Book of Nahum书那鸿书

General Information一般资料

The Book of Nahum, seventh of the 12 minor prophetic books in the Old Testament of the Bible, probably dates from shortly after the destruction of Assyria in 612 BC, although the book is cast in the form of a prophecy of events yet to unfold.那鸿书,12个未成年人的“圣经旧约先知书的第七,可能的日期从公元前612年亚述破坏后不久,虽然书是预言的事件尚未展开的形式投。

The prophet Nahum described the conquest of the oppressive Assyrians by the Medes and Babylonians, presenting their fall as the righteous judgment of Yahweh.先知那鸿描述玛代和巴比伦的压迫亚述人征服,作为耶和华的正义的判决提出自己的秋天。Unlike other prophets, Nahum did not apply his condemnation of wickedness to Israel itself.不像其他的先知,那鸿并不适用于他谴责以色列本身的邪恶。

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Book of Nahum预订的Nahum说

Brief Outline简述

  1. Poem concerning the greatness of God (1:1-15)诗有关神的伟大(1:1-15)
  2. Poem detailing the overthrow of Nineveh (2:1-3:19)诗详细介绍推翻尼尼微(2:1-3:19)


Advanced Information先进的信息

Nahum, consolation, the seventh of the so-called minor prophets, an Elkoshite. Nahum说,安慰,所谓的小先知,一个Elkoshite第七。All we know of him is recorded in the book of his prophecies.我们知道他是记录在他的预言书。He was probably a native of Galilee, and after the deportation of the ten tribes took up his residence in Jerusalem.他可能是一个土生土长的加利利,后十个部落驱逐了在耶路撒冷的住所。Others think that Elkosh was the name of a place on the east bank of the Tigris, and that Nahum dwelt there.其他人则认为Elkosh底格里斯河东岸的一个地方的名称,和那鸿住在那里。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Book of Nahum预订的Nahum说

Advanced Information先进的信息

Nahum prophesied, according to some, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (BC 743).那鸿预言,根据一些,在亚哈斯统治时期(公元前743年)开始。Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah (about BC 709).然而,其他人认为,他的预言是被称为希西家王朝(约公元前709)的下半年。This is the more probable opinion, internal evidences leading to that conclusion.这是更可能认为,导致这一结论的内部证据。 Probably the book was written in Jerusalem (soon after BC 709), where he witnessed the invasion of Sennacherib and the destruction of his host (2 Kings 19:35).也许书是写在耶路撒冷(后不久,公元前709),在那里,他亲眼目睹了西拿基立的入侵和破坏他的主人(2国王19:35)。 The subject of this prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire.这一预言的主题是接近完成,并最终破坏,当时的伟大繁荣的亚述帝国首都尼尼微。Assur-bani-pal was at the height of his glory.亚述 - 巴尼- PAL是在他的荣耀的高度。Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the centre of the civilzation and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" (Nah. 3:1), for it had robbed and plundered all the neighbouring nations.尼尼微是一个广大范围的城市,和当时的世界civilzation和电子商务中心,“血腥的城市都充满谎言和抢劫”(Nah. 3:1),抢劫和掠夺所有的邻国国家。It was strongly fortified on every side, bidding defiance to every enemy; yet it was to be utterly destroyed as a punishment for the great wickedness of its inhabitants.大力强化对每一方,招标的每一个敌人的蔑视;但它是被彻底摧毁其居民的大恶的惩罚。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

The Date of the Book of Nahum那鸿书的日期

Dr. Gordon H. Johnston戈登博士阁下庄士敦

Assistant Professor, Department of Old Testament Studies旧约研究系助理教授
Dallas Theological Seminary达拉斯神学院
The Book of Nahum prophesies the imminent demise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and destruction of Nineveh its capital.那鸿书预言的新亚述帝国和尼尼微破坏其资本的殒落。Although it is impossible to be precise about the exact date of composition of the book, the terminus a quo may be set at 663 BC, while the terminus ad quem appears to be 612 BC.虽然它是不可能被准确的书组成的确切日期,总站的现状可能被设置在663 BC,而总站的广告quem出现公元前612。The fall of Thebes in 663 BC is viewed as a recent past event (3:8-10), while the fall of Nineveh in 612 BC and the final end of the Empire in 609 BC are both depicted as future events. 1公元前663年底比斯下降看作是一个最近的事件(3:8-10),而尼尼微公元前612年的秋天,在609 BC帝国最终都被认为是未来事件的描述1。

Exactly where Nahum falls between 663-612 BC is debated. 2 However, several factors may help narrow the range.Nahum说落在之间663-612 BC辩论。然而,有几个因素可能有助于缩小范围。First, Nahum announced that Assyria would never again subjugate (1:12) nor invade Judah (1:15 [2:1]).首先,那鸿宣布亚述将永远不会再次征服(1:12),也没有入侵犹大(1:15 [2:1])。So he probably delivered his oracles after 640 BC, the date of the last known Assyrian campaign in the western territories when Ashurbanipal temporarily reasserted Assyrian suzerainty over Judah and other Syro-Palestinian vassals.所以,他可能交付公元前后640年他的神谕,在西部地区的最后为人所知的亚述运动日期时,亚述巴尼拔暂时重申亚述宗主国的犹大和其他Syro巴勒斯坦附庸。 Second, Nahum presents Assyria as a strong imperialistic tyrannt that was crushing its enemies and extracting oppressive tribute from its vassals (1:12; 2:13; 3:1).其次,那鸿介绍亚述作为一个强大的帝国主义​​tyrannt被粉碎了敌人,并从它的附庸(1:12; 2:13; 3:1)中提取的压迫致敬。This probably reflects the situation before the meteoric fall in Assyrian power after the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC.这可能反映了前后死亡亚述巴尼拔在公元前627亚述权力流星下降的情况。 All of his successors - Ashur-etil-ilani (627-623), Sin-shum-lishir (623), Sin-shar-ishkun (623-612), and Ashur-uballit II (612-609) - were weak and ineffective. 3 So Nahum probably prophecied sometime during the reign of Ashurbanipal (668-627), the last powerful king of Assyria.所有亚述- etil ilani(627-623),善深,lishir(623),仙共享ishkun(623-612),亚述uballit二(612-609) - - 他的继任者是软弱和3所以是无效的。Nahum说可能prophecied最后强大的亚述王亚述巴尼拔(668-627),在位期间的某个时候。

