Epistles of Peter书信彼得

General Information一般资料

The two Epistles of Peter are part of the section of the New Testament of the Bible called the General Letters (Catholic Epistles).彼得的两个书信的新约圣经称为一般信函(天主教教会)一节的一部分。They are the 21st and 22d books of the canon.他们是佳能21和22D的书籍。Early tradition supports 1 Peter's claim to authorship by Saint Peter (1 Peter 1:1), although the attribution has been challenged.早期传统支持彼得圣彼得(彼得前书1:1)的作者声称,虽然归属受到了挑战。The book was possibly written from Rome ("Babylon" of 1 Pet. 5:13) to Christians in Anatolia (1 Pet. 1:1) just before AD 64.这本书可能从罗马(1宠物的“巴比伦”。5时13)书面基督徒在安纳托利亚(1宠物。1:1),只是在公元64。Its purpose was to strengthen Christians suffering persecution. Peter explained the suffering as a test of faith and pointed the persecuted Christians to their living hope founded on God, who raised Jesus from the grave.其目的是为了加强基督徒的苦难迫害,彼得解释的痛苦作为一种信仰的考验,并指出他们的生活希望成立于上帝,谁提出耶稣从坟墓中受迫害的基督徒。

Authorship of 2 Peter, although also ascribed to Peter (2 Pet. 1:1), has been questioned by many scholars.作者彼得,虽然也归因于彼得(彼前1:1),一直受到许多学者的质疑。No mention of the letter occurs until about the 3d century.信没有提及有关3D世纪才出现。Probably written for the same Anatolian audience as was 1 Peter, the book warns against false teachers in the community and gives affirmative assurance that Christ will return (2 Pet. 3:1 - 10).可能是相同的安纳托利亚观众写的是彼得,书中警告假教师在社会和给出了肯定的保证,基督将返回(2宠物3时01分- 10) 。

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Bibliography E Johnson, A Semantic Structure Analysis of Second Peter (1988); RC Kelcy, The Letters of Peter and Jude (1972); SJ Kistenmaker, Expositions of the Epistles of Peter and Jude (1987): B Reicke, The Epistles of James, Peter, and Jude (1964); EG Selwyn, The First Epistle of St. Peter (1946).参考书目 E,约翰逊的第二彼得(1988)的语义结构分析; RC Kelcy,彼得和裘德(1972年)“英皇,律政司司长Kistenmaker,彼得和裘德(1987)的书信表演:B Reicke,詹姆斯的书信彼得和裘德(1964);如时运,圣彼得大教堂(1946年)的第一书信。


Epistles of Peter书信彼得

Brief Outline简述

First Epistle第一书信

  1. Salutation (1:1-2)称呼(1:1-2)
  2. Nature of Salvation (1:3-12)拯救自然(1:3-12)
  3. Experience of Salvation (1:13-25)拯救的经验(1:13-25)
  4. Obligations of Salvation (2:1-10)救世军的义务(2:1-10)
  5. Ethics of Salvation (2:11-3:12)道德救国(2:11-3:12)
  6. Confidence of Salvation (3:13-4:11)拯救信心(3:13-4:11)
  7. Behavior of the Saved under suffering (4:12-5:11)保存下的痛苦的行为(4:12-5:11)
  8. Concluding salutations (5:12-14)结论打招呼(5:12-14)

Second Epistle第二书信

  1. Salutation (1:1)称呼(1:1)
  2. Character of Spiritual knowledge (1:2-21)灵识的字符(1:2-21)
  3. Nature and perils of apostasy (2:1-22)自然和叛教的危险(2:1-22)
  4. Doom of the ungodly (3:1-7)死命的罪人(3:1-7)
  5. Hope of believers (3:8-13)希望信徒(3:8-13)
  6. Concluding exhortation (3:14-18)结论劝勉(3:14-18)


Peter彼得

Advanced Information先进的信息

Peter, originally called Simon (=Simeon , ie, "hearing"), a very common Jewish name in the New Testament.彼得,最初叫西蒙(=西麦,即“听证会”),在新约中的一个非常普遍的犹太名字。He was the son of Jona (Matt. 16:17).他JONA的儿子(马太福音16:17)。His mother is nowhere named in Scripture.他的母亲是在圣经无处命名。He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus (John 1:40-42).他有一个弟弟叫安德鲁,他第一次给他带来了耶稣(约翰福音1:40-42)。His native town was Bethsaida, on the western coast of the Sea of Galilee, to which also Philip belonged.他的家乡是伯赛,西部海岸的加利利海,这也菲利普属于。Here he was brought up by the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and was trained to the occupation of a fisher.在这里,他被带到加利利海岸边,并接受了培训,占领一个费舍尔。His father had probably died while he was still young, and he and his brother were brought up under the care of Zebedee and his wife Salome (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1).他的父亲可能死亡,而他还年轻,他和他的兄弟被带到下照顾号Zebedee和他的妻子莎乐美“(马太福音27:56,马可福音十五时40分,16时01分)。 There the four youths, Simon, Andrew, James, and John, spent their boyhood and early manhood in constant fellowship.有四名青年,西蒙,安德鲁,詹姆斯和约翰,他们在不断的奖学金度过的童年和早期气概。

Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all the advantages of a religious training, and were early instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah.西蒙和他的兄弟无疑享有一个宗教训练的优势,早在“圣经”的熟人和伟大的预言关于弥赛亚的到来指示。They did not probably enjoy, however, any special training in the study of the law under any of the rabbis.然而,他们没有可能享受,任何法律研究拉比任何特殊的培训。When Peter appeared before the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" (Acts 4:13).当彼得在公会出现了,他看上去像一个“胸无点墨的人”(徒4:13)。"Simon was a Galilean, and he was that out and out. The Galileans had a marked character of their own. They had a reputation for an independence and energy which often ran out into turbulence. They were at the same time of a franker and more transparent disposition than their brethren in the south. In all these respects, in bluntness, impetuosity, headiness, and simplicity, Simon was a genuine Galilean. “西蒙是伽利略,他是不折不扣的 加利利有一个属于自己的标记字符,他们经常跑进动荡的独立性和能源的声誉,他们在同一时间,比他们的弟兄在南部坦率和更加透明的处置,在所有这些方面,在直率,急躁,性急,和简单,西蒙是一个真正的伽利略。

They spoke a peculiar dialect.他们谈到一个奇特的方言。They had a difficulty with the guttural sounds and some others, and their pronunciation was reckoned harsh in Judea.他们有一个与喉音的声音和其他一些困难,他们的发音是在朱迪亚计算苛刻。The Galilean accent stuck to Simon all through his career.伽利略口音坚持西蒙通过他的职业生涯。It betrayed him as a follower of Christ when he stood within the judgment-hall (Mark 14:70).它背叛了他作为一个基督的追随者,当他站在内的判断厅(马可福音14:70)。It betrayed his own nationality and that of those conjoined with him on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:7)." It would seem that Simon was married before he became an apostle. His wife's mother is referred to (Matt. 8:14; Mark 1:30; Luke 4:38). He was in all probability accompanied by his wife on his missionary journeys (1 Cor. 9:5; comp. 1 Pet. 5:13).它背叛了自己的国籍与他的那些连体和五旬节(徒2:7)。“这似乎西蒙结婚之前,他成为使徒,他的妻子的母亲被称为(马太福音8时14分,马可福音1:30;路加福音4点38分),他是在由他的妻子陪同他的传教行程(1肺心病9时05分所有的可能性。比赛彼前5:13)。

