Epistle to the Philippians书信腓

General Information一般资料

The Epistle to the Philippians, the 11th book in the New Testament of the Bible, was written by Saint Paul to the Philippians - a Christian community in eastern Macedonia - from prison in Ephesus in AD 57 or, as some scholars believe, in Rome in the early 60s.圣保罗腓立比书信,写了11本书,在新约圣经腓立 - 在罗马监狱在公元57以弗所,或如一些学者认为,在 - 在马其顿东部的基督教社区60年代初。Some scholars think that the present letter is a composite of three different ones.有些学者认为,本函是三个不同的复合。 In one (4:10 - 20), Paul thanks the Philippians, with whom he had good relations, for a gift they sent him. (4:10 - 20),保罗感谢腓,他有良好的关系,为他们送他一个礼物。In another (1:1 - 3:1), Paul gives them a hopeful report of his legal situation and encourages them to Christian living.另一个(1:1 - 3:1),保罗给了他们一个希望他的法律的情况报告,并鼓励他们的基督徒生活。In a third (3:2 - 4:3), he attacks a Judaizing Gnostic group trying to mislead the Philippians.在第三(3:2 - 4:3),他攻击一个犹太化诺斯底组试图误导腓。The epistle is noted for the hymn to Christ in 2:6 - 11 and for its generally joyful tone.书信是赞美诗基督在2:6 - 11,其一般欢快的语气指出。

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Bibliography 参考书目
F Craddock, Philippians: Interpretation (1984); J Fitzmeyer, The Letter to the Philippians (1968); JJ Muller, Epistles of Paul to the Philippians (1985); M Silva, Philippians (1988).F克拉多克腓利:释义(1984),J Fitzmeyer,腓(1968)的信; JJ穆勒,保罗的书信腓(1985); M席尔瓦,腓(1988年)。


Epistle to the Philippians书信腓

Brief Outline简述

  1. Greetings and thanksgiving (1:1-11)问候和感恩(1:1-11)
  2. Progress of the Gospel (1:12-20)进展的福音(1:12-20)
  3. Working and suffering for Christ (1:21-30)工作和苦难基督(1:21-30)
  4. Exhortations to humility (2:1-13)谦逊的嘱托(2:1-13)
  5. Exhortation to the Christian life (2:14-18)劝勉基督徒的生活(2:14-18)
  6. Personal remarks involving Timothy and Epaphroditus (2:19-30)个人的言论涉及提摩太和以巴弗提(2:19-30)
  7. Exhortations and warnings (3:1-4:9)规劝和警告(3:1-4:9)
  8. Thanksgiving (4:10-20)感恩节(4:10-20)
  9. Final greetings (4:21-22)最后的问候(4:21-22)


Philippi

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(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistle to Philippians书信向腓利

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The Epistle to Philippians was written by Paul during the two years when he was "in bonds" in Rome (Phil. 1:7-13), probably early in the year AD 62 or in the end of 61.腓书信写的两年期间,当他是“债券”(腓1:7-13)在罗马很可能早在公元62或61月底,由保罗。The Philippians had sent Epaphroditus, their messenger, with contributions to meet the necessities of the apostle; and on his return Paul sent back with him this letter.腓曾派与贡献,他们的使者,以巴弗提,以满足使徒的必需品;在他的回归,保罗派他回这封信。With this precious communication Epaphroditus sets out on his homeward journey.有了这个宝贵的沟通,以巴弗提套在他的归途。"The joy caused by his return, and the effect of this wonderful letter when first read in the church of Philippi, are hidden from us. And we may almost say that with this letter the church itself passes from our view. To-day, in silent meadows, quiet cattle browse among the ruins which mark the site of what was once the flourishing Roman colony of Philippi, the home of the most attractive church of the apostolic age. But the name and fame and spiritual influence of that church will never pass. To myriads of men and women in every age and nation the letter written in a dungeon at Rome, and carried along the Egnatian Way by an obscure Christian messenger, has been a light divine and a cheerful guide along the most rugged paths of life" (Professor Beet). “他的回归带来的喜悦,这个奇妙的信时先读腓立比教会的影响,是隐藏我们,我们可能几乎可以说,与此信教会本身,我们认为通过天,在无声的草地,安静的牛浏览网站立,最有吸引力的使徒时代教会的家曾经是繁华的罗马殖民地在废墟中的标志,但是,教会的名称和名利和精神影响永远不会通过。无数的男性和女性在每一个时代和民族的信写在罗马的地牢,沿Egnatian方式进行,由一个不起眼的基督教信使,一直是光的神圣和欢快的指导沿着生活的最坚固的路径“(教授甜菜)。

