Book of Proverbs箴言 书

General Information一般资料

The Book of Proverbs, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is a grouping of wisdom sayings and longer, connected poems composed from the 10th to the 4th century BC and finally collected about 300 BC.在旧约圣经中的箴言,是由从10到公元前4世纪,终于收集约公元前300年的智慧熟语和更长的时间,连接诗分组。The sayings are either statements that provoke further thought or admonitions to behave in particular ways.说法语句都引起进一步的思考或告诫在特定的方式行事。The longer poems celebrate wisdom, encourage its observance, and personify it as a woman who at God's right hand assisted in creation.较长的诗歌庆祝智慧,鼓励其遵守,作为一个女人,谁在上帝的右手协助创造和人格化。Egyptian wisdom is evident in Proverbs, making it possible to date the nucleus of the book to pre exilic times.埃及的智慧箴言是显而易见的,从而有可能日期书前放逐倍的核心。The book as a whole reflects the ideology of enterprising privileged classes and expresses a general confidence in the human capacity to act freely and wisely.书作为一个整体,体现了进取的特权阶级的意识形态,并表示在一般人的能力的信心,自由和明智的行为。Self interest and religious devotion are shown to be congruent.自我利益和宗教虔诚的显示是一致的。Respect for women (31:10 - 31) is encouraged.鼓励尊重妇女(31:10 - 31)。The book is conventionally attributed to Solomon as the prototype of Israelite wisdom, but many sages had a hand in composing and collecting the subsections; mentioned specifically are the "men of Hezekiah."传统的书是所罗门为原型以色列人的智慧,但许多先贤有一只手在创作和收集的小节;特别提到的“希西家的男人。”

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Bibliography 参考书目
RL Alden, Proverbs (1983); LE Boadt, Introduction to Wisdom Literature, Proverbs (1986); W McKane, Proverbs: A New Approach (1970); RBY Scott, Proverbs (1965) and The Way of Wisdom in the Old Testament (1971).RL奥尔登,箴言(1983年); LE Boadt,智慧文学,谚语(1986),W McKane箴言:一种新方法(1970年); RBY斯科特箴言“(1965年),在旧约的智慧之路( 1971年)。


Book of Proverbs预订箴言

Brief Outline简述

  1. Introduction (1:1-9)引言(1:1-9)
  2. Sin and righteousness personified and contrasted (1:10-9:18)仙和正义的人格化和对比(1:10-9:18)
  3. Single-verse contrasts of sin and righteousness (10:1-22:16)单诗句对比罪和义(10:1-22:16)
  4. Miscellaneous and longer contrasts (22:17-29:27)杂项和更长的对比(22:17-29:27)
  5. Righteousness in poems of climax (30:1-31:31)诗义高潮(30:1-31:31)


Proverb谚语

Advanced Information先进的信息

A proverb is a trite maxim; a similitude; a parable.一句谚语是一个老生常谈的格言;相像;一则寓言。The Hebrew word thus rendered (mashal) has a wide signification.从而呈现希伯来文(马沙尔)具有广泛的意义。It comes from a root meaning "to be like," "parable."它有从根,意为“像”,“寓言”。Rendered "proverb" in Isa. “谚语”呈现在伊萨。14:4; Hab. 14:4;民政事务局。2:6; "dark saying" in Ps.2时06分,“暗说:”在PS。49:4, Num.49:4,NUM。 12:8.12时08分。Ahab's defiant words in answer to the insolent demands of Benhadad, "Let not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that putteth it off," is a well known instance of a proverbial saying (1 Kings 20:11).亚哈回答Benhadad的傲慢无礼的要求的挑衅的话,“不要让他,他利用girdeth夸耀他putteth它自己,”是一个众所周知的实例的一个谚语说(1国王20:11)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Proverbs预订箴言

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Book of Proverbs is a collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range of subjects presented in a poetic form.箴言书是收集了一个充满诗意的形式提出的科目广泛的道德和哲学的格言。This book sets forth the "philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the Bible does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses upon us in the most forcible manner the value of intelligence and prudence and of a good education. The whole strength of the Hebrew language and of the sacred authority of the book is thrown upon these homely truths. It deals, too, in that refined, discriminating, careful view of the finer shades of human character so often overlooked by theologians, but so necessary to any true estimate of human life" (Stanley's Jewish Church).这本书阐述的现实生活“的理念,它是我们的标志,”圣经“不鄙视常识和判断力。最强制的方式,在我们的印象情报和谨慎的态度和良好的教育价值。希伯来文的语言和整体实力的神圣权威的书被抛出后,这些其貌不扬的真理。交易,也由神学家,往往忽视人的性格更精细的色调,精致,歧视,仔细查看,但必要的任何人的生命的真实估计“(士丹利的犹太人教会)。 As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that Solomon gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the tide of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the material of his own experience.至于这本书的起源,“这是可能所罗门聚集和重铸窜出,从前面的年龄人类经验的许多谚语,和他过去漂浮的时代潮流,而且,他还阐述了许多新的物质他自己的经验。

Towards the close of the book, indeed, are preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to have fallen from his lips in later life and been gathered by other hands' (Arnot's Laws from Heaven, etc.) This book is usually divided into three parts: (1.) Consisting of ch.迈向书的结束,的确,是保存一些所罗门的,似乎以有他的嘴唇下降在以后的生活和被其他的手“(阿诺特的法律从天上,等)收集自己的说法这本书是通常分为三个划分部分组成:(1)通道的组成。 1-9, which contain an exhibition of wisdom as the highest good.1-9,其中包含的智慧,作为最高的善展览。(2.) Consisting of ch. (2)组成的CH。10-24. 10-24。(3.) Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, collected" (ch. 25-29).(3)含所罗门的箴言“,犹大王希西家,收集的男人”(章25-29)。These are followed by two supplements, (1) "The words of Agur" (ch. 30); and (2) "The words of king Lemuel" (ch. 31).这些都是由两个补充,(1)“字的Agur”(章30)和(2)“字样,王莱缪尔”(章31)。Solomon is said to have written three thousand proverbs, and those contained in this book may be a selection from these (1 Kings 4:32).所罗门说已经写了3万谚语,和那些在这本书中可能会从这些选择(1国王4:32)。In the New Testament there are thirty-five direct quotations from this book or allusions to it.在新约中有这本书或它的典故来自三十五个直接报价。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Proverbs预订箴言

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

That Solomon was the principle author of Proverbs is indicated by chapters 1:1, and 25:1, compared with 1 Kings 4:29-32.所罗门的箴言“的原则作者表示章节1:1和25:1,与国王队4:29-32相比。The last two chapters were the work of other authors to whom reference is made.最后两章是谁提到了其他作者的工作。See also chapters 25-29.也见章节25-29。

Their Character他们的性格
In Solomon's day there was a class of leaders in the eastern nations known as "teachers of wisdom," of which he was the most conspicuous; a supposition which gives countenance to the thought that the address, "My son," is not that of a father to a child, but a teacher to a pupil.在所罗门的日子,一类被称为的东部国家的领导人“教师的智慧,”其中,他是最引人注目的;一个假设它给人的面容思想的地址,“我的儿子,”是不是那对一个孩子,但一个老师向学生的父亲。 Most of the proverbs seem based merely on considerations of worldy prudence, which was quite like Solomon; but considering the Holy Spirit as the real author, we must believe that faith is the underlying motive productive of the conduct to which the reader is exhorted.大多数谚语似乎只是worldy谨慎,这是很喜欢所罗门考虑,但我们必须考虑圣灵真正的作者,认为信仰是生产告诫读者的行为背后的动机。

Indeed, this is expressed in 1:7; 5:21; 15:11; 23: 17-19; 26:10.事实上,这是表示在1:7; 5时21分,15点11分,23:17-19; 26:10。Luther called Proverbs "a book of good works"; Coleridge, "the best statesman's manual"; Dean Stanley, "the philosophy of practical life."路德所谓箴言“一书的优秀作品”,柯勒律治,“最好的政治家手册”;院长士丹利,“现实生活的哲学。”Angus says, "It is for practical ethics what the psalms are for devotion;" Bridges says "that while other Scriptures show us the glory of our high calling this instructs us minutely how to walk in it."安格斯说,“它是实际的诗篇是奉献的道德;”桥梁说“,而其他圣经向我们展示了我们的呼吁的荣耀,指示我们每分钟如何走在。” Oetinger says, "The proverbs exhibit Jesus with unusual clearness."厄廷格说,“谚语表现出不寻常的清晰的耶稣。”In the millennial kingdom doubtless it will constitute, with a portion of the Levitical ordinances and the Sermon on the Mount, the basis of the laws governing its citizens.在千禧年国度,它无疑将构成一个利未条例的部分,在山上的讲道,其公民的法律基础。

Their Literary Style他们的文学风格
Provebs is classed with the poetical books of the Bible, but we must content ourselves with a single illustration of the poetic form taken from The Literary Study of the Bible. Provebs被归类与诗意的“圣经”的书,但我们必须自己的内容与一个单一的画像从文学研究的“圣经”所采取的诗歌形式。In 4:10 we have a poem on The Two Paths.4点10分,我们有两条路径上的一首诗。Its strophe and antistrophe consist of ten-line figures, varying between longer and shorter lines; the conclusion is a quatrain.它的strophe和antistrophe包括十行的数字,较长和较短的线路之间的不同,得出的结论是一个绝句。 This form is a reflex of the thought of the poem; the strophe describes the path of the just, the antistrophe the path of the wicked; the conclusion then blends the two ideas in a common image, as follows: Hear, O my son, and receive my sayings; And the years of thy life shall be many.这种形式是一个诗的思想的反射; strophe描述公正,antistrophe的恶人路径的路径,得出的结论,然后在一个共同的形象融为一体的两种思路,如下:听,噢,我的儿子,收到我的格言,你的生活年代应许多。 I have taught thee in the way of wisdom; I have led thee in paths of uprightness.我教你智慧的方式,我在正直的道路,导致你。When thou goest, thy steps shall not be straitened; And if thou runnest, thou shalt not stumble.当你里去,你的步骤不应是艰难的;如果你runnest,你不可绊倒。Take fast hold of instruction; Let her not go: Keep her; For she is thy life.快速掌握教学,让她不要去保持她,因为她是你的生活。 Enter not into the path of the wicked, And walk not in the way of evil men.不能输入到恶人的道路,走在邪恶的人的方式不。Avoid it, Pass not by it; Turn from it, And pass on.避免它,通过它,打开它,并传递。For they sleep not except they have done mischief; And their sleep is taken away, unless they cause some to fall.对于他们的睡眠,除非他们做的恶作剧;他们的睡眠被带走,除非他们造成一定的下降。For they eat the bread of wickedness.因为他们吃面包的邪恶。And drink the wine of violence.和饮料酒的暴力。But the path of the righteous is as the light of dawn, That shineth more and more unto the perfect day.但义人的道路是黎明的光,这shineth你们完美的一天。The way of the wicked is as darkness; They know not at what they stumble.恶人的方式是黑暗的,他们不知道他们绊倒。

Questions问题
1.1。What scriptures point to Solomon as the principal author of this book?作为这本书的主要作者所罗门点什么经文?2.2。What scriptures indicate additional authors?额外的作者什么样的经文表明?3.3。What may have been the origin of the book?可能有什么书的起源?4.4。Is it, on the whole, a book of creed or conduct?难道,就整体而言,信仰或行为的书?5.5。Compare it with the psalms.比较它与诗篇。6.6。Is it likely to have a future application?它是可能有前途的应用吗?If so, when?如果是这样,什么时候? 7.7。What is the literary form of the book?什么是书的文学形式?8.8。Where is the poem on "The Two Paths" found?哪里是“两条路径”发现的诗?

