Photius Photius

General Information一般资料

A saint of the Orthodox church, Photius, bc820, d.一个圣人的东正教教堂,Photius,bc820,D. Feb. 6, 891?, patriarch of Constantinople (858-67, 877-86), was long considered the initiator of the schism between the Eastern and Western churches. 2月6日,891?,族长君士坦丁堡(858-67,877-86),长期被认为东部和西部教会之间的分裂的始作俑者。The greatest scholar of medieval Byzantium, he had a distinguished career as a diplomat, teacher, and writer before becoming patriarch.中世纪拜占庭的最伟大的学者,他有一个杰出的职业生涯,成为族长之前,作为一个外交官,教师,作家。

When Byzantine emperor Michael III forced the resignation of the patriarch Ignatius in 858, Photius, still a layman, was elevated to the patriarchate after having received the lesser orders in six days.当拜占庭皇帝迈克尔三世被迫辞职族长伊格,在858 Photius,仍然是一个门外汉,是高架的东正教会后收到较小的订单在6天。He soon entered into a conflict with Pope Nicholas I. Nicholas was eager both to extend the growing power of the papacy over Byzantium and interested in the jurisdiction over the Bulgarians, converted (864) to Byzantine Christianity under Photius.他很快就进入到一个与教皇尼古拉一尼古拉的冲突是急于延长超过拜占庭教皇的不断增长的电力和有兴趣在保加利亚管辖,转换(864)下Photius拜占庭基督教。 The conflict, purely administrative at the beginning, acquired doctrinal undertones when Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria, acting as the pope's emissaries, began to introduce an interpolated text of the Nicene Creed.法兰克传教士在保加利亚,作为教皇的使者,开始引进尼西亚的插补文本的冲突,开始时纯粹是行政,收购较浓的意味。In the original text the Holy Spirit was said to have proceeded "from the Father," whereas in Carolingian Europe (but not yet in Rome) the text had been revised to say "from the Father and the Son" (filioque).在原文中,圣灵说,进行“从父”,而在加洛林欧洲(但尚未在罗马)的文本进行了修订说:“父与子”(filioque)。

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In 867, Photius summoned a council that deposed Nicholas.867 Photius召集议会废黜尼古拉。A change of dynasty in Constantinople, however, brought the deposition (867) of Photius and a temporary return of Ignatius to the patriarchal throne.然而,在君士坦丁堡王朝的变化带来Photius沉积(867)和伊格临时返回重男轻女的王位。A reconciliation eventually occurred between Ignatius and Photius, and Photius was restored (878) to the patriarchate after the death of Ignatius.和解最终发生之间的伊格内修和Photius,Photius被恢复(878)后死亡的伊格内修宗主教。In 879-80 a great council, presided over by Photius, was held at Hagia Sophia, with legates of Pope John VIII present.在879-80一个伟大的理事会,由Photius主持,举行了圣索非亚大教堂,教皇约翰八目前的legates。 The council, with the legates' approval, confirmed the original form of the creed, and normal relations between Rome and Constantinople were restored.会,使节批准,确认的原始形式的信条,罗马和君士坦丁堡之间的正常关系得到恢复。Photius was forced to retire in 886.Photius被迫退休886。Feast day: Feb. 6.节日:2月6日。

John Meyendorff约翰Meyendorff

Bibliography 参考书目
Dvornik, Francis, The Patriarch Photius in the Light of Recent Research (1958) and The Photian Schism, History and Legend (1958); Gerostergios, Asterios, St. Photios the Great (1980; Haugh, Richard, Photius and the Carolingians (1974); Meyendorff, John, Orthodoxy and Catholicity (1966); White, Despina S., Patriarch Photius and His Correspondence (1978). Dvornik,弗朗西斯,在最近的研究(1958年)Photian分裂,历史和传说(1958年)的光祖师Photius; Gerostergios,Asterios,圣Photios大(1980年,霍先生,理查德,Photius Carolingians(1974 ); Meyendorff,约翰,东正教和共通性(1966);白色,德斯皮纳S.,祖师Photius和他的通信(1978)。

Photius of ConstantinoplePhotius君士坦丁堡

Catholic Information天主教信息

Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b.Photius君士坦丁堡,东方与西方之间的大分裂的首席作者,是 Constantinople c.在君士坦丁堡C。815 (Hergenröther says "not much earlier than 827", "Photius", I, 316; others, about 810); d. 815(Hergenröther说:“不会比827早期”,“Photius”,我,316;人,约810); D.probably 6 Feb., 897.大概2月6,897。His father was a spatharios (lifeguard) named Sergius.他的父亲是一个spatharios(救生员)名为谢尔盖。Symeon Magister ("De Mich. et Theod.", Bonn ed., 1838, xxix, 668) says that his mother was an escaped nun and that he was illegitimate. Symeon魔导师(“德密歇根州等Theod。”波恩版,1838年,二十九,668)说,他的母亲是一个逃脱的尼姑和,他是非法的。He further relates that a holy bishop, Michael of Synnada, before his birth foretold that he would become patriarch, but would work so much evil that it would be better that he should not be born.他还涉及一个神圣的主教,Synnada迈克尔,在他出生前的预言,他将成为族长,但会工作这么多邪恶的,它会更好,他不应该出生。 His father then wanted to kill him and his mother, but the bishop said: "You cannot hinder what God has ordained. Take care for yourself."然后他的父亲要杀死他和他的母亲,但主教说:“你不能阻碍神命定的照顾自己”His mother also dreamed that she would give birth to a demon.他的母亲也想到,她会生出一个恶魔。When he was born the abbot of the Maximine monastery baptized him and gave him the name Photius (Enlightened), saying: "Perhaps the anger of God will be turned from him" (Symeon Magister, ibid., cf. Hergenröther, "Photius", I, 318-19).当他出生受洗他Maximine寺院的住持,并给了他的名字Photius(开明),说:“或许神的愤怒,将他变成了”(Symeon魔导师,同上,比照Hergenröther“Photius”。 ,我,318-19)。These stories need not be taken seriously.这些故事需要,不可当真。It is certain that the future patriarch belonged to one of the great families of Constantinople; the Patriarch Tarasius (784-806), in whose time the seventh general council (Second of Nicæa, 787) was held, was either elder brother or uncle of his father (Photius: Ep. ii, PG, CII, 609).可以肯定的是属于未来的族长君士坦丁堡的大家族之一;祖师Tarasius(784-806),其时间举行第七次总理事会(二尼西亚,787),无论是哥哥或舅舅他的父亲(Photius:EP II,PG,印度工业联合会,609)。The family was conspicuously orthodox and had suffered some persecution in Iconoclast times (under Leo V, 813-20).家庭是显眼正统和遭受迫害的一些孤星叛逆者倍(根据利奥V,813-20)。Photius says that in his youth he had had a passing inclination for the monastic life ("Ep. ad Orient. et Oecon.", PG, CII, 1020), but the prospect of a career in the world soon eclipsed it. Photius说,在他的青年时期,他曾经有过一个寺院的生活(“EP东方广告等Oecon。”PG,印度工业联合会,1020)通过倾斜,但在世界上的职业生涯的前景很快黯然失色。