The church at Philippi was the first-fruits of European Christianity.在腓立比教会是欧洲基督教的第一个成果。Their attachment to the apostle was very fervent, and so also was his affection for them.他们使徒的附件是非常热切的,所以也被他为他们的感情。They alone of all the churches helped him by their contributions, which he gratefully acknowledges (Acts 20:33-35; 2 Cor. 11: 7-12; 2 Thess. 3:8).他们所有的教会帮助他通过自己的贡献,他衷心感谢(徒20:33-35;哥林多后书11:7-12;帖撒罗尼迦后书3:8)。 The pecuniary liberality of the Philippians comes out very conspicuously (Phil. 4:15).腓金钱慷慨出来非常显眼(腓4:15)。"This was a characteristic of the Macedonian missions, as 2 Cor. 8 and 9 amply and beautifully prove. It is remarkable that the Macedonian converts were, as a class, very poor (2 Cor. 8:2); and the parallel facts, their poverty and their open-handed support of the great missionary and his work, are deeply harmonious. At the present day the missionary liberality of poor Christians is, in proportion, really greater than that of the rich" (Moule's Philippians, Introd.). “这是8日和9日的马其顿任务的特点,如2肺心病,充分和美丽证明值得注意的是,马其顿转换为一类,非常差(林后8:2)。;。平行的事实,他们的贫困和他们天下一家的伟大传教士和他的工作的支持,都深深的和谐。在现今的穷人基督徒传教士慷慨是,在比例,真正比的丰富“(Moule的腓,Introd更大。 )。The contents of this epistle give an interesting insight into the condition of the church at Rome at the time it was written.这封信的内容给到一个有趣的见解,在它被写在罗马教会的条件。

Paul's imprisonment, we are informed, was no hindrance to his preaching the gospel, but rather "turned out to the furtherance of the gospel."保罗的监禁,我们被告知,没有妨碍他的说教福音,而是“横空出世福音的实施。”The gospel spread very extensively among the Roman soldiers, with whom he was in constant contact, and the Christians grew into a "vast multitude."福音罗马士兵之间的传播非常广泛,与他在不断的接触,以及“广大众多的基督徒成为一个增长。”It is plain that Christianity was at this time making rapid advancement in Rome.这是平原,基督教在这个时候,在罗马的迅速发展。 The doctrinal statements of this epistle bear a close relation to those of the Epistle to the Romans.这封信的教义声明承担的书信向罗马的一个密切的关系。Compare also Phil.比较还菲尔。 3:20 with Eph.3:20与弗。 2:12, 19, where the church is presented under the idea of a city or commonwealth for the first time in Paul's writings.2:12,19,教会是在一个城市或英联邦首次在保罗的著作的想法。The personal glory of Christ is also set forth in almost parallel forms of expression in Phil.个人的荣耀基督也几乎平行的表达形式提出在菲尔。2:5-11, compared with Eph. 2:5-11,与弗相比。1:17-23; 2:8; and Col. 1:15-20.1:17-23; 2:8;和上校1:15-20。"This exposition of the grace and wonder of His personal majesty, personal self-abasement, and personal exaltation after it," found in these epistles, "is, in a great measure, a new development in the revelations given through St. Paul" (Moule). “这宽限期,难怪他的个人陛下,个人的自我贬低,和个人提高后的论述,”在这些书信中发现,“是一个伟大的措施,在通过圣保罗的启示新发展” (Moule)。Other minuter analogies in forms of expression and of thought are also found in these epistles of the Captivity.在表达形式和思想其他minuter类比还发现,这些书信的囚禁。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Caesara PhilippiCaesara腓