1 Contrary to AS van der Woude, The Book of Nahum: A Letter Written in Exile, in Oudtestamentliche Studien, Deel XX, edited by AS van der Woude (Leiden: EJ Brill, 1977), 108-126.1相反为的van der Woude, 那鸿书:写在流亡 Oudtestamentliche(研究),Deel XX,一个字母 ,编辑的van der Woude“(莱顿:EJ布里尔,1977),108-126 。

2 For discussion, see Walter A. Maier, The Book of Nahum (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1959), 27-40, 87-139; WC van Wyk, Allusions to 'Prehistory' and History in the Book of Nahum, in De Fructo Oris Sui: Essays in Honor of Adrianus van Selms (Leiden: EJ Brill, 1971), 222-32; Richard D. Patterson, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah.2讨论,请参见沃尔特A ·迈尔,那鸿书(大急流城:贝克,1959),27-40,87-139;厕所车WYK,在德的“史前史”,在那鸿书的历史典故, ORIS随果糖:222-32;理查德D帕特森,那鸿,哈巴谷,西番雅:在纪念Adrianus面包车Selms(EJ鲽鱼,1971年莱顿)的杂文。 The Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary (Chicago: Moody Press, 1991), 3-7.威克里夫训诂解说(芝加哥:穆迪出版社,1991),3-7。

3 The chronology of the last half century of Assyrian history is filled with problems.3是充满问题的最后一个半世纪的亚述历史年表。The system adopted here follows John Oates, Assyrian Chronology, 631-612 BC, Iraq 27 (1965): 135-59.这里采用的系统如下约翰奥茨, 亚述年表,公元前631-612,伊拉克27日(1965):135-59 。 See also Julian Reade, The Accession of Sinsharushkin, Journal of Cunieform Studies 23 (1970): 1-9.也见朱利安Reade等,Sinsharushkin加入,Cunieform研究杂志23(1970):1-9。

Book of Nahum预订的Nahum说

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

Isaiah concludes his work at about the end of Hezekiah's reign, which synchronizes with the captivity of the ten tribes of Israel by the Assyrians.以赛亚书的结论,在希西家的统治,这与以色列的10个亚述人的部落圈养同步结束他的工作。At this period of perplexity, to quote Angus: "When the overthrow of Samaria (the capital of Israel), must have suggested to Judah fears for her own safety, when Jerusalem (the capital of Judah), had been drained of its treasure by Hezekiah in the vain hope of turning the fury of the Assyrians from her, and when rumors of the conquest of a part of Egypt by the same great power added still more to the general dismay, Nahum was raised up by Jehovah to reveal His tenderness and power (1:1-8), to foretell the subversion of the Assyrians (1: 9-12), the death of Sennacherib the Assyrian king and the deliverance of Hezekiah from his toils (1:10-15)."在这一时期的困惑,报价安格斯:“推翻撒马利亚(以色列的首都)时,必须有建议为犹大担心自己的安全,当耶路撒冷(资本犹大),其珍惜排泄希西家转向从她的亚述人的愤怒,当妄想征服了埃及,同伟大的力量的一部分的谣言增加了更多的一般不舍,那鸿提出耶和华透露他的柔情和电源(1:1-8),预言了亚述人的颠覆(1:9-12),从他的toils(1:10-15)西拿基立亚述王和希西家解脱死亡。“

The name of the prophet means consolation.先知的名字的意思是安慰。After the consolatory introduction which covers the whole of chapter 1, the prophet predicts in detail, the destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian empire.后慰问介绍,它涵盖了整个第1章,先知预言的细节,毁灭尼尼微,亚述帝国的首都。Properly to grasp Nahum, one needs to compare it with Jonah, of which it is a continuation and supplement.正确把握Nahum说,需要比较与约拿,它是一个延续和补充。"The two prophecies form parts of the same moral history; the remission of God's judgments being illustrated in Jonah, and the execution of them in Nahum. The city had one denunciation more given a few years later, by Zephaniah (2:13), and shortly afterwards (606 BC), the whole were fulfilled." “两个预言的形式相同的道德历史部分缓解上帝的判决,在约拿说明,并在那鸿的执行他们的城市之一谴责西番雅(2:13),几年后,。不久之后(606年),整个兑现。“

Questions 1.问题1。Against what Gentile nation is this prophecy uttered according to verse 1?针对外邦民族是这个预言说出根据第一节?2.2。Indicate the verses in chapter 1 that are particularly consolatory to Israel.第1章中的指示,特别是慰问对以色列的诗句。3.3。How is Nahum 2:2 rendered in the Revised Version?那鸿书2:2是如何呈现在修订版?4.4。How does chapter 3:7, 19 show the ultimate utter destruction of Nineveh?19章3:7,如何显示尼尼微最终彻底毁灭?5.5。How does 3:16 indicate the commercial greatness of that city?如何3:16表明该城市的商业伟大?


Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the Prophets of the Old Testament, the seventh in the traditional list of the twelve Minor Prophets.其中的旧约,第七十二小先知的传统列表先知。


The Hebrew name, probably in the intensive form, Nahhum, signifies primarily "full of consolation or comfort", hence "consoler" (St. Jerome, consolator), or "comforter".希伯来文的名字,可能在密集的形式,Nahhum,主要是象征“安慰和舒适”,因此“consoler”(圣杰罗姆,consolator),或“安慰”。 The name Nahum was apparently of not rare occurrence.名称Nahum说显然不是罕见的现象。Indeed, not to speak of a certain Nahum listed in the Vulgate and Douay Version (Nehemiah 7:7) among the companions of Zorobabel, and whose name seems to have been rather Rehum (Ezra 2:2; Heb. has Rehum in both places), St. Luke mentions in his genealogy of Our Lord a Nahum, son of Hesli and father of Amos (iii, 25); the Mishna also occasionally refers to Nahum the Mede, a famous rabbi of the second century (Shabb., ii, 1, etc.), and another Nahum who was a scribe or copyist (Peah, ii, 6); inscriptions show likewise the name was not uncommon among Phoenicians (Gesenius, "Monum. Phoen.", 133; Boeckh, "Corp. Inscript. Graec.", II, 25, 26; "Corp. Inscript. Semitic.", I, 123 a3 b3).事实上,不说话Zorobabel的同伴之间的武加大和Douay版本(尼希米记7:7)中列出一定Nahum说,和他的名字似乎已经相当Rehum(以斯拉2:2;希伯来书已在两地的Rehum ),圣卢克提到在他的族谱一个Nahum说,我们的主Hesli儿子和父亲阿莫斯(三25);密西拿也偶尔是指那鸿Mede的第二个世纪的一个著名的拉比(Shabb.,二1,等等),以及另一Nahum说谁是隶或抄写员“(Peah,二,6);铭文显示同样的名称是不是腓尼基人之间的罕见(Gesenius,”Monum Phoen。。“,133; Boeckh,”公司INSCRIPT Graec“,第二,25,26,”公司INSCRIPT犹太人的“,我123,A3 B3)。


