Book of Psalms, Psalter诗篇 书

General Information一般资料

The Book of Psalms, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is the largest collection of Hebrew religious poetry; it consists of 150 pieces divided into 5 sections.在旧约圣经,诗篇,是希伯来宗教诗歌的最大的集合; 150件,分为5个部分组成。Originally spoken or sung in various worship settings, the psalms were composed individually from the 10th through the 4th century BC and compiled in their present form by at least 200 BC.最初的口头或各种崇拜设置传唱的诗篇组成单独从10日通过公元前4世纪,至少公元前200年,并在其目前的形式编制。Tradition assigns the psalms to King David, but the titles to particular psalms also name Moses, Solomon, Ethan, Asaph, and the sons of Korah as authors. The psalms are numbered differently in various versions of the Bible.传统分配大卫王的诗篇,但特别是诗篇的标题名称摩西,所罗门,阮经天,亚萨,可拉的儿子,并为作者。诗篇是在各种版本的“圣经”不同编号。

Like all Hebrew poetry, the psalms are written in parallel lines that balance word masses, images, and thoughts and have the effect of nuancing and emphasizing the sense through a skilled mixture of repetition and variation.像所有希伯来诗歌,诗篇是写在平行线平衡字的群众,图像,思想和nuancing的意义,并强调通过熟练的重复和变异的混合物的效果。 The thought in parallel lines may be repeated, contrasted, or extended and qualified.思想在平行线,可重复,对比,或延长和合格。The same literary devices appear also in Canaanite religious poetry from Ugarit in Syria.同样的文学设备也出现在迦南宗教诗歌从叙利亚乌加里特。It is evident that Israel took over these forms and styles along with the Canaanite language.很显然,以色列对这些形式和风格与迦南人的语言。Babylonian, Assyrian, and Egyptian influences are also seen in the psalms.巴比伦,亚述和埃及的影响,也看到在诗篇。

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Many psalms can be classified into major literary types:许多诗篇主要文学类型可分为: Many stock themes and terms, such as the contrast between pious and ungodly and between wise and foolish, indicate that the psalm form opened up to didactic and reflective piety based on wisdom and the Law.许多股票的主题和术语,如之间的虔诚和不虔诚和明智的和愚蠢之间的对比,表明诗篇形式,开辟了智慧和法律的基础上的说教和反射虔诚。 Additional psalms appear in the historical and prophetic books of the Old Testament, further emphasizing that the Book of Psalms is a selective collection from a far larger body of literary materials.额外的诗篇出现在旧约历史和预言书,进一步强调诗篇是远远大于身体的文学材料的选择性收集。

Norman K Gottwald诺曼K哥特瓦尔德

Bibliography 参考书目
AL Ash, Psalms (1980); ME Chase, The Psalms for the Common Reader (1962); L Dunlop, Patterns of Prayer in the Psalms (1982); HH Guthrie, Israel's Sacred Songs (1984); R Knox, The Psalms (1947); HJ Kraus, Theology of the Psalms (1986); WM Kroll, Psalms (1987); SO Mowinckel, The Psalms in Israel's Worship (1962); WOE Oesterley, The Psalms (1939); SL Terrien, The Psalms and Their Meaning for Today (1952); C Westerman, The Psalms (1980).铝灰,诗篇(1980)ME的大通,本的普通读者(1962年)的诗篇;大号邓洛普,在诗篇(1982)祷告模式; HH格思里,以色列(1984)神圣的歌曲; ř诺克斯,诗篇( 1947年);黄建忠,神学的诗篇“(1986年)的克劳斯;西医克罗尔,诗篇(1987年);苏莫温克尔,”在以色列的崇拜(1962)诗篇; WOE Oesterley,该诗篇(1939); SL Terrien,在诗篇和他们的今天(1952年)的意义,C韦斯特曼,诗篇(1980)。


Book of Psalms预订的诗篇

Brief Outline简述

  1. Psalms 1-41诗篇1-41
  2. Psalms 42-72诗篇42-72
  3. Psalms 73-89诗篇73-89
  4. Psalms 90-106诗篇90-106
  5. Psalms 107-150诗篇107-150