He appears to have been settled at Capernaum when Christ entered on his public ministry, and may have reached beyond the age of thirty.他似乎已经定居在迦百农,当基督进入他的公共事务部,并有可能已经超越了30岁达到。His house was large enough to give a home to his brother Andrew, his wife's mother, and also to Christ, who seems to have lived with him (Mark 1:29, 36; 2:1), as well as to his own family.他的房子是大到足以给他的弟弟安德鲁,他的妻子的母亲,和基督,似乎与他住(马克1时29分,36; 2:1)的家庭,以及他自己的家庭。It was apparently two stories high (2:4).这显然​​是两个故事(2:4)。At Bethabara (RV, John 1:28, "Bethany"), beyond Jordan, John the Baptist had borne testimony concerning Jesus as the "Lamb of God" (John 1:29-36). Bethabara(房车,约翰1点28分,“伯大尼”),在超越乔丹,施洗约翰承担证词关于耶稣为“神的羔羊”(约翰福音1:29-36)。Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus, and abode with him where he was.安德鲁和约翰听力它,跟随耶稣,并与他同住,他在哪里。

They were convinced, by his gracious words and by the authority with which he spoke, that he was the Messiah (Luke 4:22; Matt. 7:29); and Andrew went forth and found Simon and brought him to Jesus (John 1:41).他们确信,他亲切的话,与他交谈的权威,他是弥赛亚(路加福音4点22分,马特七时29分);和安德鲁出去,发现西蒙和带他到耶稣(约翰福音1 :41)。Jesus at once recognized Simon, and declared that hereafter he would be called Cephas, an Aramaic name corresponding to the Greek Petros, which means "a mass of rock detached from the living rock."耶稣一次认识到西蒙,并宣布,此后他将称为矶法,阿拉姆名称相应希腊佩特罗斯,意思是“从生活岩的岩体分离。”The Aramaic name does not occur again, but the name Peter gradually displaces the old name Simon, though our Lord himself always uses the name Simon when addressing him (Matt. 17:25; Mark 14:37; Luke 22:31, comp. 21:15-17).阿拉姆语名字不会再出现,但名字彼得逐渐取代旧名称的西蒙,虽然我们的主自己一直使用的名称西蒙解决他(马太17时25马克14时37分,卢克22时31分,比赛。 21:15-17)。We are not told what impression the first interview with Jesus produced on the mind of Simon.我们没有告诉什么印象第一次面试与耶稣生产西蒙心中。When we next meet him it is by the Sea of Galilee (Matt. 4:18-22).当我们下次见面他是加利利(太4:18-22)海。

There the four (Simon and Andrew, James and John) had had an unsuccessful night's fishing.有四个(西蒙和安德鲁,詹姆斯和约翰)曾有过不成功的夜的捕鱼。Jesus appeared suddenly, and entering into Simon's boat, bade him launch forth and let down the nets.耶稣突然出现,并进入西蒙的小船,叫他发射出来,让篮网。He did so, and enclosed a great multitude of fishes.他这样做,并且附上了极多的鱼类。This was plainly a miracle wrought before Simon's eyes.这是明明白白之前,西蒙的眼睛造成一个奇迹。The awe-stricken disciple cast himself at the feet of Jesus, crying, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord" (Luke 5:8).畏惧弟子投自己在耶稣的脚,哭了,“离开我,因为我是一个罪孽深重的人,耶和华”(路加福音5:8)。Jesus addressed him with the assuring words, "Fear not," and announced to him his life's work.耶稣处理他与保证的话,“不要怕,”他宣布了他一生的工作。Simon responded at once to the call to become a disciple, and after this we find him in constant attendance on our Lord.西蒙回应调用一次成为门徒,并在此之后,我们发现在我们的主,他不断出席。He is next called into the rank of the apostleship, and becomes a "fisher of men" (Matt. 4:19) in the stormy seas of the world of human life (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:13 19; Luke 6:13-16), and takes a more and more prominent part in all the leading events of our Lord's life.他是下一个所谓的使徒的职级,并成为“费舍尔的男人”(太4:19)在人类生活的世界惊涛骇浪中(太10:2-4;马克3点13 19路加福音6:13-16),并注意到一个越来越突出的部分,我们的主的生命在所有领先事件。

It is he who utters that notable profession of faith at Capernaum (John 6:66-69), and again at Caesarea Philippi (Matt. 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-20).这是他说出的信心显着的行业,在迦百农(约翰福音6:66-69),并再次在该撒利亚腓立比(太16:13-20,马可福音8:27-30,路加福音9:18-20)。 This profession at Caesarea was one of supreme importance, and our Lord in response used these memorable words: "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church."这个专业在该撒利亚是一个极为重要的,我们针对主使用这些令人难忘的话:“你的艺术彼得,在这磐石上我要建立我的教会。” "From that time forth" Jesus began to speak of his sufferings.“从那个时候提出”耶稣开始讲他的痛苦。For this Peter rebuked him.对于本彼得斥责他。But our Lord in return rebuked Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any other of his disciples (Matt. 16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33).但是我们在返回主斥责彼得,在严峻的话来说,他比他曾经使用过任何其他的弟子(太16:21-23;马克8:31-33)。

At the close of his brief sojourn at Caesarea our Lord took Peter and James and John with him into "an high mountain apart," and was transfigured before them.我们的主在他短暂的逗留在caesarea密切带着彼得,雅各和约翰,到“山高,除了”,并在他们面前变形。Peter on that occasion, under the impression the scene produced on his mind, exclaimed, "Lord, it is good for us to be here : let us make three tabernacles" (Matt. 17:1-9).彼得在那个场合,在他的脑海中产生的场景下的印象,惊呼,“主啊,这是对我们有好处,在这里让我们三个住棚节”(太17:1-9)。 On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of twenty years old and upwards had to pay (Ex. 30:15), came to Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matt. 17:24-27).在他返回迦百农庙税的收藏家(一个didrachma,半神圣谢克尔),其中20岁及以上的每一个以色列人已经支付(出埃及记30:15),来到彼得,并提醒他,耶稣不支付(太17:24-27)。

Our Lord instructed Peter to go and catch a fish in the lake and take from its mouth the exact amount needed for the tax, viz., a stater, or two half-shekels.我们的主指示彼得去,搭上了在湖中的鱼,并从它的嘴的税,即所需的确切数额,stater,或两个半舍客勒。 "That take," said our Lord, "and give unto them for me and thee."“称取,说:”我们的上帝,“,对他们给予我和​​你”。As the end was drawing nigh, our Lord sent Peter and John (Luke 22:7-13) into the city to prepare a place where he should keep the feast with his disciples.至于到底是绘图夜间,我们的主送入城市彼得和约翰(路加福音22:7-13)准备的地方,他应该保持与他的弟子的盛宴。 There he was forewarned of the fearful sin into which he afterwards fell (22:31-34).在那里,他凡事预则可怕的罪到他事后下跌(22:31-34)。He accompanied our Lord from the guest-chamber to the garden of Gethsemane (Luke 22:39-46), which he and the other two who had been witnesses of the transfiguration were permitted to enter with our Lord, while the rest were left without.他陪同我们的主从来宾室客西马尼(路加福音22:39-46),他和其他两个人已经变身证人被允许进入我们的主花园,而其余的人没有。