Proverbs Chapters 1-3箴言第1-3章

The nature of this book makes divisions of its chapters rather arbitrary, and ours may not always be the best, but it is hoped it may prove useful in some degree.这本书的性质使得它的章节,而任意的划分,我们可能永远是最好的,但希望它可能在一定程度上证明有用。The opening of chapter four suggests a new beginning, for which reason we conclude this lesson at the close of chapter three.第四章开放提出了新的开始,由于这个原因,我们总结这个教训,在第三章结束。It begins with an advertisement (1:1-6), in which mention is made of the author (v. 1), the object of the book (vv. 2, 3), and its great value (vv. 4-6).它开始与广告(1:1-6),其中一提的是作者(1节),书的对象(vv. 2,3),其巨大的价值(vv. 4-6 )。 Then follows its theme.接着主题。"The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge" (v. 7), of which the remainder of the lesson is a development or exposition.“敬畏耶和华是知识的开端”(7节),其余的教训是一家集开发或论述。

"Beginning" is rendered in the margin of the Revised Version "chief part."呈现在“开始”的修订版本的保证金“的主要部分。”"The fear of the Lord" means a right state of heart towards God as opposed to the condition of an unconverted man.“敬畏耶和华”是指对上帝的心,而不是一个归正的人的条件的权利状态。Put the two ideas together, and we learn that the chief part of all knowledge is to be right with God.一起把两个想法,我们学习的所有知识的主要部分,是与神权。

In working out of the thought: 1.的思想工作:1。The teacher exhorts his "son" or pupil, to avoid vice (1:8-19).老师劝告他的“儿子”或学生,避免副(1:8-19)。2.2。He shows the ruinous conduct of the unwise, a warning placed on the lips of wisdom personified (1:20-33).他显示了毁灭性的不明智行为,人格化的智慧(1:20-33)嘴唇上放置一个警告。3.3。This warning is accentuated by contrasting the consequences of obedience and a striving after wisdom (2:1-3).这个警告是加剧了对比服从的后果和努力后的智慧(2:1-3)。4.4。The Lord is shown as the protector of those who are wise in this sense (3:19-26).主显示为那些在这个意义上(3:19-26)明智的保护者。5.5。The division concludes with an admonition to charity and justice (3:27-35).该部门的结论与慈善和正义(3:27-35)告诫。

Practical and Doctrinal Remarks实践和教义备注
In this part of the lesson we call attention to particular verses for explanation or application, acknowledging indebtedness to Arnot's "Laws From Heaven for Life on Earth."在这部分的教训,我们呼吁关注特别诗句的解释或应用,承认债务阿诺特的“从地球上的生命天堂法律。”1:23 is a text for a revival sermon, containing a command and a promise joined, like Philippians 2:12. 1:23是一个复兴的讲道的文本,包含一个命令和一个承诺,像腓2:12加入。It teaches in one sentence those two seemingly contradictiory doctrines, the sovereignity of God, and the free agency of man.它教导这两个看似contradictiory学说,神的主权,和人的自由球员,在一个句子。It is when we turn at God's reproof that He pours out His Spirit; though it be also true that unless His Spirit is poured out we can not turn.这是当我们在上帝的谴责,他娓娓道出他的灵,虽然也是如此,除非他的精神倒出来,我们不能把。1:24-32 offers an opportunity to preach on God's mercy to a rebellious people. 1:24-32提供了一个机会宣讲上帝的怜悯,一个叛逆的人。He calls, stretches out His hands, counsels, and administers reproof.他呼吁,伸出他的手,律师,管理谴责。On the other hand men refuse, disregard, set at nought, reject.另一方面男子拒绝,漠视,定于化为乌有,拒绝。

The natural consequence follows; sowing disobedience they reap judgment.自然的结果如下;播种抗命,他们收获的判断。That judgment consists in calling on God and getting no answer, seeking diligently and not finding Him.判断,包括对上帝的呼吁并没有得到答案,努力寻求并没有找到他。The passage closes with a promise to them that hearken, deliverance from death at last and freedom from fear now.通过关闭与对他们的承诺,在去年和免于恐惧现在,从死亡中拯救倾听。2:1-9 suggests Christ's words in Luke 11:9, "Seek, and ye shall find."2:1-9表明基督在路加福音11时09分的话,“寻求,就必寻见。” The seeking is in verses 1-4, the finding in verses 5-9.寻求诗句1-4,发现在诗句5-9。2:10-22 is an outline of "the way of evil" (v. 12, RV).2:10-22是一个“邪恶的方式”(12节,RV)的轮廓。

The first step is "speaking froward things"; the second, leaving "the paths of uprightness," the feet soon follow the tongue (v. 13); the third, walking "in the ways of darkness" (v. 13); the fourth, rejoicing "to do evil" (v. 14); fifth, delighting, "in the frowardness of the wicked," we can not take pleasure in doing wickedness without finding pleasure in seeing others do it; sixth, to complete the picture, the evil person here particularly in mind is seen to be a woman (vv. 16-22).第一步是“讲刚愎的东西”;第二,留下“正直的路径,”脚很快跟进舌(13节);第三,走“在黑暗的方式”(13节);第四,大喜“做坏事”(14节);第五,取悦,“恶人frowardness,”我们不能在没有找到很高兴看到别人做的邪恶的快感;第六,要完成图片,邪恶的人,特别是在这里想到,都被看作是一个女人(16-22节)。 3:5, 6 presents one of the strongest promises of the Bible, the first text from which the author of this commentary ever preached.3:5,6展示了圣经的最强的承诺之一,这篇评论的作者不断鼓吹的第一个文本。

Note how we are to trust, "with all thine heart."请注意我们是如何的信任,“你的心。”God complains as much of a divided allegiance as of none.上帝抱怨没有一个分裂的效忠。Note the extent of our trust, "in all thy ways."注意对我们的信任程度“,在所有你的方式。”"Few will refuse to acknowledge a superintending providence at certain times, and in certain operations that are counted great," but God wants us to confide in Him in the little, close, and kindly things. “很少人会拒绝承认在某些时候,一个主管普罗维登斯,并在计数很大,某些操作”,但神要我们在他倾诉小,关闭和亲切的东西。3:11, 12 is quoted in Hebrews 12:5, 6.3:11,12日​​援引希伯来书12:5,6。Note there how the inspired writer interprets the phrase, "My son."注意:有作家的灵感如何理解这句话,“我的儿子。”The speaker in Proverbs may have been addressing a pupil merely, but the Holy Spirit through him, "speaketh unto you as unto sons."可能已在箴言议长,解决一个学生只,但通过他的圣灵,“你们speaketh你们的儿子。”"Despise not," means do not make light of chastening or cast it aside as if it had no meaning for you; "faint not" touches the opposite extreme, do not be driven to despair by the experience. “鄙视”是指不使光的管教,或投它放在一边,如果对你没有任何意义,“淡淡的没有”,倒是相反的极端,不被驱动的经验绝望。"The middle way is the path of safety."“中间道路是安全的路径。”3:13-20 is a description and appreciation of wisdom, which throughout this book means piety or godliness.3:13-20是智慧,这意味着整个书的虔诚或虔敬的描述和赞赏。

In Ecclestiastes it is science.在Ecclestiastes这是科学。And yet piety or godliness hardly expresses it in the highest sense in which it is sometimes found, where as for example in these verses, it suggests Christ.但虔诚或敬虔难以表达的最高意义上,它有时会发现,这里为在这些经文的例子,它表明基督。He is the wisdom of God as we learn in the New Testament, who, by the Holy Spirit through the holy Scriptures is made unto us wisdom (1 Cor. 2).他是神的智慧,因为我们在新约中,通过圣经的圣灵赐给我们的智慧(2)1肺心病。的学习。Such wisdom can not be planned, much less created by us, but must be "found" or "gotten" (v. 13).智慧不能有计划,要少得多,我们创建,但必须是“发现”或“演员”(13节)。Observe the figures describing it.观察的数字来描述它。It is precious merchandise (vv. 14, 15).它是珍贵的商品(vv. 14,15)。It is a way of honor, pleasantness and peace (vv. 16, 17).这是一个荣誉,愉悦和和平的方式(vv. 16,17)。It is a tree of life (v. 18).这是一个生命之树(18节)。

Questions问题
1.1。What is the chief part of all knowledge?什么是一切知识的主要部分?2.2。Give the five general divisions of this lesson.给这一课的五个部门。3.3。Quote and give the doctrinal teaching of 1:23.报价和理论教学,1时23分。4.4。Quote and give the spiritual significance of 1:33; 3:5, 6; 3:11, 12.报价和精神意义的1点33分,3:5,6;三时十一分,12。5.5。What does "wisdom" mean in this book?在这本书中的“智慧”是什么意思?