Psalms诗篇

Advanced Information先进的信息

The psalms are the production of various authors.诗篇是生产各种作者。"Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other inspired poets in successive generations added now one now another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." “只有部分诗篇作为其作者声称大卫在连续几代其他灵感的诗人现在添加一个神圣的集合的另一个贡献,从而在普罗维登斯的智慧,更完全地反映人的情感和情节的每一个阶段比,否则可能。“ But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this precious book.但它是专为大卫和他的同时代人,我们欠本珍贵的书。In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David.在“标题”的诗篇,其中的真假有没有足够的理由怀疑,73归因于大卫。Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous.彼得和约翰(徒4:25)归于他也是第二诗篇,这是一个是匿名的48。About two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David.大约三分之二的整个集合也被归咎为大卫。Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung after his manner or in his choir.诗篇39,62,77耶杜顿,要唱他的态度后,或在他的合唱团。

Psalms 50 and 73-83 are addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the worship of God.诗篇50和73-83是亚萨,为他的合唱团的高手,在神的崇拜唱。The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chr. 20: 19), were intrusted with the arranging and singing of Ps.“可拉的儿子,”谁形成一个Kohathite歌手(2 CHR 20:19)的领先组成部分,是intrusted安排和唱歌的PS。42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and 88. 42,44-49,84,85,87和88。In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, ie, the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews divided the Old Testament.在路加福音24:44“诗篇”这个词是指Hagiographa,即神圣的著作,到其中的犹太人分为旧约的章节之一。 (See Bible.) None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection extends over a period of about 1,000 years. (见圣经)的诗篇都可以证明日后以斯拉和尼希米的时间比中,因此整个集合遍及1000年期间。

There are in the New Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter. The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:,在新约116直接引语的psalter 的psalter划分,比喻的五成五本书,每一个doxology或祝福结束后,。

Ps.聚苯乙烯。136 is generally called "the great hallel."136通常被称为“伟大的hallel。”But the Talmud includes also Ps.但犹太法典还包括PS。120-135.120-135。

Ps.聚苯乙烯。113-118, inclusive, constitute the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon, and on the eight days of the feast of dedication. 113-118,包容性,构成了“hallel”背诵在三个伟大的节日,在新的月球,奉献盛宴的八天。"

It is presumed that these several collections were made at times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:19); the fourth by the men of Hezekiah (29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days of Ezra." The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song in the worship of God.据推测,这几个集合在高的宗教生活的时期:第一,可能是附近的大卫的生活密切;在所罗门天的第二;第三杰霍沙法特歌手(2 CHR 20点19分);希西家的男子(29,30,31)的第四位;和以斯拉天的第五届“马赛克仪式并没有提供歌曲的服务,在神的崇拜。

David first taught the Church to sing the praises of the Lord.大卫先教唱赞美主的教会。 He first introduced into the ritual of the tabernacle music and song.他首先引入帐幕的音乐和歌曲的仪式。Divers names are given to the psalms.潜水员名称的诗篇。(1.) Some bear the Hebrew designation shir (Gr. ode, a song).(1)有些承受希伯来语指定事儿(​​希腊语抒情诗,一首歌曲)。Thirteen have this title. 13人这个称号。It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain.这意味着流动的讲话,因为它是在一条直线上,或在常规应变。This title includes secular as well as sacred song.这个标题包括世俗的神圣的歌曲以及。(2.) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) mitsmor (Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument. (2)五十八名诗篇承担指定(希伯来文)mitsmor(希腊语psalmos,诗篇),一首抒情的颂歌,或设置音乐的歌曲;一个神圣的歌曲伴随着一种乐器。 (3.) Ps.(3)PS。145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.) tehillah (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God. 145,和许多人一样,有指定(希伯来)tehillah“(希腊语hymnos,一首赞美诗),意思是赞美的歌一首歌曲的突出思想,这是赞美上帝的。 (4.) Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) michtam (qv).(4)六诗篇(16,56-60)标题(希伯来文)michtam(QV)。 (5.) Ps.(5)PS。7 and Hab.7和民政事务局。3 bear the title (Heb.) shiggaion (qv).3承担的标题(希伯来文)shiggaion(QV)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