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Caesara Philippi was a city on the northeast of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120 miles north of Jerusalem, and 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee, at the "upper source" of the Jordan, and near the base of Mount Hermon.Caesara腓EL -呼勒湖的沼泽平原,耶路撒冷以北120英里,20英里以北的加利利海东北部的一个城市,在“上源”的约旦,和赫尔蒙山基地附近。It is mentioned in Matt.它提到在马特。16:13 and Mark 8:27 as the northern limit of our Lord's public ministry.16时13分和8:27马克作为我们的主的公共事务部的北限。 According to some its original name was Baal-Gad (Josh. 11:17), or Baal-Hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23), when it was a Canaanite sanctuary of Baal.据一些它原来的名字是巴力迦(约书亚记11:17),或巴力,赫蒙(Judg. 3:3; 1。CHR 5:23),当它是迦南的巴力避难所。It was afterwards called Panium or Paneas, from a deep cavern full of water near the town.它后来被称为Panium或Paneas,从深的洞穴附近的小镇充满了水。This name was given to the cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom of Antioch because of its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which were always associated with the worship of their god Pan.这个名字是由希腊人的马其顿王国的安提阿,因为其肖像希腊,总是与他们的神潘的崇拜有关的洞穴洞穴。Its modern name is Banias.它的现代名字是Banias的。Here Herod built a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar.希律王在这里建一座寺庙,他专门到奥古斯都凯撒。This town was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was called by him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that of the emperor Tiberius Caesar.这个镇后来被扩大和希律菲利普,Trachonitis分封,其境内形成了一部分点缀,并呼吁他撒利亚腓,部分原因是自己的名字后,部分后的皇帝提比略凯撒。 It is thus distinguished from the Caesarea of Palestine.因此,这是区别于巴勒斯坦的凯撒利亚。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Epistle to the Philippians书信腓

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER一的历史条件下,场合和性格

The Philippians, who were much endeared to St. Paul (i, 3, 7; iv, 1) had already on former occasions and under various circumstances sent him pecuniary aid, and now on learning of his imprisonment at Rome (Acts 27-28) they sent him to Epaphroditus, one of their number, to bear him alms and minister to his needs (ii, 25-29; iv, 18).腓,多爱戴圣保罗(I,3,7;四,1)前场合和各种情况下已经向他发出金钱援助,而现在他被监禁在罗马学习(使徒行传27-28 )他们把他送到以巴弗提,他们的头号,要承担他的施舍和部长(25-29,二,四,18)他的需求。St. Paul received him gladly, rejoicing in the affectionate and Christian sentiments of the Philippians (iv, 10-19), and in the generally satisfactory condition of their Church as reported to him by Epaphroditus.圣保罗高兴地收到了他在腓深情和基督教的情绪(IV,10-19)大喜,并在他们的教会一般状况令人满意,通过以巴弗提报道他。 It may be that Epaphroditus had been the Apostle's companion and assistant at Philippi (ii, 25); at least he became such at Rome (ii, 30), but he fell dangerously ill and was at the point of death (ii, 27).它可能会被以巴弗提已被使徒的伴侣和助手在腓立比(II,25);至少,他这样的在罗马(II,30),但他下降病危和死亡点(II,27) 。This news was distressing to the Philippians, and as soon as he recovered he was eager to return home (ii, 26).这一消息是令人痛心的腓的,和他尽快恢复,他渴望回国(II,26)。Paul therefore hastened to send him (ii, 26-28) and profited by the opportunity to confide to him a letter to the faithful and the heads of his Church.保罗因此赶紧送他(II,26日至28日)和获利的机会,倾诉他的忠诚和他的教会的元首的一封信。In this letter, probably written by Timothy at his dictation, Paul expresses the sentiments of joy and gratitude which he cherishes in regard to the Philippians.在此信,可能是由霍震霆写在他的听写,保罗表示这是他在腓珍视的喜悦和感激的情绪。This is the keynote of the letter.这是信的基调。It is an outpouring of the heart, breathing a wholly spontaneous and paternal intimacy.这是心的流露,呼吸完全自发和父亲的亲切感。In it the loving heart of the Apostle reveals itself completely, and the affectionate tone, sincerity, and delicacy of the sentiments must have charmed its readers and won their admiration and love.使徒的爱心,在它揭示本身完全迷住和深情的语调,诚意和美味的情绪,必须有它的读者,赢得了他们的钦佩和热爱。Hence, this letter is much more epistolary in style than the other Epistles of St. Paul.因此,这封信是在风格上更加书信比其他圣保禄书信。Familiar expressions of joy and gratitude are mingled with dogmatic reflexions and moral exhortation, and it is useless to seek for orderly arrangement or strict sequence.夹杂着熟悉的喜悦和感激表达式的教条式的reflexions和道德规劝,寻求有序安排或严格的顺序,它是无用的。 On the other hand, although the general condition of the Church of Philippi was excellent and St. Paul did not have to deal with grave vices, there were nevertheless certain things which were not altogether satisfactory or which aroused apprehension.另一方面,虽然腓立比教会的一般条件是优秀的和圣保罗没有处理严重恶习,不过这并不完全令人满意,或引起忧虑的某些事情。 Paul had heard that the pride and vainglory of some, especially of two women, Evodia and Syntyche, had aroused misunderstandings and rivalries.保罗听说过的骄傲和虚荣一些,尤其是两女,吴茱萸和Syntyche,已经引起了误解和对抗。Moreover a greater and more serious danger threatened them, perhaps on the part of Judaizers, who, though there is no need to assume their presence or propaganda at Philippi itself, had, it seems, disseminated their baneful doctrines throughout the neighbouring regions.此外,更大和更严重的危险的威胁,或许对部分Judaizers,谁,虽然没有腓本身需要承担其存在或宣传,现在看来,整个邻近地区传播的有害的学说。 Hence the exhortations to fraternal charity and concord as well as to disinterestedness; these exhortations (i, 8, 27; ii, 2, 3, 14, 16; iv, 2 sq.) Paul bases on exalted dogmatic considerations taken from the example of Christ, and he also proposes to them the example of his own way of thinking and acting, which had but a single object, the glory of God and Christ.因此,告诫兄弟慈善与和谐以及无私;这些嘱托(I,8,27,II,2,3,14,16;四,2平方米)从榜样的崇高教条式的考虑,保罗基地基督,他还建议他自己的思维和行动,但一个单一的对象,上帝和基督的荣耀方式的例子。 But when he warns the Philippians against the Judaizers he returns to the tone of deep sorrow and unmitigated indignation which characterizes the Epistle to the Galatians. ,但是,当他警告说,对Judaizers腓他返回到深切的悲痛的语调和十足的愤慨的特点书信向加拉太。