Here he passed through a strange experience.在这里,他通过一个奇怪的经验。Under a sudden impulse he cut off the ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth to take Jesus.在一个突然的冲动,他切断了出来采取耶稣带之一马尔休斯(47-51),耳。Then follow the scenes of the judgment-hall (54-61) and his bitter grief (62).然后按照判断大厅的场景(54-61)和他的苦悲伤(62)。He is found in John's company early on the morning of the resurrection.他是在约翰的公司早在复活上午。He boldly entered into the empty grave (John 20:1-10), and saw the "linen clothes laid by themselves" (Luke 24:9-12).他大胆地进入空的坟墓(约翰福音20:1-10),并看到了“亚麻布衣服奠定自己”(路加福音24:9-12)。 To him, the first of the apostles, our risen Lord revealed himself, thus conferring on him a signal honour, and showing how fully he was restored to his favour (Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5).对他来说,第一使徒的,我们复活的主发现自己,从而赋予他的一个信号的荣誉,显示他完全恢复到他赞成(路加福音24:34;哥林多前书15时05分)。 We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?"接下来我们看我们的上帝的奇异采访彼得在加利利的海,在那里他三次问他海岸,“约拿的儿子西门,,lovest你我吗?” (John 21:1-19). (约21:1-19)。

After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he again appears with the others at the ascension (Acts 1:15-26).这一幕在湖边后,我们听到彼得一无所知,直到他再次出现与他人在阿森松(使徒行传1:15-26)。It was he who proposed that the vacancy caused by the apostasy of Judas should be filld up.这是他建议,叛教犹大所造成的空缺,应filld。He is prominent on the day of Pentecost (2:14-40).他是突出的圣灵降临节(2:14-40)当天。The events of that day "completed the change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall and all the lengthened process of previous training had been slowly making. He is now no more the unreliable, changeful, self-confident man, ever swaying between rash courage and weak timidity, but the stead-fast, trusted guide and director of the fellowship of believers, the intrepid preacher of Christ in Jerusalem and abroad.的那一天所发生的事件“完成彼得本人,他的秋天和所有以前的培训过程延长痛苦的纪律,已慢慢改变,他现在没有更多的不可靠,多变的,自信的男子,不断摇曳之间皮疹的勇气和薄弱胆怯,但代之而起的快速,值得信赖的指导和导演信徒的团契,基督在耶路撒冷和海外的勇敢的布道者。

And now that he is become Cephas indeed, we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5, 32; 15:14), and he is known to us finally as Peter." After the miracle at the temple gate (Acts 3) persecution arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison. He boldly defended himself and his companions at the bar of the council (4:19, 20). A fresh outburst of violence against the Christians (5:17-21) led to the whole body of the apostles being cast into prison; but during the night they were wonderfully delivered, and were found in the morning teaching in the temple. A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts 5: 29-32), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten them, let them go." The time had come for Peter to leave Jerusalem.而现在,他成为矶法确实,我们听到的名字西蒙(仅适用于10时05分,32;十五点14),几乎一无所知,而他最后彼得被称为“后在寺庙门口的奇迹。 (使徒3)产生对基督徒的迫害,以及彼得被关进监狱投,他大胆地为自己辩护和他的同伴在酒吧理事会(4:19 20)。基督徒的新鲜爆发的暴力行为(5时17分-21)导致全身被关进监狱投的使徒,但在夜间他们奇妙的交付,并在寺庙上午在教学中发现彼得捍卫他们摆在安理会面前的第二次(徒5:29。 -32),“当他们所谓的使徒和殴打他们,让他们走。”时机已经成熟彼得离开耶路撒冷。

After labouring for some time in Samaria, he returned to Jerusalem, and reported to the church there the results of his work (Acts 8:14-25).一段时间在撒马利亚的劳动后,他回到耶路撒冷,并报告给教会,他的工作结果(徒8:14-25)。Here he remained for a period, during which he met Paul for the first time since his conversion (9:26-30; Gal. 1:18).在这里,他保持一段时间,在此期间,他会见了保罗的第一次,因为他的转换(9:26-30;加仑1时18)。Leaving Jerusalem again, he went forth on a missionary journey to Lydda and Joppa (Acts 9:32-43).离开耶路撒冷再次,他又提出一个传教士的旅程利达,并约帕(使徒行传9:32-43)。He is next called on to open the door of the Christian church to the Gentiles by the admission of Cornelius of Caesarea (ch. 10).他旁边所谓的基督教教堂的大门打开撒利亚哥尼流(章10)录取外邦人。After remaining for some time at Caesarea, he returned to Jerusalem (Acts 11:1-18), where he defended his conduct with reference to the Gentiles.在留一段时间在该撒利亚后,他回到耶路撒冷(徒11:1-18),他捍卫了他的行为与参考外邦人。

Next we hear of his being cast into prison by Herod Agrippa (12:1-19); but in the night an angel of the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found refuge in the house of Mary.下一步,我们听到他被关进监狱投希律阿格里帕(12:1-19);但耶和华的使者在夜间打开了监狱大门,和他出去,发现玛丽家避难。 He took part in the deliberations of the council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-31; Gal. 2:1-10) regarding the relation of the Gentiles to the church.他在安理会的审议工作在耶路撒冷(徒15:1-31;加拉太2:1-10)关于外邦人的教会的关系。This subject had awakened new interest at Antioch, and for its settlement was referred to the council of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem.这个题目在安提阿惊醒了新的兴趣,并寻求和解是指在耶路撒冷的使徒和长老会。Here Paul and Peter met again.这里保罗和彼得又见面了。We have no further mention of Peter in the Acts of the Apostles.我们有没有进一步提及彼得在使徒行传。He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul (Gal. 2:11-16), who "rebuked him to his face."他似乎已经下降到安提阿后,安理会在耶路撒冷,并有已被拆解,为此,他受到严厉训斥保罗(加拉太书2:11-16),谁有罪“斥责他向他的脸。”

After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east, and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates (1 Pet. 5:13).在此之后,他似乎到东部进行的福音,有一段时间,在巴比伦的幼发拉底河(彼前5:13),吃力。There is no satisfactory evidence that he was ever at Rome.有没有令人满意的证据证明他曾经在罗马。Where or when he died is not certainly known.或当他死了不能肯定。Probably he died between AD 64 and 67.也许他死于公元64和67之间。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


First Epistle of Peter第一使徒彼得

Advanced Information先进的信息

This epistle is addressed to "the strangers scattered abroad", ie, to the Jews of the Dispersion (the Diaspora).这封信是写给,即“四散的陌生人”,分散的犹太人(散居)。Its object is to confirm its readers in the doctrines they had been already taught.它的对象是,以确认它的读者,他们已经教教义。 Peter has been called "the apostle of hope," because this epistle abounds with words of comfort and encouragement fitted to sustain a "lively hope."彼得一直被称为“希望的使者”,因为这封信装的舒适度和维持一个鼓励的话盛产“活泼的希望。”It contains about thirty-five references to the Old Testament.它包含旧约约三十五个引用。It was written from Babylon, on the Euphrates, which was at this time one of the chief seats of Jewish learning, and a fitting centre for labour among the Jews.它被写了从巴比伦,幼发拉底河,在这个时候,犹太人学习的主要席位之一,和一个犹太人之间的劳动修配中心。It has been noticed that in the beginning of his epistle Peter names the provinces of Asia Minor in the order in which they would naturally occur to one writing from Babylon.它已经注意到,在他的书信彼得开始名的顺序中,他们自然会出现一写从巴比伦,小亚细亚省。He counsels (1) to steadfastness and perseverance under persecution (1-2: 10); (2) to the practical duties of a holy life (2:11-3:13); (3) he adduces the example of Christ and other motives to patience and holiness (3:14-4:19); and (4) concludes with counsels to pastors and people (ch. 5).他的律师(1)坚定性和毅力根据迫害(1-2:10);(2)圣洁的生活的实际职务(2:11-3:13);(3)他举出基督的榜样,其他动机,耐心和圣洁(3:14-4:19);(4)最后律师牧师和人民(章5)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Second Epistle of Peter第二书信彼得