(We have included Psalms 1 - 37)(我们已诗篇1 - 37)

Their Authors它们的作者

The Book of Psalms has sometimes been classified according to authors.诗篇有时被分类是根据作者。For example, the titles indicate that seventy-three were written by David; fifty are anonymous; twelve have the name of Asaph, and ten that of Korah, or the sons of Korah; two are associated with Solomon and one each with Moses, Heman and Ethan.例如,标题显示,七十三个由大卫写的;第五十是匿名的; 12亚萨的名称,可拉10,或可拉的儿子,两个与所罗门和与摩西,热合曼和Ethan。A comparison of Acts 4:25 and Hebrews 4:7 shows that Psalms 2 and 95 respectively, were also written by David, though not ascribed to him in the book, and the question arises whether he may not have been the author of a still larger number of the anonymous Psalms.比较使徒4时25分和4时07希伯来诗篇2和95,分别是大卫,虽然他没有在书中所赋予的书面,出现这样的问题,是否他可能没有静止作者大量匿名的诗篇。 As some with the name of the sons of Korah were evidently written for them, may he have been their author as well?由于一些可拉的儿子的名字,显然为他们写的,他可能已经以及它们的作者呢?The same query arises about the 72d Psalm, one of the two to which Solomon's name is attached. 72D诗篇,所罗门的名字是连接两个相同的查询时。It might be added here that the titles of the Psalms are regarded by many as of equal authority with the text, and hence if we can ascertain what the title means, we may venture to build conclusions upon it.它可能会增加这里的诗篇的标题是由许多文本同等权力,因此,如果我们能确定的称号意味着什么,我们可以合资建立后,它的结论。

Their Subjects他们的臣民

The book again, has been classified according to subjects.书中再次,已按科目分类。Angus, in his Bible Handbook, has a convenient classification, giving the subject, and in each case the numbers of a few Psalms illustrating it.安格斯,在他的圣经手册,有一个方便的分类,给课题,并在每一种情况下一些诗篇的数字说明。For example, there are Psalms of Instruction, like 1, 19, 39.例如,有教学的诗篇,如1,19,39。Praise, 8, 29, 93, 100.赞美,8,29,93,100。Thanksgiving, 30, 65, 103, 107, 116.感恩节,30,65,103,107,116。Penitence, 6, 32, 38, 51, 143.忏悔,6,32,38,51,143。Trust, 3, 27, 31, 46, 56, 62, 86.信托,3,27,31,46,56,62,86。Distress and Sorrow, 4, 13, 55, 64, 88.遇险和悲伤,4,13,55,64,88。Aspiration, 42, 63, 80, 84, 137.吸入,42,63,80,84,137。History, 78, 105, 106.历史,78,105,106。Prophecy (Messianic), 2, 16, 22, 24, 40, 45, 68, 69, 72, 97, 110, 118. (弥赛亚)的预言,2,16,22,24,40,45,68,69,72,97,110,118。

Their Books他们的书籍

It may seem strange to speak of the "Books" of the Psalms, but that expresses another kind of classification.它可能看起来很奇怪可言的“图书”的诗篇,但表示另一种分类。The whole book has been divided into five books, each ending with a similar doxology, as follows: Book I, Psalms 1-41.全书分为五本书,每一个类似doxology的结尾,如下:第一卷,诗篇1-41。Book II, Psalms 42-72.第二册,诗篇42-72。Book III, Psalms 73-89.第三册,诗篇73-89。Book IV, Psalms 90-106.第四册,诗篇90-106。Book V, Psalms 107-150.第五卷,诗篇107-150。Notice the close of each of these books for the doxology.请注意这些书籍doxology结束。There are those who question the value of this division, however, on the ground, first, that the title of the book itself in the Hebrew, (Sepher Tehillim), is singular rather than plural.有那些问题,这个师的价值,然而,在地面上,首先,在希伯来书本身,(Sepher Tehillim),标题是单数而不是复数。It is not the "books" but the book of Psalms.它是不是“本本”,但诗篇。Second, the numbers of the Psalms continue unbroken from the beginning to the end of the book.二,诗篇的人数继续不间断的从一开始就在书的结尾。Third, there are other doxologies than those especially referred to, eg, Psalms 117 and 134.第三,有其他特别提到这些,如诗篇117和134 doxologies。