Proverbs Chapters 4-7箴言第4-7章

These chapters begin with reminiscence.这些章节开始与缅怀。A father is reciting to a son the precepts taught him by his father in his youth, and which cover chapter four.一位父亲是背诵戒律由他的父亲教他在他的青年时期的一个儿子,其中包括第四章。Chapter five is a warning against the evil woman.第五章是一个警告,反对邪恶的女人。Chapter six deals with suretyship, indolence, malice and violence, while chapter seven returns to the theme of chapter five.第六章处理suretyship,懒惰,恶意和暴力,而章七个返回第五章的主题。In the first-named chapter occurs the beautiful illustration of Hebrew rhythm to which attention was called in Lesson 1; and following it we find in verses 18 and 23, two of as oft-quoted texts as are in the whole book.在命名的第一章发生在希伯来文的节奏美丽的插图关注被称为第1课;和它后面,我们发现在18和23节,作为经常被引用的文本作为全书的两个。

The "just" man, as usual in the Bible, is he who is justified by faith and walks with God in a holy obedience.“公正”的人,像往常一样在“圣经”,是他的理由是与神的信仰和走在一个神圣的服从。On him the Sun of Righteousness shines.他义闪耀的太阳。His new life is at first like the morning light, a struggle between the darkness and the dawn.是第一次在早晨轻,黑暗和黎明之间的斗争像他的新生活。Ere long the doubt vanishes, and morning is unequivocally declared.,不久的怀疑消失了,早上是明确宣布。The counterpart is fitted to overawe the boldest heart, "The way of the wicked is as darkness, they know not at what they stumble. The thought is that the darkness is in them and they carry it, an evil heart of unbelief, wherever they go.对应的是配备威吓最大胆的心,“恶人的方式是为黑暗,他们不知道他们绊倒。想到的是,他们是黑暗和他们随身携带,不信的恶之心,无论他们去。

As to the other text, notice the fountain, the heart (v. 23), and then the stream, the mouth, the eyes, the feet (vv. 24-27).至于其他的文本,通知喷泉,心(23节),然后流,口,眼,脚(24-27节)。The heart is kept by prayer and the Word of God, and then the life issuing from it is what it ought to be.核心是保持祷告和神的话语,然后从它发出的生命是应该的。The speech is pure, and true and potent.讲话是纯洁的,真实和有效的。There are no secret longings and side glances after forbidden things, and the steps in matters of business, society, and the home are all ordered of the Lord.有没有秘密的渴望和禁止的东西方几眼后,企业,社会和家庭事务的步骤都是主订购。(Compare Christ's words, Matt. 15:18-20).(比较基督的话,马特。15:18-20)。

Family Joys We have spoken of chapter five as a warning against the evil woman, which is true of its first half; but the reader will observe how the warning is accentuated by the contrast of the pure and happy home life in the second half, beginning at verse 15.但读者会观察警告对比的纯洁和快乐的家庭生活在下半年开始加剧,我们都谈到第五章为对抗邪恶的女人,这是其上半年的真实警告,家庭的欢乐在15节。 The former is a dark back ground to bring out the latter's beauty.前者是一个黑暗的背景衬托出后者的美丽。The keynote of the first half is "remove for from her."上半年的基调是“从她的删除。”She is deceitful (vv. 3, 4), unstable (v. 6) and cruel (v. 9).她是骗人的(vv. 3,4),不稳定(6节)和残忍(9节)。To associate with her means waste of property and health (vv. 8, 9), and at the last remorse (vv. 12-14).联想到她的财产和健康的手段废物(vv. 8,9),并在最后悔恨(12-14节)。

The home in comparison is a pure and well-guarded well (v. 15).在比较的家是一个纯粹的守卫好(15节)。Read verses 16 and 17 in the Revised Version, and observe a husband's duty toward his wife (v. 18).读经文16和17修订版,并观察一个丈夫对妻子的责任(18节)。Let him avoid biting words, neglect, unnecessary absences and the like.让他避免咬的话,疏忽,不必要的缺席和。And as Paul says (Eph. 5:33), let "the wife see that she reverence her husband."保罗说(弗5:33),让“妻子看到,她的崇敬她的丈夫。”The suretyship against which we are warned (6: 1-5) is of the inconsiderate kind.我们所针对的警告suretyship(6:1-5)是轻率的一种。"That imprudent assumption of such obligations leaving out of account the moral unreliableness of the man involved."“这留下了所涉及的人的道德unreliableness义务轻率的假设。”The advice is to get the quickest release possible (vv. 3-5).的建议是尽可能获得最快的释放(3-5节)。It does not mean that we should not kindly and prudently help a neighbor in financial need, if we can.这并不意味着我们不应该亲切和审慎的财政需要帮助的邻居,如果我们能。

The "mother" of verses 20-24 must be one who knows God, for it is the instilling of His Word only in the heart of her child that can produce the results indicated. “母亲”的诗句20-24必须有一个人认识神,因为这是他的字,只有在孩子的心,可以产生的结果表明灌输。Observe it is a grown son here referred to as keeping his mother's law.观察它是一个成年的儿子,在这里被称为保持他的母亲的法律。

Questions问题
1.1。What are the general subjects treated in these chapters?什么是在这些章节处理一般科目?2.2。Quote and explain 6:18.报价和解释6时18。3.3。What possible evidence is there in this lesson of our Lord's acquaintance with Proverbs?在这节课我们的主的熟人与箴言有哪些可能的证据?4.4。What does this lesson teach about conjugal love?这是什么课教恩爱?About parental authority?关于父母的权威?About suretyship?关于suretyship?

Proverbs Chapters 8-9箴言章8-9

In these chapters we have a public discourse of Wisdom (personified) (c. 8), and what Lange describes as an allegorical exhibition of the call of men to a choice of wisdom or folly, (c. 9).在这些章节中,我们有一个公共话语的智慧(人格化)(C. 8),兰格呼吁男性的智慧或愚蠢,(三)的选择寓意展览介绍。It is really our Lord Jesus Christ putting forth this voice (8:1), and crying unto men at the gates of the city (vv. 4, 5).这实在是我们的主耶稣基督提出这个声音(8:1),和你们在城市盖茨(vv. 4,5)的男性哭。It is He who speaks the excellent things (v.6), and on whose lips wickedness is an abomination (v. 7).这是他谁说话的优秀的东西(V.6),其嘴唇邪恶可憎的(7节)。Of Him alone can it be predicted that there is nothing crooked (forward) in His mouth (v. 8), or to be desired in comparison with Him (v. 10-18).他就可以预测的,有什么歪在他的嘴里(向前)(8节),或与他(10-18节)比较期望。It is He whose fruit is better than gold and who fills our treasuries (vv. 19-21).这是他的水果是比黄金更好,填补我国国债(19-21节)。Were there any doubt of this identity would it not be removed by the remainder of the chapter?有这个身份有任何疑问,它会不会被删除本章的其余部分?Who was set up from everlasting (v. 23)?谁是从亘古(23节)?Or, who was daily God's delight (v. 30)?或者,每天神的喜悦(30节)?And of whom can it be said that to find Him finds life (v. 35)?和谁可以说,他发现生命(35节)?

The Redeemer Anticipating Redemption救世主预计赎回
The heading of thisparagraph expresses Arnot's conception of the latter part of the chapter, who says that, "if the terms are not applied to Christ they must be strained at every turn."本段的标题表示阿诺特的章,他说,后者的概念“,如果条件不应用到基督,他们必须在动辄紧张。”Of course in a book written by Solomon it could not be said that Jesus was born in Bethlehem and died upon the cross, but if the Holy Sprit wished to make known something of the personal history of Christ before His coming, how could He have done so in plainer terms than these?在所罗门写的书当然不能说耶稣出生在伯利恒,并死在十字架上,但如果圣Sprit希望他的到来之前,著名的基督的个人历史的东西,他怎么会做所以在青白比这些条款? Quoting the same in verses 30 and 31: "There three things are set in the order of the everlasting covenant: (1), the Father well pleased with His Beloved, 'I was daily His delight;' (2) the Son delighting in the Father's presence, 'rejoicing always before Him;' (3), the Son looking with prospective delight to the scene and subjects of His redemptive work, 'rejoicing in the habitable part of a His earth; and my delights were with the sons of men.'"引用在30日和31节:“有三样东西是为了永恒的盟约:(1),父亲与他心爱的高兴,”我是每天他的喜悦“;(2)子取悦父亲的存在,“大喜总是在他面前;”(3),儿子寻找准喜悦的场景和他的救赎工作的主体,“在了一个他的地球的可居住部分大喜;和我的喜悦的的儿子男人。“

The Marriage Supper in the Old Testament在旧约的婚姻晚餐
Arnot gives the foregoing title to the opening verses of chapter 9, where Wisdom, personifying the Son of God, has now come nigh unto men, having His habitation among them.阿诺特赋予上述标题第9章的智慧,人化是神的儿子,现在已经临到男子夜间开放的诗句,其中有他居住。Here we have the house, the prepared feast, the messengers, the invited guests, and the argument by which the invitation is supported.在这里,我们的房子,准备的盛宴,使者,受邀嘉宾,并邀请支持的论据。The positive side of that argument is: "Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled."积极的一面是这样的说法:“来吧,吃我的面包,喝的,我已经混到酒。”The negative is: "Forsake the foolish, and live."是否定的:“放弃愚蠢的,和生活。”The closing of this chapter exhibits Christ's "great rival standing in the same wide thoroughfare of the world and bidding for the youth who thronged it."本章结束展品基督的“伟大的对手站在相同的世界青年挤满招标通途。”"All that is contrary to Christ and dangerous to souls, is gathered up and individualized in the person of an abandoned woman lying in wait for unwary passengers, baiting her hook with sin and dragging her victims down the incline to hell." “所有这一切都违背基督和危险灵魂,是在一个被遗弃的女子趴在等待粗心的乘客,引诱她与罪挂钩,倾斜拖累她的受害者地狱的人聚集起来,因材施教。” The reader will see how Proverbs may be fruitfully utilized in preaching the gospel.读者会看到了如何箴言可能卓有成效利用传福音。

Questions问题
1.1。What have we in these chapters?在这些章节中,我们有什么?2.2。Who really is speaking here?真的是谁在这里讲的?3.3。What proves it?什么证明呢? 4.4。Analyze verses 30 and 31 from the New Testament point of view.分析新的旧约经文30日和31日。5.5。What parable of Christ is suggested in chapter 9?建议在第9章基督的比喻是什么?

