New Testament新约

Jewish Information犹太信息

-Historical Books:历史书籍:

The name of "New Testament" was given by the Christian Church, at the close of the second century, to the gospels and to other apostolic writings, inasmuch as they were composed with the purpose of showing that by the advent of Jesus of Nazareth the Messianic prophecies had been fulfilled and a new covenant (LXX., διαϑέκη; Vulgate, "testamentum") or dispensation had taken the place of the old Mosaic one (Gal. iii. 15-22; Luke xxii. 20; Heb. ix. 15-22; comp. Ex. xxiv. 7; II Kings xxiii. 2, 23; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiv. 23). “新约”的名称是由基督教堂,在关闭的第二个世纪,福音和其他使徒著作,因为他们是由显示的目的,拿撒勒的耶稣的来临弥赛亚的预言已得到满足,并采取了一个新的公约“(LXX.,διαθέκη;武加大,”testamentum“)或豁免的旧马赛克的地方之一(加拉太书三15-22;路加福音二十二20;。希伯来书九。 15-22;比赛前二十四7;二世国王XXIII 2,23;。Ecclus [西拉奇] 23 XXIV)。The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jer.新约的想法,主要是基于后耶。xxxi.XXXI。31-34 (comp. Heb. viii. 6-13, x. 16).31-34(comp.希伯来书八6-13,十,16)。That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel (Jer. xxxi. 35-36; comp. xxxiii. 25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people.先知的话并不意味着废除该法,是他强调的“公约”与以色列的不变性宣言证明(耶三十一35-36;比赛。三十三25);他显然看到一个重建法通过再生人民的心中。 To Paul and his followers, however (see Rom. x. 4; II Cor. iii. 14), the Mosaic dispensation ended with Jesus, and consequently the Hebrew Scripture became the "Old Covenant," or "Testament," while Jesus was regarded as the mediator of the "New."保罗和他的追随者,但(见罗十4;二肺心病。三14),花叶省却与耶稣结束,因此希伯来文圣经成了“旧约”或“遗书”,而耶稣作为调解员视为“新”。 But the names "Old" and "New Testament," when used by Jewish writers, serve only as terms of identification, and do not imply acceptance of the principle implied.但“老”和“新约圣经的名字”时,犹太作家,只是作为鉴定的条款,并不意味着接受暗示的原则。

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Contents of the New Testament.新约的内容。

The early Church had no other sacred books than those in use in the Synagogue, and on these were based the claims of the Messiahship of Jesus as "the fulfilment of Scripture."早期教会并没有比那些在犹太教堂其他神圣的书籍,是基于对这些声称耶稣的弥赛亚“的经文履行。”In the course of time, however, the custom adopted from the Synagogue of reading at the service epistles of apocalyptic or Messianic character (see Tan., Wa'era, ed. Buber, p. 4; Baruch i. 3; Apoc. Baruch lxxviii.) not merely established the regular reading of the apostolic epistles in the Church, but made the reading of the story of the advent and doings of Jesus as the good tidings or gospel ("good spell" =εὐαγγέλιον; Mark i. 1, 15; Luke iv. 18; comp. Isa. lii. 7, lxi. 1) an essential part of the service; readings from the Old Testament were selectedas containing the prophecy or preparation, and those from the New as showing the fulfilment ("Apostolic Constitutions," ii. 55; Justin, "Apologia," i. 67; comp. 28; idem, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 18, 48, 49).然而,随着时间的推移,自定义通过的犹太教堂,在世界末日或救世主的字符(见谈,Wa'​​era,ED布伯,第4页服务的书信阅读;。巴鲁克一3;载脂蛋白C巴鲁克。LXXVIII)不只是建立在教会的使徒书信经常阅读,但阅读的故事耶稣的出现和行为;马克岛的好消息或福音(“好法术”=εὐαγγέλιον1, 15,路加福音四18;。比赛伊萨LII 7,LXI 1)服务的重要组成部分;。从旧约的读数selectedas含有的预言或准备,新的作为显示的实现(“使徒宪法“,二55;贾斯汀,”辩解“,一67;比赛28;同上,”Dialogus暨Tryphone,“§ § 18,48,49)。

Concerning the mode of composition and the dates of the various New Testament writings a wide divergence of opinion prevails among the several schools of Christian theologians and critics.关于模式的组成和各种新约圣经的著作之间的意见分歧较大的基督教神学家和评论家的几所学校中普遍存在的日期。It is solely from the Jewish point of view that they are considered here, the attempt being made to indicate to what extent their contents may be called Jewish in origin and character, and to what extent they contain anti-Jewish elements.它仅仅是从犹太人的角度来看,他们在这里被认为是企图作出指示到什么程度,其内容可能被称为犹太人在起源和性格,以及何种程度上含有反犹太人的元素。

The New Testament consists of the following books: I. The historical books: the Four Gospels-(1) according to Matthew; (2) according to Mark; (3) according to Luke; (4) according to John-and the Acts of the Apostles. “新约”包括以下书籍:一,历史书籍:四福音(1)根据马太福;(2)根据马克;(3)根据卢克;(4)根据约翰和行为使徒。II.二。The Pauline epistles: (1) to the Romans; (2 and 3) to the Corinthians; (4) to the Galatians; (5) to the Ephesians; (6) to the Philippians; (7) to the Colossians; (8 and 9) to the Thessalonians; (10 and 11) to Timothy; (12) to Titus; (13) to Philemon; (14) to the Hebrews.保罗书信:(1)罗马人;(2和3)哥林多前书(4)向加拉太;(5)以弗所(6)腓(7)向歌罗西书;(8 9)帖撒罗尼迦(10日和11日)霍震霆(12)提图斯(13)腓利门书;(14)的希伯来人。III.三。The so-called Catholic epistles: (1) the Epistle of James; (2 and 3) of Peter; (4, 5, and 6) of John; (7) of Jude; and (8) the Apocalypse of John, called also the Revelation of St. John the Divine.所谓的天主教教会:(1)书信詹姆斯彼得(2和3);(4,5和6)约翰(7)裘德;(8)约翰的启示,所谓圣约翰神圣的启示。 Of these works it is necessary here to deal with only the first section.这些作品,有必要在这里只有第一部分处理。

The Four Gospels:四福音:

The gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, were in the main composed between 80 and 150 CE; each relates, with a characteristic tendency of its own, the story of Jesus from the time of the appearance of John the Baptist until the "resurrection," with the purpose of showing that he was the looked-for Messiah of the Jewish prophecies.根据马太,马克,路加,和约翰福音,在主组成的行政长官80和150之间,每个涉及其自身的特点趋势,从施洗约翰的外观故事,直到耶稣“复活”的显示,他是看着为弥赛亚犹太预言的目的。 But while the first three gospels, called the "synoptic gospels," bear the same character and agree as to the plan of the work and the conception of Jesus as the Messiah, the son of David, the fourth gospel attempts to put a metaphysical and mystical construction upon the doings and sayings of Jesus narrated in the other three, with the view of presenting him as the son of God in the cosmic sense of the word.但是,尽管前三福音,被称为“观福音”,承担相同的字符,并同意为计划的工作和耶稣为弥赛亚的概念,大卫的儿子,第四福音试图把一个形而上学和叙述在其他三个神秘建设后的所作所为和熟语的耶稣,他作为神的儿子在宇宙这个词的意义。

The gospels do not claim to have been written by any of the apostles, but only to have been transmitted orally as tradition emanating from them.福音不声称已经使徒的任何书面,但只有口头传统,从它们所产生的已发送。Thus Luke i.因此卢克一1-3 refers to the existence of many gospels resting upon the report of "eye-witnesses and disciples," and Papias, an early second-century authority, relates that Mark wrote down what he, in a rather disconnected way, heard from Peter, and that Matthew had made a collection of the sayings of Jesus in the Hebrew (Aramean) without the historical framework, which was given differently by each commentator (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iii. 39, § 16). 1-3是指存在着许多福音的休息后,“目击证人和门徒”和帕皮亚,早期的第二个世纪的权力的报告,涉及马克写下了他,而断开的方式,从彼得听到马修没有历史的框架,这是每个评论员不同熟语的耶稣在希伯来文(Aramean)的集合(优西比乌,“组织胺。传道书”。三,39,§ 16)。

These two facts-a collection by Matthew of the sayings of Jesus in the Aramean language, and a gospel by Mark, as the oldest connected narrative of Jesus' sayings and doings-have served modern critics as the basis of their investigations.这两个事实收集马修在Aramean语言中的熟语的耶稣,和马可福音,为耶稣“的说法,并作为其调查的基础上的所作所为,已经担任现代批评家连接的最古老的的叙事。 Finding a striking similarity in the arrangement, and at times even an identity in the diction, of the larger part of the three gospels, they have arrived at the conclusion that the second gospel, which presents the whole record of Jesus in the simplest form and the best chronological order, was the original composition and was used by the other two; whereas the stories and sayings offered either by the other two gospels in common or by each separately rest on collections and traditions clustering around those of Matthew and others.寻找一个惊人的相似,在安排,有时甚至在文辞的身份,较大部分的三个福音,他们的结论抵达的第二个福音,在最简单的形式呈现耶稣的全程记录和最好的时间顺序排列,原成分,其他两个故事和格言,而提供其他两个共同的福音,或每个聚类集合和周围的马修和其他传统单独休息。

Still, there are other criteria by which the Jewish investigator is able to ascertain the origin and authenticity of the gospel stories and trace the various stages of their growth.不过,也有其他标准,其中犹太人研究者能够确定福音故事的起源和真实性,并跟踪他们的成长的各个阶段。A careful analysis corroborates the conclusion, assumed to be axiomatic by Jewish scholars, that the older and more genuine the records, written or unwritten, of the doings and teachings of Jesus, the more they betray close kinship with and friendly relations to Jews and Judaism; but that the more remote they are from the time and scene of the activity of Jesus, the more they show of hostility to the Jewish people and of antagonism to the Mosaic Law.仔细分析证实的结论,假设不言自明的犹太学者的所作所为和耶稣的教导,老年人和更真实的记录,成文或不成文的,他们背叛更密切的亲缘关系和友好合作关系,与犹太人和犹太教,但较偏远他们从耶稣活动的时间和场景,更显示了对犹太人民的敌意和对立,以镶嵌法。 The changing attitude and temper of the new sect influenced the records at every stage, and this accounts for the conflicting statements found beside each other in the various gospels and gospel stories.态度的转变和新教派的脾气影响的每一个阶段的记录,旁边发现彼此在各福音和福音故事的矛盾说法,这个帐户。