Advanced Information先进的信息

The question of the authenticity of this epistle has been much discussed, but the weight of evidence is wholly in favour of its claim to be the production of the apostle whose name it bears.这封信的真实性问题已经讨论很多,但重量的证据支持其索赔完全是使徒的名字它承担的生产。 It appears to have been written shortly before the apostle's death (1:14).它似乎已书面不久使徒的死亡(1:14)之前。This epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament.这封信包含了11个引用旧约。It also contains (3:15, 16) a remarkable reference to Paul's epistles.它还包含(3:15,16)保罗的书信显着的参考。 Some think this reference is to 1 Thess.有些人认为这种提法帖前。4: 13-5:11.4:13-5:11。 A few years ago, among other documents, a parchment fragment, called the "Gospel of Peter," was discovered in a Christian tomb at Akhmim in Upper Egypt.几年前,在其他文件中,一个羊皮纸片段,被称为“彼得福音”,在Akhmim在上埃及的基督教墓发现。Origen (obiit AD 254), Eusebius (obiit 340), and Jerome (obiit 420) refer to such a work, and hence it has been concluded that it was probably written about the middle of the second century.奥利(obiit公元254),优西比乌(obiit 340),杰罗姆(obiit 420)是指这样的工作,因此它已经结束,这是可能的第二个世纪中叶的书面。It professes to give a history of our Lord's resurrection and ascension.它自称给我们的上帝的复活和升天的历史。While differing in not a few particulars from the canonical Gospels, the writer shows plainly that he was acquinted both with the synoptics and with the Gospel of John.虽然不是几个典型福音详情的不同,作家清楚地表明,他对观福音和约翰福音acquinted。Though apocryphal, it is of considerable value as showing that the main facts of the history of our Lord were then widely known.虽然未经证实,它是相当大的价值显示,当时广为人知的历史,我们的主的主要事实。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistles of Saint Peter书信的圣彼得

Catholic Information天主教信息

These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II.这两个书信将被视为根据以下元首:一,真实性; II。Recipients, occasion, and object; III.收件人,场合和对象;第三。Date and place of composition; IV.组成的日期和地点;四。Analysis.分析。

FIRST EPISTLE第一书信

A. Authenticity答:真品

The authenticity, universally admitted by the primitive Church, has been denied within the past century by Protestant or Rationalist critics (Baur and the Tübingen School, Von Soden, Harnack, Jülicher, Hilgenfeld, and others), but it cannot seriously be questioned.新教或理性主义的批评(鲍尔和蒂宾根大学的学校,冯索登,哈尔纳克,Jülicher,Hilgenfeld,和其他​​人),已被拒绝的真实性,原始教会的普遍承认,在过去的一个世纪,但它不能严重受到质疑。 It is well established by extrinsic and instrinsic arguments.它是公认的外在和instrinsic参数。

(1) Extrinsic arguments(1)外在参数

(a) in writings of the first and second centuries, eg, Justin's letter to the Churches of Lyons and Vienne, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Papias, Polycarp, Clement of Rome, the "Didache", the "Pastor" of Hermas, and others. (一)在第一和第二世纪的著作,如贾斯汀的信教会的里昂和维埃纳省,爱任纽,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,帕皮亚,波利卡普,克莱门特的罗马,在“十二使徒遗训”,的“牧师”的黑马,和其他人。 The Second Epistle of St. Peter, admitted to be very ancient even by those who question its authenticity, alludes to an earlier Epistle written by the Apostle (iii, 1).二圣彼得书信,承认非常古老的,即使那些质疑其真实性,暗示到一个较早的使徒(三,1)写的书信。The letter therefore existed very early and was considered very authoritative.因此,信中很早就存在,被认为是很权威的。(b) Tradition is also unanimous for St. Peter's authorship.(二)传统为圣彼得的作者也一致。In the second and third centuries we have much explicit testimony to this effect.在第二个和第三个世纪,我们有许多明确的证词这种效果。Clement and Origen at Alexandria, Tertullian and Cyprian in Africa, the Peshitto in Syria, Irenaeus in Gaul, the ancient Itala and Hippolytus at Rome all agree in attributing it to Peter, as do also the heretics, Basilides and Theodore of Byzantium.克莱门特和奥利在亚历山德里亚,良和塞浦路斯在非洲,在叙利亚Peshitto,爱任纽在高卢,在罗马的古代伊泰莱和希波吕托斯归咎于它彼得的同意,因为这样做也是异端,巴西里德和拜占庭西奥多。 (c) All the collections or lists of the New Testament mention it as St. Peter's; the Muratorian Canon, which alone is at variance with this common tradition, is obscure and bears evident marks of textual corruption, and the subsequent restoration suggested by Zahn, which seems much more probable, is clearly favourable to the authenticity. (三)所有集合或列出新约提到它作为圣彼得的穆拉多利佳能,因为只有在这个共同的传统方差,是晦涩和熊文本腐败的明显标志,和随后的恢复赞恩建议,这似乎更可能的,显然是有利的真实性。 Moreover Eusebius of Caesarea does not hesitate to place it among the undisputed Scriptures.此外,该撒利亚的优西比乌不犹豫的地方之间的无可争议的圣经。

(2) Intrinsic arguments(2)内在参数

Examination of the Epistle in itself is wholly favourable to its authenticity; the author calls himself Peter, the Apostle of Jesus Christ (i, 1); Mark, who, according to the Acts of the Apostles, had such close relations with Peter, is called by the author "my son" (v, 13); the author is represented as the immediate disciple of Jesus Christ (i, 1; v, 9, 11-14); he exercises from Rome a universal jurisdiction over the whole Church (v, 1).考试书信本身是完全有利于它的真实性,作者自称是耶稣基督的使徒彼得,(I,1);马克,根据使徒行传,这种密切的关系,与彼得,是作者所谓的“我的儿子”(V,13);作者是作为耶稣基督立即的门徒(V,9,11-14 I,1);代表,他从罗马行使普遍管辖权整个教会(V,1)。The numerous places in which he would appear to be the immediate witness of the life of Christ (i, 8; ii, 21-24; v, 1), as well as the similarity between his ideas and the teaching of the Gospels, are eloquently in favour of the Apostolic author (cf. Jacquier, 251).许多地方在他会出现要立即见证基督的生命(8;我,二,21日至24日,V,1),以及他的思想和教学的福音之间的相似性,雄辩地赞成使徒的作者(参Jacquier 251)。Finally, some authors consider that the Epistle and the sermons of St. Peter related in the Acts show an analogy in basis and form which proves a common origin.最后,一​​些作者认为,书信和行为有关的圣彼得大教堂讲道显示一个比喻,在基础和形式,证明了一个共同的起源。However, it is probable if not certain that the Apostle made use of an interpreter, especially of Sylvanus; St. Jerome says: "the two Epistles attributed to St. Peter differ in style, character, and the construction of the words, which proves that according to the exigencies of the moment St. Peter made use of different interpreters" (Ep. cxx ad Hedib.).但是,它很可能如果没有一定的使徒口译的使用,特别是Sylvanus;圣杰罗姆说:“两个书信归因于圣彼得在风格上有所不同,性格,和建设的话,这证明,根据紧急的时刻,圣彼得使用不同的解释“(插曲CXX广告Hedib)。 Peter himself seems to insinuate this: Dia Silouanou houmin .彼得本人似乎影射:直径Silouanou厚民。..egrapha (v, 12), and the final verses (12-14) seem to have been added by the Apostle himself. egrapha(V,12),(12-14)最后的诗句,似乎已被使徒自己添加。Without denying that Peter was able to use and speak Greek, some authors consider that he could not write it in the almost classic manner of this Epistle.不否认,彼得能够使用和讲希腊语,一些作者认为,他不能写这封信几乎经典的方式。Nevertheless it is impossible to determine exactly the share of Sylvanus; it is not improbable that he wrote it according to the directions of the Apostle, inserting the ideas and exhortations suggested by him.然而,它不可能准确地确定Sylvanus份额;它不是不可能的,他写道:根据使徒的方向,插入他的想法和建议的嘱托。