Proverbs Chapters 10-15箴言章10-15

Some regard the division now entered upon as the original nucleus of the whole collection of proverbs (see the first sentence of verse one).有些方面的部门现在已经进入后谚语整个集合的原核(见第一句的诗句之一)。The division extends really to the close of chapter 22, and contains "maxims, precepts and admonitions with respect to the most diverse relations of life."的分工真正延伸到第22章结束,包含“生活最多样化的关系方面的格言,戒律和告诫。”In so much of it as is covered by the present lesson we have a contrast "between the godly and the ungodly, and their respective lots in life."在有这么多,覆盖由目前的教训,我们有一个对比“之间的敬虔和不敬虔的,并在生活中各自的地段。”

Following Zockler's outline in Lange we have this contrast set before us, first in general terms (c. 10), and after that, to the end of the lesson, in detail, as follows: (1) As to the just and unjust, and good and bad conduct towards one's neighbor, chapter 11. Zockler在朗格大纲之后,我们已经摆在我们面前的,首先是在一般条款(约10),之后,这种反差,课结束,详细如下:(1)的公正和不公正的,好的和坏的行为对一个人的邻居,第11章。 (2) As to the domestic and public associations, chapter 12.(2)由于国内和社会团体,第12章。(3) As to the use of temporal good, and of the Word of God as the highest good, chapter 13. (3)至于使用时间好,和神的话语作为最高的善,第13章。(4) As to the relation between the wise and the foolish, the rich and the poor, masters and servants, chapter 14. (4)至于明智的和愚蠢的,富人与穷人,主人和仆人,第14章之间的关系。(5) As to the various other relations and callings in life, especially within the sphere of religion, chapter 15.(5)至于其他各种关系和召唤,在生活中,特别是在宗教领域,第15章。

Memory Verses and Choice Texts记忆诗歌和选择文本
This lesson is not suggestive of questions, but contains verses it would be well to memorize.这个教训是没有提示的问题,而是包含将背诵的​​诗句。For example, in chapter 10, verses 7, 9, 14, 22, 25; chapter 11, verses 1, 2, 13, 24, 25, 26, 30; chapter 13, verses 7, 15, 24; chapter 14, verses 10, 12, 25, 27, 32, 34; chapter 15, verses 1, 3, 8.例如,在第10章的诗句7,9,14,22,25,第11章的诗句1,2,13,24,25,26,30,第13章,经文7,15,24章14节10,12,25,27,32,34,第15章的诗句1,3,8。 In Arnot's "Laws from Heaven for Life on Earth," there are helpful discourses on several of these texts, the titles of which will be appreciated by young preachers: "Posthumous Fame," 10:7; "The Center of Gravity," 10:9; "The Passing Whirlwind and the Sure Foundation," 10:25; "Assorted Pairs," 11:2; "Virtue Its Own Reward," 11: 17; "Scattering to Keep, and Keeping to Scatter," 11:24; "Raising the Market," 11:26; "The Wisdom of Winning Souls," 11:30; "Man Responsible for His Belief," 14:12; "The Two Departures--The Hopeful and the Hopeless," 14:32在阿诺特的“从地球上的生命天堂法律”,也有对这些文本的几个有用的话语,其中的标题将被赞赏年轻的传教士:“谥号名利,”10点07分,“重心,”10 :9“旋风的传递,并确保基金会”,10时25分,“什锦对,”11:2“德治其自己的奖励,”11:17;“散射保留,并保持分散,”11: 24“提高了市场,”11点26分,“智慧胜出的灵魂,”11点30;“人,他相信,负责任的”十四时12分;“两个出发 - 充满希望和无望,”14 :32

Proverbs Chapters 16-24箴言章16-24

In these chapters we have a series of exhortations to a life of godliness expressed in general terms about as follows: (1) Confidence in God as a wise ruler, chapter 16.在这些章节中,我们有一系列关于一般条款如下表示的敬虔生活的嘱托:(1)神的信心,作为一个明智的统治者,第16章。(2) A disposition of peacefulness and contentment, chapter 17.(2)处置的安宁和满足,第17章。(3) The virtues of affability, fidelity, and others of a social nature, chapter 18. (3)亲切,保真度,和其他人的社会性,第18章的美德。(4) Humility and meekness, chapter 19.(4),第19章的谦卑和温顺。(5) Sobriety, diligence and kindness, chapter 21.(5)清醒,勤奋和善良,第21章。(6) Justice, patience, submission, chapter 21.(6)司法,耐心,提交第21章。(7) The attainment and preservation of a good name, chapter 22.(7)实现和保存一个好名字,第22章。(8) Warnings against avarice, licentiousness, and similar vices, chapter 23. (8)警告反对贪婪,放荡,和类似的恶习,第23章。(9) Warnings against ungodly companionship, chapter 24.(9)第24章对不敬虔的陪伴,警告。

Proverbs Chapters 25-29箴言章25-29

This division of the book is introduced in the first verse of chapter 25, as the "proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah, king of Judah, copied out."这种书的分工是在第25章的第一节为介绍,“所罗门的箴言,它复制出来,犹大王希西家的男人。”What these words mean it is difficult to say, except in the general sense that the teachers of Hezekiah's period selected and gathered together wise sayings that had been written, or handed down orally in previous generations.除了一般意义上说,希西家时期的教师选择和聚集明智的说法,已书面,或口头流传下来的前几代,这是很难说这些话的意思。 They may have been those of Solomon only, and yet his name may be attached to them simply because they were now made part of his general collection.他们可能已经所罗门只,但他的名字可能会重视他们,仅仅是因为他们现在他的一般收集的一部分。They contain admonitions to the fear of God and righteousness, addressed partly to kings, and yet also to their subjects.他们告诫包含的敬畏上帝和正义,解决部分的国王,并且还也以他们的臣民。They also contain warnings against evil conduct of various kinds, (c. 26); against conceit and arrogance (c. 27); against unlawful dealings, especially of the rich with the poor (c. 28); and against stubbornness and insubordination, (c. 29).它们还含有警告反对邪恶的各种行为,(C. 26);反对骄傲自满(C. 27);打击非法交易,特别是富人与穷人(C. 28);,反对固执和不服从, (约29)。

Proverbs Chapters 30-31箴言章30-31

The last division consists of two supplements, one of the words of Agur (c. 30), and the other of Lemuel (c. 31).最后一个师组成的两个补充,Agur(C. 30)的话,和莱缪尔(C. 31)。Agur's words begin with an exaltation of the Word of God (vv. 1-6), followed by short and pithy maxims with reference to the rich and the poor, pride and greed, etc. Lemuel's words open with a philosophical statement, applying chiefly to kings, followed by his well-known poem in praise of the virtuous woman. Agur的话开始,一个字的神(1-6节)提高,其次是有钱人和穷人,骄傲和贪婪等莱缪尔的话用哲学的语句短小精悍的格言,主要应用国王,其次是他的著名的诗赞美贤惠的女人。


Book of Proverbs预订箴言

Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the Hagiographa, and found in the Vulgate after the books of Psalms and Job.一个放置在希伯来圣经之间的Hagiographa旧约智斗著作,诗篇和就业的书籍后发现,在武加大。

I. NAMES AND GENERAL OBJECT一,名称及一般对象

In the Masoretic Text, the Book of Proverbs has for its natural heading the words Míshlê Shelomoh (Proverbs of Solomon), wherewith this sacred writing begins (cf. x).在马所拉文本,箴言书有其自然的标题的话Míshlê Shelomoh(所罗门的箴言),wherewith这个神圣的写作开始(参见X)。In the Talmud and in later Jewish works the Book of Proverbs is oftentimes designated by the single word Míshlê, and this abridged title is expressly mentioned in the superscription "Liber Proverbiorum, quem Hebræi Misle appellant", found in the official edition of the Vulgate.在犹太法典,并在后来的犹太箴言常常是指定由单个词Míshlê,这个删节的标题是明确提及的上标“LIBER Proverbiorum,quem Hebræi Misle上诉人”,在正式版本的武加大中发现。In the Septuagint manuscripts, the two Hebrew titles are rendered by and , respectively.在septuagint手稿,两个希伯来文标题所提供的分别。From these Greek titles again are immediately derived the Latin renderings, "Parabolæ Salomonis", "Parabolæ", a trace of which appears in the Tridentine "Decretum de Canon. Script.", wherein the Book of Proverbs is simply called "Parabolæ".从这些希腊冠军再次立即派生的拉丁渲染,“抛物线Salomonis”,“抛物线”,其中在律但丁出现“Decretum佳能。脚本跟踪。”箴言,其中仅仅是所谓的“抛物线”。 The ordinary title "Proverbia Salomonis" was apparently taken from the Old Latin Version into the Vulgate, whence comes directly the usual English title of "Proverbs".普通的标题是“Proverbia Salomonis”显然是从旧到拉丁武加大版本,从那里直接平常的“箴言”的英文名称。In the Church's liturgy, the Book of Proverbs is, like the other Sapiential writings, designated by the common term "Wisdom".在教会的礼仪,箴言,像其他智斗指定的著作,由共同的长远的“智慧”。This is consonant to the practice, common in early Christian times, of designating such books by the word "Wisdom" or by some expresion in which this word occurs, as "All-virtuous Wisdom", etc. Indeed, it is probable that the title , "Wisdom", was common in Jewish circles at the beginning of Christianity, and that it passed from them to the early Fathers of the Church (cf. Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxii, xxvi).这是辅音字母的做法,在早期基督教时代的共同指定“智慧”一词,这个词出现在其中一些expresion这类书籍,“全良性智慧”等,事实上,它是可能的称号,“智慧”,是共同的基督教开始在犹太人的圈子,并通过从他们早期教会的神父(参见优西比乌,“组织胺。传道书”,四,22,XXVI)号决议。 Of the various names given to the Book of Proverbs, that of Wisdom best sets forth the ethical object of this inspired writing.箴言,智慧,最能阐明这启发写作的伦理对象的各种名称的。However disconnected the pithy sayings or vivid descriptions which make up the book may appear, they, each and all, are bound by one and the same moral purpose: they aim at inculcating wisdom as understook by the Hebrews of old, that is perfection of knowledge showing itself in action, whether in the case of king or peasant, statesman or artisan, philosopher or unlearned.但是断开的短小精悍的谚语或生动的描述,从而弥补了书,可能会出现,他们每个和所有,是由一个约束和相同的道德目的:他们的目标是在旧的希伯来人,是完善知识灌输智慧为understook行动本身显示,无论是在国王或农民,政治家或工匠,哲学家或没有学问。 Differently from the term "Wisdom", the title Míshlê (St. Jerome, Masloth) has a distinct reference to the symbolic character and poetical form of the sayings which are gathered together in the Book of Proverbs.标题Míshlê(圣杰罗姆,Masloth)不同的“智慧”一词,有一个象征性的性格和诗的形式,这是一起聚集在箴言书的说法明显参考。 In general, the Hebrew Mashal (constr. plur. Míshlê) denotes a representative saying, that is, a statement which, however deduced from a single instance, is capable of application to other instances of a similar kind.在一般情况下,希伯来语马沙尔(constr. plur。Míshlê)表示一个代表说,这是一个声明,但是从单一实例推断,能够应用到其他类似的实例。Taken in this sense, it corresponds pretty well to the words proverb, parable, maxim etc., in our Western literatures.在这个意义上说,它对应颇能的话谚语,寓言,格言等,在我们的西方文献。But besides, it has the meaning of sentences constructed in parallelism; and in point of fact, the contents of the Book of Proverbs exhibit, from beginning to end, this leading feature of Hebrew poetry.此外,它在并行构造句子的含义;事实上,箴言展览的图书内容,从开始到结束,这希伯来诗歌的主要特征。Hence, it appears that, as prefixed to this inspired writing, the word Míshlê describes the general character of the Book of Proverbs as a manual of practical rules which are set forth in a poetical form.因此,看来,这启发写作的前缀,这个词Míshlê介绍,这是在诗的形式提出的实际规则手册箴言书的一般性质。