II.二。ANALYSIS分析

For the reasons stated above a definite plan or clear division must not be sought in this Epistle.对于一个明确的计划或明确的分工,上述陈述的理由,不得要求在此书信。The Letter is a succession of exhortations and effusions which may be collected under the following heads:信是一个继承的规劝和积液可根据以下元首收集:

A. IntroductionA.导言

After the superscription, in which he addresses himself to bishops, deacons, and faithful (i, 1-2), St. Paul rejoices in the excellent condition of the Church of the Philippians and gives thanks that by their alms they have shared in the merits of his captivity and the spread of the Gospel (3-8); he loves them with an intense love, ardently desiring and urgently entreating that God would deign to complete in them the work of perfection (9-11).上标后,在其中他谈到自己的主教,执事,和忠实(I,1-2),圣保禄在腓立比教会的条件优越高兴,并给出了他们的施舍,他们在共享感谢他的囚禁和传播福音(3-8)的优点,他爱他们具有强烈的爱,殷切希望和迫切恳求上帝会屈尊在​​他们完成的完善工作(9-11)。

B. Body of the EpistleB.机构的书信

(1) Paul begins by giving news, as a whole very satisfactory -- with regard to his own situation and that of the Church in Rome.(1)保罗开始给的消息,作为一个整体非常满意 - 关于他自己的情况,并在罗马教会。But what he relates concerning himself must have been meant for a tacit but no less eloquent appeal to abnegation and detachment, for Paul depicts himself as seeking in all things not his own glory or personal advantage, but solely the glory of Christ.但他涉及有关,自己必须已经意味着一个默契,但不低于雄辩地呼吁克制和支队保罗,描绘自己为寻求在所有的事情不是他自己的荣耀或个人的优势,但完全了基督的荣耀。 His captivity becomes to him a cause of joy, since it avails for the propagation of the Gospel (i, 12-14); what does it matter to him that some preach the Gospel out of unworthy zealotry, provided Christ be preached?他的囚禁成为他的喜悦的原因,因为它利用传播福音(I,12-14);有什么关系,他的一些宣扬福音不配狂热,提供基督宣扬? (15-18); given a choice of life and death he knows not which he prefers, life which permits him to do good for souls, or death, which shall be a testimony for Christ and shall unite him to Him (19-25).(15-18);生死抉择,他不知道他喜欢,允许他做灵魂的好生活,或死亡,应为基督作证,并应团结一致他他(19-25 )。He thinks, however, that he will be set free and may still labour for the spiritual progress of the Philippians.不过,他认为,他将被释放,仍可能为精神文明的进步腓劳动。