The little we know touching the Prophet Nahum must be gathered from his book, for nowhere else in the canonical Scriptures does his name occur, and extracanonical Jewish writers are hardly less reticent.我们知道抚摸必须从他的书先知那鸿聚集,无处规范的圣经是否出现他的名字,和extracanonical犹太作家很难寡言少的小。 The scant positive information vouchsafed by these sources is in no wise supplemented by the worthless stories concerning the Prophet put into circulation by legend-mongers.缺乏积极的信息,这些来源赐予辅以无价值的故事,就投入流通的传说贩子先知任何明智的。We will deal only with what may be gathered from the canonical Book of Nahum, the only available first-hand document at our disposal.我们将只处理可从Nahum说,我们所掌握的文件只提供第一手的规范书收集。 From its title (i,1), we learn that Nahum was an Elcesite (so DV; AV, Elkoshite).从它的标题(I,1),我们得知那鸿Elcesite(这样的DV,AV,Elkoshite)。On the true import of this statement commentators have not always been of one mind.在这句话的真正进口的评论家并不总是万众一心。In the prologue to his commentary of the book, St. Jerome informs us that some understood `Elqoshite as a patronymic indication: "the son of Elqosh"; he, however, holds the commonly accepted view that the word `Elqoshite shows that the Prophet was a native of Elqosh.圣杰罗姆在他的书的评论的序幕,告诉我们,然而,一些了解`Elqoshite作为父指示:“Elqosh儿子”,他认为普遍接受的观点,单词`Elqoshite显示,先知是一个土生土长的Elqosh。

But even understood in this way, the intimation given by the title is disputed by biblical scholars.但即使在这样的理解有争议的,由标题给出的暗示是圣经学者。Where, indeed, should this Elqosh, nowhere else referred to in the Bible, be sought?事实上,这Elqosh,无处提到在“圣经”,寻求?

Some have tried to identify it with `Alqush, 27 miles north of Mossul, where the tomb of Nahum is still shown.有些人试图找出`Alqush,Mossul,Nahum说墓仍显示以北27英里。According to this opinion, Nahum was born in Assyria, which would explain his perfect acquaintance with the topography and customs of Ninive exhibited in the book.根据这个意见,那鸿出生在亚述,这可以解释他的地形和在书中展示Ninive海关完美的熟人。But such an acquaintance may have been acquired otherwise; and it is a fact that the tradition connecting the Prophet Nahum with that place cannot be traced back beyond the sixteenth century, as has been conclusively proven by Assemani.但这样一个熟人可能已被收购,否则,它是一个连接与该地方的先知那鸿的传统不能追溯到十六世纪超越,已确证Assemani证明的事实。 This opinion is now generally abandoned by scholars.现在,这种观点是一般学者所抛弃。

Still more recent and hardly more credible is the view advocated by Hitzig and Knobel, who hold that Elqosh was the old name of the town called Capharnaum (ie, "the village of Nahum") in the first century: a Galilean origin, they claim, would well account for certain slight peculiarities of the Prophet's diction that smack of provincialism.更近,难以更可信的是希齐格克诺贝尔,认为Elqosh被称为Capharnaum镇的旧名(即“那鸿村”),在第一世纪的主张的观点:伽利略的起源,他们声称,以及帐户轻微先知的文辞一定的特殊性,乡土之嫌。 Apart from the somewhat precarious etymology, it may be objected against this identification that Capharnaum, however well known a place it was at the New Testament period, is never mentioned in earlier times, and, for all we know, may have been founded at a relatively recent date; moreover, the priests and the Pharisees would most likely have asserted less emphatically "that out of Galilee a prophet riseth not" (John 7:52) had Capharnaum been associated with our Prophet in the popular mind.除了有些岌岌可危的词源,它可能会反对对Capharnaum,然而众所周知的地方是在新约时期的识别,是从来没有提到在更早的时候,而我们都知道,可能一直处于成立相对最近的日期;此外,祭司和法利赛人将极有可能所称的重点“的加利利的先知riseth不出来”(约翰七点52)Capharnaum与我们的先知在流行的心态。

Still, it is in Galilee that St. Jerome located the birthplace of Nahum ("Comment. in Nah." in PL, XXV, 1232), supposed to be Elkozeh, in northern Galilee; but "out of Galilee doth a prophet rise?"不过,它是在加利利应该是Elkozeh,在北部的加利利,那鸿的发源地,位于圣杰罗姆(PL,二十五,1232“NAH评论。”),但“加利利出来doth兴起一位先知吗? “might we ask again.我们可能会再次询问。The author of the "Lives of the Prophets" long attributed to St. Epiphanius tells us "Elqosh was beyond Beth-Gabre, in the tribe of Simeon" (PG, XLIII, 409). “先知的生活”的作者长圣埃皮法尼乌斯告诉“Elqosh超出伯Gabre,西缅支派”(PG,四十三,409)。He unquestionably means that Elqosh was in the neighbourhood of Beth-Gabre (Beit Jibrin), the ancient Eleutheropolis, on the borders of Juda and Simeon.他无疑意味着Elqosh伯Gabre(拜Jibrin),古Eleutheropolis,犹大和西缅边界附近。 This view has been adopted in the Roman Martyrology (1 December; "Begabar" is no doubt a corrupt spelling of Beth-Gabre), and finds more and more acceptance with modern scholars.这一观点得到了在罗马Martyrology(12月1日,“Begabar”无疑是贝丝 - Gabre腐败拼写)通过,发现越来越多的接受与现代学者。



The Book of Nahum contains only three chapters and may be divided into two distinct parts.那鸿书只包含三个章节,大致可分为两个截然不同的部分。