Objections: (a) The relation between the First Epistle of Peter and the Epistles of Paul, especially Romans and Ephesians, does not prove, as has been claimed (Jülicher), that the Epistle was written by a disciple of Paul.反对意见:(一)第一使徒彼得和保罗,特别是罗马书和以弗所的书信之间的关系,并不能证明,因为一直声称(Jülicher),是由保罗的弟子写的书信。 This relation, which has been much exaggerated by some critics, does not prove a literary dependence nor prevent this Epistle from possessing a characteristic originality in ideas and form.这种关系,已受到一些批评者夸大了,并不能证明一个文学的依赖,也不能阻止这封信藏在思想和形式特征的独创性。The resemblance is readily explained if we admit that Peter employed Sylvanus as interpreter, for the latter had been a companion of Paul, and would consequently have felt the influence of his doctrine and manner of speaking.相似之处是很容易解释,如果我们承认,彼得受聘为口译Sylvanus,后者曾经是保罗的同伴,并因此已经感受到了他的学说和说话方式的影响。 Moreover, Peter and Sylvanus were at Rome, where the letter was written, and they would naturally have become acquainted with the Epistles to the Romans and the Ephesians, written some months before and intended, at least in part, for the same readers.此外,彼得和Sylvanus在罗马,在那里写的信,他们自然会成为熟悉的罗马人的书信和以弗所,几个月前书面和打算,至少在部分相同的读者,。 (b) It has been claimed that the Epistle presupposes an official and general persecution in the Roman Empire and betokens a state of things corresponding to the reign of Vespasian, or even that of Domitian or Trajan, but the data it gives are too indefinite to conclude that it refers to one of these persecutions rather than to that of Nero; besides, some authors consider that the Epistle does not al all suppose an official persecution, the allusions being readily explained by the countless difficulties and annoyances to which Jews and pagans subjected the Christians. (b)它一直声称的书信预示着在罗马帝国的官方和一般的迫害和betokens相应的维斯帕先的统治,甚至多米提安或图拉真,事情的状态,但它给的数据是太无限期得出结论,它是指这些迫害,而不是Nero的;此外,一些作者认为,书信没有人所有假设一个官方的迫害,容易解释,犹太人和异教徒遭受了无数的困难和烦恼的典故基督徒。

B. Recipients of the Epistle; Occasion and ObjectB.收件人的书信,场合和对象

It was written to the faithful of "Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia" (i, 1).它被写了“庞,加拉提亚,卡帕多西亚,亚洲,和庇推尼”(I,1)忠实。Were these Christians converted Jews, dispersed among the Gentiles (i, 1), as was held by Origen, Didymus of Alexandria, etc., and is still maintained by Weiss and Kuhl, or were they in great part of pagan origin?这些基督徒的转换犹太人,分散在外邦人(I,1),奥利,亚历山大等Didymus举行,并仍保持魏斯和Kuhl,或他们在异教的起源很大一部分吗? The latter is by far the more common and the better opinion (i, 14; ii, 9-10; iii, 6; iv, 3).后者是目前较常见的和更好的意见(I,14;二,9-10;三,六,四,3)。The argument based on i, 7, proves nothing, while the words "to the strangers dispersed through Pontus" should not be taken in the literal sense of Jews in exile, but in the metaphorical sense of the people of God, Christians, living in exile on earth, far from their true country.我,7,基于参数证明什么的话,不应该在字面意义上的犹太人流亡“的陌生人通过庞分散”,但在上帝的子民,基督徒的隐喻意义,生活在流亡在地球上,远离自己真正的国家。 The opinions of authors admitting the authenticity are divided with regard to the historical circumstances which occasioned the Epistle, some believing that it was written immediately after Nero's decree proscribing the Christian religion, in which case the difficulties to which Peter alludes do not consist merely of the calumnies and vexations of the people, but also include the judicial pursuit and condemnation of Christians (iv, 14-16; v, 12; ii, 23; iii, 18), while iv, 12, may be an allusion to the burning of Rome which was the occasion of Nero's decree.作者承认的真实性的意见是划分在其中所引致的书信的历史情况下,一些相信这是书面Nero的法令后立即禁止基督教的,困难,在这种情况下,彼得暗示做不包括的只是诽谤和烦恼的人,还包括司法的追求和基督教徒的谴责(四,14日至16日; V,12;二,23;三,18),而四,12,可能是一个燃烧的典故罗马这是Nero的法令之际。This is the opinion of Hug, Gloire, Batiffol, Neander, Grimm, Ewald, Allard, Weiss, Callewaert, etc., while others date the Epistle from the eve of that decree (Jacquier, Brassac, Fillion, etc.).这是拥抱的意见,Gloire,Batiffol,尼安德,格林,埃瓦尔德,阿拉德,魏斯,Callewaert等,而其他日期从该法令的前夕(Jacquier,布拉萨克,菲利安等)的书信。 The Epistle, they say, having been written from Rome, where the persecution must have raged in all its horror, we naturally look for clear and indisputable indications of it, but the general theme of the epistle is that the Christians should give no occasion to the charges of the infidels, but that by their exemplary life they should induce them to glorify God (ii, 12, 15; iii, 9, 16; iv, 4); besides, the way of speaking is generally hypothetical (i, 6; iii, 13-14; iv, 14), there being no question of judges, tribunals, prison, tortures, or confiscation.书信,他们说,从罗马,在那里的迫害必须在其所有的恐怖肆虐的,我们当然期待它明确和无可争议的迹象,但一般书信的主题是,基督徒应该没有机会异教徒的收费,但通过自己的模范的生活,他们应该促使他们荣耀神(II,12,15;第三,9,16;四,4);此外,说话的方式一般是假设(I,6 ; 13-14三,四,14),有没有问题的法官,法庭,监狱,酷刑,或没收。The Christians have to suffer, not from authority, but from the people among whom they lived.基督徒受苦不是来自权力,但他们生活其中的人,。The Apostle Peter wrote to the Christians of Asia to confirm them in the Faith, to console them amid their tribulations, and to indicate to them the line of conduct to follow in suffering (v, 2).使徒彼得写信给亚洲的基督徒,以确认他们的信仰,控制台中他们的苦难,并表明他们的行为遵循痛苦线(V,2)。Except for the more dogmatic introduction (i, 3-12) and a few short instructions strewn throughout the letter and intended to support moral exhortations, the Epistle is hortatory and practical.除了更多的教条式的介绍(3-12岁)和散落各地的信,并打算支持道德规劝短短指示,书信是劝告和实用。Only an absurd a priori argument could permit the Tübingen critics to assert that it had a dogmatic object and was written by a second-century forger with the intention of attributing to Peter the doctrines of Paul.只有一个荒​​谬的先验参数可以允许蒂宾根大学的批评者断言,它有一个教条式的对象,是由归因于彼得保罗的教义的意图的第二世纪伪造的书面。