II.二。DIVISIONS AND CONTENTS区划和内容

As it stands at the present day, the Book of Proverbs begins with the general title, "Míshlê Shelomoh, the son of David, king of Israel", which is immediately followed by a prologue (i, 2-6), stating the aim and importance of the entire work: the whole collection aims at imparting wisdom and at enabling men to understand all kinds of Mashals.正如它在现今的看台上,箴言与一般的标题开始,大卫的儿子,以色列王“,这是紧接着拉开序幕(2-6),说明其目的,”Míshlê Shelomoh和整个工作的重要性:整个集合,旨在传授智慧,使男子了解各种Mashals。The first part of the book (i, 7-ix), itself a hortatory introduction to the collection of proverbs which follows, is a commendation of wisdom.书(I,7 - IX),本身就是一个劝告引进收集谚语遵循,第一部分是一个智慧的表彰。After a deeply religious epigraph (i, 7), the writer, speaking like a father, gives a series of exhortations and warnings to an imagined pupil or disciple.一个深深的宗教题词(I,7),作家,像父亲发言后,给出了一系列的规劝和警告,以想象中的学生或弟子。He warns him against evil company (i, 8-19); describes to him the advantages attending the pursuit of wisdom, and the evils to be avoided by such course (ii); exhorts him to obedience, to trust in God, to the payment of legal offerings, to patience under the Divine chastisements, and sets forth the priceless value of wisdom (iii, 1-26).他警告说他对邪恶的公司(8-19),描述了他的优势,出席追求智慧,并要避免这类课程(II)的罪恶,劝告他服从,相信上帝,支付的法律产品,下神圣chastisements的耐心,并阐述了无价的智慧价值(三1-26)。 After some miscellaneous precepts (iii, 27-35), he renews his pressing exhortation to wisdom and virtue (iv), and gives several warnings against unchaste women (v; vi, 20-35; vii), after the first of which are inserted warnings against suretyship, indolence, falsehood, and various vices (vi, 1-19. At several points (i, 20-33; viii; ix) Wisdom herself is introduced as speaking and as displaying her charms, origin, and power to men. The style of this first part is flowing, and the thoughts therein expressed are generally developed in the form of connected discourses. The second part of the book (x-xxii, 16) has for its distinct heading: "Míshlê Shelomoh", and is made up of disconnected sayings in couplet form, arranged in no particular order, so that it is impossible to give a summary of them. In many instances a saying is repeated within this large collection, usually in identical terms, at times with some slight changes of expression. Appended to this second part of the book are two minor collections (xxii, 17-xxiv, 22; ssiv, 23-34), chiefly made up of aphoristic quatrains. The opening verses (xxii, 17-21) of the first appendix request attention to the "words of the wise" which follow (xxii, 22-xxiv, 22), and which, in a consecutive form recalling that of the first part of the book, set forth warnings against various excesses. The second appendix has for its title: "These also are words of the wise", and the few proverbs it contains conclude with two verses (33, 34), apparently taken over from vi, 10, 11. The third part of the book (xxv-xxix) bears the inscription: "These are also Míshlê Shelomoh, which the men of Ezechias, king of Juda, copied out." By their miscellaneous character, their couplet form, etc., the proverbs of this third part resemble those of x-xxii, 16. Like them also, they are followed by two minor collections (xxx and xxxi, 1-9), each suplied with its respective title. The first of these minor collections has for its heading: "Words of Agur, the son of Takeh", and its principal contents are Agur's meditation on the Divine transcendence (xxx, 2-9), and groups of numerical proverbs. The second minor collection is inscribed: "The Words of Lamuel, a king: the oracle which his mother taught him." In it the queen-mother warns her son against sensuality, drunkenness, and injustice. Nothing is known of Agur and Lamuel; their names are possibly symbolical. The book concludes with an alphabetical poem descriptive of the virtuous woman (xxxi, 10-39).一些杂项戒律(三27-35)后,他重申他的迫切告诫智慧和美德(四),并给出了对unchaste妇女几个警告(V;第七;六,20-35)后,其中的第一,第八; IX)自己是发言和展示她的魅力,原产地引进的智慧和力量,对suretyship,懒惰,虚伪,和各种丑恶现象(1-19六,在几个点(I,20-33插入警告第一部分的风格是流动的,和其中的思想表达。男子一般在连接的话语形式在本书的第二部分(X - 22,16),其鲜明的标题:“Míshlê Shelomoh”是对联的形式,没有特定的顺序排列,断开熟语,因此,它是不可能给他们的总结,在许多情况下,一种说法是在这个大集合内重复一些时间,通常在相同的条件, 。轻微的变化,表达追加到这本书的第二部分是两个未成年的集合(22,17 - 24,22; ssiv,23-34),主要格言绝句开幕的诗句(22 17-21)第一个附录要求注意“智者的话”,按照(22,22,24,22),并在一个连续的形式,回顾,本书的第一部分,阐述对各种过激行为的警告。第二个附录的标题:“这些还都是智者的话”,和它所包含的几个谚语最后两节经文(33,34)显然从VI,10,11,该书的第三部分(XXV XXIX)承担的题词:“这也是Míshlê Shelomoh,埃泽希亚什,犹大王,男子复制出来”通过其杂的性格,他们的对联形式,等等,这第三部分的谚语类似。X - 22,16也和他们一样,他们是由两个小集合(XXX和XXXI,1-9),其各自的标题suplied遵循这些小集合,它的标题:“Agur词Agur的冥想神圣的超越(XXX,2-9),和数值谚语组,Takeh的儿子“,其主要内容是第二个次要收集落款是:”Lamuel,一个国王的话:在Oracle他的母亲教他“在女王母亲警告她的儿子对淫荡,醉酒,和不公正什么是Agur和Lamuel;他们的名字可能是象征性的书最后以字母诗描述贤惠的女人。 (第31,10-39)。

III.三。HEBREW TEXT AND ANCIENT VERSIONS希伯来文和古版本

A close study of the present Hebrew Text of the Book of Proverbs proves that the primitive wording of the pithy sayings which make up this manual of Hebrew wisdom has experienced numerous alterations in the course of its transmission.一本希伯来文的箴言密切的研究证明,精辟的说法,使本手册希伯来智慧的原始文字在其传输过程中经历了无数的改动。 Some of these imperfections have, with some probability, been assigned to the period during which the maxims of the "wise men" were preserved orally.有些不完善的地方,具有一定的概率,被分配到在此期间,“智者”的格言,被保存口头期间。Most of them belong undoubtedly to the time after these sententious or enigmatic sayings had been written down.他们大多属于无疑的时间后,这些格言或高深莫测的说法已经写了下来。The Book of Proverbs was numbered among the "Hagiographa" (writings held by the ancient Hebrews as less sacred and authoritative than either the "Law" or the "Prophets"), and, in consequence, copyists felt naturally less bound to transcribe its text with scrupulous accuracy.箴言“Hagiographa”(古代希伯来人比“法”或“先知”的神圣和权威的著作),编号之间,因此,抄写员感觉自然就少必然要抄写其文本一丝不苟的准确性。 Again, the copyists of Proverbs knew, or at least thought they knew, by memory the exact words of the pithy sayings they had to write out; hence arose involuntary changes which, once introduced, were perpetuated or even added to by subsequent transcribers. ,谚语抄写知道,或至少认为他们知道的内存,精辟的说法,他们写出来的原话,因此出现,一经推出,延续或随后誊写甚至添加到非自愿变更。Finally, the obscure or enigmatic character of a certain number of maxims led to the deliberate insertion of glosses in the text, so that primitive distichs now wrongly appear in the form of tristichs, etc. (cf. Knabenbauer, "Comm. in Proverbia", Paris, 1910).最后,模糊或神秘的格言导致在文本故意掩盖插入若干字符,使原始distichs错误地出现在tristichs形式等(参见Knabenbauer,“商业Proverbia”巴黎,1910年)。 Of the ancient versions of the Book of Proverbs, the Septuagint is the most valuable.箴言古老的版本,译本是最宝贵的。 It probably dates from the middle of the second century BC, and exhibits very important differences from the Massoretic Text in point of omissions, transpositions, and additions.它可能日期从公元前二世纪中叶,展品从massoretic文本中的疏漏,换位和补充点非常重要的差异。The translator was a Jew conversant indeed with the Greek language, but had at times to use paraphrases owing to the difficulty of rendering Hebrew pithy sayings into intelligible Greek.翻译是一个犹太人确实熟悉希腊语,但有时不得不用释义由于渲染成可理解的希腊希伯来语精辟的说法困难。After full allowance has been made for the translator's freedom in rendering, and for the alterations introduced into the primitive wording of this version by later transcribers and revisers, two things remain quite certain: first, the Septuagint may occasionally be utilized for the discovery and the enmendation of inaccurate readings in our present Hebrew Text; and next, the most important variations which this Greek Version presents, especially in the line of additions and transpositions, point to the fact that the translator rendered a Hebrew original which differed considerably from the one embodied in the Massoretic Bibles.的译本译者的渲染自由取得了完整的津贴后,引入的这个版本后来誊写和审校的原始措辞的改变,两件事情仍然十分肯定:第一,可能偶尔被利用的发现和对enmendation我们目前的希伯来文中的错误读数;和未来,最重要的变化,这个希腊的版本呈现,尤其是在补充和换位,点线的事实,提供翻译不同于体现相当的希伯来文原的massoretic圣经。 It is well known that the Sahidic Version of Proverbs was made from the Septuagint, before the latter had been subjected to recensions, and hence this Coptic Version is useful for the control of the Greek Text.这是众所周知的,从七十的箴言Sahidic版本,后者之前曾经遭受过的recensions,科普特版本,因此这是希腊文的控制非常有用。 The present Peshito, or Syriac Version of Proverbs was probably based on the Hebrew Text, with which it generally agrees with regard to material and arrangement.目前Peshito,或箴言叙利亚版本很可能是根据希伯来文,它一般与材料和安排方面同意。At the same time, it was most likely made with respect to the Septuagint, the peculiar readings of which it repeatedly adopts.同时,它是最有可能的译本,它多次采用特殊的读数。The Latin Version of Proverbs, which is embodied in the Vulgate, goes back to St. Jerome, and for the most part closely agrees with the Massoretic Text.拉丁文版的谚语,这是体现在武加大,可追溯到圣杰罗姆,并在大多数情况下,密切配合massoretic文本的同意。It is probable that many of its present deviations from the Hebrew in conformity with the Septuagint should be referred to later copyists anxious to complete St. Jerome's work by means of the "Vetus Itala", which had been closely made from the Greek.这是可能的,许多从符合该septuagint希伯来语其目前的偏差,应交由急于完成“Vetus伊泰莱”,从希腊一直密切圣杰罗姆的工作以后抄写员。