The one, including i and ii, 2 (Heb., i-ii, 1-3), and the other consisting of ii,1, 3-ii (Heb., ii, 2, 4-iii).一,包括I和II,2(希伯来文,I - II,1-3),以及其他II组成,1,3 - II(希伯来文,II,2,4 - III)。The first part is more undetermined in tone and character.第一部分是未定的语气和性格。After the twofold title indicating the subject-matter and the author of the book (i, 1), the writer enters upon his subject by a solemn affirmation of what he calls the Lord's jealousy and revengefulness (i, 2, 3), and a most forceful description of the fright which seizes all nature at the aspect of Yahweh coming into judgment (i, 3-6).作家的双重指示的主题,问题和作者的书(我,1)标题后,他的主题后进入一个所谓神的嫉妒和报复我,2,3的庄严誓词,一个最有力的说明,抓住所有的性质,在判断未来(I,3-6)耶和华方面的恐惧。 Contrasting admirably with this appalling picture is the comforting assurance of God's loving-kindness towards His true and trustful servants (7-8); then follows the announcement of the destruction of His enemies, among whom a treacherous, cruel, and god-ridden city, no doubt Ninive (although the name is not found in the text), is singled out and irretrievably doomed to everlasting ruin (8-14); the glad tidings of the oppressor's fall is the signal of a new era of glory for the people of God (1:15; 2:2; Hebrews 2:1, 3).这个令人震惊的图片对比令人钦佩的是安慰保证上帝的慈爱,对他的真实和值得信赖的公务员(7-8);随后宣布他的敌人的破坏,其中一个奸诈,残忍,和神缠身的城市毫无疑问Ninive(虽然名字是没有发现在文本),是单挑和无可挽回地注定永恒的废墟(8-14);压迫者的秋天的喜讯是为人民的一个新时代的辉煌的信号神(1:15; 2:2;希伯来书2:1,3)。

The second part of the book is more directly than the other a "burden of Ninive"; some of the features of the great Assyrian city are described so accurately as to make all doubt impossible, even f the name Ninive were not explicitly mentioned in ii, 8.本书的第二部分是比其他更直接的“Ninive负担”;一些伟大的亚述人的城市功能,以便准确地描述,无法使所有的疑问,甚至F名称Ninive没有明确提到在第二8。 In a first section (ii), the Prophet dashes off in a few bold strokes three successive sketches: we behold the approach of the besiegers, the assault on the city, and, within, the rush of its defenders to the walls (2:1, 3-3; Hebrews 2:2, 4-6); then the protecting dams and sluices of the Tigris being burst open, Ninive, panic-stricken, has become an easy prey to the victor: her most sacred places are profaned, her vast treasures plundered (6-9); Heb., 7-10); and now Ninive, once the den where the lion hoarded rich spoils for his whelps and his lionesses, has been swept away forever by the mighty hand of the God of hosts (10-13; Hebrews 11-13).在第一部分(二),先知破折号在几个大胆的笔触三个连续的草图:我们注视的围攻的方法,对城市的攻击,以及内,其捍卫者急于墙壁(2: 1,3-3;希伯来书2:2,4-6),然后保护底格里斯河水坝和水闸爆裂开来,Ninive,惊惶失措,已成为一个容易受骗的胜利者:她最神圣的地方是亵渎,她庞大的宝藏掠夺(6-9); HEB,7-10);现在Ninive,一旦书房狮子囤积为他whelps和他的母狮丰富的战利品,已经一扫而空的大能的手永远万军之神(10-13 11-13希伯来)。The second section (iii) develops with new details the same theme.第二部分(三)开发新的细节不变的主题。The bloodthirstiness, greed, and crafty and insidious policy of Ninive are the cause of her overthrow, most graphically depicted (1-4); complete and shameful will be her downfall and no one will utter a word of pity (5-7).嗜血,贪婪,狡猾和阴险的政策Ninive的她被推翻的原因,最生动的描述(1-4),完整的和可耻的将她的垮台,没有人会说出一个字可惜(5-7)。 As No-Ammon was mercilessly crushed, so Ninive likewise will empty to the dregs the bitter cup of the divine vengeance (8-11).由于无阿蒙被无情地粉碎,所以Ninive同样空去药渣神圣的复仇(8-11)的苦杯。In vain does she trust in her strongholds, her warriors, her preparations for a siege, and her officials and scribes (12-17).徒劳的,她相信在她的据点,她的勇士,围攻她准备,和她的官员和文士(12-17)。Her empire is about to crumble, and its fall will be hailed by the triumphant applause by the whole universe (18-19).她的帝国崩溃,将整个宇宙(18-19)的胜利的掌声欢呼和秋季。

Critical Questions关键问题

Until a recent date, both the unity and authenticity of the Book of Nahum were undisputed, and the objections alleged by a few against the genuineness of the words "The burden of Ninive" (i, 1) and the description of the overthrow of No-Ammon (iii, 8-10) were regarded as trifling cavils not worth the trouble of an answer.直到最近为止,双方的团结和那鸿书的真实性是无可争议的,并反对由少数反对改为“Ninive负担”(I,1)的真实性和推翻无描述指称 - 阿蒙(三8-10)被视为儿戏cavils不值得回答的麻烦。In the last few years, however, things have taken a new turn: facts hitherto unnoticed have added to the old problems concerning authorship, date, etc. It may be well here for us to bear in mind the twofold division of the book, and to begin with the second part (ii, 1, 3-iii), which, as has been noticed, unquestionably deals with the overthrow of Ninive.然而,在过去的几年里,事情已经采取了新的转机:事实迄今被忽视增加了有关作者,日期等,它可以在这里得到很好的,我们牢记书的双重分工的老问题,和开始的第二部分(二,1,3 - III),其中,已初见成效,无疑Ninive推翻。That these two chapters of the prophecy constitute a unit and should be attributed to the same author, Happel is the only one to deny; but his odd opinion, grounded on unwarranted alterations of the text, cannot seriously be entertained.这两章的预言构成一个单元,并应归因于同一作者,哈佩尔是唯一一个拒绝,但他的奇看来,不必要的改动对案文为基础,可以不认真受理。