C. Place and Date of Compositionc.将组成日期

The critics who have denied Peter's sojourn at Rome must necessarily deny that the letter was written from there, but the great majority of critics, with all Christian antiquity, agree that it was written at Rome itself, designated by the metaphorical name Babylon (v, 13). “谁已否认在罗马彼得的逗留批评必须拒绝,信是从那里书面,但绝大多数的批评,所有基督教古代同意,它是在罗马本身的书面,指定的隐喻名称巴比伦(V, 13)。This interpretation has been accepted from the most remote times, and indeed no other metaphor could so well describe the city of Rome, rich and luxurious as it was, and given over to the worship of false gods and every species of immorality.从最偏远的时代,已经接受这种解释,所以确实没有其他的比喻可以很好地描述,因为它是罗马的城市,丰富和豪华,并给了假神的崇拜和不道德的每一个物种。 Both cities had caused trouble to the people of God, Babylon to the Jews, and Rome to the Christians.两个城市造成麻烦的人,神,巴比伦的犹太人,和罗​​马的基督徒。Moreover this metaphor was in use among the early Christians (cf. Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2, 10, 21).此外,这个比喻是在使用早期的基督徒(参启示录14:8;十六点19分; 17:5; 18:2,10,21)之间。Finally, tradition has not brought us the faintest memory of any sojourn of Peter at Babylon.最后,传统并没有给我们带来任何逗留彼得在巴比伦最微弱的内存。The opinions of critics who deny the authenticity of the Epistle range from AD 80 to AD 160 as the date, but as there is not the slightest doubt of its authenticity they have no basis for their argument.批评谁否认的真实性书信范围从公元80年至公元160日期,但没有丝毫的怀疑,他们有他们的说法没有根据其真实性的意见。 Equally diverse opinions are found among the authors who admit the authenticity, ranging from the year AD 45 to that accepted as that of the death of Peter.同样发现不同的意见是作者谁承认的真实性,范围从公元45彼得死亡接受。The most probable opinion is that which places it about the end of the year 63 or the beginning of 64; and St. Peter having suffered martyrdom at Rome in 64 (67?) the Epistle could not be subsequent to that date; besides, it assumes that the persecution of Nero, which began about the end of 64, had not yet broken out (see above).看来最有可能的是,哪个地方,今年63或64月初结束;在罗马的圣彼得遭受殉难在64(67)书信不能该日期之后;此外,它假定尼禄迫害,其中约64月底开始,尚未爆发(见上文)。 On the other hand the author frequently alludes to the Epistle to the Ephesians, making use of its very words and expressions; consequently the Epistle could not be prior to 63, since the Epistle to the Ephesians was written at the end of Paul's first captivity at Rome (61-63).另一方面,笔者经常暗示书信的以弗所,利用其非常单词和表达式;因此书信不能到63岁之前,自书信的以弗所是保罗的第一次圈养月底书面在罗马(61-63)。

D. AnalysisD.分析

The Epistle as a whole being but a succession of general ideas without close connection, there can be not strict plan of analysis.书信作为一个整体之中,但没有关闭连接的总体思路的继承,可以有严格的分析计划。It is divided as follows: the introduction contains, besides the address (superscription and salutation, i, 7), thanksgiving to God for the excellence of the salvation and regeneration to which He has deigned to call the Christians (3-12).它是划分如下:引进包含,除了地址(上标和称呼,我7),感恩上帝的卓越,他屈尊呼吁基督徒(3-12岁)的救赎和再生。 This part is dogmatic and serves as a basis for all the moral exhortations in the body of the Epistle.这部分是教条式的,作为书信体中所有的道德规劝的基础。The body of the Epistle may be divided into three section: (a) exhortation to a truly Christian life (i, 13-ii, 10), wherein Peter successively exhorts his readers to holiness in general (13-21), to fraternal charity in particular (i, 22-ii, 1), to love and desire of the true doctrine; thus they shall be living stones in the spiritual house of which Christ is the cornerstone, they shall be the royal priesthood and the chosen people of the Lord (2-10).书信体可分为三个部分:(一)告诫一个真正的基督徒的生活(我,13 - II,10),其中彼得先后规劝他的读者,一般(13-21)圣洁的,兄弟般的慈善(I,22 - II,1),尤其爱和渴望真正的教义,因此他们应生活在精神的房子,其中基督是基石的石头,他们应是君尊的祭司和所选择的人主(2-10)。(b) Rules of conduct for Christians living among pagans, especially in time of persecution (ii, 11-v, 19). (二)生活之间的异教徒,特别是在时间的迫害,基督徒的行为规则(11 - V,II,19)。Let their conduct be such that the infidels themselves shall be edified and cease to speak evil of the Christians (11-12).让他们的行为是异教徒本身应熏陶和停止发言邪恶的基督徒(11-12)。This general principle is applied in detail in the exhortations relating to obedience to civil rulers (13-17), the duties of slaves to their masters (18-25), the mutual duties of husband and wife (iii, 1-7).这个总的原则是适用于中详细的有关服从民间统治者(13-17),它们的主人(18-25)的奴隶的职责,丈夫和妻子相互的职责(三1-7)的嘱托。 With regard to those who, not having the same faith, calumniate and persecute the Christians, the latter should return good for evil, according to the example of Christ, who though innocent suffered for us, and who preached the Gospel not only to the living, but also to the spirits that were in prison (8-22).对于这些人,而不是有同样的信念,诽谤和迫害的基督徒,后者应以德报怨,根据基督,谁对我们来说虽然无辜遭受的例子,和谁传福音不仅生活而且,在监狱中(8-22)的精神。 The Apostle concludes by repeating his exhortation to sanctity in general (iv, 1-6), to charity (7-11), to patience and joy in suffering for Christ (12-19).使徒最后的神圣一般(1-6)四,重复他告诫,慈善机构(7-11),耐心和基督(12-19)痛苦的喜悦。(c) Some special recommendations follow (v, 1-11): let the ancients be careful to feed the flock entrusted to their keeping (1-4); let the faithful be subject to their pastor (5a); let all observe humility among themselves (5b); let them be sober and watchful, trusting the Lord (6-11). (三)一些特殊的建议的后续(V,1月11日):让古人小心喂养羊群托付给他们的饲养(1-4);让忠实受到他们的牧师(5A);让所有观察谦卑彼此之间(5B),让他们保持清醒和警觉,信靠主(6-11)。

In the epilogue the Apostle himself declares that he has employed Sylvanus to write the letter and affirms that the Divine grace possessed by his readers is the true grace (12); he addresses to them the salutations of the Church in Rome and those of Mark (13), and gives them his Apostolic blessing.在尾声的使徒自己宣称,他已聘请Sylvanus写的信,并申明他的读者拥有神的恩典是真实的宽限期(12);他的地址给他们在罗马的教会的称呼和马克( 13),并给出了他的使徒的祝福。

SECOND EPISTLE第二书信

A. Authenticity答:真品

In the present state of the controversy over the authenticity it may be affirmed that it is solidly probable, though it is difficult to prove with certainty.在目前国家对真实性的争议,它可能是值得肯定的,这是扎实的可能,但它肯定是很难证明。