The Different Versions.不同的版本。

To begin with the crucifixion story, the older version knows only that the chief priests and scribes constituting the Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to death and handed him over to the Romans, who mocked, scourged, and killed him (Mark x. 33; Matt. xx. 17-19; comp. Mark xiv. 14; also Matt. xxvi. 45, where the term "sinners" is used for "heathen").要开始受难的故事,旧版本知道祭司长和文士构成公会谴责耶稣死刑,只是递给他交给罗马人,嘲笑,鞭打,并杀了他(马可福音十33;。马特XX马克十四17-19;补偿14;。马特XXVI 45一词的“罪人”是“异教徒”)使用。Later on (see Mark viii. 31; Matt. xvi. 21; Luke ix. 22), the reference to the Romans as the crucifiers has been altogether omitted, while in Mark ix.后来(见马克VIII 31;太十六21;。路加九22),罗马人作为crucifiers已经完全忽略,而在马克IX。31, Matt.31,马特。xvii.十七。22, Luke ix.22日,卢克IX。 44 the general term "men" is used instead.44总称“男人”来代替。With the older version tallies the story according to which the cause of his condemnation by the Sanhedrin was Jesus' hostility toward the Temple (Mark xiv. 58; Matt. xxvi. 61; comp. Mark xi. 15-18, xiii. 2, xv. 29, and parallels; comp. also John ii. 19; see Wellhausen, Commentary to Mark, 1903, pp. 131-133), a crime termed "pashaṭ yado ba-zebul" (he stretched out his hand against the Temple; Acts vi. 13; Tos. Sanh. xiii.; RH 17a; comp. Yer. Sanh. vi. 23c-"pashaṭ yado be-iḳḳar").与旧版本的故事,根据他谴责公会的原因是耶稣的敌视吻合寺(十四58;马克。马特XXVI 61;。。比赛马克十一15-18,十三2,第十五29相似之处;。比赛还约翰二世19;豪森,马克的评注,1903年,第131-133页),被称为犯罪“pashaṭ宿BA - zebul”(他伸出他的手对圣殿徒六13;。TOS Sanh第十三;。湿度17A;。比赛也门里亚尔Sanh VI 23C“pashaṭ宿,iḳḳar”)。It was at a later time and in contradiction to facts showing their friendly attitude (Luke xiii. 31) that the Pharisees were represented as having conspired against the life of Jesus, either with the Herodians or high priests (Mark iii. 6, xii. 13; Matt. xvi. 6, 11; xxii. 15-16; but comp. Luke xx. 19, where the Pharisees are not mentioned, and Matt. xxvii. 62; John vii, 32, 45; xi. 47; xviii. 3) or without them (Matt. xii. 14 [comp. vi. 7], xvi. 11; Luke xi. 53, xii. 1).这是在以后的时间和矛盾的事实显示出友好的态度(路十三31),法利赛人有对耶稣的生命密谋的代表,Herodians或大祭司(MARK III 6,第十二。 13。马特第十六6,11;二十二15-16;但比赛卢克XX 19,没有提到那里的法利赛人,和马特XXVII 62;。。约翰七,32,45,十一47;第十八3)没有他们(马太福音第十二章14 [COMP六7。],十六11;。。路加福音十一53,十二1)。 Accordingly, the charges singled out to account for his persecution by the Pharisees were violation of the Sabbath (Mark ii. 23-iii. 6, et al.) and the claim of being the son of God (Mark xiv. 61-64, et al.).因此,单挑迫害他的法利赛人的指控违反安息日(MARK II 23 - III 6,等),并声称是神的儿子(马可福音十四。61-64,等)。

Again, in the original version the Jewish multitudes side with Jesus to the very last (Luke xx. 19, xxiii. 27; Mark xii. 12); later on, both Herod, thepersecutor whom Jesus called "that fox" (Luke xiii. 32), and Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect (Luke xiii. 1, xix. 1), are transformed into friends and protectors of Jesus (Luke xxiii. 8, 15; Mark xv. 14; Luke xxiii. 4; Matt. xxvii. 17-25; John xviii. 38; xix. 4, 6, 12, 16), and the Jews described as his real crucifiers (Mark xv. 13-14; Matt. xxvii. 22-23; John xix. 12; Acts iv. 10); nay, more, the Jews become synonyms for fiends and bloodthirsty tyrants (John vii. 1, 13; viii. 44; x. 31; et al.).同样,与耶稣的犹太众人方在原版本的最后(卢克XX 19日,二十三27;。马克第十二12);以后,无论是希律王,thepersecutor人耶稣称为“福克斯”(路加福音第十三。 32),彼拉多,罗马知府(路加福音十三,十九1),耶稣(路加福音二十三8日,15到朋友和保​​护者转变;。马克XV 14;卢克XXIII 4;。马特XXVII 17-25;约翰十八38;第十九4,6,12,16),和犹太人形容他的真实crucifiers(马克XV 13-14;太二十七22-23;约翰十九12。徒10 IV);不仅如此,更多的犹太人成为恶魔和嗜血暴君的同义词(约翰七,1,13;八44;十31;等)。

For and Against the Law.支持和反对该法。

The same irreconcilable differences are found in the sayings attributed to Jesus concerning the Jews and the Law.同样不可调和的分歧归因于耶稣有关犹太人和法律的格言。According to the older version (Matt. v. 17-19; Luke xvi. 17), he declared that he had not come to destroy but to fulfil-that is, to practise-the Law.根据旧版本(太五17-19;路加福音十六17),他宣布说,他没有来摧毁,但履行,这是实践的法律。In fact, he urged the sacrifice of the sin-offering for the leper (Mark i. 43, and parallels).事实上,他呼吁为麻风病人的赎罪祭(马克一43,和Parallels)的牺牲。It was the abuses of the Law and the hypocrisy of the Pharisees that he rebuked in scathing language (Matt. xxiii.; Mark vii. 11; Luke xi. 42-43; comp. similar denunciations of Pharisaic hypocrisy in Soṭah 22b, Yer. Ber. ix. 14b, Ab. RN xxxvii.), while demanding a higher standard of righteousness of his disciples (Matt. v. 20, 37, 48).这是践踏法律和法利赛人的虚伪,他在严厉的语言(太二十三斥责。马克七11;路加福音十一42-43;。比赛Soṭah22B,也门里亚尔Pharisaic虚伪类似的谴责。误码率。IX。14B,AB护士XXXVII。),而更高的标准要求他的弟子义(太五20,37,48)。 He expressly stated that he had been "sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel" and found it "not meet to take the children's bread and cast it to the dogs" (that is, to the heathen), enjoining even his disciples to go not to the Gentiles, but to the lost sheep of Israel (Matt. x. 5-6, xv. 24-27).他明确表示,他已被“发送,但你们的以色列家失去了羊”,并发现它“不符合以采取儿女的饼和其转换的狗”(就是异教徒),责令即使他弟子不外邦人去,但以色列(太十5-6,十五24-27)迷失的羊。 He shows special love for a daughter of Abraham and a son of Abraham (Luke xix. 9).他表示亚伯拉罕的女儿和一个儿子亚伯拉罕(路加福音十九9)特别的爱。His name, Jesus (Joshua), is interpreted "he who shall save his people [from their sins]" (Matt. i. 21, ii. 6), and those whom he has healed "glorify the God of Israel" (Matt. xv. 31).他的名字,耶稣(约书亚),是解释“应保存他的人[]从他们的罪孽”(太一21,二6),和那些他已经痊愈“美化以色列的神”(马太福十五,31)。

On the other hand, he is declared to be the hope of "the Gentiles" (Matt. xii. 21; comp. "Savior of the world" of John iv. 42), and he becomes the exponent of the Pauline ideas that the old must give way to the new (Mark ii. 21-22; Luke v. 36-38; comp. 39); that the gospel should "be preached unto all nations" (Mark xiii. 10; Matt. xxiv. 14); nay, more-that the Kingdom of God be taken away from the Jews and given to another nation (Matt. viii. 11-12; xxi. 43).另一方面,他是被宣布为“外邦人”(马太福音第十二章21。。比赛“救世主”约翰四世界42)的希望,他将成为指数的宝莲思想必须放弃旧的方式,以新​​(MARK II 21-22;卢克诉36-38;比赛39。);福音“你们所有国家鼓吹”(马克第十三10。马特XXIV 14)不,上帝的王国从犹太人被带走,并给另一个国家(太11-12第八; XXI 43)。

Unhistorical Character of the Gospels.文保字符的福音。

As a matter of fact, the discrepancies in the records extend over all parts of the Four Gospels and invalidate the claim of historicity advanced for Mark or for any other of the gospels.事实上,在记录上的差距扩大到四福音的所有部件和先进的标记或任何其他的福音历史性的索赔无效。For instance, it is very singular that the only possible date for the crucifixion is found in the late fourth gospel (John xviii. 28), according to which it took place on Friday, the eve of Passover, and not on Passover, as Mark xiv.例如,它是非常奇异的,受难的唯一可能的日期是在后期的第四福音(约翰福音十八28)。,根据它参加了上周五,在逾越节前夕,而不是在逾越节,因为马克十四。 12, Matt.12,马特。xxvi.二十六。17, and Luke xxii. 17日,卢克XXII。7 have it. 7它。True, a trace of the correct date has been discovered in Mark xiv.诚然,一个正确的日期的痕迹已被发现在马克第十四。1 (see Wellhausen on the passage); but then the Last Supper can no longer be the paschal feast, as John xiii. 1(上看到的通过豪森),但“最后的晚餐”不再是逾越节的盛宴约翰第十三,。2 has no reference at all to it. 2没有在所有对它的引用。So Jesus is reported to have defended his claim to the Messiahship by proving (from Ps. cx. 1) that the Messiah need not be a son of David (Mark xii. 35-37), while the all-knowing demons of the possessed call him "Jesus, son of David" (Mark x. 47).因此,耶稣是捍卫了他的要求的弥赛亚证明(从诗篇。CX 1),弥赛亚不需要一个儿子大卫(马克十二35-37),而全知的恶魔的附身称呼他为“耶稣,大卫的儿子”(马可福音十47)。Here, too, John's gospel is more consistent.在这里,约翰福音是比较一致的的。It knows nothing of the Davidic descent of Jesus; on the contrary, his legitimacy of birth is disputed (John viii. 48), while stress is laid upon the view that Jesus is the son of God.它知道大卫的后裔耶稣的话,相反,他出生的​​合法性是有争议的(约八48)。,而强调的是下岗后,认为耶稣是上帝的儿子。 The genealogies in Matthew (i. 1-17) and Luke (iii. 23-28), while conflicting with each other, are late attempts at establishing his Davidic descent, actually disproving the claim of his supernatural origin (Matt. i. 18; Luke ii. 5).马修(一1-17)和卢克(III. 23-28)的族谱,而与对方发生冲突,在建立他的大卫的后裔后期的尝试,实际上反证他的超自然起源的索赔(太一18路加福音二5)。The claim that Jesus was "Christ the son of God" all the gospels endeavor to establish.声称耶稣是“基督是神的儿子”努力建立所有的福音。