He early laid the foundations of that erudition which eventually made him one of the most famous scholars of all the Middle Ages.他早期的,最终使他所有中世纪最著名的学者之一,博学奠定了基础。 His natural aptitude must have been extraordinary; his industry was colossal.他的自然资质必须有非凡的,他的行业是巨大的。 Photius does not appear to have had any teachers worthy of being remembered; at any rate he never alludes to his masters.Photius似乎并未有任何值得被记住的的教师;无论如何他从来没有提到他的主人。Hergenröther, however, notes that there were many good scholars at Constantinople while Photius was a child and young man, and argues from his exact and systematic knowledge of all branches of learning that he could not have been entirely self-taught (op. cit., I, 322). Hergenröther,然而,有许多很好的学者,在君士坦丁堡而Photius是儿童和年轻人,并从他的确切和系统知识的学习,他不能完全自学成才的(同上所有分支机构论证。 ,我,322)。His enemies appreciated his learning.他的敌人对他的学习表示赞赏。Nicetas, the friend and biographer of his rival Ignatius, praises Photius's skill in grammar, poetry, rhetoric, philosophy, medicine, law, "and all science" ("Vita S. Ignatii" in Mansi, XVI, 229). Nicetas,朋友和他的对手伊格的传记作者,称赞Photius在语法上的技巧,诗歌,修辞学,哲学,医学,法律,“和所有的科学”(“生命之南Ignatii”在曼西,十六,229)。 Pope Nicholas I, in the heat of the quarrel writes to the Emperor Michael III: "Consider very carefully how Photius can stand, in spite of his great virtues and universal knowledge" (Ep. xcviii "Ad Mich.", PG, CXIX, 1030).教皇尼古拉一世写道,在炎热的争吵皇帝迈克尔三:“非常仔细地考虑如何Photius立场,尽管他的伟大的美德和普遍的知识”(插曲xcviii“广告密歇根州”,PG,CXIX 1030)。It is curious that so learned a man never knew Latin.奇怪的是,了解到一个人永远不会知道拉丁美洲。 While he was still a young man he made the first draft of his encyclopædic "Myrobiblion".虽然他仍然是一个年轻的男人,他做了他的百科全书“Myrobiblion”的初稿。At an early age, also, he began to teach grammar, philosophy, and theology in his own house to a steadily increasing number of students.同时,他在幼年时,就开始教语法,哲学和神学在自己的房子的学生数量也在不断增加。

His public career was to be that of a statesman, coupled with a military command.他的公职生涯是一个政治家,再加上一个军事命令。His brother Sergius married Irene, the emperor's aunt.他的哥哥谢尔盖结婚艾琳,皇帝的姑妈。This connexion and his undoubted merit procured Photius speedy advancement.这Connexion和他勿庸置疑的优点采购Photius迅速进步。He became chief secretary of State (protosekretis) and captain of the Life Guard (protospatharios).他成为首席国务秘书(protosekretis)和生命卫队队长(protospatharios)。 He was unmarried.他是未婚。 Probably about 838 he was sent on an embassy "to the Assyrians" ("Myrobiblion", preface), ie, apparently, to the Khalifa at Bagdad.大概约838他被送往大使馆“亚述人”(“Myrobiblion”,序言),即,显然,在巴格达的哈里发。In the year 857, then, when the crisis came in his life, Photius was already one of the most prominent members of the Court of Constantinople.在今年857,那么,当危机在他的生活中来,Photius已经君士坦丁堡法院最突出的成员之一。 That crisis is the story of the Great Schism (see GREEK CHURCH).这一危机的大分裂(见希腊教会)的故事。The emperor was Michael III (842-67), son of the Theodora who had finally restored the holy images.皇帝,终于恢复圣像西奥多拉的儿子迈克尔三世(842-67)。When he succeeded his father Theophilus (829-842) he was only three years old; he grew to be the wretched boy known in Byzantine history as Michael the Drunkard (ho methystes).当他继承父亲西奥菲勒斯(829-842),他只有3岁,他从小迈克尔酒鬼(HO methystes)在拜占庭历史上被称为是可怜的男孩。Theodora, at first regent, retired in 856, and her brother Bardas succeeded, with the title of Cæsar.西奥多拉,在第一摄政,在856退役,并与凯撒的称号,她的弟弟Bardas成功。Bardas lived in incest with his daughter-in-law Eudocia, wherefore the Patriarch Ignatius (846-57) refused him Holy Communion on the Epiphany of 857. Bardas住在乱伦与他的女儿在法律Eudocia,所以祖师伊格(846-57)857顿悟拒绝他圣餐。Ignatius was deposed and banished (Nov. 23, 857), and the more pliant Photius was intruded into his place.伊格被废黜,流放(11月23日,857),侵入到他的位置和更柔韧的Photius。He was hurried through Holy Orders in six days; on Christmas Day, 857, Gregory Asbestas of Syracuse, himself excommunicate for insubordination by Ignatius, ordained Photius patriarch.他匆匆通过神圣的订单在6天;格雷戈里的雪城Asbestas,在圣诞节那天,857,自己被逐出教会犯上伊格,受戒Photius族长。 By this act Photius committed three offences against canon law: he was ordained bishop without having kept the interstices, by an excommunicate consecrator, and to an already occupied see.本法案Photius致力于对教会法的罪行:他被祝圣主教,而不必保留的间隙,由一个被逐出教会的consecrator,并已占领见。 To receive ordination from an excommunicate person made him too excommunicate ipso facto.要接收从被逐出教会的人的配合让他太破门就事论事。