(2) he exhorts them more directly to lead a life worthy of the Gospel (i, 27a), and especially to concord and abnegation (i, 27b-ii, 4) (i) by the example of Christ Who being in the Divine form and possessing supreme independence nevertheless, for our good, annihilated himself and assumed the condition of a slave, even undergoing death; (ii) by the desire for a heavenly reward, such as Christ received (ii, 5-11).(2)他劝勉他们更直接地导致一个生命的福音(我,27A)值得基督的例子,特别是和谐和克制(I,27B - II,4)(一)在神州形式和拥有至高无上的独立,但我们的好,歼灭了自己,并假设一个奴隶的条件,甚至发生死亡;(二)由一个天堂般的奖励,如基督收到(二5-11),的欲望。 He concludes by repeating his general exhortation to Christian perfection and by affirming that to procure them this perfection he would gladly sacrifice his life.他得出结论重复他一般告诫基督教完善和肯定,促使他们完美的,他愿意牺牲自己的生命。

(3) The Apostle tells the Philippians that as soon as he knows the outcome of his affairs he will send to them Timothy, his devoted companion, who is so well-disposed towards the Philippians (ii, 19-24); in the meantime he sends them Epaphroditus, his fellow-labourer and their delegate to him (see above); he asks them to receive him with joy and to honour him greatly, because of the love which he bears them and the danger of death to which he was exposed while fulfilling his mission (25-30). (3)使徒告诉腓利,只要他知道自己的事务的结果,他将发送给他们霍震霆,他的忠实伴侣,是谁这么以及对腓处置(二19-24);在此期间他送他们以巴弗提,他的同胞劳动者和其委托给他(见上文);他要求他们接受他的喜悦和他极大的荣誉,因为爱,他负有他们的死亡,其中有他的危险暴露,同时履行自己的使命(25-30)。

(4) Desiring to end or abbreviate his Epistle Paul begins the conclusion (iii, 1a, the To loipon), but suddenly interrupts it in order again to put the Philippians on their guard against the Judaizing teachers, which he does by once more presenting to them his own example: Has he not all the benefits and titles in which the Judaizers are accustomed to glory and much more? (4)希望年底或缩写他的书信保罗开始的结论(第三,1A,要loipon),但突然中断,以便再次把反对犹太化的教师,他的警觉腓再次介绍他们自己的例子:他不是所有的好处,并在其中Judaizers习惯于荣耀的头衔,更? But all this he has despised and rejected and counted as dung that he might gain true justice and perfection, which are secured, not by the works of the law, but by faith (iii, 1-11).但是,这一切他鄙视和拒绝,和牛粪,他可能获得真正的正义和完善,这是安全的,没有法律的作品,但信仰(三1-11)。 This perfection, it is true, he had not yet attained, but he never ceased to press toward the mark and the prize to which God had called him, thus refuting by his own example those who in their pride call themselves perfect (12-16); he incites his readers to imitate him (17) and not to follow those who loving the things of this world, have depraved habits (18-iv, 1).这种完美,这是真的,他还没有达到,但他从来没有停止过,按实现的标志和上帝叫他的奖品,因此由他自己的例子,那些在他们的骄傲自己的完美(12-16驳斥),他煽动他的读者去模仿他(17),而不是遵循这些谁爱这个世界上的事情,已经堕落的习惯(18 - IV,1)。

(5) To this general exhortation Paul adds a special admonition. (5)这个一般告诫保罗增加了一个特殊的训诫。He binds two women, Evodia and Syntyche, to concord (iv, 2-3), and exhorts all to spiritual joy, urging the observance of goodness and gentleness among them (5), bidding them be disturbed by nothing, but have recourse to God in all their anxieties (6-7), and endeavour to attain to Christian perfection in all things (8-9).他结合两女,吴茱萸和Syntyche,协和(2-3)四,,并力劝所有精神上的愉悦,敦促遵守善良和温柔,其中(5),投标他们不受任何干扰,但诉诸神在他们的忧虑(6-7),并努力实现在所​​有的事情(8-9)的基督教完善。

C. EpilogueC.后记

Paul concludes his Epistle by a more explicit renewal of thanks to the Philippians for their alms, using the most delicate expressions and making his manner of acceptance a final exhortation to detachment and abnegation (11-19).保罗最后一个更明确的重建,感谢他们的施舍腓他的书信,用最细腻的表情,使他接受支队和克制(11-19)最后的劝勉的方式。 This is followed by the Doxology and salutations.其次是Doxology和致敬。Especially noteworthy are his salutations to those of the household of the emperor (20-23).尤其值得一提的是他的称呼皇帝(20-23)家庭。