Most incompatible with the Jewish mode of thinking and speaking is the story, in Matt.最违背的思维和说话的犹太人模式的故事,在马特。i.18-23 (with which Luke i. 27, 34, ii. 5, and iii. 23 were afterward harmonized), of his conception by the virgin from the Holy Ghost ("Ruaḥ" = "Spirit," being feminine both in Hebrew and Aramaic). 18-23(路加福音一27,34,二,五,和三,23之后的统一),他从圣灵的处女(“Ruaḥ”=“的精神,”无论是在希伯来文的女性化观念和阿拉姆语)。 The older view was that Jesus became the son of God through the descent of the Holy Ghost at the moment of his rebirth by baptism, when the heavenly "bat ḳol" spoke to him, "Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee" (Acts xiii. 33; comp. Mark i. 11; Luke iii. 22; see Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 88, 103), and the Holy Ghost lifted him to the "ḥayyot" of the heavenly throne, even above the angels (comp. Mark i. 13; Matt. iv. 11).旧的观点是,耶稣成为神的儿子,通过圣灵降临在他重生的洗礼,在天上的“蝙蝠KOL”他说话的时刻,“你是我的儿子,这一天我独生子你“(徒第十三33;。排版马克一11;卢克三22;看到贾斯汀”Dialogus暨Tryphone,“§ § 88,103),和圣灵解除他的”活物天上的宝座“ ,即使上面的天使(comp.马克一13;。马特IV 11)。

Mythical as is this story at the beginning of Mark, it is but the reflex of the older tale of his transfiguration, representing him as having been lifted to a high mountain, where he was enveloped in a cloud, together with Moses and Elijah (comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 42), while the heavenly voice said, "This is my beloved son" (Mark ix. 2-9, and parallels).神话作为这个故事的开始标记,它不过是他变身的故事,代表他被解除山高,在那里他被云笼罩,与摩西和以利亚(COMP反射塔尔格。也门里亚尔。前。十二42),而天上的声音说,“这是我心爱的儿子”(马克IX。2-9,和Parallels)。 Probably this was originally applied to the "resurrection" (comp. Acts i. 9-10; Wellhausen on Mark ix. 2-9).也许这是最初的“复活”(comp.行为一9-10;。马克IX豪森2-9)。Not the living but the departed Jesus became the son of God.不是生活,但离去的耶稣成为神的儿子。As such, he was first seen by Peter and the other apostles in Galilee, six days after his death (Mark xvi. 7; comp. ib. ix. 2 and John xxi. 1-29, which is the continuation of Mark xvi. 8).因此,他是第一次看到彼得和其他使徒在加利利,6天之后,他的死亡,(马克XVI 7。比赛IB IX 2和约翰XXI 1-29,这是马克XVI延续。 8)。The story of Peter having recognized him as "Christ, the Son of the living God" (Matt. xvi. 16; Mark viii. 29; Luke ix. 20), is accordingly as mythical as is the beginning of the story, according to which he had foretold to his disciples his crucifixion and his resurrection on the third day in fulfilment of the Scripture (comp. Hosea vi. 1-2)-a story discredited by the very attitude of these disciples (Mark xvi. 8; Luke xxiv. 21; John xx. 9).彼得的故事承认他为“基督,永生神的儿子”(太十​​六16; VIII 29马克。卢克IX 20),是根据神话故事的开头是,根据他曾预言他的弟子他钉在十字架上,第三天,他的复活,在履行圣经(comp.何西阿VI 1-2),由这些弟子的态度(马克XVI 8抹黑故事;卢克XXIV 21,约翰XX 9)。

It is superfluous to say that the story of the feeding of the five thousand (Mark vi. 30-46; recorded also in John vi. 1-15) is legendary, as well as its counterpart, the story of the feeding of the four thousand recorded in Mark viii.它是多余地说,就是传说中的故事(马克六30-46;也记录在约翰六世1-15)喂养的5万,以及与其对应,喂养的四个故事千马克第八记录。 1-9.1-9。So is the story of Jesus' apparition on the water (Mark vi. 47-56; Matt. xiv. 24-36; John vi. 16-21)-probably originally a Galilean fishermen's tale referring to the time after the death of Jesus-given a different version in Mark iv.因此,是耶稣在水面上“幽灵的故事(马克六47-56;马特。十四24-36;。约翰六世16-21)大概最初指的是耶稣的死亡时间后一个伽利略渔民的故事给予MARK IV的不同版本。35-41, and parallels.35-41,和相似之处。The stories of the centurion's servant (Luke vii. 1-10), of the nobleman's son (John iv. 46-50), and of the raising of Jairus' daughter (Mark v. 21-43) have many features showing their common origin in tradition (see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Mattheus," 1904, p. 36); but while the last-mentionedhas preserved its Judæo-Christian character, the other two are anti-Jewish in conception.百夫长的仆人(路加福音七1-10)的故事,贵族的儿子(约翰四46-50),和睚鲁的女儿(马克诉21-43)提高,有许多新的特点,显示出它们的共同在传统的起源(见豪森,“资本Evangelium Mattheus”,1904年,第36页),但最后mentionedhas保留其犹太 - 基督教的性格,另外两个是在概念上反犹太人的。The story of the anointment of Jesus in the house of Simon the leper (Mark xiv. 3-9; Matt. xxvi. 6-13; recorded also in John xii. 3) is identical with the one told of the sinner (Magdalene?) in the house of Simon the Pharisee (Luke vii. 36-50), the name = "Simon the Essene" having been misread = "the leper" (as Chajes, "Markus-Studien," p. 74, suggests).推举耶稣在长大麻疯的西门(。马特XXVI 6-13。马克第十四3-9也记录在约翰十二3)家的故事是一个相同的罪人(抹大拉告诉? )=“西蒙厄”西门的法利赛人(路加福音七36-50),这个名字的房子被误读=“麻风病人”(Chajes,“马库斯 - 家庭研究”,第74页,建议)。

Altogether, the story of Jesus was built up upon Bible passages, which Mark, who writes for non-Jewish readers, omits in most cases, just as he omits the debate with Satan.总之,耶稣的故事是建立了经文,马克,非犹太读者写道,在大多数情况下省略后,正如他忽略了与撒旦的辩论。Only in i.只有在一2, xiv.2,第十四条。27, 49, xv.27,49,XV。 28 does he refer to the Scripture, while in i.28他所指的圣经,而在一11 and ix.11日和第九。7 reference to Ps.7参考诗篇。 ii.II。7, and in viii.7,在第八。 31 reference to Hosea vi. 31参考何西阿六。1-2, are indirectly made.1-2,间接作出的。In Matthew the statement "This is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord" is repeated in various forms (i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17, 23; iii. 3; iv. 14; viii. 17; xii. 17; xiii. 14, 35; xxi. 4; xxii. 31; xxvi. 54, 56; xxvii. 9, 35); also in the latter but much older part of John (xii. 38; xiii. 18; xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9, 32; xix. 24, 36), as well as in Luke (i. 20; iv. 21; xx. 37; xxi. 22).在马修的声明“,这是来传递,它可能得到满足,这是主说,”是在各种形式的重复(一22; II 5,15,17,23;三3; IV 14。 ;第八17。第十二章17第十三14,35; XXI 4; XXII 31; XXVI 54,56; XXVII 9,35);在约翰后者,但老得多的部分(xii. 38第十三18; XV 25;十七12;第十八9,32;。十九24,36),以及在路加福音(一20,四21 XX 37;。XXI 22)。 In most cases the Messianic, or alleged Messianic, passages suggested the story, rather than the story suggesting the passages.在大多数情况下的救世主,或涉嫌救世主,通道的建议,建议的通道,而不是故事的故事。

The Sayings of Jesus.耶稣的说法。

The sayings of Jesus were collected and grouped together by several writers before they were embodied in the first and third gospels; and they were circulated in many forms afterward as "Logia" ("Oracular Sayings of Christ").耶稣的格言收集,组合在一起几个作家之前,他们在第一和第三个福音体现;他们在传阅“Logia”(“基督Oracular熟语”)之后的许多形式。 This accounts for the repetition and dislocation of many of them.他们中许多人的重复和错位的原因。As they were handed down originally in the Aramaic language, traces of which are still preserved in Mark (iii. 17; v. 41; vii. 34; xv. 34), they were often misread; as, for instance, in Luke iv.他们最初在阿拉姆语传世,其中的痕迹仍保存马克(诉41;七34;。III. 17 XV 34),他们往往被误读,例如,在路加福音第四。26: "armalita" (widow) for "aramaita" (heathen; see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Lucæ," 1904, p. 10); or Matt. 26:“armalita”(寡妇)“aramaita”(异教徒;见豪森,“资本Evangelium Lucæ,”1904年,第10页);或亚光。 vii.七。6: "ḳudsha" (holy thing) for "ḳodosha" (ring, parallel to pearls); or Matt. 6:“ḳudsha”(圣物)“ḳodosha”(戒指,珍珠平行);或亚光。viii.VIII。22, where the original reading was "Sheboḳ li-bene mata de-yikberun yat metehon" (= "Let the men of the town bury their dead"; see Credner, "Einleitung ins Neue Testament," 1836, i. 75). 22日,原读“Sheboḳ李BENE马塔 - yikberun逸metehon”(=“让城里的男人埋葬他们的死人”; Credner,“插件”新旧约导论“,1836年,一75)。

Misunderstood Passages.被误读的旅费。

Often the "Logia" were misunderstood by the translator, as in the case of the expressions "'ayin ṭob" and "'ayin ra'" (= "a good [friendly], unbegrudging eye" and "a malevolent, begrudging eye" (Matt. vi. 22-23; Luke xi. 34-36). Similarly, the fourfold meaning of "barnasha" ("son of man," "man," "I," and "the Messiah") was misunderstood by the first three evangelists (see Man, Son of). So with the words (Luke xvii. 20-21), "The kingdom of God cometh not by calculation" (comp. the rabbinical "cursed be the calculators of the end" ["meḥashbe ḳiẓẓim"], Sanh. 97b), "but suddenly, imperceptibly it is with you" (comp. "The Messiah comes when the thought of him is absent" ["be-ḥesseaḥ ha-da'at"], Sanh. 97a). The "heathen" of Matt. vi. 7 (comp. Ber. 24b, xviii. 17) seems to be a mistranslation of the term "'amme ha-araẓot" (the ignorant class of men).往往是“Logia”的表现形式“”阿银TOB“和”“阿银岭”“(=”良好的[友好],unbegrudging眼“和”恶意,begrudging眼“的情况下被误解了翻译, (太六22-23;。路加福音十一34-36)。同样,“barnasha”(“人子”,“人”,“我”和“弥赛亚”)的四倍的意思被误解前三传福音(见人的儿​​子),所以的话(路十七20-21),“神的降临而不是通过计算王国”(comp.拉比“诅咒结束计算器”[ “meḥashbeḳiẓẓim”],Sanh。97B)“,但突然间,潜移默化地与你同在”(comp.“弥赛亚时,他没有想到的是”[“BE -ḥesseaḥHA - da'at”],Sanh 97A)。“异教徒”太六7(comp.的误码率。24B,十八17),似乎是一词的误译“”amme HA -araẓot“(无知的男性类)。