After vain attempts to make Ignatius resign his see, the emperor tried to obtain from Pope Nicholas I (858-67) recognition of Photius by a letter grossly misrepresenting the facts and asking for legates to come and decide the question in a synod.妄图使伊格辞职,他看到后,皇帝试图获得教皇尼古拉一世(858-67)Photius承认一个严重歪曲事实和使节的要求,并决定在主教会议的问题的信件。 Photius also wrote, very respectfully, to the same purpose (Hergenröther, "Photius", I, 407-11). Photius也写道,非常恭敬的,同样的目的(Hergenröther,“Photius”,我,407-11)。The pope sent two legates, Rodoald of Porto and Zachary of Anagni, with cautious letters.教宗派出两名使节,波尔图和扎卡里的阿纳尼R​​odoald,以谨慎的信件。The legates were to hear both sides and report to him.该legates听到双方向他汇报。A synod was held in St. Sophia's (May, 861).主教会议是在圣索菲亚(5月,861)举行。The legates took heavy bribes and agreed to Ignatius's deposition and Photius's succession.该legates了沉重的贿赂,并同意依纳爵的沉积和Photius的继承。They returned to Rome with further letters, and the emperor sent his Secretary of State, Leo, after them with more explanations (Hergenröther, op. cit., I, 439-460).进一步字母,他们回到罗马后皇帝派他的国务卿,狮子座,他们更多的解释“(Hergenröther,运前,我,439-460)。 In all these letters both the emperor and Photius emphatically acknowledge the Roman primacy and categorically invoke the pope's jurisdiction to confirm what has happened.在所有这些信件都皇帝和Photius强调承认罗马的首要地位,并断然援引教皇的管辖范围,以确认发生了什么事。 Meanwhile Ignatius, in exile at the island Terebinth, sent his friend the Archimandrite Theognostus to Rome with an urgent letter setting forth his case (Hergenröther, I, 460-461).同时伊格,流亡在岛上笃耨香松节油,派他的朋友司祭Theognostus罗马迫切的信中提出他的案件“(Hergenröther,我,460-461)。 Theognostus did not arrive till 862.Theognostus没有到达862为止。Nicholas, then, having heard both sides, decided for Ignatius, and answered the letters of Michael and Photius by insisting that Ignatius must be restored, that the usurpation of his see must cease (ibid, I, 511-16, 516-19).谢霆锋,然后,听到双方决定,伊格,并回答了坚持伊格必须恢复,他看到篡夺必须停止(同上,我,511-16,516-19)迈克尔和Photius字母。 He also wrote in the same sense to the other Eastern patriarchs (510-11).他还写了其他东欧始祖(510-11)在同样的意义。From that attitude Rome never wavered: it was the immediate cause of the schism.罗马从这种态度从来没有动摇过:它是分裂的直接原因。 In 863 the pope held a synod at the Lateran in which the two legates were tried, degraded, and excommunicated.教皇在863举行了一个在这两个使节进行了审判,退化,并逐出教会的主教在拉特兰。The synod repeats Nicholas's decision, that Ignatius is lawful Patriarch of Constantinople; Photius is to be excommunicate unless he retires at once from his usurped place.重复主教尼古拉的决定,是合法的君士坦丁堡牧首,伊格; Photius是要革除退休,除非他在一次从他的篡夺的地方。

But Photius had the emperor and the Court on his side.但Photius皇帝在他的身边,和法院。Instead of obeying the pope, to whom he had appealed, he resolved to deny his authority altogether.而是服从教宗,他呼吁,他决心完全否定他的权威。Ignatius was kept chained in prison, the pope's letters were not allowed to be published.伊格内修斯被关在监狱链接,教皇的信件是不允许予以公布。The emperor sent an answer dictated by Photius saying that nothing Nicholas could do would help Ignatius, that all the Eastern Patriarchs were on Photius's side, that the excommunication of the legates must be explained and that unless the pope altered his decision, Michael would come to Rome with an army to punish him.皇帝派出答案由Photius口授说,没有谢霆锋可以做将有助于伊格内修,,所有的东欧始祖Photius的一边是,在该legates被逐出教会必须被解释,并说,除非教皇改变他的决定,迈克尔会来来罗马军队,以惩罚他。 Photius then kept his place undisturbed for four years.Photius然后四年保持他的地方不受干扰。In 867 he carried the war into the enemy's camp by excommunicating the pope and his Latins.他在867到敌方阵营进行开除教皇和他的拉丁的战争。The reasons he gives for this, in an encyclical sent to the Eastern patriarchs, are: that Latins的原因,他给出了一个通谕“在发送到东部始祖,是:,拉丁

fast on Saturday快上周六

do not begin Lent till Ash Wednesday (instead of three days earlier, as in the East)没有开始,直到圣灰星期三(而不是提前三天,在东借给)

do not allow priests to be married不允许祭司要结婚

do not allow priests to administer confirmation不允许祭司管理确认

have added the filioque to the creed.已添加的filioque的信条。

Because of these errors the pope and all Latins are: "forerunners of apostasy, servants of Antichrist who deserve a thousand deaths, liars, fighters against God" (Hergenröther, I, 642-46).由于这些错误的教皇和所有拉丁:“叛教的先行者,敌基督的仆人,他们值得千余人死亡,骗子,对上帝的战士”(Hergenröther,我,642-46)。 It is not easy to say what the Melchite patriarchs thought of the quarrel at this juncture.这是不容易说什么Melchite始祖想到在这个时刻的争吵。Afterwards, at the Eighth General Council, their legates declared that they had pronounced no sentence against Photius because that of the pope was obviously sufficient.之后,在总理事会第​​八,他们的使节宣布,他们已经宣布没有对Photius一句,因为教皇显然足够。