The date of this second part cannot be determined to the year; however, from the data furnished by the text, it seems that a sufficiently accurate approximation is obtainable.第二部分的日期不能确定的一年,然而,从文本提供的数据,似乎是一个足够精确的近似值索取的。First, there is a higher limit which we have no right to overstep, namely, the capture of No-Ammon referred to in iii, 8-10.首先,有更高的限制,我们无权逾越,即所指的无阿蒙捕获III 8-10。In the Latin Vulgate (and the Douay Bible) No-Ammon is translated by Alexandria, whereby St. Jerome meant not the great Egyptian capital founded in the fourth century BC, but an older city occupying the site where later on stood Alexandria ("Comment. in Nah.", iii,8: PL, XXV, 1260; cf. "Ep. CVIII ad Eustoch.", 14: PL, XXII, 890; "In Is.", XVIII: PL, XXIV, 178; "In Os.", IX, 5-6: PL, XXV, 892).在拉丁语武加大(Douay圣经)无阿蒙翻译亚历山大,据此,圣杰罗姆的意思不是始建于公元前四世纪的伟大的埃及首都,但年纪较大的城市占领该网站稍后站在亚历山大(“评论。NAH“,三,8:PL,二十五,1260;比照”EP CVIII广告Eustoch“,14:PL,22,890;”是“,第十八:特等,24,178;”。九,5-6:在OS“,PL,二十五,892)。 He was mistaken, however, and so were who thought that No-Ammon should be sought in Lower Egypt; Assyrian and Egyptian discoveries leave no doubt whatever that No-Ammon is the same as Thebes in Upper Egypt.然而,他错了,并因此认为无阿蒙应要求下埃及;亚述和埃及发现离开毫无疑问,无论,无阿蒙是在上埃及的底比斯的相同。 Now Thebes was captured and destroyed by Assurbanipal in 664-663 BC, whence it follows that the opinion of Nicephorus (in the edition of Geo. Syncell, "Chronographia", Bonn, 1829, I, 759), making Nahum a contemporary of Phacee, King of Israel, the early tradition according to which this prophecy was uttered 115 years before the fall of Ninive (about 721 BC; Josephus, "Ant. Jud.", IX, xi, 3), and the conclusions of those modern scholars who, as Pusey, Nagelsbach, etc., date the oracle in the reign of Ezechias or the earlier years of Manasses, ought to be discarded as impossible.现在底比斯被抓获Assurbanipal毁于公元前664-663,何处Nicephorus意见(地理。Syncell版,“Chronographia”,波恩,1829年,我,759),使Nahum说当代的Phacee早期的传统,根据这个预言是Ninive下降了一声前115年(公元前约721年;“。以色列王,蚂蚁犹”约瑟夫,九,十一,3),和那些现代学者的结论皮塞,Nagelsbach等,日期埃泽希亚统治或Manasses早年在甲骨文,应该是不可能丢弃。 The lower limit which it is allowable to assign to this part of the book of Nahum is, of course, the fall of Ninive, which a well-known inscription of Nabonidus permits us to fix at 607 or 606 BC, a date fatal to the view adopted by Eutychius, that Nahum prophesied five years after the downfall of Jerusalem (therefore about 583-581; "Annal." in PG, CXI, 964).下限,它是允许的,分配给这部分的那鸿书,当然,Ninive下降,其中一个Nabonidus著名的题词允许我们固定在607或606公元前,一个致命的日期查看Eutychius,耶路撒冷的灭亡(约583-581因此,“记录”。PG,CXI号,964)5年后,那鸿预言通过。

Within these limits it is difficult to fix the date more precisely.在这些限制是难以修复的日期,更精确。It has been suggested that the freshness of the allusion to the fate of Thebes indicates an early date, about 660 BC, according to Schrader and Orelli; but the memory of such a momentous event would long dwell in the minds of men, and we find Isaias, for instance, in one of his utterances delivered about 702 or 701 BC recalling with the same vividness of expression Assyrian conquests achieved thirty or forty years earlier (Isaiah 10:5-34).有人曾建议,新鲜暗指底比斯的命运表示早日公元前约660年,根据施拉德和Orelli,但这样一个重大的事件的记忆,会长期停留在人的头脑中,我们发现伊萨亚斯,例如,在约702或701年相同的生动表达亚述人征服取得了三四十年前(以赛亚书10:5-34)回顾他的话语之一。 Nothing therefore compels us to assign, within the limits set above, 664-606, an early date to the two chapters, if there are cogent reasons to conclude to a later date.任何因此迫使我们在上面设置的限制,664-606,分配,早日到两章,是否有令人信服的理由结束以后的日期。One of the arguments advanced is that Ninive is spoken of as having lost a great deal of her former prestige and sunk into a dismal state of disintegration; she is, moreover, represented as beset by mighty enemies and powerless to avert the fate threatening her.的论点之一是,Ninive是口语失去了她以前的威望很大,沉入到一个惨淡的解体状态,此外,她是代表强大的敌人和无力,以避免威胁她的命运作为困扰。 Such conditions existed when, after the death of Assurbanipal, Babylonia succeeded in regaining her independence (625), and the Medes aims a first blow at Ninive (623).这种状况时存在Assurbanipal死亡后,巴比伦成功地收复了她的独立性(625),并玛代人的目标是在Ninive(623)第一次打击。 Modern critics appear more and more inclined to believe that the data furnished by the Prophet lead to the admission of a still lower date, namely "the moment between the actual invasion of Assyria by a hostile force and the commencement of the attack on its capital" (Kennedy).现代批评家似乎越来越倾向于相信先知提供的数据,导致接纳一个较低的日期,即“由一个敌对势力和其资本的攻击开始之间的实际亚述入侵的时刻” (肯尼迪)。The "mauler", indeed, is already on his way (2:1; Hebrews 2); frontier fortresses have opened their gates (iii, 12-13); Ninive is at bay, and although the enemy has not yet invested the city, to all appearances her doom is sealed. “mauler”,事实上,已经在他的途中(2:1希伯来2);前沿堡垒已打开了他们的大门(三12-13); Ninive在海湾是,虽然敌人尚未投资城市,所有出场,她的厄运是密封的。