IV.四。AUTHORSHIP AND DATE作者和日期

The vexed questions anent the authorship and date of the collections which make up the Book of Proverbs go back only to the sixteenth century of our era, when the Hebrew Text began to be studied more closely than previously.争论不休的问题,关于作者和日期的集合,从而弥补了“箴言书回去只给了我们这个时代,的希伯来文时,开始进行研究比以前更密切的十六世纪。 They were not even suspected by the early Fathers who, following implicitly the inscriptions in i, 1; x, 1; xxiv, 1 (which bear direct witness to the Solomonic authorship of large collections of proverbs), and being misled by the Greek rendering of the titles in xxx, 1; xxxi, 1 (which does away altogether with the references to Agur and Lamuel as authors distinct from Solomon), regarded King Solomon as the author of the whole Book of Proverbs.他们甚至不怀疑的人,下面的隐式I,1铭文的早期教父,X,1个; XXIV,1(负有直接见证所罗门的箴言大集合作者),和希腊的渲染误导XXX,1的标题,第31,1(完全摒弃了作者从所罗门不同Agur和Lamuel),视为箴言书的作者所罗门王。 Nor were they real questions for the subsequent writers of the West, although these medieval authors had in the Vulgate a more faithful rendering of xxx, 1; xxxi, 1, which might have led them to reject the Solomonic origin of the sections ascribed to Agur and Lamuel respectively, for in their eyes the words Agur and Lamuel were but symbolical names of Solomon.他们也不随后西方作家的真正的问题,虽然这些中世纪的作者,在武加大了更忠实地呈现了XXX,1;三十一,1,这可能导致他们拒绝冲高到Agur所罗门节起源Lamuel分别在他们眼里,Agur和Lamuel的话,但所罗门的象征性的名称。 At the present day, most Catholic scholars feel free to treat as non-Solomonic not only the short sections which are ascribed in the Hebrew Text to Agur and Lamuel, but also the minor collections which their titles attribute to "the wise" (xxii, 16- xxiv, 22; xxiv, 23-34), and the alphabetical poem concerning the virtuous woman which is appended to the whole book.在现今,大多数天主教学者认为自由视为非所罗门不仅是在希伯来文Agur和Lamuel冲高的短节,但也是他们的标题属性“明智”(XXII的未成年人的集合, 16 - XXIV,22,24,23-34),而贤惠的女人,这是追加到整本书按字母顺序排列的诗。With regard to the other parts of the work (i-ix; x-xxii, 16; xxv-xxix), Catholic writers are wellnigh unanimous in ascribing them to Solomon.关于工作的其他部分(I - IX,X - 22,16; XXV - XXIX),天主教作家wellnigh一致归咎于他们所罗门。Bearing distinctly in mind the statement in III (AV I) Kings, iv, 29-32, that, in his great wisdom, Solomon "spoke 3000 Mashals", they have no difficulty in admitting that this monarch may be the author of the much smaller number of proverbs included in the three collections in question.轴承在考虑在第三语句(AV)国王,四,29-32,在他的伟大的智慧,所罗门“谈到3000 Mashals”明显,他们并没有困难,承认,这君主可能是作者的多谚语小的数目,包括在有关的三个集合。Guided by ancient Jewish and Christian tradition they feel constrained to abide by the explicit titles to the same collections, all the more so because the titles in the Book of Proverbs are manifestly discriminating with respect to authorship, and because the title, "These also are Mishle Shelomoh, which the men of Ezechias, King of Juda, copied out" (xxv, 1), in particular, bears the impress of definiteness and accuracy.因为标题,“这些还都是由古老的犹太教和基督教的传统,他们觉得约束,遵守明确的标题相同的集合,更因为在箴言书的标题显然与尊重作者的歧视,并为指导Mishle Shelomoh,埃泽希亚什,犹大国王,男子复制出来“(XXV,1),尤其是熊留下深刻印象的确定性和准确性。Lastly, looking into the contents of these three large collections, they do not think that anything found therein with respect to style, ideas, historic background etc. should compel anyone to give up the traditional authorship, at whatever time–either under Ezechias, or as late as Esdras–all the collections embodied in the Book of Proverbs reached their present form and arrangement.最后,寻找到这三个大的集合的内容,他们并不认为其中风格的东西,思想,历史背景等,应该迫使人放弃传统的署名权,在任何时间下埃泽希亚​​什,或迟埃斯德拉斯全部体现在箴言书的集合达到其目前的形式和安排。 A very different view concerning the authorship and date of the collections ascribed to Solomon by their titles is gaining favour among non-Catholic scholars.一个非常不同的看法,有关的作者和他们的头衔赋予所罗门集合日期是获得之间的非天主教学者的青睐。It treats the headings of these collections as no more reliable than the titles of the Psalms.它把这些藏品的标题,不超过可靠的诗篇的标题。It maintains that none of the collections comes from Solomon's own hand and that the general tenor of their contents bespeaks a late post-exilic date.它认为藏品都从所罗门自己的手,其内容一般男高音四起一晚后exilic日期。The following are the principal arguments usually set forth in favour of this opinion.以下是通常设置在赞成这个意见提出的主要论点。In these collections there is no challenge of idolatry, such as would naturally be expected if they were pre-exilic, and monogamy is everywhere presupposed.在这些藏品中有没有偶像崇拜的挑战,如自然会预计,如果他们被放逐前,和一夫一妻制是无处不在的先决条件。 It is very remarkable, too, that throughout no mention is made of Israel or of any institution peculiar to Israel.这是非常了不起,太,在整个以色列或任何机构特有的以色列没有提及。Again, the subject of those collections is not the nation, which apparently no longer enjoys independence, but the individual, to whom wisdom appeals in a merely ethical, and hence very late, manner.同样,这些藏品的主题是没有的,这显然不再享有独立的国家,而是个人,在一个纯粹的道德,因此很晚,地智慧而提出的上诉。 The personification of wisdom, in particular (chap. viii), is either the direct result of the influence of Greek upon Jewish thought, or, if independent of Greek philosophy, the product of late Jewish metaphysics.智慧的化身,特别是(第八章),是希腊犹太人的思想,或者,如果独立的希腊哲学,已故犹太形而上学的产品后的影响的直接结果。 Finally, the close spiritual and intellectual relation of Proverbs to Ecclesiasticus shows that, however great and numerous are the differences in detail between them, the two works cannot be separated by an interval of several centuries.最后,Ecclesiasticus表明,无论多么伟大和众多它们之间的详细差异的箴言密切的精神和智力的关系,不能将两部作品相隔几百年的时间间隔。 Despite the confidence with which some modern scholars urge these arguments against the traditional authorship of i-ix; x-xxii, 16; xxv,- xxix, a close examination of their value leaves one unconvinced of their proving force.尽管一些现代学者呼吁这些对传统的I - IX作者的论点; X - XXII,16; XXV - XXIX,仔细检查了自己的价值叶其证明力不服的信心。

I. NAMES AND GENERAL OBJECT一,名称及一般对象

The Book of Proverbs is justly numbered among the protocanonical writings of the Old Testament.箴言书是公正的编号之间的旧约的protocanonical著作。In the first century of our era its canonical authority was certainly acknowledged in Jewish and Christian circles, for the Sacred Writers of the New Testament make a frequent use of its contents, quoting them at times explicitly as Holy Writ (cf. Romans 12:19-20; Hebrews 12:5-6; James 4:5-6, etc.).规范的权威在我们这个时代的第一个世纪肯定是在犹太教和基督教界承认,新约圣经的神圣的作家其内容的频繁使用,有时引用他们明确圣经(参罗马书12点19 -20;希伯来书12:5-6;詹姆斯4:5-6等)。It is true that certain doubts as to the inspiration of the Book of Proverbs, which had been entertained by ancient rabbis who belonged to the School of Shammai, reappeared in the Jewish assembly at Jamnia (about AD 100); but these were only theoretical difficulties which could not induce the Jewish leaders of the time to count this book out of the Canon, and which in fact were there and then set at rest for ever.这是事实,某些怀疑的箴言“的书,这已属于沙麦学校,詹姆尼犹太人大会再现(约公元100年)的古拉比受理灵感,但这些只是理论上的困难这可能不会引起当时的犹太领袖计数佳能这本书,这实际上在那里,然后永远在休息。 The subsequent assaults of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 429), of Spinoza (d. 1677), and of Le Clerc (d. 1736) against the inspiration of that sacred book left likewise its canonical authority unshaken.西奥多的摩普绥提亚(卒于429)斯宾诺莎(卒于1677),和乐Clerc(卒于1736年)的反对,神圣的书的灵感随后袭击留下同样规范的权威不可动摇的。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.弗朗西斯大肠杆菌Gigot编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。With thanks to Fr.随着神父的感谢。John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.约翰Hilkert和圣玛丽教堂,美国俄亥俄州阿克伦城天主教百科全书,第十二卷。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

For Introductions to the Old Testament see INTRODUCTION.旧约介绍,见导言。Recent commentaries–Catholic: ROHLING, (Mainz, 1879); LESÊTRE (Paris, 1879); FILLION (Paris, 1892); VIGOUROUX (Paris, 1903); KNABENBAUER (Paris, 1910).最近评论天主教:ROHLING,(美因茨,1879年); LESÊTRE(巴黎,1879年);菲利安(巴黎,1892年); VIGOUROUX(巴黎,1903年); KNABENBAUER(巴黎,1910年)。Protestant: ZÖCKLER (tr. New York, 1870); DELITSCH (tr. Edinburgh, 1874); NOWACK (Leipzig, 1883); WILDEBOER (Freiburg, 1897); FRANKENBERG (Göttingen, 1898); STRACK (Nördlingen, 1899); TOY (New York, 1899).新教:ZÖCKLER(编辑部纽约,1870年); DELITSCH(编辑部爱丁堡,1874年); NOWACK(莱比锡,1883年); Wildeboer的(弗赖堡,1897年);弗兰肯贝格(哥廷根,1898年);施特拉克(1899年Nördlingen,);玩具(纽约,1899年)。 General works: MEIGNAN, Solomon, son règne, ses écrits (Paris, 1890); CHEYNE, Job and Solomon, (New York, 1899); KENT, The Wise Men of Ancient Israel (New York, 1899); DAVISON, The Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament (London, 1900).一般工程:MEIGNAN,所罗门群岛,儿子règne,écrits SES(巴黎,1890年);进益,就业和所罗门(纽约,1899年);肯特,古代以色列(纽约,1899年)的智者;戴维森的智慧旧约文学(伦敦,1900年)。