Their Unity他们的团结

The view of others, therefore, is that the Psalms comprise but one book with an order and unity throughout, the key to which is found in its final application to the millennial age and establishment of the kingdom of God on the earth.别人的看法,因此,是诗篇组成,但秩序和团结整个一本书,发现其中的关键是在其最后千年年龄和上帝的王国在地球上建立的应用程序。 According to these, this explains what are known as the imprecatory or cursing Psalms.根据这些,这说明什么imprecatory或咒骂的诗篇。These have puzzled many, but when we consider them as terminating on that period when the era of mercy for the Gentile nations closes, and the time of their judgment begins, it lightens their problem very much.这些有许多疑惑,但是当我们考虑到他们作为这一时期外邦国家的摆布的时代结束时终止,并开始其判断的时间,减轻了他们的问题非常多。 In the same connection we should remember that the author is speaking in the prophetic spirit, and that the enemies are enemies of God whose permanent rejection of Him is implied.在同一方面,我们应该记住,作者是讲预言的精神,和敌人是真主的敌人的永久性是暗示他拒绝。

This view, moreover, explains those like the 91st Psalm which promise exemption from such things as pestilence and war.此外,这种看法,解释像91诗篇那些承诺豁免瘟疫和战争这样的事情。 This Psalm was written doubtless on the occasion of Israel's deliverance from Egypt, but its language seems to indicate that it is a type of their greater and permanent deliverance in the time to come.这是写的诗篇,无疑对以色列从埃及拯救之际,但它的语言,似乎表明它是一种更大的和永久的解脱的时间来。This is strengthened if we conceive of the preceding Psalm as a picture of Israel to-day.这是加强受孕,由于以色列的图片,如果我们前面的诗篇。The opinion which sees the key to the Psalms in their millennial application also furnishes an explanation of the frequent references to Christ found in the Psalms.意见,认为在其千年的诗篇的关键,也furnishes经常在诗篇中发现基督的解释。Urquhart, who maintains the above view, regards the whole book as formed of a combination of twelve sections.厄克特,维持上述观点,认为全书十二个部分的组合形成的。

Each of these contains a continuous recurring story of the establishment of God's kingdom on earth, in which Psalms of complaint and pleading on Israel's part are followed by those of jubilation for deliverance.这些每一个都包含一个持续的经常性的故事,建立神的地球上的王国,其中投诉,并承认以色列的部分诗篇解脱喜庆。 In some of these jubliations the whole earth is seen to join.在一些jubliations整个地球被认为是加入。These twelve sections are indicated to him by the following jubilant Psalms: 10, 18, 24, 30, 48, 68, 76, 85, 100, 118, 136, 150.这十二个部分是向他表示以下欢腾的诗篇:10,18,24,30,48,68,76,85,100,118,136,150。 "In the first cycle of ten there is progress from the announcement of judgment (1), and manifestation of Christ (2), through His rejection (3-7), suffering and ascension (8), the waiting and persecution of His people (9), to the consummation of all things (10)." “十的第一个周期是从判断(1)宣布,和基督(2)体现的进展,通过他的拒绝(3-7),痛苦和提升(8),等待和他的人民的迫害(9),所有的东西(10)圆满成功。“ This analysis will not commend itself to all, but it is interesting and may lead to further thought.这种分析不会赞扬自己的所有,但有趣的是,可能导致进一步的思考。