We may now return to the first part of the book.我们现在可以返回本书的第一部分。This first chapter, on account of the transcendent ideas it deals with, and of the lyric enthusiasm which pervades it throughout has not inappropriately been called a psalm.第一章,帐户,和抒情的热情弥漫在整个交易超然的想法不恰当地被称为一个诗篇。Its special interest lies in the fact that it is an alphabetical poem.其特殊的兴趣在于事实,即它是一个按字母顺序排列的诗。The first to call attention to this feature was Frohnmeyer, whose observations, however, did not extend beyond vv.第一个呼吁关注此功能Frohnmeyer,其意见,但没有超出VV。3-7.3-7。Availing himself of this key, Bickell endeavoured to find out if the process of composition did not extend to the whole passage and include the twenty-two letters of the alphabet, and he attempted repeatedly but without great success ("Zeitschr. der deutsch. morg. Gesell.", 1880, p. 559; "Carmina Vet. Test. metrice", 1882; "Zeitschr. fur kath. Theol.", 1886), to restore the psalm to its pristine integrity. Bickell利用自己这个关键,努力找出组成的过程中,如果没有扩展到整个通道,包括二十二个字母的字母表,和他多次尝试,但没有取得巨大成功(“Zeitschr。DER DEUTSCH。morg格塞尔“,1880年,第559页;”。布兰兽医试验metrice“,1882年;”。Zeitschr毛皮凯丝Theol“​​,1886年),恢复其原始完整的诗篇。 This failure did not discourage Gunkel who declared himself convinced that the poem is alphabetical throughout, although it is difficult, owing to the present condition of the text, to trace the initial letters X to X (Zeitschr. fur alttest. Wissensch., 1893, 223 sqq.).这种失败并没有阻止他宣称自己深信,诗是按字母顺序排列整个贡克尔,虽然这是困难的,由于目前状况的文本,跟踪X到X(Zeitschr.毛皮alttest。Wissensch,1893年的首字母, 223 SQQ)。This was for Bickell an incentive to a fresh study (Das alphab. Lied in Nah. i-ii, 3, in "Sitzungsberichte der philos.-hist. Classe der kaiser. Akademie der Wissensch.", Vienna, 894, 5 Abhandl.), the conclusions of which show a notable improvement on the former attempts, and suggested to Gunkel a few corrections (Schopfung und Chaos, 120).这是激励到一个新的研究(DAS alphab。谎称在NAH。I - II,3,在“Sitzungsberichte DER philos.的历史。CLASSE DER德皇。AKADEMIE DER Wissensch为Bickell。”维也纳,894,5 Abhandl。 ),得出的结论显示,其中一个显着改善前尝试,并建议贡克尔一个数“(Schopfung和混沌,120)更正。Since then Nowack (Die kleinen Propheten, 1897), Gray ("The Alphab. Poem in Nah." in "The Expositor" for Sept. 1898, 207 sqq.), Arnold (On Nahum 1:1-2:3, in "Zeitschr. fur alttest. Wissensch.", 1901, 225 sqq.), Happel (Das Buch des Proph. Nah., 1903), Marti (Dodekaproph. erklart, 1904), Lohr (Zeitschr. fur alttest. Wissensch., 1905, I, 174), and Van Hoonacker (Les douze petits proph., 1908), have more or less successfully undertaken the difficult task of extricating the original psalm from the textual medley in which it is entangled.从那时起Nowack(模具kleinen Propheten,1897年),灰色(“NAH。Alphab。诗”中的“解释者”,为1898年9月,207 SQQ),阿诺德(Nahum说1:1-2:3,在“Zeitschr。毛皮alttest。Wissensch”,1901年,225 SQQ),哈佩尔(DAS布赫DES Proph。NAH,1903年),马蒂“(Dodekaproph. erklart,1904年),LOHR(Zeitschr.毛皮alttest。Wissensch,1905年,我,174)和范Hoonacker(LES杜兹小proph,1908年),都或多或少地成功地开展了艰巨的任务文本混合泳它是纠缠摆脱原来的诗篇。 There is among them, a sufficient agreement as to the first part of the poem; but the second part still remains a classical ground for scholarly tilts.其中有足够的协议,以诗的第一部分,但第二部分仍然是古典学术倾斜的地面。

Wellhausen (Die kleinen Proph., 1898) holds that the noteworthy difference between the two parts from the point of view of poetical construction is due to the fact that the writer abandoned halfway his undertaking to write acrostically.豪森(模具kleinen Proph,1898年)认为,从诗意的建设的角度来看,两部分之间​​值得注意的区别是由于这一事实,作家半途而废他写acrostically的承诺。 Happel believes both parts were worked out separately from an unacrostic original.哈佩尔认为,制定了两个部分,分别从unacrostic原。sentence closed on the word XX, he noted in the title that his revision extended from XX to XX; and so the mysterious XX-XX (later on misconstrued and misspelled XXXXX) has neither a patronymic nor a gentile connotation.句字XX封闭,他注意到在他的修订,从XX至XX延长标题;等神秘的XX - XX(稍后误解和拼写错误XXXXX)既不是父也不是一个样儿的内涵。--> Critics are inclined to hold that the disorder and corruption which disfigure the poem are mostly due to the way it was tacked on to the prophecy of Nahum: the upper margin was first used, and then the side margin; and as, in the latter instance, the text must have been overcrowded and blurred, this later on caused in the second part of the psalm an inextricable confusion from which the first was preserved.- >批评家倾向于认为,混乱和腐败,这变丑的诗大多是由于上涨了那鸿预言:上缘是第一次使用,然后侧缘;和,后一种情况下,文本必须已经人满为患,模糊,稍后在第二部分的诗篇其中第一个被保留下来的一个不可分割的混乱造成的。 This explanation of the textual condition of the poem implies the assumption that this chapter is not to be attributed to Nahum, but is a later addition.这一解释诗的文字条件意味着假设本章不被归因于Nahum说,但以后除了。So much indeed was granted by Bickell, and Van Hoonacker (not to speak of non-Catholic scholars) is inclined to a like concession.所以很多确实是授予Bickell,范Hoonacker(非天主教学者不说话)是倾向于这样的让步。On the one hand, the marked contrast between the abstract tome of the composition and the concrete character of the other two chapters, we are told, bespeaks a difference of authorship; and, on the other hand, the artificiality of the acrostic form is characteristic of a late date.一方面,之间形成鲜明对比的组成和其他两个章节的具体性质的抽象圣多美和普林西比的,我们被告知,四起一个作者的差异;,另一方面,矫揉造作的离合形式特点一晚的日期。 These arguments, however, are not unanswerable.然而,这些论点,不无法回答。In any case it cannot be denied that the psalm is a most fitting preface to the prophecy.在任何情况下,不能否认的诗篇是一个最恰当的序言中的预言。