Book of Proverbs预订箴言

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

Title and Divisions.标题和分部。

Not Solomonic.所罗门。

Wisdom.智慧。

No Immortality or Messiah.无仙道或弥赛亚。

Date.日期。

Title and Divisions.标题和分部。

One of the Ketubim, or Hagiographa, belonging to the group of "Ḥokmah," or "Wisdom" books.Ketubim,或Hagiographa,属于组“Ḥokmah,”或“智慧”的书籍。The Masoretic superscription to the first and twenty-fifth chapters is "Proverbs of Solomon" ("Mishle Shelomoh"; and so in the subscription to the book in the Alexandrian and Sinaitic Greek MSS.); but in the Greek and in later Jewish usage (and in the AV and RV) the book is entitled simply "Proverbs" ("Mishle").马所拉的第一和第二十五次章上标为“所罗门的箴言”(“Mishle Shelomoh”,所以在认购书在亚历山大和西乃半岛希腊的MSS);但在希腊,并在后来的犹太的使用(在AV和RV)的书的题目是简单的“箴言”(“Mishle”)。 The longer title belonged originally to the central collection of aphorisms, x.较长的所有权属于原中央收集到的格言警句,X. 1-xxii.1 - XXII。16, and to xxv.-xxix., and may have been extended early to the whole work, but the shorter form became the predominant one, as, indeed, there are other titles to certain sections (xxii. 17, xxx. 1, xxxi, 1).16 xxv. - XXIX,并可能早期一直延伸到整个工作,但较短的形式成为主要的,因为,事实上,还有其他产品的某些部分(xxii. 17,XXX。三十一,1)。 It is uncertain whether or not the name "Wisdom" (or "All-Virtuous Wisdom"), common in early Christian writings (Clement of Rome, "Corinth," i. 57; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iv. 22 et al.), was of Jewish origin; the designation "Book of Wisdom" in the Talmud (Tosef., BB 14b) may be a descriptive term and not a title, and the citation of Job xxviii.这是不确定的名称“智慧”(或“全良性智慧”),共同在早期基督教的著作(克莱门特的罗马,“科林斯,”一57;尤西比乌斯的“传道书组织胺与否。”IV 22。等),是犹太血统;指定在塔木德“智慧之书”(Tosef.,BB 14B)可能是一个描述性的术语,而不是一个标题,和工作XXVIII引用。 12 ("But where shall wisdom be found?") at the beginning of the Midrash merely indicates that the book belongs in the Ḥokmah category.12(“但智慧的地方被发现呢?”)米德拉士开始只是表示,这本书属于Ḥokmah类。

The following divisions of the book are indicated in the text: (1) A group of discourses on the conduct of life (i.-ix.), comprising the praise of wisdom as the guide of life (i.-iv.); warnings against unchaste women (v.-vii.; with three misplaced paragraphs, vi. 1-19, against certain social faults); the description of wisdom as the controller of life and as Yhwh's companion in the creation of the world (viii.); and a contrast between wisdom and folly (ix.; with a misplaced collection of aphorisms, ix. 7-12).显示在文本书以下部门:(1)对生命的行为(i.-ix.)集团的话语,包括智慧作为生活的指南(i.-iv.)的一致好评;警告对unchaste妇女(五至七;错位与三个段落,VI 1-19对某些社会断层);智慧控制器的生活和描述耶和华在创造世界的同伴(viii. ),智慧和愚蠢(ix.之间的对比;错位收集的警句,九7-12)。(2) A collection, or book, of aphoristic couplets (x. 1-xxii. 16).(2)收集,或书的格言警句对联,(十,1 16 - XXII)。(3) Two small groups of aphoristic quatrains (xxii. 17-xxiv. 22 and xxiv. 23-34). (3)两个小团体的格言绝句(xxii. 17 XXIV 22 XXIV。23-34)。(4) A second collection of couplets (xxv.-xxix).(4)对联的第二个集合(xxv. XXIX)。(5) A miscellaneous group of discourses and numerical aphorisms (xxx.-xxxi.), mostly in tetrads: reverent agnosticism (xxx. 1-4); certainty of God's word (5-6); a prayer (7-9); against slandering a servant (10); against certain vices and errors (11-33); a code for a king (xxxi. 1-9); a picture of a model housewife (10-31).(5)杂项组的话语和数值警句(xxx. XXXI)。,大多是在四分:虔诚的不可知论(xxx. 1-4);肯定神的话语(5-6);一个祷告(7-9)反对诽谤仆人(10);对某些丑恶现象和错误(11-33);的模型家庭主妇(10-31)图片;为国王(xxxi. 1-9)代码。These divisions, various in form and content, suggest that the book was formed by the combination of a number of booklets.这些部门,各种形式和内容,建议书,小册子结合形成。

Not Solomonic.所罗门。

The ascription of the book to Solomon, in the titles and in tradition, is without valid foundation.所罗门书的归属,在标题和传统,是没有有效的基础。In the Prophets and Psalms titles are admittedly not authoritative-they are based on the feeling or guesses of late scribes, not on documentary evidence-and they can not be more trustworthy here.在先知和诗篇的标题是无可否认不具权威性的,它们都是基于后期文士的感觉或猜测,而不是书面证据,他们无法更值得信赖。 The elaborate heading to the section xxv.-xxix.精心制作的标题节xxv. XXIX。("Proverbs of Solomon Edited by Scholars of Hezekiah's Court") is paralleled by the superscriptions to some of the Psalms (li., lix., lx.), which are manifestly untrustworthy. (“所罗门的箴言希西家法院学者主编的”)是平行的superscriptions一些诗篇(li.,LIX,LX),这显然是不可信的。Hezekiah'stime may have been chosen by the author of this heading because he regarded the collection xxv.-xxix. Hezekiah'stime可能已经选择了本项“一书的作者,因为他认为收集xxv. - XXIX。as later than x.-xxii.后来比x - XXII。16, and therefore to be referred to the Augustan age of Hezekiah, which followed the golden age of David and Solomon.16,因此被称为奥古斯年龄希西家,大卫和所罗门的黄金时代。But there is no proof that the age of Hezekiah was Augustan; on the contrary, it was a period of conflict, and the work of editing and combining did not begin till a century or two later.但没有任何证据,希西家的年龄是奥古斯都,相反,它是一段时间的冲突,以及编辑,并结合工作没有晚些时候开始,直到一个世纪或两个。 Moreover, as is pointed out below, the thought of the Book of Proverbs is as alien to the Hezekian as to the Solomonic age.此外,正如下文指出,思想的箴言是作为外来的Hezekian所罗门年龄。

In the first place, there is no trace in the book of the religious problems and conflicts of the pre-exilic period.首先,有没有在书前放逐时期的宗教问题和冲突的痕迹。The Prophets, from Amos to Ezekiel, are in deadly fear of foreign cults, and testify, during this whole period, that Israel is more or less given over to the worship of other gods than Yhwh and to idolatry.先知,阿莫斯以西结,在外国邪教的致命恐惧,和作证,在这整个期间,以色列是多还是少耶和华以外的其他神的崇拜和偶像崇拜。 The polemic against such infidelity is the dominant note of the prophetic preaching down to the latter half of the sixth century.反对这种不忠的论战的说教预言六世纪的后半期的主导注意。But in Proverbs there is not a word of all this.但在箴言这一切没有一个字。Monotheism is quietly taken for granted.一神教悄悄是理所当然的。There is no mention of priests or prophets (the word "vision" in xxix. 18 is a clerical error); the sacrificial ritual is almost completely ignored.有没有提到祭司或先知(单词“愿景”,第29 18是一个笔误。)的祭祀仪式是几乎完全忽略。Throughout the literature till the time of Ezra the national interest is predominant; here it is quite lacking-the name Israel does not occur.以斯拉的时间,直到整个文学的国家利益是主要的,这里是相当缺乏的名称以色列不会发生。 The religious atmosphere of the book is wholly different from that which characterizes Jewish thought down to the end of the fifth century.书的宗教气氛完全不同的犹太思想的特点,下降到年底的第五世纪。

Wisdom.智慧。

In no point is the change more noticeable than in the attitude toward wisdom.在没有点超过走向智慧的态度明显的改变。The wisdom of the pre-Ezran Old Testament writings is shrewd common sense and general keen intelligence (II Sam. xiv.; I Kings iii.); and because it was controlled by worldly considerations it was looked on with disfavor by the Prophets as not being in harmony with the word of God as they understood it (Jer. viii. 9, ix. 23; Ezek. vii. 26).前Ezran旧约著作的智慧,是精明的常识和一般敏锐的情报(二,三十四;我万王之王III),因为它是由世俗的考虑控制,是看着先知与失宠不在和谐与上帝的话,因为他们理解(耶9第八,第九章第23条;。。以西结书七26)。 In Proverbs it stands for the broadest and highest conception of life, and is identified with the law of God.箴言,它代表了生命中最广泛和最高的概念,是与上帝的法律确定。Yet it is the utterance of sages, whose counsel is represented as the only sufficient guide of conduct (i.-iv., xxii. 17-21).然而,这是圣贤的话语,其律师表示作为唯一足够的行为指南(i.-iv.,22。17-21)。The sages do not employ the prophetic formula "Thus saith the Lord" or appeal to the law of Moses; they speak out of their own minds, not claiming divine inspiration, yet assuming the absolute authoritativeness of what they say-that is, they regard conscience as the final guide of life.圣人不聘用的预言公式“耶和华如此说”或上诉摩西的律法;他们讲出自己的头脑,不自称神圣的灵感,还假设他们的绝对权威性说,是的,他们认为良心生命的最后指导。 While the contents of the book are various, parts of it dealing with simple, every-day matters, the prevailing tone is broadly religious: God is the ruler of the world, and wisdom is the expression (through human conscience) of His will.虽然书的内容是多方面的,它的某些部分,与简单的,每一天的事项时,当时的语气大致宗教:上帝是世界的统治者,而智慧是他的意志的表达(通过人类的良知)。 In one passage (viii.), animated by a fine enthusiasm, wisdom is personified (almost hypostatized) as a cosmic force, the nursling of God, standing by His side at the creation of the world (comp. Job xxviii.; Wisdom of Solomon vii.).在一个通道(viii.),动画,罚款的热情,智慧是人格化(几乎实体化)作为宇宙的力量,神nursling,站在他创造了世界方(comp.工作XXVIII;智慧所罗门七)。 This conception, foreign to the pre-Ezran Old Testament thought, suggests the period when the Jews came under Greek influence.这个概念,国外前Ezran旧约思想,建议期间,当犹太人来到希腊的影响下。