III.三。AUTHENTICITY, UNITY, AND INTEGRITY的真实性,团结和完整性

The authenticity of the Epistle as a whole, which was generally accepted until the middle of the nineteenth century, was first denied by the Tübingen School (Baur, 1845; Zeller; Volckmar).书信作为一个整体的真实性,这是普遍接受,直到十九世纪中叶,最早是由蒂宾根大学学院(鲍尔,1845;泽勒; Volckmar)否认。Their arguments, namely lack of originality, the evidence of a semi-Gnostic idea, a doctrine of justification which could not be that of St. Paul etc., were triumphantly refuted by Lünemann, Brückner, Schenkel etc. But other contradictors subsequently arose, such as van Manen and especially Holsten (for their chief arguments see below).他们的论点,即缺乏原创性,一个半诺斯底的想法的证据,不能圣保罗等学说的理由,得意洋洋地驳斥Lünemann,布鲁克纳,申克尔等,但其他contradictors后产生,如范梅南特别是Holsten(他们的主要论点,见下文)。 At present the authenticity may be said to be universally admitted not only by Catholic exegetes but also by most Protestants and Rationalists (Hilgenfeld, Harnack, Zahn, Jülicher, Pfleiderer, Lightfood, Gibb, Holtzmann).目前的真实性,可以说不仅天主教exegetes,而且大多数新教徒和理性(Hilgenfeld,哈纳克,赞恩,Jülicher,弗莱德尔,Lightfood,吉布,HOLTZMANN)得到普遍承认。

(1) External Criticism(1)外界批评

Arguments from external criticism permit no doubt on the subject.参数允许来自外部的批评无疑主体。 We will not deal with the quotations from or reminiscences of the Epistle which some authors profess to find in early ecclesiastical writers, such as Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle to Diognetus etc. (see Cornely, "Introductio", IV, 491; Jacquier, p. 347; Toussaint in "Dict. De la Bible", sv Philippiens).我们将不会处理从报价或回忆的书信,其中一些作者信奉找到早期教会作家,如克莱门特的罗马,伊格内修的安提阿,牧人书,书信,以Diognetus等(见Cornely,“ Introductio“,四,491; Jacquier,第347页;杜桑”。快译通德拉圣经“,SV Philippiens)。About 120 St. Polycarp speaks explicitly to the Philippians of the letters (or the letter, epistolai) which Paul has written to them, and some passages of his letter prove that he had read this Epistle to the Philippians.约120圣波利卡普讲明确的字母(或字母,epistolai),保罗写信给他们,和他的信中有些段落证明,他读了这封信腓腓立。 Subsequently the Muratorian Canon, St. Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and the Apostolicon of Marcion attribute it expressly to St. Paul.随后穆拉多利佳能,圣Irenæus,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,良,Apostolicon马吉安属性明确圣保罗。After Tertullian the testimonies become numerous and incontestable and the unanimity was maintained without the slightest exception until the middle of the nineteenth century.德尔图良的证词后成为众多和无可争辩的,没有丝毫异常,直到十九世纪中叶保持一致。

(2) Internal Criticism(2)内部批评

The difficulties drawn from the Epistle itself, which some authors have urged against tradition, are misleading, as is now admitted by the most prominent Rationalists and Protestants.从书信本身,一些作者对传统敦促,得出的困难是误导的,因为现在最突出的理性和新教徒承认。

