of its pastor.这些都是所谓的助理或辅助祭司,既不同于谁给牧师由法律确定的其他原因,并在其空缺负责一个教区的,或者其牧师的情况下从管理员coadjutors。

Positive law (Council of Trent, Sess. XXI, cap. iv, de Ref.), modified in some countries by custom, reserves to the parish-priest the right to choose his assistants, a choice, however, which is subject to the approval of the bishop, and it is also from the bishop that assistants receive their faculties.实证法(理事会的遄达,SESS第二十一,第四章,DE参考。)通过自定义修改,在一些国家,教区神父储备有权选择他的助手,一个选择,但是,这是受批准的主教,它也是由助理主教,收到他们的院系。 The amount of their salary is likewise to be determined by the bishop, and, as to its source, the same rules hold as those already mentioned with regard to pastors.同样要由主教决定,他们的薪金数额是,它的源头,牧师已经提到的相同的规则举行。As to their removal, (a) when their nomination belongs by law to the parish-priest, they can be removed either by him or by the bishop, (b) when their nomination belongs to the bishop, he alone can remove them; in any case a reasonable cause is necessary, at least for the lawfulness of the act, and the assistant who believes that he has been wronged may have recourse to higher authorities, as mentioned above with regard to movable pastors.至于他们的职务,(a)当其提名属于法律教区神父,他们可以删除由他本人或由主教,(b)当他们的提名属于主教,他独自一人可以删除它们;任何情况下,一个合理的原因是必要的,至少对行为的合法性,并且他认为他被冤枉的助理可能有追索权的上级主管部门,如上面提到关于动产牧师。 Their office, however, does not cease with the death of the priest or bishop who appointed them, unless this was clearly expressed in the letters of appointment.然而,他们的办公室,不停止与死亡的神父或主教任命,除非这显然是在委任书表示。For the recent legislation regarding the removal of parish-priests, see PARISH, section II, 2.对于最近关于取消教区教士的法例,见教区,第二节,2。

Publication information Written by Hector Papi.海克特帕皮编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Bobie Jo M. Bilz.转录Bobie乔M. Bilz。Dedicated to Reverend J. Ronald Knott, Pastor of the Cathedral of the Assumption, Louisville, Kentucky, 1983-1997.专用,牧师的假设,1983年至1997年,美国肯塔基州路易斯维尔的大教堂牧师J.罗纳德诺特。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

BAART, Legal Formulary (4th ed., New York), nn.BAART,法律名册(第4版,纽约),NN。86-113; BOUIX, De Parocho (3rd ed., Paris, 1889); FERRARIS, Bibliotheca Canonica etc. (Rome, 1885-99); NARDI, Dei Parrochi (Pesaro, 1829-60); SANTI, Pr£lectiones juris canonici (New York, 1905); SCHERER, Handbuch des Kirchenrechts (Graz, 1886), xcii-iii; SMITH, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law, I (9th ed., New York, 1893), nn.86-113; BOUIX,德Parocho(第3版,巴黎,1889年);法拉利,藏书等卡诺尼卡(罗马,1885年至1899年); NARDI,工会Parrochi(佩萨罗,1829至1860年);桑蒂,PR英镑lectiones法学canonici(纽约,1905年);舍雷尔,DES Kirchenrechts手册下载(格拉茨,1886年),xcii - III;史密斯,教会法的要素,我(第九版,纽约,1893年),NN。 639-70; WERNZ, Jus Decretalium (Rome, 1899), tit.639-70; WERNZ,强行Decretalium(罗马,1899年),针锋相对。xxxix; RAYMUNDI ANTONII EPISCOPI, Instructio Pastoralis (5th ed., Freiburg, 1902); AICHNER, Compendium juris eccl.XXXIX; RAYMUNDI ANTONII EPISCOPI,Instructio Pastoralis(第5版,弗赖堡,1902年); AICHNER,汇编法学传道书。(6th ed., Brixon, 1887), 426-41; CRONIN, The New Matrimonial Legislation (Rome, 1908). (第6版,Brixon,1887年),426-41;克罗宁,新的婚姻立法(罗马,1908年)。



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