Little will be found in the teaching of the book of Nahum that is really new and original.小,会发现在那鸿书,是真正新的和原有的教学。The originality of Nahum is that his mind is so engrossed by the iniquities and impending fate of Ninive, that he appears to lose sight of the shortcomings of his own people. Nahum说独创性,但他的心是如此全神贯注的罪孽和即将到来的命运Ninive的,他似乎失去自己的人的缺点。The doom of Ninive was nevertheless in itself for Juda an object-lesson which the impassioned language of the Prophet was well calculated to impress deeply upon the minds of thoughtful Israelites.Ninive的厄运,但本身为犹大先知的慷慨激昂的语言,以及计算后,周到的以色列人心目中深深地打动对象的教训。 Despite the uncertainty of the text in several places, there is no doubt that the book of Nahum is truly "a masterpiece" (Kaulen) of literature.尽管在几个地方的文本的不确定性,这是毫无疑问,那鸿书是真正的“杰作”(考伦)文学。The vividness and picturesqueness of the Prophet's style have already been pointed out; in his few short, flashing sentences, most graphic word-pictures, apt and forceful figures, grand, energetic, and pathetic expressions rush in, thrust vehemently upon one another, yet leaving the impression of perfect naturalness.的生动性和先知的风格picturesqueness已经指出,在他的几个短,闪烁的句子,大多数图形字图片,APT和强有力的人物,宏伟,充满活力,和可怜的表达式匆忙中,推力根据彼此强烈,尚未留下完美自然的印象。 Withal the language remains ever pure and classical, with a tinge of partiality for alliteration (i, 10; ii, 3, 11) and the use of prim and rare idioms; the sentences are perfectly balanced; in a word Nahum is a consummate master of his art, and ranks among the most accomplished writers of the Old Testament.Withal仍然不断纯净和古典的语言与色彩的偏袒(I,10; II,3,11)为头韵,和拘谨和罕见的成语使用的句子是完美的平衡;在一个字Nahum说是一个完善的主他的艺术,和旧约中最有成就的的作家行列。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.由查尔斯L Souvay书面的公开信息。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Book of Nahum预订的Nahum说

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息



Time and Place of Writing.写作的时间和地点。

Historical Character.历史人物。

One of the Minor Prophetical works which centers about the overflow of Nineveh.尼尼微溢出为中心的未成年人预言的作品之一。The dispirited people of Judah are aroused and encouraged by the announcement of the downfall of the oppressive empire seated on the upper Tigris.犹大的萎靡不振的人是坐在上层底格里斯河的压迫帝国的垮台公布调动和鼓励。The book consists of three chapters, of which the following is a summary:本书包括三个章节,其中以下是一个总结:

Ch. CH。i: After the superscription (verse 1), the prophet describes (2-6) a superb theophany in judgment, with the awful results to nature. I:后上标(1节),先知介绍(2-6)与自然的可怕的结果在判断精湛theophany,。The apparent universality of this destruction leads the writer to point out (7) a real refuge for those who trust in Yhwh.这种破坏明显的普遍性,导致作家指出(7)对于那些在耶和华的信任的真正的避难所。The Assyrian power (8-12a) shall be completely overthrown, and its yoke broken from off the neck of Judah (12b-14).亚述电源(8 - 12A)应完全推翻,它的枷锁破关的犹大(12B - 14)的脖子。The prophetic eye even now (15) sees the welcome messenger heralding the good news to his hitherto oppressed people.预言的眼睛,即使现在(15)看到预示着好消息的信使他迄今被压迫人民的欢迎。


Ch. CH。ii.: In brilliant colors and in rapid succession are shown the enemies of Nineveh assaulting its battlements (1-5), the gates of the river yielding to the foe, the palace dissolving in fierce flames (6), the consternation reigning among the city's population (7-8), the abundance of booty, and the effect of Nineveh's fall upon all who considered it (9-10); the question asked about "the old lion," and answered by the desolation (11-13).二:在绚丽的色彩和快速连续显示尼尼微的敌人,袭击其城垛(1-5),河屈服,敌人的大门,溶解在激烈的火焰(6)的宫殿,不由惊愕之中城市的人口(7-8),丰富的战利品,和尼尼微呼吁所有他们认为(9-10)秋季的效果;提出的问题“老狮子”,苍凉(11-13)回答。

Ch. CH。iii.: The reason for Nineveh's swift downfall is in part recited: she has been a city of blood, always cruel and rapacious (1); her streets are now full of the slain, cut down by the victors because she has been the seducer of the nations (2-6); her destruction will not be lamented (7); resistance is as fruitless as was that of the impregnable Noamon (Thebes), and the vengeance of the victors no less terrible (8-12); all attempts at resistance are futile (13-15); the multitude of merchants and scribes shall disappear as grasshoppers on a warm day (16-17); the rulers are at rest, and the people scattered upon the mountains; the destruction is complete and a cause of rejoicing among all the nations (18-19). 。III:尼尼微的迅速垮台的原因是部分背诵:她已经被一个血的城市,总是残忍和贪婪(1);她的街头现全面的死士,减少由胜利者,因为她已被的诱惑(2-6)的国家,她的毁灭不会被感叹(7);阻力无果而终是坚不可摧Noamon(底比斯),和复仇的胜利者少不可怕(8-12);所有在抵抗的企图都是徒劳的(13-15);众多客商和文士应消失,在一个温暖的一天(16-17)蝗虫的统治者都在休息,人散后山​​的破坏是完整和在所有国家(18-19)大喜的原因。