(a) Language and style.(一)语言和风格。The hapax legomena (which occur about forty times) prove nothing against the Pauline origin of the Epistle, since they are met with in almost the same proportion in the certainly authentic Epistles.hapax legomena(约四十次发生)证明什么对宝莲书信的起源,因为他们在几乎相同的比例在一定正宗书信会见。Moreover, certain words (about twenty) quite peculiar to the Epistles of St. Paul, certain forms of expression, figures, methods of style (i, 22, 27, 29; iii, 8, 14), and repetitions of words demonstrate the Pauline character of the Epistle.此外,圣保禄书信颇为奇特的某些词(约二十),一定的表达形式,数字式的方法(I,22,27,29;三,8,14),和重复的话表明宝莲字符的书信。 (b) Doctrine.(二)学说。 The two chief objections brought forward by Holsten (Jahrb. Für Prot. Theol., I, 125; II, 58, 282) have found little credit among exegetes, while Holsten himself in a more recent work ("Das Evangelium des Paulus", Berlin, 1898, II, 4) concedes that the theology of the Epistle to the Philippians is thoroughly Pauline. Holsten(Jahrb.献给普罗特Theol,我,125。;第二,58,282)提出的两个主要的反对所带来的注释者之间的小信贷,而在更近的工作(“资本Evangelium DES保卢斯”Holsten自己,柏林,1898年,二,四)承认,神学书信腓彻底宝莲。In fact (a) the Christology of the Epistle to the Philippians, which portrays Christ pre-existing in the form of God and made man through the Incarnation, does not contradict that of the First Epistle to the Corinthians (xv, 45), which depicts the Risen Christ as a heavenly Man, clothed with His glorified body, or that of the other Epistles which, in a simpler form, also show us Christ pre-existing as a Divine Being and made man through he Incarnation (Galatians 4:4; Romans 7:3; 2 Corinthians 8:9). (一)事实书信腓,这描绘基督在神的形式预先存在的,并通过人的化身,基督,不矛盾的第一书信,科林蒂安(XV,45),复活的基督描绘成一个天堂般的人,穿着他的荣耀的身体,或其他书信,在一个简单的形式,这也表明我们作为一个神造人的基督通过他的化身(加拉太书4:4既存;罗马书7:3;哥林多后书8:9)。 (b) The doctrine on justification by faith and not by works set forth in the Epistles to the Romans and the Galatians, is not contradicted here (iii, 6); if indeed St. Paul speaks here of legal justice it is obviously to show its powerlessness and nothingness (7-9). (二)由信仰和在罗马和加拉太书信中规定的工程,不是理由的学说,是没有矛盾在这里(三6);如果确实圣保禄谈到这里的法律正义显然是显示它的无力感和虚无(7-9)。

The unity and integrity of the Epistle have also been denied or doubted by some authors.的统一和完整的书信也被剥夺或一些作者怀疑。Völter and Spitta maintained that this Epistle is a compilation of another authentic Epistle to the Philippians and an apocryphal one written about AD 120. Völter和施皮塔认为,这封信是一个编译的另一个地道的书信的腓利和一个未经证实的书面约公元120。Clemen saw in it a compilation of two authentic Epistles.柯蕾曼看到两个地道的书信汇编。These theories met with little success while the arguments which have been brought forward in their behalf, viz.而参数已被带到他们的代表,即在提出这些理论会见收效甚微。The double conclusion (iii, 1, and iv, 4) mingled with personal details, moral counsels, doctrinal instructions etc., are sufficiently explained by the familiar and consequently free and unrestrained character of the Epistle.双结论(三,1,四,4)夹杂着个人的详细信息,道德的律师,理论的说明等,有足够的熟悉的书信,因此自由和奔放的性格解释。

Place and Date地点和日期

There is not the shadow of a doubt that the Epistle to the Philippians was written during the Apostle's captivity (i, 7, 13, 14, 17; ii, 24).没有一个书信腓使徒的圈养(I,7,13,14,17;二,24期间)的书面疑问的阴影。Moreover, it is certain that it was written not at Cæsarea, as some have maintained, but at Rome (AD 62-64).此外,它是可以肯定的,这是写在该撒利亚,如一些人所保持,但在罗马(公元62-64年)。Such is the nearly unanimous opinion even of those who claim that the three other Epistles of the Captivity were written at Cæsarea [see i, 13 (the prætorium); iv, 22 (the house of Cæsar); i, 17 sqq.就是这样的几乎一致认为,即使那些声称这三个其他书信的囚禁,被写在该撒利亚[见我,13(pr​​ætorium);第四,22(凯撒房子);我17 SQQ。(this supposes a more important Church than that of Cæsarea)]. (此设比,更重要的cæsarea的教会)]。Critics do not agree as to whether the Epistle was written at the beginning of the sojourn at Rome or at the end, before or after the other three Epistles of the captivity.批评不同意是否在罗马逗留或在年底开始写的书信,之前或之后其他三个书信的囚禁。Most of them incline towards the second view (Meyer, Weiss, Holtzmann, Zahn, Jülicher etc.).他们大多倾斜(迈耶,魏斯,HOLTZMANN,赞恩,Jülicher等)对第二种观点。For the arguments pro and con see the works of the various critics.赞成和反对的论据看到的各种批评的作品。The present author, however, is of the opinion that it was written towards the end of the captivity.然而,本作者是的,这是走向尾声的囚禁的书面意见。