Misunderstanding of the term "be-ḥad le-shabba tinyana" (on the first of the second week after Passover), preserved only in Luke vi.误区“是,有LE - shabba tinyana”(逾越节后的第二周的第一),唯一保留完整的VI卢克。1, caused the confusion of the law concerning the new produce of the year (Lev. xxiii. 11-14) with the Sabbath law (see Jew. Encyc. vii. 168, sv Jesus). 1,关于今年新生产与安息日法(见犹太人。百科全书七168,SV耶稣)(利未记二十三11-14)。的法律造成的混乱。In the one case Jesus, referring to David, defended his disciples, who in their hunger plucked the new corn in the field and ate it without waiting for the offering upon the altar; in the other case he himself disregarded the Sabbath law in view of the "pikkuaḥ nefesh" (peril of life), a case in which the Rabbis admitted the suspension of the law, upon the principle, "The Sabbath is given over to you ["the son of man"], and not you to the Sabbath" (see Mek., Wayaḳhel, 1; Chwolson, "Das Letzte Passahmahl," 1892, pp. 59-67, 91-92).耶稣在一种情况下,指的是大卫,他的弟子,在饥饿中抠出在该领域的新的玉米和吃,而无需等待提供在坛辩护;在其他情况下,他自己不顾鉴于安息日法“pikkuaḥnefesh”一案在拉比的原则,承认法律的悬架,后(生命危险)“安息日是给了你[”人子“,而不是你的安息日“(MEK看到,Wayaḳhel,1;。Chwolson,”资本Letzte Passahmahl“,1892年,第59-67,91-92)。

Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have been literally taken over from the Didache; others were Pharisaic teachings well known in the rabbinical schools, as has been shown by Lightfoot ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1684), Shöttgen ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1737), Nork ("Rabbinische Quellen und Parallelen zu Neutestamentlichen Schriften," 1839), Zipser ("The Sermon on the Mount," 1852), Wünsche ("Neue Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Evangelien," 1878), and others.许多熟语归功于耶稣已经从字面上采取从十二使徒遗训,其他人在犹太教学校知名的Pharisaic教诲,已娜莱(“海悦Hebraicæ等Talmudicæ,”1684),Shöttgen(“海悦Hebraicæ等Talmudicæ,“1737年),诺克(”Rabbinische Quellen和Parallelen组Neutestamentlichen Schriften“,1839年),Wünsche(Zipser(”登山宝训“,1852年),”“新Beiträge楚Erläuterung DER Evangelien”,1878年),以及其他。It has been pointed out by Schreiner ("Die Jüngsten Urtheile über das Judenthum," 1902, pp. 27-29) that while Jesus' sayings are simply assertions without support of Scripture, the Rabbis show that they were derived from Scripture and thereby establish their claim to priority.据指出Schreiner(“模具Jüngsten Urtheile超级DAS Judenthum,”1902年,第27-29页),而耶稣“的说法根本没有圣经支持的断言,的拉比显示,他们从圣经中派生,从而建立他们的要求优先权。 Thus, the injunction to pray for the offender (Matt. v. 44) is derived (Tos. B. Ḳ. ix. 29) from the example of Abraham and Job (Gen. xx. 17; Job xlii. 8, 10); the idea of heavenly treasures (Matt. vi. 20) is derived from Deut.因此,派生的禁令,以祈求的罪犯(太五44)(Tos. B.Ḳ九29。)从亚伯拉罕和工作的例子(创世纪XX 17;工作XLII 8,10)。天上的珍宝(太六20)的想法是从申派生的。xxxii.三十二。34, in connection with Isa. 34,在与ISA的连接。iii. III。10 and Ps. 10和Ps。xxxi. XXXI。20 (AV 19; Sifre, Deut. 324; comp. Tosef., Peah, iv. 8); the deprecation of lengthy prayers (Matt. vi. 7-8), from Ex.20(AV 19; Sifre,申324;。比赛Tosef,Peah,四8);冗长的祷告(太六7-8)。EX,折旧。xv.十五。21 and Num.21和数量。xii.XII。13 (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 3; Sifre, Num. 105; comp. Ber. 39a).13(Mek.,Beshallaḥ,3; Sifre,数量105;。比赛误码率39A)。 So also with the sentence, "Let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay" (Matt. v. 37, RV), which is derived from Lev.所以也用了一句,“让你的发言是,是啊,是啊,不然,反对”(太五37,RV),这是从列夫派生。xix.十九。36 (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, viii. 7; BM 49a; comp. Tos. Soṭah vii. 2; Giṭ. 35a; Num. R. xxii.); and the condemnation of the lustful look (Matt. v. 28), from Deut.36(Sifra,Ḳedoshim,第八; BM 49A;比赛TOSSoṭah七2;。Git的35A;数R. XXII);和谴责淫荡的看(太五28),从申。xxiii.二十三。9 ('Ab. Zarah 20a) and Job xxxi. 9('抗体。Zarah 20A)和工作XXXI。(Midr., Yalḳuṭ, to the passage). (Midr.,Yalḳuṭ,通过)。

When in his dispute with the Sadducees concerning resurrection Jesus cites the passage, "I am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," to prove that the Patriarchs shall come to life again, because "God is the God of the living, not of the dead," the argument fails to convince the believer in Scripture; but when Gamaliel refers the Sadducees to Deut.他与复活的耶稣的撒都该人的争端时引用了一段话,“我是亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各的神,”来证明的始祖应再次来的生活,因为“上帝是活着的上帝,而不是死“的说法未能说服信徒在圣经中,但是当加马利亚指撒都该人申。 xi.十一。21, or Ex.21日,或前。vi.VI。4, ". . . the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers to give them," the argument is logical and convincing: "The dead can not receive, but they shall live again to receive the land" (Sanh. 90b).4,参数是逻辑和有说服力的“土地主赐给你们列祖起誓给他们。。”:“死不能接受,但他们应再活收到的土地”(Sanh. 90B)。The originality, then, is with the Rabbis.独具匠心,那么,是拉比。In like manner the beautiful story of the widow's two mites (Mark xii. 42-44) betrays its midrashic origin in the words, "she has given all her living," which are an allusion to the Biblical phrase "we-nefesh ki taḳrib" (Lev. ii. 1), interpreted in Lev.寡妇的两个螨美丽的故事(马可福音十二42-44)在喜欢的方式背叛米大示解经的起源的话,“她给了她所有的生活”,这是暗指圣经短语“我们nefesh文taḳrib “(利未记二,1),解释列弗。R. iii. R.第三。as signifying,"The gift of the poor who includes his or her very life in the gift counts for more before God than the hecatombs of Agrippa the king."作为象征,“穷人的礼物,包括他或她的生命在上帝面前超过阿格里帕的hecatombs王的礼物计数。”So the strange words of Jesus in regard to the adulteress: "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her" (John viii. 7), are possibly merely an echo of the rabbinical saying, "Only when the husband is without sin will the ordeal of the wife suspected of adultery prove effective" (Sifre, Num. 21, based upon Num. v. 31).所以淫妇耶稣的怪话:“他没有罪在你们中间,让他第一次投在她的石头”(约翰第八7),可能只是说,“只有当一个犹太教的回声丈夫是没有罪的,将涉嫌通奸的妻子的考验证明是有效的“(Sifre,序号21,时数。诉31)。 Expressions such as "If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out," and "if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off" (Matt. v. 29-30), are explained by similar rabbinical utterances (Niddah 13b).如表达“如果你的右眼得罪你,摘去它”,“如果你得罪你的右手,削减它关闭”(太​​五29-30),类似的言论(Niddah 13B)拉比解释。For other instances of New Testament sayings derived from Scripture see Jew.从圣经的新约熟语其他实例见犹太人。Encyc.百科全书。iv.IV。588-592, sv588-592,SV


The "sayings" attributed to Jesus may be divided, according to form and contents, into (1) Ethical Teachings, (2) Parables, (3) Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances, (4) Essene Polemics. “熟语”归因于可分为耶稣,根据形式和内容,为(1)(4)伦理教导,(2)比喻,(3)世界末日(弥赛亚)的话语,厄论战。

The "Sayings."“熟语”。

1. 1。Ethical Teachings: These were grouped together in the Sermon on the Mount as if to form the program of the new dispensation (Matt. v. 1-vii. 27; in less elaborate form in Luke vi. 20-49), but are partly found, in varying order, elsewhere (Mark ix. 43-47, x. 11, xi. 25; Matt. xviii. 8-9; Luke xi. 2-4, 9-13, 34-36; xii. 22-31, 33-34).伦理教导:这些组合在一起,仿佛在登山宝训,以形成新的管理体制方案“(太五1七27;不太精心的形式在路加六20-49),但部分发现,在不同的顺序,在别处(43-47马克九,十11,十一25;马特十八8-9,路加福音十一2-4,9-13,34-36;。。。第十二22 - 31,33-34)。The main characteristic of these teachings is not, as Matthew puts it, antagonism to the Law, but what the Rabbis term "li-fenim mi-shurat ha-din"-"a withdrawing within the line of the Law" (B. Ḳ. 101a) as behooves the esoteric circle of the pious; in other words, their main ethical characteristic is Hasidean (comp. B. Ḳ. 30a; BM 83a, with reference to Prov. ii. 20; see Essenes).这些教义的主要特点是,马修所说,对立的“,但拉比”李fenim MI - shurat HA - DIN“ - ”内撤出法“(二Ḳ 101A)认真地看深奥的虔诚圈;换句话说,其主要的民族特色Hasidean(comp. B.Ḳ30A; BM 83A,参照省二20;。看到爱色尼)。Hasidean views similar to those contained in Matt.Hasidean在马特所载的意见类似。vi.VI。25-34 are voiced also (Ḳid. iv. 14; Tos. Ḳid. v. 15; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayissa'u, 2-4).25-34还表示(Ḳid.四14; TOS小子诉15;。MEK,Beshallaḥ,Wayissa'u 2-4)。