Time and Place of Writing.写作的时间和地点。

The book furnishes few data for a settlement of the time and place of writing.书中furnishes解决写作的时间和地点的几个数据。It is evident from iii.这是显而易见的,从第三。8-10 that its "terminus a quo" is the fall of Noamon (Thebes) in Upper Egypt before the successful arms of Assurbanipal (668-626 BC) just after 664 BC In i. 8-10,“总站一个现状”是在上埃及(底比斯)Noamon Assurbanipal(公元前668-626)的成功武器前下跌664一公元前后 9 it is foretold that the destruction of Assyria will be complete.这是预言,毁灭亚述将完成。This was accomplished about 606; and it constitutes the "terminus ad quem" of Nahum.这是约606来完成,它构成了“总站广告quem”Nahum说。Somewhere between these two points the date of the book is to be sought for.介于这两点书之日起,是要寻求。The two prevailing dates selected are (1) about 650 and (2) about 608.当时所选的两个日期是(1)约650和608(2)有关。The reference to the fall of Thebes does not argue for the earlier date, as that disastrous battle would long remain in the memories of the adjoining peoples.底比斯秋季参考不主张较早的日期,作为这场灾难性的斗争将长期保持在毗邻人民的记忆。Neither, on the other hand, does the vividness of descriptive detail fix absolutely the later time as the true date.都不是,另一方面,生动描述详细修复绝对真实的日期以后。The probabilities, however, are in favor of about 608 as the time of composition.的概率,但是,在赞成组成的约608。 "Nahum the Elkoshite" is the designation of the prophet.“那鸿Elkoshite”是指定的先知。His vivid description of Nineveh and his definiteness of detail have led scholars to search for his home somewhere within reach of that city.他生动地描述尼尼微和他详细的定性有学者来搜索他的家,达到该城市内的某处。 Alḳush, a place near Mosul, contains a grave said to be that of Nahum; but the tradition of this place does not seem to be older than the sixteenth century. Alḳush,摩苏尔附近的一个地方,包含一个严重的说是Nahum说,但这个地方的传统似乎并没有被年龄比16世纪。On the other hand, Eusebius in his "Onomasticon" (ed. Lagarde) mentions an 'Eλκσέ of Jerome; and Jerome says, in his commentary, "Elcese usque hodie viculus in Galilæa."另一方面,在他的“Onomasticon”(主编拉加德)尤西比乌斯提到“杰罗姆Eλκσέ;杰罗姆说,在他的评论,”在Galilæa Elcese usque hodie viculus。“These statements would seem to locate an Elkosh in Galilee.这些语句似乎找到一个在加利利Elkosh。In answer to the statement that the Northern Kingdom was carried into captivity, it may be said that probably, as in the Southern Kingdom (II Kings xxv. 12), the poor were left in the land.在回答北方王国进行到圈养的声明,它可能会说,可能是在英国南部(二世国王二十五12),穷人被留在土地。The active commercial relations between the peoples of the East and of the West, and the opportunities for acquaintance with each other's customs and habits of life, as well as the few peculiarities of language in this book, make it probable that the prophet Nahum was a Galilean, who had his home at a village called Elkosh. “的东方和西方的人民,并与对方的风俗和生活习惯相识的机会,以及在这本书语言的几个特殊性之间的积极的商业关系时,它可能在先知那鸿是一个伽利略,曾在他家的一个村庄叫Elkosh。 His prophecies were doubtless uttered at Jerusalem, in the presence of Judah.无疑说出了他的预言是在耶路撒冷,在犹大的存在。

The prophecy reads quite as if some one had tampered with its original order.预言读取相当,如果一些人篡改其原有的秩序。It may be that this apparent mixture is due to modern logical literary strictures.这可能是因为这种明显的混合物,是由于现代逻辑的文学狭窄。But the following order, which seems to follow modern methods of thought, may be suggested: (1) ch.但下列顺序,这似乎是按照现代思想的方法,可能会建议:(1)CH。i.1-14; (2) ch.1-14;(2)CH。 iii.III。1-17; (3) ch.1-17;(3)CH。 ii.II。1-5, 13, 6-12; (4) ch. 1-5,13,6-12;(4)CH。iii.III。18, 19; i.18,19;一15.15。

Historical Character.历史人物。

Of all the Minor Prophets the Book of Nahum has received the greatest and strongest light from the discoveries of the last half-century.所有小先知那鸿书已收到,在过去的半个世纪中发现的最大,实力最强的光。The exact location of Nineveh, its fortifications, some of its palaces, its means of defense, its invincible kings, its armies, its amusements, its libraries, and its indescribable cruelty are now known.目前已知尼尼微的确切位置,其防御工事,它的一些宫殿,它的防御手段,其无敌的国王,它的军队,它的娱乐,它的库,和无法形容的残忍。 "The den of the lions" was an appalling reality, which let loose its terrors to the sorrow of every surrounding nation.“狮子的巢穴”是一个可怕的现实,放开其恐怖每个周边国家的悲哀。The character of the Assyrians, as depicted here, is true to the picture preserved in their own documents.这里描绘,亚述人,性格是真正的图片保存在自己的文件。

This compact, pointed, dramatic prophecy has no superior in vivid and rapid movement.这个紧凑的,指出的,戏剧性的预言没有生动和快速运动中的优越。Its quick succession of statement and thought give it a peculiar power over the reader.其快速的语句和思想的继承给它一个对读者的特殊权力。It delineates the swift and unerring execution of Yhwh's laws upon His merciless foes and those of His people, and also points to Him as the sure refuge and security of those who obey and trust Him.它描绘耶和华的法律后,他无情的敌人和他的那些人的迅速而无误的执行,而且还指出,他为确保那些服从和信任他的庇护和安全。

Emil G. Hirsch, Ira Maurice Price埃米尔G.赫希,IRA莫里斯价格

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。


Otto Strauss, Nahumi de Nino Vaticinium, 1853; the commentaries on the Minor Prophets of Orelli, GA Smith, and Nowack; Billerbeck and Jeremias, Der Untergang Nineveh's und die Weissagungschrift des Nahum, in Beiträge zur Assyriologie, iii.奥托斯特劳斯,Nahumi DE厄尔尼诺Vaticinium,1853年; Orelli,GA史密斯和Nowack小先知的评论;比勒贝克和赫雷米亚斯,明镜Untergang尼尼微和死亡Weissagungschrift DES Nahum说,在Beiträge楚Assyriologie,III。87-188; AB Davidson, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah, in The Cambridge Bible for Schools, 1896; Gunkel, in Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 1893, pp. 223 et seq.; Bickell, in Sitzungsberichte der KK Akademie der Wissenschaft zu Wien (Philos. Hist. Cl.), vol.87-188; AB戴维森,那鸿,哈巴谷和西番雅,在学校,1896年剑桥圣经;贡克尔,在(杂志)献给死Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft,1893年,第223等SEQ; Bickell Sitzungsberichte DER KK AKADEMIE DER Wissenschaft组维也纳(Philos.历史。CL),第二卷。cxxxi., part v., pp. 1 et seq.; Gunkel, Schöpfung und Chaos, p.cxxxi,第五部分,第1段及以下各段。贡克尔,Schöpfung和混沌,第 102, note 1.EGHIMP 102,注意1.EGHIMP


Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

One of the so-called Minor Prophets.所谓的小先知之一。He is called, in the title of his book, "Nahum the Elkoshite."在他的书的标题,他被称为“Nahum说的Elkoshite。”Where Elkosh was is not definitely known.凡Elkosh是并非绝对。The supposition that Nahum was a native of Judah agrees well with his keen sense of Judah's affliction under Assyrian domination and with his intense hatred of her oppressor.EGHJF McL. Nahum说是犹大人的设想,同意与他敏锐的感觉,犹大的亚述人统治下的苦难,与他的她的oppressor.EGHJF MCL强烈的仇恨。

Emil G. Hirsch, JF McLaughlin埃米尔G.赫希,JF麦克劳克林

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

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