Then, suddenly, in the same year (Sept. 867), Photius fell.然后,突然,在同一年(867 9月),Photius下跌。Michael III was murdered and Basil I (the Macedonian, 867-86) seized his place as emperor.迈克尔三是​​被人谋杀,我罗勒(马其顿,867-86)抓住他作为皇帝的地方。Photius shared the fate of all Michael's friends.Photius共享所有迈克尔的朋友的命运。He was ejected from the patriarch's palace, and Ignatius restored.他被驱逐出场族长的宫殿,伊格恢复。Nicholas I died (Nov. 13, 867).尼古拉一世死亡(11月13日,867)。Adrian II (867-72), his successor, answered Ignatius's appeal for legates to attend a synod that should examine the whole matter by sending Donatus, Bishop of Ostia, Stephen, Bishop of Nepi, and a deacon, Marinus.阿德里安二世(867-72),他的继任者,回答使节伊格的上诉,出席主教会议,应检查发送那图斯,Ostia的主教,Nepi,斯蒂芬主教和执事,Marinus整件事。 They arrived at Constantinople in Sept., 869, and in October the synod was opened which Catholics recognize as the Eighth General Council (Fourth of Constantinople).他们抵达君士坦丁堡,869 9月,在十月主教会议开幕第八次总理事会(君士坦丁堡四)承认的天主教徒。This synod tried Photius, confirmed his deposition, and, as he refused to renounce his claim, excommunicated him.试图Photius这主教会议,证实了他的的沉积,而且,因为他拒绝放弃他的要求,他逐出教会。The bishops of his party received light penances (Mansi, XVI, 308-409).一行主教接收到的光penances(曼西,十六,308-409)。 Photius was banished to a monastery at Stenos on the Bosphorus.Photius被放逐在博斯普鲁斯海峡上的Stenos的修道院。Here he spent seven years, writing letters to his friends, organizing his party, and waiting for another chance.在这里,他花了7年,写信给他的朋友,他的政党组织,并等待另一次机会。Meanwhile Ignatius reigned as patriarch.同时伊格作为族长统治。Photius, as part of his policy, professed great admiration for the emperor and sent him a fictitious pedigree showing his descent form St. Gregory the Illuminator and a forged prophecy foretelling his greatness (Mansi, XVI, 284). Photius,作为他的政策,自称为皇帝非常钦佩的一部分,并送他一个虚构的血统,显示他的后裔形式圣格雷戈里照明灯和一本伪造的的预言,预言他的伟大之处(曼西,十六,284)。 Basil was so pleased with this that he recalled him in 876 and appointed him tutor to his son Constantine.罗勒是高兴,他回忆起他在876,并任命他为导师,他的儿子康斯坦丁。Photius ingratiated himself with everyone and feigned reconciliation with Ignatius. Photius献媚与每个人自己,假装与伊格和解。It is doubtful how far Ignatius believed in him, but Photius at this time never tires of expatiating on his close friendship with the patriarch.这是值得怀疑多远伊格相信他,但从来没有对他老人家的亲密友谊expatiating此时Photius轮胎。 He became so popular that when Ignatius died (23 Oct, 877) a strong party demanded that Photius should succeed him; the emperor was now on their side, and an embassy went to Rome to explain that everyone at Constantinople wanted Photius to be patriarch.他变得如此受欢迎,当伊格死亡(10月23日,877)强力党要求Photius应该接替他现在就在自己身边的皇帝,和大使馆前往罗马解释说,每个人都在君士坦丁堡想Photius被族长。 The pope (John VIII, 872-82) agreed, absolved him from all censure, and acknowledged him as patriarch.教皇(约翰福音第八,872-82)同意,免除他所有的责难,并承认他作为族长。

This concession has been much discussed.这项宽减措施,一直备受讨论。It has been represented, truly enough, that Photius had shown himself unfit for such a post; John VIII's acknowledgment of him has been described as showing deplorable weakness.它已经代表,真正足够,Photius表明自己不适合这样一个职位;约翰八世的他已经确认显示可悲的弱点。On the other hand, by Ignatius's death the See of Constantinople was now really vacant; the clergy had an undoubted right to elect their own patriarch; to refuse to acknowledge Photius would have provoked a fresh breach with the East, would not have prevented his occupation of the see, and would have given his party (including the emperor) just reason for a quarrel.另一方面,伊格的死了,请参阅君士坦丁堡现在真的空置;神职人员一个不容置疑的权利选举他们自己的族长;拒绝到承认将有挑起一个与东方新鲜违反Photius,会不会有阻止他的职业见,并会给予他的政党(包括皇帝),只是一个争吵的原因。 The event proved that almost anything would have been better than to allow his succession, if it could be prevented.事件证明,几乎所有的东西已不如让他的继任,如果它是可以预防的。But the pope could not foresee that, and no doubt hoped that Photius, having reached the height of his ambition, would drop the quarrel.但教皇不能预见,毫无疑问希望Photius,达到他的野心的高度,将下降的争吵。

In 878, then, Photius at last obtained lawfully the place he had formerly usurped.在878,那么,在最后Photius获得合法的,他以前篡夺地方。Rome acknowledged him and restored him to her communion.罗马承认,他和他恢复到她的共融。There was no possible reason now for a fresh quarrel.有一个新鲜的争吵是没有可能的原因。But he had identified himself so completely with that strong anti-Roman party in the East which he mainly had formed, and, doubtless, he had formed so great a hatred of Rome, that now he carried on the old quarrel with as much bitterness as ever and more influence.但他确定了自己完全与他主要是已经形成了强烈的反罗马的党在东,,毫无疑问,他已经形成了如此巨大的仇恨罗马,现在他老的争吵进行尽可能多的辛酸永远更大的影响力。 Nevertheless he applied to Rome for legates to come to another synod.尽管如此,他申请到罗马使节来到另一个世界主教会议。There was no reason for the synod, but he persuaded John VIII that it would clear up the last remains of the schism and rivet more firmly the union between East and West.没有主教的原因,但是,他说服了约翰八,它将清除了最后的分裂和铆钉更加坚定东方和西方之间的联盟仍然。His real motive was, no doubt, to undo the effect of the synod that had deposed him.他的真正动机,毫无疑问,撤消了废黜他的主教会议的效果。The pope sent three legates, Cardinal Peter of St. Chrysogonus, Paul, Bishop of Ancona, and Eugene, Bishop of Ostia.教皇派出三个使节,枢机主教圣彼得Chrysogonus,保罗主教安科纳,和尤金,Ostia的主教。The synod was opened in St. Sophia's in November, 879.圣索菲亚在11月,879主教会议开幕。This is the "Psuedosynodus Photiana" which the Orthodox count as the Eighth General Council.这是“Psuedosynodus Photiana”第八次总理事会的东正教计数。Photius had it all his own way throughout.Photius了他自己的方式在整个。He revoked the acts of the former synod (869), repeated all his accusations against the Latins, dwelling especially on the filioque grievance, anathematized all who added anything to the Creed, and declared that Bulgaria should belong to the Byzantine Patriarchate.他的前主教(869),反复对拉丁他的所有指控,撤销行为,住宅,尤其是在filioque申诉,诅咒所有添加任何的信条,并宣布,保加利亚应属于拜占庭式的东正教会。 The fact that there was a great majority for all these measures shows how strong Photius's party had become in the East.事实上,有绝大多数是为所有这些措施表明,有多强Photius党已成为在东。The legates, like their predecessors in 861, agreed to everything the majority desired (Mansi, XVII, 374 sq.).该legates,像他们的前辈在861一样,同意一切所需多数(曼西,第十七条,374平方米)。As soon as they had returned to Rome, Photius sent the Acts to the pope for his confirmation.只要他们回到罗马,Photius发送行为教皇为他的确认。Instead John, naturally, again excommunicated him.相反约翰,自然,他再次被逐出教会。So the schism broke out again.因此,分裂再次爆发。This time it lasted seven years, till Basil I's death in 886.这一次,历时7年,直到罗勒我的死亡,在886。