Publication information Written by A. Vander Heeren.A.范德麒麟大厦编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Paula J. Eckardt.转录由Paula J. Eckardt。Dedicated in loving memory, and with deep gratitude, to my father, Paul A. Eckardt, 1917-2000 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.在爱的记忆体,并深表感谢,我的父亲,保罗A Eckardt,1917年至2000年的天主教百科全书,卷第十二专用。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

The following are general works and commentaries, in which the reader will find a more extensive bibliography, and information concerning earlier works and commentaries.以下是一般的作品和评论,其中的读者会发现一个更广泛的书目,与信息有关的早期作品和评论。

BEELEN, Commentarius in Epistolam S. Pauli ad Philippenses (2nd ed., Louvain, 1852); IDEM, Het nieuwe Testament (Bruges, 1892); BISPING, Erklärung der Briefe an die Epheser, Philipper und Kolosser (Münster, 1866); LIPSIUS, Brief an die Galater, Römer, Philipper (Handcommentar zum NT), adapted by Holtzmann (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1892); MOULE, The Epistle to the Philippians (Cambridge, 1895); CORNELY, Introductio specialis in singulos NT libros (Paris, 1897); MÜLLER, Der Ap.BEELEN,Commentarius Epistolam S.圣保利广告Philippenses(第二版,鲁汶,1852年);同上,HET nieuwe旧约(布鲁日,1892年);比斯平,Erklärung DER Briefe死Epheser,Philipper和Kolosser(明斯特,1866年); LIPSIUS简介一个死Galater,卢氏,Philipper(Handcommentar ZUM新台币),适应HOLTZMANN(第二版,弗赖堡,1892年)。;,书信腓(剑桥,1895年)MOULE; CORNELY,Introductio特别在singulos NT libros(巴黎,1897年);穆勒,DER鸭。Paulus Brief an die Philipper (Freiburg, 1899); VAN STEENKISTE, Commentarius in omnes S. Pauli Epistolas (Bruges, 1899); FUNK, Patres Apostolici (Tübingen, 1901); VINCENT, The Epistles to the Philippians and to Philemon (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1902); HAUPT, Die Gefangenschaftsbriefe (8th ed., Göttingen, 1902); JACQUIER, Historie des livres du Nouveau Testament, I (Paris, 1904); SHAW, The Pauline Epistles (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1904); CLEMEN, Paulus, sein Leben und Wirken (Giessen, 1904); BELSER, Einleitung in das neue Testament (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1905); LE CAMUS, L'œuvre des Apotres (Paris, 1905) PÖLZL, Der Weltapostel Paulus (Ratisbon, 1905); LIGHTFOOT, St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians (16th ed., London, 1908); FILLION IN VIGOUROUX, Dict.保卢斯简介模具Philipper(弗赖堡,1899年); VAN STEENKISTE,义务S.圣保利Epistolas Commentarius(布鲁日,1899年);临阵脱逃,Patres Apostolici(蒂宾根大学,1901年);郑海泉,腓利和腓利门书(第二版书信爱丁堡,1902年);豪普特,模具Gefangenschaftsbriefe(第八版,哥廷根,1902); JACQUIER Historie DES里弗杜风格旧约,我(巴黎,1904年);肖保罗书信(第二版,爱丁堡,1904年。 );柯蕾曼,保卢斯,盛别人的生活和Wirken(吉森,1904年);贝尔瑟,DAS“新旧约”(第二版,弗赖堡,1905年)导论;。“卡慕,L'小菜DES Apotres(巴黎,1905年)PÖLZL,DER Weltapostel保卢斯(拉蒂斯邦,1905年);娜莱,圣保禄的书信的腓利(第16版,伦敦,1908年); VIGOUROUX菲利安,快译通。 De la Bible, sv Philippes; TOUSSAINT, ibid, sv Philippiens; IDEM, Epitres de S. Paul (Paris, 1910); PRAT, La Théologie de S. Paul (Paris, 1909); FOUARD, Saint Paul, ses dernières années (Paris, 1910); VIGOUROUX-BACUEZ-BRASSAC, Manuel Biblique, IV (Paris, 1911).德拉圣经,SV Philippes;杜桑,同上,SV Philippiens;同上,Epitres DE S.保罗(巴黎,1910年); PRAT,LA神学DE S.保罗(巴黎,1909年); FOUARD,圣保罗,SES dernières années(巴黎,1910年); VIGOUROUX BACUEZ布拉萨克,曼努埃尔Biblique,四(巴黎,1911年)。



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