(1) Extrinsic arguments(1)外在参数

(a) In the first two centuries there is not in the Apostolic Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers, if we except Theophilus of Antioch (180), a single quotation properly so called from this Epistle; at most there are some more or less probable allusions in their writings, eg, the First Epistle of St. Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, the "Didache", St. Ignatius, the Epistle of Barnabas, the "Pastor" of Hermas, the Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, the Dialogue of St. Justin with Trypho, St. Irenæus, the Clementine "Recognitions", the "Acts of Peter", etc. The Epistle formed part of the ancient Itala, but is not in the Syriac. (一)前两个世纪,是在使徒的父亲和其他教会作家,如果我们除了西奥菲勒斯的安提阿,呼吁从这个书信正确的单引号(180);顶多有一些更多的或不太可能的典故在他们的著作,如圣克莱门特的罗马第一书信向科林蒂安,“十二使徒遗训”,圣依纳爵,书信巴拿巴,“牧师”的黑马,波利卡普书信腓,对话圣Trypho,圣irenæus,贾斯汀的克莱门汀“荣誉”,“彼得的行为”等书信形成古代伊泰莱的一部分,但在叙利亚没有。 This proves that the Second Epistle of Peter existed and even had a certain amount of authority.这证明,彼得的第二书信存在,甚至有一定的权力。But it is impossible to bring forward with certainty a single explicit testimony in favour of this authenticity.但它是不可能带来肯定赞成这一真实性提出了一个明确的证词。The Muratorian Canon presents a mutilated text of I Peter, and Zahin's suggested restoration, which seems very probable, leaves only a doubt with regard to the authenticity of the Second Epistle.穆拉多利佳能提出了彼得肢解文本,并建议恢复Zahin的,这似乎很可能,只留下一个关于二书信的真实性产生怀疑。

(b) In the Western Church there is not explicit testimony in favour of the canonicity and Apostolicity of this Epistle until the middle of the fourth century. (b)在西方教会中没有明确的证词赞成在此书信的正规和使徒,直到第四世纪中叶。Tertullian and Cyprian do not mention it, and Mommsen's Canon (360) still bears traces of the uncertainty among the Churches of the West in this respect.德尔图良和塞浦路斯没有提到它,蒙森的佳能(360)仍带有西方教会之间在这方面的不确定性的痕迹。The Eastern Church gave earlier testimony in its behalf.东部教会了较早前在其代表的证词。According to Eusebius and Photius, Clement of Alexandria (d. 215) commented on it, but he seems not to have ranked it with the first.根据优西比乌和Photius,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(卒于215)评论,但他似乎不是排名第一。 It is found in the two great Egyptian versions (Sahidic and Bohairic).这是两个伟大的埃及版本(Sahidic和Bohairic)。 It is probable that Firmilian of Caesarea used it and ascribed it to St. Peter, as Methodius of Olympus did explicitly.这是可能的,撒利亚Firmilian用它冲高到圣彼得大教堂,奥林巴斯Methodius明确。Eusebius of Caesarea (340), while personally accepting II Peter as authentic and canonical, nevertheless classes it among the disputed works (antilegomena), at the same time affirming that it was known by most Christians and studied by a large number with the other Scriptures.尤西比乌斯撒利亚(340),而亲自接受第二彼得真实和规范,但类之间有争议的作品(antilegomena),在同一时间确认,这是众所周知的大多数基督徒,并与其他经文的大量研究。 In the Church of Antioch and Syria at that period it was regarded as of doubtful authenticity.在安提阿和叙利亚的教会在这期间,它被视为可疑的真实性。St. John Chrysostom does not speak of it, and it is omitted by the Peshitto.圣约翰金口不说话的,它是由Peshitto省略。 That the Epistle formerly accepted in that Church (Theophilus of Antiocy) was not yet included in the canon was probably due to dogmatic reasons.以前在该教堂(Antiocy西奥菲勒斯)接受的书信,是尚未列入佳能很可能是由于教条式的理由。

(c) In the second half of the fourth century these doubts rapidly disappeared in the Churches of the East owing to the authority of Eusebius of Caesarea and the fifty copies of the Scriptures distributed by command of Constantine the Great. (c)在下半年的第四个世纪这些疑虑迅速消失在东,由于教会撒利亚的优西比乌的权威和君士坦丁大帝的命令分发圣经五十份。Didymus of Alexandria, St. Athanasius, St. Epiphanius, St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Gregory Nazianzen, the Canon of Laodicea, all regard the letter as authentic. Didymus的亚历山德里亚,圣athanasius,圣埃皮法尼乌斯,圣西里尔耶路撒冷,圣格雷戈里Nazianzen,佳能的老底嘉,所有方面作为地道的信。 The addition to the text of Didymus, according to which it was the work of a forger, seems to be the error of a copyist.Didymus文本此外,根据它是一个伪造的工作,似乎是抄写的错误。So in the West relations with the East and the authority of St. Jerome finally brought about the admission of its authenticity.因此,在东和圣杰罗姆的权威与西方的关系,终于带来接纳其真实性。It was admitted to the Vulgate, and the synod convoked by Pope Damasus in 382 expressly attributes it to St. Peter.被录取的武加大,382明确的主教由教皇达玛斯召集属性的圣彼得。

(2) Intrinsic arguments(2)内在参数

If tradition does not appear to furnish an apodictic argument in favour of the authenticity, an examination of the Epistle itself does.如果传统似乎并没有提供一个明白的参数,在赞成的真实性,考试本身的书信。The author calls himself Simon Peter, servant and Apostle of Jesus Christ (i, 1), witness of the glorious transfiguration of Christ (i, 16-18); he recalls the prediction of His death which Christ made to him (i, 14); he calls the Apostle Paul his brother, ie, his colleague in the Apostolate (iii, 15); and he identifies himself with the author of the First Epistle.他回忆说:他的死亡预测基督向他提出的(I,14的作者自称是耶稣基督的仆人和使徒西门彼得,(I,1),见证基督的光荣变身(I,16-18); );他呼吁使徒保罗他的弟弟,即,他的同事在使徒(三,15岁),他确定了自己的第一书信的作者。Therefore the author must necessarily be St. Peter himself or some one who wrote under his name, but nothing in the Epistle forces us to believe the latter.因此,作者必须是圣彼得本人或某些人谁写自己的名字下,但没有在书信迫使我们相信后者。On the other hand there are several indications of its authenticity: the author shows himself to be a Jew, of ardent character, such as the New Testament portrays St. Peter, while a comparison with the ideas, words, and expressions of the First Epistle affords a further argument in favour of the identify of the author.另一方面有其真实性的一些迹象:作者表明自己是犹太人,殷切的字符,如新约,描绘圣彼得大教堂,而比较的思想,也就是说,和第一书信表达给予赞成确定作者的进一步论证。 Such, at least, is the opinion of several critics.这样,至少是几个评论家的意见。