2. 2。Parables: The parables follow the rabbinical "meshalim," illustrative of some ethical truth, either in the form of similitudes, like the rabbinical "Mashal le-mah ha-dabar domeh" ("A similitude: To what may this be likened? To a man," etc.; see Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb."; Parables), or in the form of a longer narrative.比喻:比喻遵循犹太教的“meshalim”,说明一些道德的真理,无论是在similitudes形式,如犹太教的“马沙尔LE - MAH的HA -达巴尔domeh”(“相像:可能这好比一个人,“等;看到征费,”Neuhebr Wörterb“;寓言),或在一个较长的叙事形式。 The former kind is found in Mark iii.前一种是在MARK III。23, iv.23日,四。1-9 (the parable of the sower), 26-32, and xii.1-9(撒种的比喻),26-32,和第十二。1-12; the latter is especially developed in Luke xv.-xvi.1-12;后者,特别是在卢克xv.第十六开发。and xix.和第十九条。11-28 (the parables of the lost sheep, the lost piece of silver, the prodigal son, the unrighteous steward, and the ten talents), and in Matt.11-28(迷失的羊,失去一块银,浪子,不义的管家,和十个人才的比喻),在马特。 xxv.二十五。1-30 (the parables of the wise and foolish virgins, and of the unprofitable servant). 1-30(聪明的和愚蠢的童女的比喻,无利可图的仆人)。Some of these parables have their parallels among the sayings of first-century rabbis, and it may, therefore, justly be claimed that they originated among these.这些比喻有些人一世纪的拉比的说法之间相似之处,因此,它可能会理直气壮地声称,他们在这些起源。Compare, for instance, the parable of the wise and foolish guests of the king told by R. Johanan b.例如,比较明智和愚蠢的国王的客人的比喻告诉R.约哈难乙Zakkai with reference to the Messianic banquet, in commenting upon Isa.Zakkai与参考,以救世主的宴会,在评论后,伊萨。lxv.第六十五。13 and Eccl.13和传道书。 ix.IX。8 (Shab. 153a).8(Shab. 153A)。The simple meaning of these parables, however, was lost later on, and they were taken to be allegories and mysteries, especially when they alluded to the Messianic expectations, about which it was not safe to speak in public, as they assumed the end of the kingdom of Satan (Rome; comp. Mark iv. 11, 34; Matt. xiii. 1-52, especially 35 and 39).简单的这些比喻的含义,然而,失去了以后,他们被带到寓言和奥秘,特别是当他们提到,以救世主的期望,它并不安全,在公开场合发言,因为他们假定结束撒旦的王国(罗马比赛马克IV 11 34;。马特第十三1-52,尤其是35和39)。Thus "the parable of the fig-tree" (Mark xiii. 28; see Wellhausen, who is at a loss to explain it) is actually a "symbol" of the Messianic advent, according to the Midrash (Cant. R. ii. 13), but was no longer understood by the evangelists, either as an allegory or as a sign of Messianic success or failure, in the story of the blasted fig-tree (Mark xi. 13-14, 20-23).因此,“无花果树的比喻”(马可福音十三28;见豪森,处于亏损状态来解释它是)实际上是一个“符号”的救世主的来临,根据米德拉士(Cant. R. II。 13),但不再是理解的福音,无论是作为一个寓言,或作为一种救世主的成功或失败的标志,在炮轰无花果树(马克十一,13-14,20-23)的故事。

3. 3。Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances: For the most part, these are taken over from Jewish apocalypses and embodied in the gospels as discourses of Jesus (Matt. xxiv.-xxv. 31-45; comp. Midr. Teh. Ps. cxviii. 17; Mark xiii. 7-23; Luke xiii. 24-30, xvii. 22-35, xxi. 7-36).世界末日(弥赛亚)话语:在大多数情况下,这些接管犹太启示和体现在话语耶稣(太xxiv. - 25 31-45的福音;比赛Midr诗cxviii 17。。。。 ;第十三7-23马克;卢克第十三24-30,十七22-35,二十一7-36)。

4. 4。Essene Polemics: These are directed chiefly against (a) Herodian high priests (Mark xi. 27-xii. 27, xiii. 1-2; Luke xi. 47-xii. 8) and are encountered also in rabbinical records (Tos. Men. xiii. 21-22), and against (b) Pharisaic hypocrisy (Matt. xxiii., et al.); the latter also have their parallels in rabbinical writings (Ab. RN xxxvii.; Soṭah 22; Pesiḳ. R. xxii.: "Thou shalt not utter the name of the Lord in vain; that is, Thou shalt not wear phylacteries and long fringes [ẓiẓit] while at the same time thou art bent upon sin").厄论战:这是主要针对(一)希律一世(大祭司。马克XI 27 - XII 27,十三1-2;路加福音十一47 - XII 8),在犹太教的记录也遇到(Tos.男子第十三21-22日),反对(二)Pharisaic虚伪(太二十三,等);。后者也有他们的相似之处,在拉比的著作(Ab. RN XXXVII;Soṭah22;PesiḳR. XXII。 :“汝等叫不出徒劳的主名称;也就是说,你不可不穿phylacteries和长条纹ẓiẓit],而同时你的艺术弯曲后罪”)。See Pharisees.见法利赛人。


Characteristics of the Gospels.特色的福音。

The gospel of Matthew stands nearest to Jewish life and the Jewish mode of thinking.马太福音站最近的犹太人的生活和犹太人的思维模式。It was written for Judæo-Christians and made ample use of an Aramaic original.它被写为犹太基督徒并大量使用阿拉姆原。This is evidenced by the terms: "kingdom of heaven," found exclusively in Matthew, a translation of the Hebrew "malkut shamayim" (= "kingdom of God"); "your heavenly Father," or, "your Father in the heavens" (v. 16, vi. 14, et al.); "son of David" for "the Messiah" (ix. 27, et al.; comp. the rabbinical "ben David"); "the holy city" (iv. 5, xxvii. 53) and "the city of the great King" (v. 35) for "Jeru salem"; "God of Israel" (xv. 31); the oft-repeated phrase "that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet"; the retention of Judæo-Christian conceptions (v. 17, x. 6, xv. 24); the genealogy of Jesus, based upon specific haggadic views concerning Tamar, Ruth, and Bath-sheba, so drawn as to make the assumption of his Messianic character plausible (i. 1-16); and the assignment of the twelve seats of judgment on the Judgment Day to the Twelve Apostles in representation of the twelve tribes of Israel (xix. 28; Luke xxii. 30).条款证明了这一点:“天国”,发现只在马太,翻译希伯来文的“malkut shamayim”(=“神的国”);“你的天父”或“您的父亲在天上“(14 16五,六等。)”大卫的儿子“,”弥赛亚“(ix. 27,等;比赛犹太教。”本大卫“);”圣城“( 5四,二十七53)和“伟大的国王的城市”,“Jeru萨利姆”(35节);。“以色列的上帝”(xv. 31);再三重复的一句话“,这可能是履行,这是由先知发言的主“;保留犹太 - 基督教的观念(17五,十,6,第XV 24),耶稣的家谱,具体haggadic意见后,有关添马舰,露丝和巴斯巴,所以使他的救世主的字符似是而非的假设(一1-16);和判决的审判日12个席位分配给以色列的十二支派代表性的十二使徒(XIX 28;路加福音二十二30)。It has embodied Jewish apocalyptic material, in ch.它体现了犹太世界末日的材料,在CH。xxiv.-xxv., more extensively than have the other gospels; and in the Sermon on the Mount (v.-vii.) it shows a certain familiarity with rabbinical phraseology.。xxiv. - XXV,更广泛地比其他福音;山(五,七)。讲道,它显示了一定的熟悉与拉比用语。

On the other hand, it manifests a spirit of intense hostility to the Jews in the crucifixion story, to a greater degree than do the other gospels (xxvii. 25).另一方面,它体现了一个犹太人的精神,强烈的敌意,在受难的故事,在更大程度上比其他福音(xxvii. 25)。In fact, its late composition is shown by its artificial systematization of the whole story of Jesus: There are seven beatitudes in v. 3-10 (verse 5 is a quotation), and accordingly seven "woes" in xxiii.事实上,其后期的组成是耶稣的整个故事的人工系统化:有七个讲到诉3-10(第5节是一个报价),以及相应的七个“连环套”XXIII。 13-32 (Luke vi. 21-26 has five beatitudes and four "woes"); seven parables in xiii. 13-32(路加六21-26五个讲到四个“连环套”); 7第十三比喻。1-52 (comp. the four in Mark iv. 1-34), and the twice-seven generations for each of the three periods of the genealogy of Jesus (i. 1-17).1-52(comp.四个MARK IV。1-34),和三个时期的耶稣的家谱(一1-17),每年两次的七代。All the miraculous cures narratedin Mark are enlarged upon both as to the number of the persons cured and as to their incidents, so as to adjust them to the Messianic claim (xi. 5; comp. Luke vii. 22; Isa. xxxv. 5; Pesiḳ. R. 42). narratedin马克万应灵丹扩大后都治愈,作为他们的事件的人的数量,从而调整他们索赔的救世主(xi. 5;比赛路加福音七22;。伊萨XXXV 5。 ;。PesiḳR. 42)。Somewhat artificial, and in contrast to such genuine legends as those in Luke, are the birth-stories in ch.有些人为的,在这种真正的传说,在路加福音,是在CH的诞生故事。ii., woven together from Num.二,交织在一起,从数。xxiv.二十四。17 (referred to the Messiah), Micah v. 1, Isa.17(弥赛亚),弥迦五1,ISA。lx.LX。6, and from Moses' childhood story, to which that of Jesus formed a parallel, just as the Law of Mount Sinai was paralleled in the Sermon on the Mount. 6,从摩西“童年的故事,耶稣,形成一个平行的,就像西奈山”登山宝训并联。

Significant is the reference to the established (Judæo-Christian) Church under Peter (xvi. 18; comp. "Petra" ["the rock"] Abraham as foundation of the world [Yalḳ. i. 243; Levy, lc, sv ]), to the secession of which from the Jewish state the story of Peter and the fish seems to allude (xvii. 24-27).重要的是根据彼得的建立(犹太 - 基督教)教会(xvi. 18;比赛。“佩特拉”“摇滚”为基础的世界亚伯拉罕[Yalḳ一243;征费,LC,SV] ),其中从这个犹太国家的分裂国家的彼得和鱼的故事似乎暗示(24-27 xvii.)。On the other hand, the Trinitarian formula (xxviii. 19) and the way the Jews are spoken of (xxviii. 15; so throughout John) betray a very late final composition.另一方面,三位一体的公式(xxviii. 19)和方式犹太人的发言(xxviii. 15;使整个约翰)出卖很晚的最终组成。But there are other late additions (v. 10, 11, 14; x. 16-39).但也有其他新增(五,10,11,14,十16-39)。


The gospel of Mark is written in the Pauline spirit, for pagans.马可福音写在宝莲精神,为异教徒。 Being, however, the oldest attempt at presenting the story of Jesus in full, it shows greater simplicity and better historical and geographical knowledge than the rest.然而,目前,在全面介绍耶稣的故事的最古老的尝试,它比其他更简单和更好的历史和地理知识。It intentionally omits the term "the Law" ("Nomos"; comp. xii. 28 with Matt. xxii. 36), although it preserves the "Shema'" omitted in Matthew; it omits also Biblical quotations, only a few of which have been allowed to remain (i. 1, iv. 12, ix. 48), and expressions offensive to pagans.有意省略了这个词“法律”(“NOMOS”;。。比赛第十二马特XXII 28 36),虽然它保留了“玛”,“马修省略,它省略了圣经的报价,其中只有少数已获准留(1一,四12,九,48),进攻,以异教徒的表达式。Characteristic is the addition of the words "a house of prayer for all the nations" (xi. 17; comp. Matt. xxi. 13 and Luke xix. 46).特点是增加的字眼是“所有国家祷告的殿”(xi. 17。比赛马特XXI 13和路加福音十九46。)。 The Aramaic terms used by Jesus in his exorcisms (v. 41, vii. 34) seem to have been retained purposely.耶稣在他的驱魔(五41,七34)。阿拉姆条款似乎都被刻意保留。