Basil was succeeded by his son Leo VI (886-912), who strongly disliked Photius.罗勒的继任者是他的儿子利奥六世(886-912),强烈不喜欢Photius的。One of his first acts was to accuse him of treason, depose, and banish him (886).他的第一个行为之一,指责他叛国,免职,并驱逐他(886)。The story of this second deposition and banishment is obscure.这第二次的沉积和驱逐的故事是晦涩难懂。The charge was that Photius had conspired to depose the emperor and put one of his own relations on the throne---an accusation which probably meant that the emperor wanted to get rid of him.收费,Photius密谋废黜皇帝宝座上自己的关系之一---,这可能意味着,皇帝想除掉他的指控。As Stephen, Leo's younger brother, was made patriarch (886-93) the real explanation may be merely that Leo disliked Photius and wanted a place for his brother.斯蒂芬,狮子座的弟弟,是族长(886-93)真正的解释可能只是狮子座不喜欢Photius,并希望为他的兄弟的地方。 Stephen's intrusion was as glaring an offence against canon law as had been that of Photius in 857; so Rome refused to recognize him.斯蒂芬的入侵是明显的对教会法的罪行Photius,在857,所以罗马拒绝承认他。It was only under his successor Antony II (893-95) that a synod was held which restored reunion for a century and a half, till the time of Michael Cærularius (1043-58).这是只有在他的继任者安东尼II(893-95),召开主教会议,恢复了一个半世纪的团聚,直到迈克尔Cærularius(1043年至1058年)的时间,。 But Photius had left a powerful anti-Roman party, eager to repudiate the pope's primacy and ready for another schism.但Photius留下了一个强大的反罗马的党,急于否定教皇的首要地位,并准备好另一个分裂。It was this party, to which Cærularius belonged, that triumphed at Constantinople under him, so that Photius is rightly considered the author of the schism which still lasts.这是这个党,Cærularius属于在他之下,战胜在君士坦丁堡,使Photius是正确的考虑作者的分裂仍然持续。 After this second deposition Photius suddenly disappears from history.在此之后第二个沉积Photius突然从历史上消失。It is not even known in what monastery he spent his last years.它甚至不知道在什么寺院,他度过了他生命的最后几年。Among his many letters there is none that can be dated certainly as belonging to this second exile.在他的许多信中有没有可以肯定属于这第二次流亡月。The date of his death, not quite certain, is generally given as 6 February, 897.不是很肯定,他的死亡日期,一般是2月6日,897。

That Photius was one of the greatest men of the Middle Ages, one of the most remarkable characters in all church history, will not be disputed. Photius中世纪,所有教会历史中最引人注目的人物之一,最伟大的人物之一,不会有争议。His fatal quarrel with Rome, though the most famous, was only one result of his many-sided activity.他致命的争吵与罗马,但最有名的,只有一个结果,他的多方面的活动。During the stormy years he spent on the patriarch's throne, while he was warring against the Latins, he was negotiating with the Moslem Khalifa for the protection of the Christians under Moslem rule and the care of the Holy Places, and carrying on controversies against various Eastern heretics, Armenians, Paulicians etc. His interest in letters never abated.风雨如磐的几年里,他花了族长的宝座,而他是对拉丁人的交战,他谈判的穆斯林哈里发的穆斯林统治下的保护基督徒和圣地的照顾,并进行反对各种东部对争议异端,亚美尼亚,Paulicians等他在信件的兴趣从来没有减弱。 Amid all his cares he found time to write works on dogma, Biblical criticism, canon law, homilies, an encyclopædia of all kinds of learning, and letters on all questions of the day.如今他的关心,他发现时间写的教条,圣经的批评,教会法,讲道,学习各种百科全书,和一天的所有问题的来信作品。Had it not been for his disastrous schism, he might be counted the last, and one of the greatest, of the Greek Fathers.如果不是他的灾难性的分裂,他可能是算最后,一个最大的希腊教父,。There is no shadow of suspicion against his private life.有没有怀疑对他的私生活的影子。He bore his exiles and other troubles manfully and well.他带着他的流亡者和其他麻烦manfully和福祉。He never despaired of his cause and spent the years of adversity in building up his party, writing letters to encourage his old friends and make new ones.他从来没有绝望,他的事业,并花了多年的逆境中建立一行,写信鼓励他的老朋友和新的。