In examining the difficulties raised against the authenticity of the Epistle, the following facts should be remembered: (a) This Epistle has been wrongly accused of being imbued with Hellenism, from which it is even farther removed than the writings of Luke and the Epistles of Paul.在研究针对书信的真实性提出困难,应记住以下事实:(一)这封信已被错误地指责处处洋溢着希腊,它是有过之而无不及卢克的著作和书信保罗。 (b) Likewise the false doctrines which it opposes are not the full-blown Gnosticism of the second century, but the budding Gnosticism as opposed by St. Paul. (二)同样反对虚假的教义是不全面爆发的第二个世纪的诺斯底主义,但圣保罗反对萌芽诺斯替​​主义。(c) The difference which some authors claim to find between the doctrine of the two Epistles probes nothing against the authenticity; some others have even maintained that comparison of the doctrines furnishes a new argument in favour of the author's identify. (三)有些作者声称之间的学说的两个书信探针对真实性没有找到的差异,有些人甚至认为比较教义furnishes一个新的论点赞成作者的识别。Doubtless there exist undeniable differences, but is an author obliged to confine himself within the same circle of ideas?毫无疑问,存在着不可否认的差异,但笔者有义务以自己的思路局限在同一圈吗?(d) The difference of style which critics have discovered between the two Epistles is an argument requiring too delicate handling to supply a certain conclusion, and here again some others have drawn from a similarity of style an argument in favour of a unity of authorship. (D)的风格差异,批评家们发现两者之间的书信,是一个参数,要求过于细腻的处理提供了一定的结论,并在这里再次有的则是来自赞成统一的作者的论点的风格相似。 Admitting that the manner of speaking is not the same in both Epistles, there is, nevertheless, not the slightest difficulty, if it be true as St. Jerome has said (see above under FIRST EPISTLE), that in the composition of the Epistles St. Peter made use of different interpreters.承认的说话方式是不相同的两个书信,是有,但是,没有丝毫的困难,如果它是真实的圣杰罗姆说(见上面根据第一书信),在圣组成的书信彼得作出不同的解释。 (e) It is also incorrect to say that this Epistle supposes the Epistle of St. Paul to have been already collected (iii, 15-16), for the author does not say that he knew all the Epistles of St. Paul.(E),这也是不正确的说,这书信设在圣保罗的书信已经收集(三,15日至16日),笔者不说,他知道所有的圣保禄的书信。 That he should have regarded Paul's letters as inspired forms a difficulty only to those who do not admit the possibility of a revelation made to Peter on this point.他应该被视为只对那些不承认,在这一点上,彼得一个启示的可能性难度启发形式保罗的书信。Some authors have also wrongly contested the unity of the Epistle, some claiming that it consists of two distinct epistles, the second beginning with ch.有些作者还错误地有争议的书信的统一,一些声称,它包含两个不同的书信,第二年初与CH。iii, others maintaining that the ii, 1-iii, 2, has been interpolated.三,其他保持,二,三,2,已插。Recently M. Ladeuze (Revue Biblique, 1905) has advanced an hypothesis which seems to end numerous difficulties: by an involuntary error of a copyist or by accidental transposition of the leaves of the codex on which the Epistle was written, one of the parts of the Epistle was transposed, and according to the order of sections the letter should be restored as follows: i-ii, 3a; iii, 1-16; ii, 3b-22; iii, 17-18.最近M. Ladeuze(歌剧Biblique,1905年)拥有先进的假说似乎结束了重重困难:一个抄写员的非自愿错误或意外换位法典叶上写书信的零件之一书信调换,和据信应作如下恢复部分的顺序:I - II,3A;三,1-16;二,3B - 22;三,17日至18日。The hypothesis seems very probable.假设似乎非常可能的。

Relations of II Peter with the Epistle of Jude彼得书信的裘德的关系

This Epistle has so much in common with that of Jude that the author of one must have had the other before him.这书信有这么多的共同与裘德,必须有一位作者在他之前的其他。There is no agreement on the question of priority, but the most credited opinion is that Peter depends on Jude (qv).有优先问题上没有达成协议,但最计入的看法是,彼得取决于裘德(QV)。

B. Recipients, Occasion, and ObjectB.收件人,场合和对象

It is believed that this Epistle, like the First, was sent to the Christians of Asia Minor, the majority of whom were converted Gentiles (iii, 1-2; ii, 11-12; etc.).据认为这书信,像第一,被送到小亚细亚的基督徒,其中大部分被转换外邦人(1-2,三,二,11-12;等)。False teachers (ii, 1), heretics and deceivers (iii, 3), of corrupt morals (ii, 1) and denying the Second Advent of Christ and the end of the world, sought to corrupt the faith and the conduct of the Christians of Asia Minor.假教师(二,1),异教徒和骗子有伤风化(三,3),(二,1),并否认基督的第二次降临和世界的尽头,寻求腐败的信仰和基督徒的行为小亚细亚。 Peter wrote to excite them to the practice of virtue and chiefly to turn them away from the errors and bad example of the false teachers.彼得写道,以激发他们的美德的实践,主要是把他们从错误和假教师​​的坏榜样。

C. Date and Place of CompositionC.日期和地点组成

While those who reject the authenticity of the Epistle place it about 150, the advocates of its authenticity maintain that it was written after 63-4, the date of the First Epistle, and before 64-5, the date believed to be that of the death of St. Peter (i, 14).而那些拒绝真实性的书信,约150个,其真实性的倡导者认为,这是后63-4书面,第一书信的日期,和前64-5,日期被认为的死亡的圣彼得大教堂(I,14)。 Like the First, it was written at Rome.像第一,它被写在罗马。

D. AnalysisD.分析

In the exordium the Apostle, after the inscription and salutation (i, 1-2), recalls the magnificent gifts bestowed by Jesus Christ on the faithful; he exhorts them to the practice of virtue and all the more earnestly that he is convinced that his death is approaching (3-15).在绪论的使徒后的题词和称呼(I,1-2),回顾耶稣基督所赋予的忠实的宏伟礼物,他劝告他们美德的实践,更加认真,他坚信,他的死亡将至(3-15)。 In the body of the Epistle (i, 16-iii, 13) the author brings forward the dogma of the second coming of Christ, which he proves, recalling His glorious transfiguration and the prediction of the Prophets (i, 16-21).在书信体(I,16 - III,13)作者提出的第二个基督的教条,他证明,回顾他的光辉变身和预测的先知(16-21)。Then he inveighs against the false teachers and condemns their life and doctrines: (a) They shall undergo Divine chastisement, in proof of which the Apostle recalls the punishment inflicted on the rebel angels, on the contemporaries of Noah, on the people of Sodom and Gomorrah (ii, 1-11).然后他inveighs对假教师和谴责他们的生活和教义:(a)他们应当接受神的惩罚,证明其中使徒回顾反叛天使所遭受的处罚,诺亚的同时代人所多玛的人,和蛾摩拉(二1-11)。 (b) He describes the immoral life of the false teachers, their impurity and sensuality, their avarice and duplicity (12-22).(b)他介绍了假教师,他们的杂质和肉感,他们的贪婪和表里不一(12-22)不道德的生活。(c) He refutes their doctrine, showing that they are wrong in rejecting the second coming of Christ and the end of the world (iii, 1-4), for the Judge shall certainly come and that unexpectedly; even as the ancient world perished by the waters of the flood so the present world shall perish by fire and be replaced by a new world (5-7). (c)他驳斥他们的教义,显示他们是在基督再来第二和世界的尽头(三1-4),拒绝法官的错误一定会来,意外,即使在古代世界灭亡洪水的水域,因此目前世界上应被大火毁灭,并代之以一个新的世界(5-7)。 Then follows the moral conclusion: let us live holily, if we desire to be ready for the coming of the Judge (8-13); let us employ the time given us to work out our salvation, even as Paul taught in his Epistles which the false teachers abuse (14-17).接着道德的结论:让我们生活holily,如果我们的愿望,准备法官(8-13),让我们聘用的时间,因为我们的工作我们的得救,即使保罗在他的书信教假教师滥用(14-17)。 Verse 18 consists of the epilogue and doxology.18节由尾声和doxology。

Publication information Written by A. Vander Heeren.A.范德麒麟大厦编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Judy Levandoski.转录由朱迪​​Levandoski。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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