Historical Character.历史人物。

The gospel of Luke is confessedly (i. 1) a compilation from older sources.路加福音(一1)是明白地从旧的来源汇编。It contains genuine legends about the birth of John the Baptist and of Jesus as they were current in Essene circles.它包含有关施洗约翰和耶稣诞生的真正的传说,因为他们目前在厄各界。The whole picture of John the Baptist and of Jesus as bearers of good tidings to the poor (iv. 14; vi. 20, 24-26) has the stamp of greater historical truthfulness.施洗约翰和耶稣的穷人的好消息(iv. 14,六20,24-26)携带者的全貌,具有更大的历史真实性的邮票。Here more than in the other gospels is Jesus represented as the friend of sinners (vii. 37-50; xv. 11-32; xviii. 10-14; xix. 1-10; xxiii. 39-43) and of the poor (xvi. 19-31).在这里比在其他福音是耶稣的代表作为罪人的朋友(vii. 37-50; XV 11-32;第十八10-14;。十九1-10;二十三39-43)。穷人(xvi. 19-31)。Especial interest is shown in the women in Jesus' company (viii. 2-3; xxiii. 55; xxiv. 10).(2-3 viii.; XXIII 55;。XXIV 10)在耶稣的公司妇女的特殊利益。

The story of the good Samaritan (x. 25-37), possibly, was told differently in the original version (see Brotherly Love; Jesus of Nazareth).的好撒玛利亚人(十25-37)的故事,可能是说在原始版本不同(见兄弟之爱;拿撒勒的耶稣)。The compiler of Luke has, however, infused his Pauline spirit into his record (iv. 25-30, vii. 1-10); hence, instead of the twelve, the seventy apostles, for the seventy nations (x. 1; comp. xxiv. 47), and Adam in place of Abraham (iii. 38); though traces of the original Judean spirit are found in passages such as xxii.然而,编译器的卢克,他的纪录(iv. 25-30,七1-10)。注入他的宝莲精神,因此,而不是十二个,第七使徒,七十个国家(X. 1;比赛XXIV 47),和亚当亚伯拉罕(III. 38);虽然在如XXII通道发现原来的犹太精神的痕迹。30, where only the twelve tribes of Israel are spoken of as being judged in the future kingdom of Jesus. 30,只有以色列的十二个部落的发言作为判断未来英国在耶稣。Luke differs from the other synoptic gospels in that it ignores Galilee as the rallying-point of the disciples of Jesus (Mark xvi. 7; Matt. xxviii. 7) and makes Jerusalem the starting-point and center of the new sect (xxiv. 52).卢克不同于其他的,因为它忽略了耶稣(马克XVI 7。马特XXVIII 7)的弟子凝聚点的加利利观福音和使耶路撒冷的出发点和新教派中心(xxiv. 52)。


The gospel of John is the work of a Christian of the second century, who endeavors to construe a history of Jesus upon the basis of a belief in his supernatural existence.约翰福音工作的第二个世纪的基督教,努力诠释耶稣的历史后,在他的超自然的存在的信仰的基础上。To him Jesus is no longer the expected Messiah of the Jews, but a cosmic being (viii. 23, 58), one with God his Father (x. 30; xiv. 10), through whom alone life, salvation, and resurrection are obtained (xiv. 6), while on the other hand the Jews were from the beginning his implacable enemies, with whom he had nothing in common (vii. 1, 13; viii. 41-47, 59; x. 8, 10, 31; et al.).耶稣对他不再是预期弥赛亚的犹太人,但一个宇宙之中(viii. 23,58),他的父亲(十30;十四10)与神之一,通过他们独自生活,救赎,和复活(xiv. 6),而另一方面,犹太人从一开始他不共戴天的敌人,他有没有什么共同点(vii. 1,第13条;第八41-47,59; X. 8,10, 31等)。 All his discourses reiterate the same idea: God's fatherhood is understood only through the recognition of Jesus as His son (vi. 29, 46; xiv. 2; xv. 8-10, 26; et al.).他的话语中重申了同样的想法:上帝的父亲是理解,只有通过承认他的儿子耶稣(VI. 29,46;十四2;第十五8-10日,26日;等。)。

The teaching of Jesus is summed up in the words, "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another" (xiii. 34); and yet this teaching of love is combined with the most intense hatred of the kinsmen of Jesus.耶稣的教学是在总结的话,“一个新的命令,我给你们,你们彼此相爱,我爱你们,你们也要彼此相爱”(xiii. 34);,但这种教学爱是最强烈的仇恨耶稣的亲属结合。All the miracles performed by Jesus assume in John a symbolical character (vi. 26, and frequently).耶稣行神迹承担一个象征性的字符(VI. 26,并经常)在约翰。The Temple (ii. 21), the manna (vi. 32-59), the water libation on Sukkot (vii. 37), the light of Ḥanukkah (viii. 12, x. 22), the vine (xv. 1-17), "the way" (xiv. 6)-all these are turned into symbols of the Christ.寺(白介素21),甘露(VI. 32-59),住棚节水奠酒(vii. 37),光的光明(viii. 12,十22),藤(xv. 1 - 17),“办法”(xiv. 6),所有这些都转向到基督的象征。In the preface, in place of the genealogies in Luke and Matthew, a heavenly pedigree is given him (i. 1-18), written by one who desired to represent his advent as a new Creation.在序言中,卢克和马修族谱的地方,是一个天堂般的的血统给了他(一1-18),写一个人想要的,代表他的到来,作为一个新的创造。

The Older Traditions.老传统。

On closer observation, however, there is discernible in this gospel a substratum which points to an older tradition.然而,仔细观察,在这福音明显较旧的传统,它指向一个底层。Not only has it, alone of all the gospels, preserved the one possible date of the crucifixion of Jesus, the 13th of Nisan (xviii. 28); but the remark of Caiaphas the high priest, expressing fear of the Romans as the motive of his action against Jesus (xi. 48-50; xviii. 14) as well as Pilate's act (xix. 1), seems to be part of the older tradition.它不仅,所有的福音,保留一个可能的耶稣受难日,尼散月13日(xviii. 28);但大祭司该亚法的话,罗马人的动机表示恐惧他对耶稣的行动(xi. 48-50;十八14)以及彼拉多的行为(xix. 1),似乎是旧的传统的一部分。In fact, the historic chapters in the latter part of the gospel, which represent Jesus with all the pathos of human suffering, differ altogether in character from those, in the earlier part, that represent the superhuman Jesus.事实上,在后半部分的福音,代表耶稣与人类苦难的悲怆历史篇章,不同共从这些字符,在前面的部分,即代表了超人的耶稣。 The oft-repeated formula, "that the saying might be fulfilled," which occurs in the latter part only (xii. 38, xiii. 18, xv. 25, xvii. 12, xviii. 9, xix. 24, 36), as throughout the entire first gospel, also betrays an older source.经常重复的公式,“可能实现的说,”只有在后者的一部分(xii. 38,十三18,十五25,十七12,十八,九,十九,2​​4,36),整个第一福音,也暴露了一个旧的源。

A greater familiarity with Jewish rites (vii. 7), with Jewish personalities (see Nicodemus), and with the geography of Palestine (ii. 1, iii. 23, iv. 5, v. 2, xii. 21, xix. 13) is shown than in the other gospels-another indication of an older tradition (see Güdemann in "Monatsschrift," 1893, pp. 249-257, 297-303, 345-356).与犹太人的仪式(vii. 7),与犹太知名人士(见尼哥底母),并与巴勒斯坦(白介素1,三23,四,五,第2节,十二,21日,第十九地理,更熟悉13。 )比在其他福音较旧的传统的另一个迹象(见Güdemann“月刊,”1893年,第249-257页,297-303,345-356)。There are, besides, genuine popular legends which can scarcely be the invention of an Alexandrian metaphysician (comp. ii. 1-11; v. 2-12).此外,有真正的流行的传说,这几乎可以被亚历山大形而上学(comp.二1-11;诉2-12)的发明。The last chapter certainly emanated from another source.最后一章的确出自另一个来源。Possibly the original gospel bore the name of John, to whom frequent allusion is made as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (xiii. 23; xix. 26, 27; xx. 2; xxi. 7, 20), and a late compiler elaborated it into a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.Güdemann thinks that the whole book was written by a born Jew.可能原来的福音孔约翰的名字,其中频繁的典故是“耶稣所爱的门徒”(27 xiii. 23;十九26; XX 2。XXI 7日,20),和后期的编译器阐述了它进入了基督的爱和犹太人hatred.Güdemann的福音,认为整本书是一个天生的犹太人的书面的。

The Acts of the Apostles:使徒行传:

The Acts of the Apostles is a continuation of the gospel of Luke (comp. i. 1-3 with Luke i. 1-3), and relates the history of the spread of the gospel in apostolic times, taking Jerusalem as the starting-point while ignoring, like Luke xxiv.使徒行传是卢克(comp.路加福音一1-3一1-3)福音的延续,并涉及在使徒时代的福音传播的历史,以耶路撒冷为出发点,而忽略了,像卢克XXIV。 52, the dispersion of the disciples after the crucifixion (alluded to in Mark xiv. 27 and Matt. xxvi. 31; see Weizsäker," Das Apostolische Zeitalter," 1892, p. 1) and their first rallying in Galilee (Mark xiv. 28, xvi. 7; Matt. xxvi. 32, xxviii. 7, 10). 52,提到的弟子后钉在十字架上的分散(在马可福音十四27和马特XXVI 31;。Weizsäker,“资本Apostolische Zeitalter”,1892年,第1版)和他们的第一个凝聚在加利利(马可福音十四。 7月28日,第十六。马特XXVI 32 XXVIII 7,10)。Forty days' intercourse with the resurrected Jesus (i. 3; comp. Mark i. 13, and parallels), which preceded the transfiguration (i. 9; comp. Mark ix. 2-13), prepared the Apostles, who hitherto had looked for the establishment of a Jewish kingdom by Jesus (i. 6), for their work.耶稣复活(一3;。排版马克一13,和Parallels),变身(一9;。排版马克IX 2-13)之前,准备使徒,谁迄今已40天性交与看着耶稣(一6),为他们的工作,为建立一个犹太王国。The growth of the Church is given in round numbers.教会的增长是在第二轮的数字。Beginning with 120 members under the leadership of Peter, chief of the Twelve Apostles (i. 15-26)-Matthew having taken the place of Judas, the relation of whose end here differs from that in Matt.开始有120个成员彼得的领导下,十二门徒(一15-26)行政,马修在犹大的地方,其在这里结束的关系不同,在马特。 xxvii.二十七。3-10-the new sect is said to have increased to 3,000, as a result of the miracle of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the multitude at Pentecost, which won converts from all the nations represented in Jerusalem (ii. 1-2; comp. I Cor. xv. 6, where "five hundred brethren" are referred to).3 - 10 -新教派说已经上升到3000的奇迹,浇筑后,众多的圣灵在五旬节,赢得了来自所有国家的代表在耶路撒冷(白介素1的转换 - 2。比赛我肺心病第十五6,其中“五百强的弟兄们”简称)。This undoubtedly echoes the rabbinical Pentecost legend of the flashing forth of the Sinaitic word in seventy languages to reach the seventy nations of the world (Shab. 88b; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxviii. 12; Philo, "De Decalogo," §§ 9-11; Spitta, "Apostelgeschichte," 1891, pp. 28 et seq.).这无疑70种语言的西乃半岛字的来回闪烁的拉比五旬节的传说相呼应,达到世界上七十的国家;(Shab. 88B。Midr到PS LXVIII 12;。斐洛,“德Decalogo,”§ § 9-11;施皮塔,“Apostelgeschichte”,1891年,第28及以下)。