And yet the other side of his character is no less evident.然而,另一边是他的性格没有那么明显。His insatiable ambition, his determination to obtain and keep the patriarchal see, led him to the extreme of dishonesty.他贪得无厌的野心,他的决心,以获取和保持宗法见,使他不诚实的极端。His claim was worthless.他声称是毫无价值的。That Ignatius was the rightful patriarch as long as he lived, and Photius an intruder, cannot be denied by any one who does not conceive the Church as merely the slave of a civil government.伊格那是合法的族长,只要他住,并Photius入侵者,不能否认任何一个人不理解为仅仅是一个文官政府的奴隶教会。 And to keep this place Photius descended to the lowest depth of deceit.并保持这个地方Photius下降到最低的欺骗深入。 At the very time he was protesting his obedience to the pope he was dictating to the emperor insolent letters that denied all papal jurisdiction.在非常时期,他抗议,他服从教皇他使唤皇帝否认了所有教皇的管辖范围的张狂字母。He misrepresented the story of Ignatius's deposition with unblushing lies, and he at least connived at Ignatius's ill-treatment in banishment.他歪曲脸皮厚的谎言伊格的沉积故事,他至少在纵容伊格在流放的虐待。He proclaimed openly his entire subservience to the State in the whole question of his intrusion.他公开宣布他的整个国家屈从,在他的整个入侵问题。He stops at nothing in his war against the Latins.他停止他对拉丁人的战争无关。He heaps up accusations against them that he must have known were lies.他堆了对他们的指责,他必须知道是谎言。His effrontery on occasions is almost incredible.他就厚颜无耻的场合几乎是不可思议的。For instance, as one more grievance against Rome, he never tires of inveighing against the fact that Pope Marinus I (882-84), John VIII's successor, was translated from another see, instead of being ordained from the Roman clergy.例如,作为一个对罗马的不满,他从来没有轮胎对教皇Marinus我(882-84),约翰八世的继任者,被翻译从另一个看到的,而不是从罗马僧侣受戒,其实inveighing。 He describes this as an atrocious breach of canon law, quoting against it the first and second canons of Sardica; and at the same time he himself continually transferred bishops in his patriarchate.他描述了作为教会法的暴行违反,反对引用Sardica第一和第二的大炮;同时他自己不断转移在他的东正教会主教。 The Orthodox, who look upon him, rightly, as the great champion of their cause against Rome, have forgiven all his offences for the sake of this championship.东正教,看他的,正确的,伟大的冠军,他们对罗马造成已经原谅了他的罪行,为了这个冠军。They have canonized him, and on 6 Feb., when they keep his feast, their office overflows with his praise.他们册封他,并于2月6时,他们能与他的赞美他的盛宴,他们的办公室溢出。He is the "far-shining radiant star of the church", the "most inspired guide of the Orthodox", "thrice blessed speaker for God", "wise and divine glory of the hierarchy, who broke the horns of Roman pride" ("Menologion" for 6 Feb., ed. Maltzew, I, 916 sq.).他是“远闪耀着光芒四射的明星教会”,“最有灵感的东正教指南”,“神”三次祝福的扬声器,“明智和层次结构中的神圣荣耀,打破了罗马的骄傲角”( “Menologion”2月6。Maltzew,我,916平方米)。The Catholic remembers this extraordinary man with mixed feelings.天主教会记住这非凡的人怀着复杂的心情。We do not deny his eminent qualities and yet we certainly do not remember him as a thrice blessed speaker for God.我们不否认他杰出的素质,但我们当然不记得他三次作为对上帝的祝福扬声器。One may perhaps sum up Photius by saying that he was a great man with one blot on his character---his insatiable and unscrupulous ambition.也许总结说,他是一个伟人之一他的性格上的污点---他贪得无厌,不择手段的野心Photius。But that blot so covers his life that it eclipses everything else and makes him deserve our final judgment as one of the worst enemies the Church of Christ ever had, and the cause of the greatest calamity that ever befell her.但是,杂交,包括他的生活,它压倒一切,使他值得我们的最终判决为基督的教会过的最坏的敌人之一,最大的灾难降临在她的事业。


Of Photius's prolific literary production part has been lost. Photius多产的文学生产的一部分已经丢失。A great merit of what remains is that he has preserved at least fragments of earlier Greek works of which otherwise we should know nothing.剩下的一个伟大的功绩是,他至少保存早期希腊的作品,否则我们应该知道什么片段。This applies especially to his "Myriobiblion".这尤其适用于他的“Myriobiblion”。

The "Myriobiblion" or "Bibliotheca" is a collection of descriptions of books he had read, with notes and sometimes copious extracts. “Myriobiblion”或“藏书”是他读过的书的描述,收集,有时与笔记和丰富提取。It contains 280 such notices of books (or rather 279; no. 89 is lost) on every possible subject---theology, philosophy, rhetoric, grammar, physics, medicine.它包含的书籍(或279; 89丢失)280这样的通知,对每一个可能的主题---神学,哲学,修辞,语法,物理,医学。He quotes pagans and Christians, Acts of Councils, Acts of Martyrs, and so on, in no sort of order.他引用异教徒和基督徒,议会的行为,烈士的行为,等等,没有顺序排列。For the works thus partially saved (otherwise unknown) see Krumbacher, "Byz. Litter.", 518-19.因此,工程部分保存(或未知)克伦巴赫尔,“BYZ乱抛垃圾。”518-19。

The "Lexicon" (Lexeon synagoge) was compiled, probably, to a great extent by his students under his direction (Krumbacher, ibid., 521), from older Greek dictionaries (Pausanias, Harpokration, Diogenianos, Ælius Dionysius).“词典”(Lexeon synagoge)被编译,可能在很大程度上由他的学生在他的领导下,(克伦巴赫尔,同上,521),从旧的希腊字典(保萨尼亚斯,Harpokration,Diogenianos,Ælius狄奥尼修斯)。 It was intended as a practical help to readers of the Greek classics, the Septuagint, and the New testament.它的目的是作为一个实际的帮助,希腊的经典之作,译本,和新约圣经的读者。Only one manuscript of it exists, the defective "Codex Galeanus" (formerly in the possession of Thomas Gale, now at Cambridge), written about 1200.它只有一个手稿的存在,有缺陷的“食品法典Galeanus”(原藏托马斯大风,现在在剑桥),约1200书面。