No Immortality or Messiah.无仙道或弥赛亚。

The theology of Proverbs is the simplest form of theism.谚语的神学,是最简单的形式的有神论。The individual man stands in direct relation with God, needing no man or angel to act as mediator (comp. Job v. 1. xxxiii. 23).个别的人在与上帝的直接关系,需要做中间人(1 comp.作业诉XXXIII 23)任何人或天使。No supernatural being, except God, is mentioned.除了上帝,没有超自然的被提及。Salvation lies in conduct, which is determined by man's will.救国谎言的行为,这是人的意志为所决定的。Men are divided into two classes, the righteous and the wicked: the former are rewarded, the latter punished, by God; how one may pass from one class into the other is not said.男人分为两类,正义和邪恶分为:前者是奖励,后者的处罚,由上帝;如何从一个类传递到其他不说。Reward and punishment belong to the present life; the conception of the underworld is the same as in the body of Old Testament writings; there is no reference to ethical immortality (on xi. 7 and xiv. 32 see the commentaries).奖励和处罚,属于现在的生活,黑社会的概念是在旧约著作的身体有没有道德不朽的参考(7席和十四32看到的评论。) Wickedness leads to premature death (v. 5, ix. 18, et al.); wisdom confers long life (iii. 16).邪恶导致过早死亡(18 5五,九等。);智慧赋予寿命长(III. 16)。Doubtless the authors, pious men, observed the national sacrificial laws (xv. 8), but they lay no stress on them-they regard conduct as the important thing.毫无疑问的作者,虔诚的人,观察国家(xv. 8)牺牲法律,但他们将在没有压力,他们认为最重要的事情进行。The book contains no Messianic element.书中包含没有救世主的元素。The description in xvi.第十六描述。10-15 is of the ideal king, who is controlled by the human law of right (in contrast with the delineations in Isa. xi. 1-5, xxxii. 1, 2; Zech. ix. 9).10-15是理想的国王,谁是控制人类的法律权利(XXXII ISA十一1-5,1,2划定的对比。。。;撒加利亚IX 9)。This attitude may point to a time when there was a lull in the general Messianic i nterest (about 250-200 BC), but it is satisfactorily accounted for by the supposition that the sages, concerned with the inculcation of a universal code of life, took little interest in the popular hope of a restoration of national independence.这种态度可能指向的时候,有在一般的救世主我nterest(公元前约250-200年)是一个平静,但它是令人满意的占假设先贤,关心灌输一种生活的通用代码,注意到在恢复民族独立流行希望的兴趣不大。 Proverbs bears witness, especially in the first and the third division, to the existence of some sort of organized higher instruction at the time when it was composed.箴言见证,特别是在第一和第三师,存在着某种组织更高的时间时,它是由指令。The frequent form of address, "my son," indicates the relation of a teacher to his pupils.频繁的地址形式,“我的儿子,”,表示他的学生在老师的关系。There is no information regarding regular academies before the second century BC (from Antigonus of Soko onward), but it is probable that those that are known did not spring into existence without forerunners.有没有关于前公元前二世纪(从索罟起安提柯)正规院校,但很可能,没有进入那些已知存在无先行者的春天。 The instruction in such schools would naturally be of the practical ethical sort that is found in Proverbs (on the "mashal" form here adopted see Proverbs).这类学校的教学自然会箴言(这里的“马沙尔”的形式通过箴言)的实际道德排序。The book has been always highly valued for the purity and elevation of its moral teaching.该书已永远的纯度和思想品德课教学的海拔高度重视。Not only are justice and truthfulness everywhere enjoined, but revenge is forbidden (xxiv. 17), and kindness to enemies insisted on (xxv. 21).不仅是正义和真实性到处受命,但复仇是被禁止的(xxiv. 17),与人为善(xxv. 21)坚持敌人。The conception of family life is a high one: monogamy is taken for granted; children are to honor parents, and parents to be the guides of children; an honorable position is assigned the wife and mother.家庭生活的概念,是高一:一夫一妻制是理所当然的;孩子们孝敬父母,父母是孩子的指南;是一个光荣的位置分配的妻子和母亲。 Infidelity on the part of a married woman is denounced at length (v., vii.), and the youth is repeatedly warned against the "strange woman," that is, the unchaste wife of another man.已婚妇女的不忠谴责长度(五,七。),青年是一再反对的“陌生女人”,即,另一名男子的unchaste的妻子发出警告。 There are many maxims relating to thrift and economy (vi. 1-11, xxvii. 23-27, et al.).有许多有关勤俭节约(23-27 XXVII 1-11 VI.等。)的格言。Excess is denounced, and self-control and temperance enjoined.过剩谴责,并责成自我控制能力和节制。The motive urged for well-doing is well-being, success, and happiness.边做边敦促的动机是福祉,成功和幸福。In so far the ethical system is utilitarian, but the success presented as a goal, while sometimes merely material (xi. 15; xviii. 2, 18, et al.), rises at other times to the height of an ideal conception of a happy life (iii., viii.).在迄今为止的道德体系,是功利的,但成功为目标,而有时仅仅材料(xi. 15第十八2,18,等),在其他时间上升的一个理想概念的高度幸福生活(III.,第八)。In this higher sense the utilitarian view approaches the idea of a life devoted to humanity, though this idea is not definitely expressed in Proverbs.在这个更高的意义上的功利观方法用于人类生活的想法,但这种想法是不肯定表示箴言。

Date.日期。

The characteristics described above point to the post-Ezran period as the time of origination of the book; to this period alone can be referred the tacit recognition of monotheism and monogamy, the absence of a national tone, and the marks of a developed city life.一神教和一夫一妻制的默示承认,没有一个国家的语气,和一个发达的城市生活的痕迹可以被称为点书的起源时间后Ezran期以上所述仅这一时期的特点; 。These traits are reproduced in Ben Sira (BC 190), the similarity of whose thought to that of Proverbs is obvious.这些特征载于本西拉(公元前190年),思想的谚语,是明显的相似性。But this latter is made up of different parts that appear to be of different dates.但后者是由不同部位,不同的日期,似乎是。 From a comparison of thought and form the following conclusion may be regarded as probable: The earliest collections (about the year 400) were the aphorisms contained in x.-xv., xvi.-xxii.从思想和形式的比较,得出如下结论可能被视为可能:最早的集合(约每年400)x.-xv.,xvi. - XXII中的警句。16, xxv.-xxvii., and xxviii.-xxix., from which later editors formed the two booklets, x.-xxii.16 xxv. - XXVII,和xxviii. XXIX,从后来的编辑所形成的两本小册子,X - XXII。 16 and xxv.-xxix.16和xxv. XXIX。(350-300). (350-300)。A little later came the collection of more elaborate quatrains, xxii.过了一会儿,传来了更详细的绝句的收集,22。17-xxiv., and, toward the middle of the third century, the sustained discourses of i.-ix.17 - XXIV,走向的第三个世纪中叶,i.-ix.持续话语The latest section, probably, is xxx.-xxxi., and the whole may have been edited not long before the year 200.最新的部分,大概是xxx. - XXXI,并可能已被编辑整个前一年的200长。These dates are approximate, but it seems reasonably certain that the book is later than the year 400 BC On the objection made to its canonization see Bible Canon (§ 11); on the text and versions see the commentaries.这些日期是近似的,但它似乎相当肯定的,这本书后来在其册封见圣经佳能(§ 11)的反对,比上年的400公元前文本和版本上看到的评论。In the Septuagint the order of subsections in the third, fourth, and fifth divisions is as follows: xxii.在七十,在第三,第四和第五师小​​节的顺序如下:XXII。17-xxiv.17 - XXIV。22; xxx.22,XXX。1-14; xxiv.1-14; XXIV。 23-34; xxx.23-34; XXX。 15-33; xxxi.15-33; XXXI。 1-9; xxv.-xxix.; xxxi.1-9; xxv. XXIX; XXXI。10-31. 10-31。Whether this divergence from the Hebrew order is due to accident, or to caprice, or to an original difference of arrangement, it is hardly possible to say.这是否从希伯来文顺序的分歧是由于意外事故,或任性,或原安排不同,它几乎是不可能的话。

Crawford Howell Toy克劳福德豪威尔玩具

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Text:文字:

Baumgartner, Etude Critique sur l'Etat du Texte du Livre des Proverbes, 1890; Bickell, in WZKM 1891; Pinkuss (Syriac version), in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1894; Grätz, in his Monatsschrift, 1884, and Emendationes, 1892-94; Chajes, Proverbien Studien, 1899; Müller and Kautzsch, in SBOT 1901.鲍姆加特纳,练习曲批判SUR L'国家杜Texte杜Livre DES Proverbes,1890年; Bickell,1891年在WZKM; Pinkuss(叙利亚版本),在体育场的(杂志),1894年,格拉茨,在他的月刊,1884年,并Emendationes,1892年至1894年; Chajes,Proverbien(研究),1899年米勒和Kautzsch,1901年在SBOT。Translations and Commentaries: Midrash Mishle, ed.翻译和评论:米德拉士Mishle,主编。Buber, 1893; Saadia, ed.布伯,1893年;萨蒂娅,主编。Derenbourg, 1894; Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Levi b.德朗堡,1894年; Rashi,伊本以斯拉,列维B.Gershom, in Giggeius, In Proverbia Salomonis, 1620.革顺,在Giggeius,Proverbia Salomonis,1620。

For other Jewish commentaries see L. Dukes, in Cahen, La Bible, 1847, and H. Deutsch, Die Sprüche Salomon's nach Talmud und Midrasch Dargestellt, 1887; Ewald, Poetische Bücher des AT's, 1837, 1867; Delitzsch, Commentary, English transl., 1875; Nowack, in Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, 1887; Frankenburg, in Nowack's Hand-Kommentar, 1898; Toy, in International Critical Commentary, 1899.对于其他犹太评论L.在擦痕郡王,香格里拉圣经“,1847年,和H德语,模具Sprüche所罗门的nach犹太法典和Midrasch Dargestellt,1887年;埃瓦尔德,Poetische书刊AT的,1837年,1867年; Delitzsch,评论,英文译,1875; Nowack,Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载,1887年; Frankenburg,Nowack的手的评论,1898年;玩具,在1899年国际评论文章。

See also Bois, La Poésie Gnomique, 1886; Cheyne, Job and Solomon, 1887; Monteflore, Notes upon Proverbs, in JQR 1889-90.见也BOIS,香格里拉POESIE Gnomique,1886年;,工作和所罗门,1887年进益; Monteflore,在1889至1890年JQR后箴言注意到,。Parallels from other literatures are given by Malan, Original Notes on the Book of Proverbs, 1889-93, and G. Jacobs, Altarabische Parallelen zum AT 1897.T.从其他文献的Parallels是马兰,原有票据上的箴言,1889年至1893年的图书,和G.雅各布Altarabische Parallelen ZUM AT 1897.T.



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