The description of the communistic life of the early Christians, their regular gathering in the Temple hall to spend the time in prayer and in works of charity, after the manner of the Essenes (ii. 42, iii. 2, iv. 32-37, v. 12, 25), seems to rest on facts.共产主义早期的基督徒生活的描述,他们定期集会大殿花时间在祈祷和慈善工作后的爱色尼的方式,(白介素42,二,三,四。32-37五,12,25),似乎休息事实。 The institution of seven deacons who were elected by the laying on of hands and under the power of the Holy Spirit (vi. 3, 5) has its parallel in the Jewish community (Josephus, "Ant." iv. 8, § 14; idem, "BJ" ii. 20, § 5; Meg. 7a).铺设的手,和圣灵的力量(VI. 3,5)下当选的7名执事机构已在犹太社区的并行(约瑟夫,IV 8,§ 14“蚂蚁”。。;同上,“北京”二20,§ 5。梅格7A)。。It is interesting to note that the enemies of Jesus are correctly represented as the Sadducees (iv. 1, v. 17) and not, as in the gospels, the Pharisees, who are rather on his side (v. 17, xv. 5, xxiii. 6), though in the fictitious speeches of Peter, Stephen, and others, the Jews and not Pontius Pilate are spoken of as his crucifiers (iii. 13-15, vii. 52).有趣的是,需要注意的是耶稣的敌人是正确的代表(iv. 1,诉17)撒都该人,而不是,因为在福音中,法利赛人,而在他的身边(17节,第XV 5二十三6),但在彼得,斯蒂芬和其他虚构的讲话,犹太人和不彼拉多是口语作为他crucifiers(III. 13日至15日,七52)。Like the gospel according to Luke, the Acts of the Apostles is a compilation.福音一样,根据路加福音,使徒行传是编译。The story of the death of Stephen (vi. 8-vii. 59) is, like the crucifixion story in the gospels, written in a spirit of hatred toward Jews; reference to the Romans is omitted when persecution of the new sect is mentioned (viii. 1).斯蒂芬死亡(VI.的8 - VII 59)的故事,像在对犹太人的仇恨精神写的福音,受难的故事;提到的新教派的迫害时省略参考入乡随俗(八,1)。

Peter and Paul.彼得和保罗。

Two mythical narratives are given of the conversion through Peter of the Samaritans and of Simon the magician (viii. 4-24; comp. "Ant." xx. 7, § 2, and Simon Magus), and of the eunuch of the Queen of Ethiopia through the apostle Philip (viii. 25-39).两个神话叙述的转换,通过撒玛利亚彼得和西蒙魔术师(viii. 4-24;比赛“蚂蚁”XX 7,§ 2,和西蒙magus),和皇后的太监埃塞俄比亚通过使徒菲利普(viii. 25-39)。Very dramatic, but in conflict with his own account (Gal. i. 15 et seq.; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8), is the story of the conversion of Paul, which follows (ix. 1-30; comp. xxii. 6 et seq., 26).极富戏剧性,但在他自己的帐户冲突(加一15等SEQ;。。我肺心病IX 1及第8),保罗的转换,如下(ix. 1-30的故事;比赛XXII 6起。,26)。By visions, and by the imparting of the Holy Spirit through Ananias, Saul, the persecutor of the Christians, is transformed into Paul, "the chosen vessel" to spread the new faith among both Jews and Gentiles.视野,通过亚拿尼亚,扫罗,迫害的基督徒,圣灵传授转化成保罗“,所选择的船只”,犹太人和外邦人之间传播新的信仰。 First, however, Peter is represented as having converted the heathen by miraculous cures (ix. 31-42), the proselytes being in Jewish terms called "yere shamayim" (= "God-fearing ones"; x. 2, 7, 22, 28, 35; xiii. 16, 26-50; xvi. 14; xvii. 1, 17); he succeeded in having the Holy Spirit poured out also upon uncircumcised converts (x. 45).但是,首先,彼得是代表转换万应灵丹(ix. 31-42),在被称为“yere shamayim”(=“敬畏上帝的”犹太proselytes异教徒;十,2,7,22 ,28,35;第十三16,26-50;十六14十七,1,17);他成功地在圣灵​​倒出来后也未受割礼的转换(十45)。

Finally, Peter is described as having been won over by a special vision to the Pauline view disregarding the dietary laws (xi. 1-18).最后,彼得已经赢得了一个特殊的眼光去宝莲,无视饮食规律(xi. 1-18)。The whole story is intended to reconcile the wide differences existing between Peter's and Paul's teachings and to bridge over the gulf between the Judæo-Christian sect under the leadership of James and the Pauline church.整个故事是为了调和之间的彼得和保罗的教导中存在的巨大差异,在海湾大桥,犹太 - 基督教教派之间的詹姆斯的领导下和圣保禄教堂。From this point of view the origin of the name of "Christian" in the community of Antioch can be explained, Barnabas being ranked above Paul, and the Antioch church being represented as an offshoot of the Jerusalem church.从这个视图中的“基督教”,在社会的安提阿的名义的起源点可以解释上述保罗,巴拿巴排名,安提阿教会的耶路撒冷教会的一个分支代表。 Peter is dismissed with a miraculous story describing his release from prison and the punishment of Herod by a sudden death (xii. 1-24); and the missionary travels of Paul are related in the latter part of the book (xiii.-xxviii.).彼得被解雇一个神奇的故事描述他从监狱释放,希律王的突然死亡的惩罚(xii. 1-24)和保罗的传教旅行是在后半部书(xiii. - XXVIII相关。 )。

Spirit of Jewish Proselytism in Christianity.在基督教精神的犹太人改宗。

However much these reports differ from Paul's own writings (see Gal. i. 21, ii. 1, et al.), they interest the Jewish investigator, inasmuch as they describe the progress of the Church along the lines of the synagogue and of Jewish proselytism.不管这些报告的不同(见加1 21一,二,等。)从保自己的著作,他们感兴趣的犹太调查,因为它们描述沿线的犹太教堂和犹太教会的进展改变宗教信仰。The apostles Barnabas and Paul engaged in the work of collecting gifts for the holy church at Jerusalem (xii. 25, xvii. 1, 10), traveled as prophets and teachers wheresoever the Holy Spirit of the Church, invoked through prayer and fasting, bade them go (xiii. 1-4), and preached the Gospel in the Jewish synagogue (xiii. 5, 14; xiv. 1; xviii. 4, 19; xix. 8), addressing Jews and proselytes (xiii. 16, 26, 43; xviii. 7).使徒巴拿巴和保罗在耶路撒冷(xii. 25日,第十七条(1),10),前往先知和教师wheresoever教会的圣灵,通过祈祷和禁食调用,八德,圣教的礼物收集工作,从事他们去(xiii. 1-4),并鼓吹在犹太教会堂的福音(14 xiii. 5,十四1。第十八4,第19条;第十九8),解决犹太人和proselytes(xiii. 16日,26 43;十八7)。They won the heathen chiefly by miraculous cures, which even caused their own deification (xiv. 8-13; xxviii. 6), but encountered fierce opposition from the Jews (xiii., xiv.-xvii., et al.).他们赢得的异教徒,主要是万应灵丹,甚至使自己神化(xiv. 8-13; 6。XXVIII),但遇到激烈反对从犹太​​人(xiii.,xiv.十七,等。)。Three great journeys by Paul are reported.保罗的三个伟大的旅程。The first, through Cyprus and Asia Minor, culminated, according to Acts xv.首先,通过塞浦路斯和小亚细亚,达到了高潮,根据行为十五。1-31, in the establishment of the fundamental rule laid down by the church of Jerusalem for the admission of proselytes.1-31,在耶路撒冷教会的proselytes才奠定了基本规则的建立。For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws-namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal-should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church.对于伟大的巴拿巴和保罗在异教徒世界的成功,在耶路撒冷当局坚持后割礼进入教会成员的入学条件,直到,彼得的倡议,和詹姆斯,耶路撒冷的头教堂,它同意接受法律的挪亚,避免偶像崇拜,私通,吃的肉从一个动物应该要求希望进入教会的异教徒生活削减。

After the separation of Paul from Barnabas, owing to differences regarding the fitness of Mark as their companion (xv. 35-41), and after the Abrahamicrite had been performed upon his companion Timothy (xvi. 1-3; comp. Gal. ii. 3-18), Paul is represented as having undertaken his second journey at the bidding of the Holy Spirit.分离后从巴拿巴,保罗,由于马克健身方面存在分歧,作为他们的伴侣(xv. 35-41),后Abrahamicrite已执行后,他的同伴提摩太(xvi. 1-3。比赛加尔II 3-18),保罗代表圣灵招标进行他的第二次旅程。He went to Phrygia, Galatia, and Macedonia to preach the Gospel, but avoided Asia and Mysia (xvi. 6-xxii. 14).他去弗吕家,加拉太,马其顿传福音,但避免了亚洲和Mysia(6 xvi. 14 - XXII)。In Philippi he founded the first church in Europe, owing his success (according to xvi. 14-40) chiefly to miracles and winning especially women for the Gospel (xvii. 4, 12).在腓立比,他创办了奇迹,并赢得在欧洲的第一座教堂,由于他的成功(根据十六世。14-40)主要为福音(12)xvii. 4,特别是妇女。The climax of his second trip was his address, delivered at the Areopagus, to the men of Athens.他的第二次访问的高潮是他的地址,在Areopagus交付,雅典的男子。With a witty reference to the insciption, "To an unknown god" (that is, to undiscovered deities), found upon some of the Greek altars, he admonished the idolatrous people to turn to the God of heaven and earth, the Father of all men, in whom they all lived and moved and had their being, but whom they knew not; to cast aside their gods of gold and silver and stone, and prepare themselves in repentance for the great Day of Judgment, on which the crucified and arisen Christ will judge the world (xvii. 16-34).有了一个诙谐的insciption,“为了一个未知的神”(也就是说,未被发现的神灵),一些希腊祭坛后发现,他告诫天地神的偶像崇拜的人,所有的父亲男子,他们在其中生活和感动,他们被,但他们不知道,抛开他们的神的黄金和白银和石,和审判的伟大的一天,自己准备悔改,对其中的钉在十字架上,并出现基督将审判世界(xvii. 16-34)。The tenor of this discourse is so thoroughly monotheistic and un-Pauline that the presumption is that, with the exception of the closing sentence, which refers to Jesus as judge of souls, it is copied from one of the many Jewish propagandist writings which circulated in Alexandria.这种话语的男高音是如此彻底的一神教和联合国宝莲,推定是,最后一句的例外,这是指耶稣的灵魂法官,它是由许多犹太人的宣传著作之一分发复制亚历山大。