The "Amphilochia", dedicated to one of his favourite disciples, Amphilochius of Cyzicus, are answers to questions of Biblical, philosophical, and theological difficulties, written during his first exile (867-77). “Amphilochia”,专注于他最喜爱的弟子之一,Cyzicus Amphilochius,圣经,哲学和神学的困难,在他的第一个流亡(867-77)的书面问题的答案。There are 324 subjects discussed, each in a regular form--question, answer, difficulties, solutions---but arranged again in no order.有324讨论的科目,在正规的表格中的每个 - 问题,答案,困难,解决方案---但再次安排在无秩序。Photius gives mostly the views of famous Greek Fathers, Epiphanius, Cyril of Alexandria, John Damascene, especially Theodoret. Photius大多给出了著名的希腊教父的意见,埃皮法尼乌斯,亚历山大的Cyril,约翰大马士革,特别是Theodoret。

Biblical works.---Only fragments of these are extant, chiefly in Catenas.圣经作品.---只有这些碎片是现存的,主要是在Catenas。The longest are from Commentaries on St. Matthew and Romans.最长的是从圣马太和罗马人评。

Canon Law.---The classical "Nomocanon" (qv), the official code of the Orthodox Church, is attributed to Photius.佳能法.---了经典的“Nomocanon”(QV),东正教教会的官方代码,是由于Photius。It is, however, older than his time (see JOHN SCHOLASTICUS).它是,但是,年龄比他的时间(见约翰SCHOLASTICUS)。It was revised and received additions (from the synods of 861 and 879) in Photius's time, probably by his orders.这是修订和收到的增加(从861和879的主教)在Photius的时间,可能是由他的命令,。The "Collections and Accurate Expositions" (Eunagolai kai apodeixeis akribeis) (Hergenröther, op. cit., III, 165-70) are a series of questions and answers on points of canon law, really an indirect vindication of his own claims and position. “集合和准确的表演”(Eunagolai启apodeixeis akribeis)(Hergenröther,同上,第三,165-70)的一系列问题和答案,教会法的点,真的是他自己的主张和立场的间接平反。 A number of his letters bear on canonical questions.他的信件的数量,承担规范的问题。

Homilies.---Hergenröther mentions twenty-two sermons of Photius (III, 232).颂歌.--- Hergenröther提到Photius二十二个布道“(三,232)。Of these two were printed when Hergenröther wrote (in PG, CII, 548, sq.), one on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, and one at the dedication of a new church during his second patriarchate.这两个印刷时Hergenröther写道(PG,印度工业联合会,548,平),圣母圣诞,并在他的第二宗主教在一个新的教会奉献。 Later, S. Aristarches published eighty-three homilies of different kinds (Constantinople, 1900).后来,南Aristarches八十三个不同类型的颂歌(君士坦丁堡,1900年)出版。Dogmatic and polemical works.---Many of these bear on his accusations against the Latins and so form the beginning of the long series of anti-Catholic controversy produced by Orthodox theologians.教条主义和论辩工程.---许多这些承担对他的指控对拉丁等形式的东正教神学家所产生的反天主教的争论长系列的开始。 The most important is "Concerning the Theology about the Holy Ghost" (Peri tes tou hagiou pneumatos mystagonias, PG, CII, 264-541), a defence of the Procession from God the Father alone, based chiefly on John, xv, 26.最重要的是“关于对圣灵神学”(TES围头hagiou pneumatos mystagonias,PG,印度工业联合会,264-541),从神的父亲单独游行防御,主要基于约翰,XV,26。An epitome of the same work, made by a later author and contained in Euthymius Zigabenus's "Panoplia", XIII, became the favourite weapon of Orthodox controversialists for many centuries.同样的工作的一个缩影,由以后的作者,并载Euthymius Zigabenus的“Panoplia”,十三,成为东正教controversialists的许多世纪以来最喜欢的武器。The treatise "Against Those who say that Rome is the First See", also a very popular Orthodox weapon, is only the last part or supplement of the "Collections", often written out separately. “对那些人说,罗马是第一次看到”,也是一个非常受欢迎的东正教的武器的论文,是“收藏”往往单独写出来,只有最后一个部分或补充。The "Dissertation Concerning the Reappearance of the Manichæans" (Diegesis peri tes manichaion anablasteseos, PG, CII, 9-264), in four books, is a history and refutation of the Paulicians.“关于再现的摩尼教的论文”(Diegesis城郊工商业污水附加费manichaion anablasteseos,PG,印度工业联合会,9-264)在四书,是一个历史的Paulicians驳斥。Much of the "Amphilochia" belongs to this heading.“Amphilochia”大部分属于本项。The little work "Against the Franks and other Latins" (Hergenröther, "Monumenta", 62-71), attributed to Photius, is not authentic.小工作“,对弗兰克斯和其他拉丁”(Hergenröther,“Monumenta”,62-71),归因Photius,是不是正宗的。 It was written after Cærularius (Hergenröther, "Photius", III, 172-224).它被写后Cærularius(Hergenröther,“Photius”,三,172-224)。

Letters.---Migne, PG, CII, publishes 193 letters arranged in three books; Balettas (London, 1864) has edited a more complete collection in five parts.英皇.---米涅,PG,CII,出版193字母排列三书; Balettas(伦敦,1864年)在五个部分编辑,更完整的集合。They cover all the chief periods of Photius's life, and are the most important source for his history.它们涵盖所有行政Photius的生活期间,和他的历史是最重要的来源。

A. Ehrhard (in Krumbacher, "Byzantinische Litteratur", 74-77) judges Photius as a distinguished preacher, but not as a theologian of the first importance.答:Ehrhard(克伦巴赫尔,“Byzantinische Litteratur”,74-77)法官Photius作为一位杰出的传教士,但不是作为一个首要的神学。His theological work is chiefly the collection of excerpts from Greek Fathers and other sources.他的神学的工作主要是从希腊教父和其他来源收集摘录。His erudition is vast, and probably unequalled in the Middle Ages, but he has little originality, even in his controversy against the Latins.他的博学是巨大的,而且很可能是在中世纪的无与伦比的,但原创性不大,他甚至在他对拉丁人的争议。Here, too, he only needed to collect angry things said by Byzantine theologians before his time.在这里,他只需要收集拜占庭神学家说,在他之前愤怒的事情。But his discovery of the filioque grievance seems to be original.但他发现filioque申诉,似乎是原创的。Its success as a weapon is considerably greater than its real value deserves (Fortescue, "Orthodox Eastern Church", 372-84).它作为武器的成功大大低于其实际价值值得(Fortescue的“东正教”,372-84)。