Paul the Miracle-Worker.保罗的奇迹工作者。

In Corinth, where he stayed for a year and a half, Paul won, notwithstanding the opposition of the Jews, many adherents, especially among the proselytes, Aquila of Pontus and his wife Priscilla also having been engaged there in the work of proselytism (xviii. 1-17).在科林斯,他在那里住一年半,保罗赢了,尽管反对派的犹太人,有许多追随者,尤其是proselytes,庞拉奎拉,也有从事改变宗教信仰的工作(XVIII还有他的妻子普里西拉1-17)。 In Ephesus he met Apollos of Alexandria, a follower of John the Baptist, and he succeeded-so the story goes-in persuading him and his eleven disciples to identify their "Way of God" with his own.在以弗所,他会见了亚历山大,跟随施洗约翰的亚波罗,他成功地说服,他和他的11个的弟子,以确定他们的“神”用他自己的方式,在这样的故事。 By the laying on of his hands he communicated the Holy Spirit to them, so that, like the converts at the Pentecost miracle, they "spake with tongues and prophesied" (xviii. 18-xix. 7.).铺设的双手,他传达了圣灵给他们,这样一来,他们像在五旬节奇迹的转换,“说话的舌头,预言”(xviii. 18 - XIX 7)。His two years' stay in Ephesus was especially productive of miraculous cures, which so eclipsed the works of the magicians who made the Ephesian scrolls famous throughout the world, that, "in the sight of all, they burned these scrolls, which were valued at 50,000 pieces of silver."他两年的留在以弗所,特别是生产力的灵丹妙药,使黯然失色的魔术师,世界各地著名的以弗所滚动,在所有的视线,“工程,他们烧毁了这些卷轴,其中价值50000两银子。“ The idol-traders of Diana of the Ephesians created a riot because idols were no longer bought by the people, owing to Paul's preaching, and the consequence was that he was compelled to leave the city with his companions (xix. 8-41).戴安娜的以弗所偶像贸易商创造了暴乱,因为偶像不再是购买的人,由于保罗​​的说教,其结果是,他被迫离开城市与他的同伴(xix. 8-41)。

Paul's third journey had Rome for its goal.保罗的第三个旅程,罗马,其目标。He first traveled through Asia Minor and Greece, again warning the people against the Gnostic heresies; there were "wolves in sheep's clothing" that would do great harm to the faith.他首先穿过小亚细亚和希腊,再次警告对诺斯底异端邪说的人,有“披着羊皮的狼”,会做很大的伤害的信心。Then he went to Judea, and, in spite of the warnings he received through the Holy Ghost and the seven daughters of the evangelist Philip, who were prophetesses, and a Jewish prophet by the name of Agabas, he went to Jerusalem and appeared before James and the other authorities of the Church.然后,他走到朱迪亚,尽管他通过圣灵和菲利普的布道者,谁是prophetesses和Agabas名称犹太先知的七个女儿收到的警告,他前往耶路撒冷和詹姆斯出现之前和教会的其他机关。 Reproached for not having observed the rules regarding the admission of converts, he purified himself, went with his companions to the Temple, and offered a Nazarite's sacrifice; but when pointed out as the one who wandered through the lands preaching against the Law and the Temple, he was cast out of the Temple and almost killed by the enraged people.不具有观察接纳转换的规则责备,他纯化自己,去与他的同伴的圣殿,并提供一个拿细耳人的牺牲,但时指出谁通过的土地徘徊讲道反对的法律和寺,他投出寺几乎被激怒的人杀害。 Summoned before the Roman captain, he related the history of his life, so stating his belief in the resurrection as to please the Pharisees but provoke the Sadducees (xxi.-xxiii. 9).前罗马队长召唤,他有关他一生的历史,所以,说明他在复活的信念,以取悦法利赛人,但挑起撒都该人(xxi. 9 - XXIII)。

Paul before Felix.保罗之前,费利克斯。

Before the prefect Felix in Cæsarea, Paul was charged with having made insurrectionary speeches in various countries and with having profaned the Temple (xxiii. 10-xxiv. 6).之前的知府菲利克斯在凯撒利亚,保罗被指控在各个国家的起义讲话和亵渎寺(xxiii. 10 - XXIV 6)。In answer to this charge he points out that he had all along been collecting money for the Temple treasury and had himself brought sacrifices there, and that he is only being arraigned for his belief in the resurrection (xxiv. 10-21).在回答这一指控,他指出,他一直收集寺国库的钱,并自己带来牺牲,他只是为他在复活的信仰(xxiv. 10-21)提审。 The prefect, known as a Jew-hater of the worst type, is deeply impressed by Paul's plea for the Christian faith; but his greed induces him to hand Paul over as prisoner to his successor Festus (xxiv. 24-27).太守,作为一个犹太人的仇敌最坏的类型,是深受保罗的基督教信仰的认罪留下深刻的印象,但他的贪婪,诱使他交出他的继任者费斯图斯(xxiv. 24-27)的囚犯保罗。Paul recounts the history of his life before Agrippa, the King of Judea, who is so impressed as to exclaim, "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian" (xxvi. 1-28).保罗叙述他一生的历史,前阿格里帕,犹太国王,是谁这么深刻的印象惊呼:“几乎你persuadest我是一个基督徒”(xxvi. 1-28)。But because Paul desired, as a Roman citizen, to be judged by the emperor himself, he was sent to Rome (xxv. 11, xxvi. 32).但因为保罗想要作为一个罗马公民,由皇帝本人的判断,他被送往罗马(XXVI xxv. 11,32)。The voyage was the occasion of new proof of the miraculous powers of Paul; he predicted the storm that, but for him, would have wrecked the ship, was recognized as a benefactor and savior by the captain, and was treated with great consideration (xxvii.).远航新的证据保罗的神奇的力量之际,他预测的风暴,但对他来说,会破坏船舶,被确认为恩人和救星队长,并以极大的考虑治疗(XXVII 。)Other miracles performed by him on the ship caused the people to regard him as a god.他在船舶上进行其他的奇​​迹引起人们视他为神。As in Asia Minor, he won the people of Italy by his wonderful cures.至于在小亚细亚,他赢得了意大利人,他的奇妙的治疗方法。The book closes with the story of his arrival at Rome, where for the first time he met Jews without being able to win them for the new faith, though during a two years' stay he succeeded in making converts among the heathen (xxviii. 1-31).书中关闭他在抵达罗马,为他第一次见面,但能够赢得他们的新信仰的犹太人的故事,虽然有两年的住宿期间,他成功的异教徒之间的转换(xxviii. 1 -31)。

The whole work, like the Gospel of Luke, is a compilation from several sources, among which one is a historical document written by a companion of Paul who had kept a journal of his travels, the so-called "We" source (xvi. 10-17; xx. 5-6, 13-15; xxi. 1-18; xxvii. 1-xxviii. 16).整个工作,就像路加福音,是从几个来源,其中一个是由曾保持了他的旅行杂志,所谓的“我们”源(xvi.的同伴保罗写的历史文件汇编10-17; XX 5-6,13-15;第二十一1-18;。XXVII 1 - 二十八16)。The greater part is written with the ostensible purpose of reconciling Paul's acts with the views of the Judæo-Christian Church.大部份是书面与调和的犹太 - 基督教会的意见,保罗的行为表面上的目的。The miracle tales, however, appear to be drawn from popular tradition and to have been committed to writing, possibly at an early date.然而,奇迹的故事,似乎是从民间传统绘制,并一直致力于写作可能早日。

For the Jewish investigator the Acts of the Apostles is of twofold interest.对于这个犹太研究者使徒行传是双重的利益。It shows how the propagandic work of the Jews extended over the entire Greek and Roman world, Jewish proselytism having paved the way for Paul as well as his followers to win the pagan world.这表明,超过整个希腊和罗马世界,犹太铺平了道路保罗以及他的追随者赢得异教世界改变宗教信仰的犹太人propagandic工作如何延长。 In all the cities where Greek was spoken the synagogues formed the centers of instruction for Jews and the "God-fearing" proselytes, and their mention in connection with all the places visited by Paul shows how the Jewish settlements extended over the highroads of commerce under the Roman empire.其中希腊是口语,在所有的城市形成的犹太教堂指令犹太人和“敬畏上帝”proselytes的中心,他们提到保罗与所有访问过的地方的犹太人定居点如何扩展了电子商务的highroads罗马帝国。 The story of the Acts also indicates that the progress of Christianity in its earlieststages was due not to the learned arguments of Paul and his dogmatic views, however potent a factor they afterward became in the formation of the creed, but to the miracles thought to have been wrought by him and the rest of the apostles and other leaders of the Church.故事的行为也表明,基督教在其earlieststages进展不是因为保罗的经验论据和他的教条式的意见,不过烈性他们之后形成的信条成为一个因素,但奇迹的认为有已造成他和其余的使徒和教会的其他领导人。 These appealed to the masses and made converts in large numbers.这些呼吁群众,并作了大量的转换。In this respect the Acts of the Apostles is the logical sequence of the gospels.在这方面,使徒行传的福音的逻辑顺序。

See, for the Pauline epistles, Saul of Tarsus; for the Petrine epistles, Simon Cephas; for the Apocalypse of John and the epistles ascribed to John, Revelation; for the gospels in the Talmud, Gilyonim.的宝莲书信,跗关节扫罗;伯多禄书信,西蒙矶法,约翰的启示,并归因于约翰启示录的书信;在犹太法典,Gilyonim的福音。 See also James, General Epistle of.ECK詹姆斯,一般书信of.ECK

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, Kaufmann Kohler编委会执行委员会,考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

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