Editions.--The works of Photius known at the time were collected by Migne, PG, CI-CV.米涅,PG,CI - CV版.--当时已知Photius的作品收集。J. Balettas, Photiou epistolai (London, 1864), contains other letters (altogether 260) not in Migne.Photiou epistolai(伦敦,1864年),J. Balettas,包含其他字母,在米涅(共260)。A. Papadopulos-Kerameus, "S. Patris Photii Epistolæ XLV" (St. Petersburg, 1896) gives forty-five more, of which, however, only the first twenty-one are authentic.A. Papadopulos - Kerameus,“S. Patris Photii Epistolæ第四十五”(圣彼得堡,1896年)为四十五个,其中,然而,只有第一个二十一地道。S. Aristaches, Photiou logoi kai homiliai 83 (Constantinople, 1900, 2 vols.), gives other homilies not in Migne.南Aristaches Photiou logoi启homiliai 83(君士坦丁堡,1900年,2卷),给人不米涅其他颂歌。Oikonomos has edited the "Amphilochia" (Athens, 1858) in a more complete text. Oikonomos在一个更完整的的文本编辑“Amphilochia”(雅典,1858年)。J. Hergenröther, "Monumenta græca ad Photium eiusque historiam pertinentia" (Ratisbon, 1869), and Papadopulos-Kerameus, "Monumenta græca et latina ad historiam Photii patriarchæ pertinentia" (St. Petersburg, 2 parts, 1899 and 1901), add further documents.J. Hergenröther,“Monumenta græca广告Photium eiusque historiam pertinentia”(拉蒂斯邦,1869年),和Papadopulos Kerameus,“Monumenta græca等LATINA广告historiam Photii patriarchæ pertinentia”(圣彼得堡,两部分组成,1899年和1901年),进一步增加文件。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.阿德里安Fortescue的书面公开信息。 Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress.转录由托马斯J Bress。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全书,第十二卷。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


The Acts of the Synods of 869 and 879 are the most important sources (Mansi, XVI and XVII).869和879的主教的行为是最重要的来源(曼西,十六和十七)。THEOGNOSTUS (Archimandrite at Constantinople), Libellos periechon panta ta kata ton megan, a contemporary account of the beginning of the schism (in Mansi, XVI, 295, sq.); NIKETAS DAVID PAPHLAGON (d. 890); Bios Ignatiou (Mansi, XVI, 209 sq.). THEOGNOSTUS(司祭在君士坦丁堡),Libellos periechon潘塔TA卡塔吨梅根,当代的分裂开始(曼西,十六,295平方米)的帐户;圣尼克达斯国宝PAPHLAGON(D. 890); BIOS Ignatiou(曼西,十六,209平方米)。PAPADOPULOS-KERAMEUS declared this to be a fourteenth-century forgery in the Vizant.PAPADOPULOS KERAMEUS宣布,这是在十四世纪的伪造的Vizant。Vremennik (1899), 13-38, Pseudoniketas ho paphlagon; he was successfully refuted by VASILJEWSKI (ibid., 39-56); cf. Vremennik(1899),13-38,Pseudoniketas何paphlagon;他成功地反驳VASILJEWSKI(同上,39-56);比照。 Byzant.Byzant。Zeitschrift, IX, (1900), 268 sq. GENESIOS, Basileiai (written between 945-959), a history of the emperors and Court from Leo V (813-20) to Basil I (867-86), published in Corpus Scriptorum Hist. (杂志),九(1900),268平方米GENESIOS,Basileiai(945-959书面之间),皇帝利奥V(813-20)法院的历史我罗勒(867-86),在语料库Scriptorum出版历史。 Byzantinæ (Bonn, 1834) and PG, CIX,15 sqq.; LEO GRAMMATICUS, re-edition of SYMEON MAGISTER, Chronicle, in Corpus Script., 1842, and PG CVIII, 1037 sqq.Byzantinæ(波恩,1834年)和PG,CIX,15 SQQ;狮子座GRAMMATICUS,重新SYMEON魔导师,纪事版,在语料库脚本中,1842年,和PG CVIII,1037 SQQ。 HERGENRÖTHER, Photius, Patriarch von Konstantinopel, sein Leben, seine Schriften u. HERGENRÖTHER,Photius,祖师冯Konstantinopel,盛别人的生活,塞纳河Schriften美国das griechische Schisma (Ratisbon, 1867-69) (the most learned and exhaustive work on the subject).DAS griechische Schisma(拉蒂斯邦,1867年至1869年)(关于这一主题的最有学问的和详尽的工作)。DEMETRAKOPULOS, Historia tou schismatos tes latinikes apo tes orthodoxou ekklesias (Leipzig, 1867), is an attempted rejoinder to HERGENRÖTHER, as is also KREMOS, Historia tou schismatos ton duo ekklesion (Athens, 1905-07, two volumes published out of four). DEMETRAKOPULOS,Historia头schismatos工商业污水附加费latinikes APO工商业污水附加费orthodoxou ekklesias(莱比锡,1867年),是一个尝试的反驳HERGENRÖTHER,也KREMOS,Historia头schismatos吨二人ekklesion(雅典,1905至1907年,两卷出版四)。 LÄMMER, Papst Nikolaus u. LÄMMER,PAPST尼古劳斯美国die byzantinsche Staatskirche seiner Zeit (Berlin, 1857); PICHLER, Geschichte der kirchlichen Trennung zwischen dem Orient.模具byzantinsche Staatskirche围网渔船时代“杂志(柏林,1857年);皮希勒,历史DER kirchlichen Trennung zwischen DEM东方。u.美国Occident (Munich, 1864-65); NORDEN, Das Papsttum und Byzanz (Berlin, 1903); KRUMBACHER, Geschichte der Byzantinischen Litteratur (Munich, 1897), 73-79, 515-524 (with copious bibliography); FORTESCUE, The Orthodox Eastern Church (London, 1907), 135-171; RUINAUT, Le schisme de Photius (Paris, 1910).欧美(慕尼黑,1864年至1865年);诺登,Papsttum和Byzanz达斯(柏林,1903年);克伦巴赫尔,历史DER Byzantinischen Litteratur(慕尼黑,1897年),73-79,515-524(丰富书目); Fortescue的,正统的东方教会(伦敦,1907年),135-171; RUINAUT,乐schisme Photius(巴黎,1910年)。

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