Psalm 1诗篇1

True happiness is the theme of this Psalm, whose author is unnamed.真正的幸福是这一诗篇,其作者是无名的主题。The negative side of true happiness is stated (v. 1), and then the positive (v. 2).消极的一面是说真正的幸福(1节),然后(2节)。Its reward follows (v. 3).其奖励如下(3节)。Its nature and value are emphasized by a sharp contrast.其性质和价值,强调了鲜明的对比。Such a man is godly, his opposite ungodly (v. 4).这样的人是虔诚的,他的对面不敬虔的(4节)。The first is marked by stability, the second by instability (v. 4).第一个标志是稳定的,不稳定的第二个(4节)。The first has endless fruitfuless and blessing, the second has nothing and worse than nothing (v. 5), for he can not be acquitted at the judgment day.第一个拥有无尽的fruitfuless和祝福,第二个没有什么比(5节),更糟的是,他不能在审判的日子,宣告无罪。The secret of it all is found in Jehovah (v. 6).它的秘密都被发现在耶和华(6节)。The Psalm is a summary of the whole book, and is appropriately placed at the beginning as a sort of preface.诗篇是全书的总结,并放在适当的方式在开始作为一种前言。

Psalm 2诗篇2

Is prophetic and Messianic in one (see introductory lesson).是先知的弥赛亚(见介绍课)。It had a partial fulfilment at the first advent of Christ (Acts 4:25; 13:33), but a complete one is to follow at the second advent, as will be seen in the study of the prophets.在基督第一次降临(使徒4时25分,13时33分)的部分履行,但一个完整的,是按照在第二次来临,将在先知的研究。 The nations will rage and the kings of the earth again set themselves against Jehovah and His Christ under the lead of the Antichrist (vv. 1-3), but they will be regarded with contempt and terrified, by divine judgments (vv. 4, 5).各国将愤怒和地上的君王,敌基督(1-3节)的带领下对耶和华和他的的基督自己,但他们将被视为蔑视和害怕神圣的判断,(vv. 4, 5)。God's purpose will not be altered, which is to establish His Son upon His kingdom in the earth at Jerusalem (v. 6).上帝的宗旨不会改变,这是建立在耶路撒冷后,他在地球的王国(6节)他的儿子。The Son Himself speaks at verse seven, the last clause of which refers to His inauguration as Mediatorial King, and does not in any way impugn His Deity.儿子谈到自己在诗歌七,其中最后条款,是指他的就职典礼,作为中保国王,和不以任何方式抨击他的神。The Gentile nations are to be His in that day (v. 8), and although it will be the millennial day, yet its peace and righteousness will be secured through judgments and by the firmness of its Holy Ruler (v. 9).外邦各国在这一天(8节),他,虽然这将是千禧年的一天,但和平和正义将通过判决和坚定性其神圣的统治者(9节)作抵押。Kings and princes are warned to prepare themselves for its coming (vv. 10-12).国王和王子警告说,准备为它的未来(10-12节)本身。 "Kiss the Son" means submit to His authority, "lest He be angry and ye perish in the way, for His wrath will soon be kindled" (RV).“吻之子”是指提交给他的权力“,免得他生气,你们灭亡的方式,他的愤怒,很快就会燃起”(RV)的。

Psalm 3诗篇3

As its title indicates, should be read in connection with 2 Samuel 15.正如其名称所表明的,应读撒母耳记下15。In his distress to whom does David appeal (v. 1)?在他的苦恼向谁大卫上诉(1节)?Not only had men turned their backs upon him but it was charged that God had done so.不仅男子打开他们的背上,但他被指控,上帝已经这样做的。Remember the possible reason for this suspicion in David's sin with Bathsheba, preceding this rebellion of Absalom.记住这在大卫与拔示巴犯罪嫌疑可能的原因,这押沙龙叛乱前。Does David still retain his faith in God's promises notwithstanding (v. 3)?大卫仍然保留他在上帝的承诺的信心,尽管(3节)? What is the ground of his confidence (v. 4)?什么是他的信心(4节)的地面?And its expression (vv. 5, 6)?其表达(vv. 5,6)?What is the nature of his further appeal (v. 7)?什么是他的进一步上诉(7节)的性质是什么?"Cheek-bone" and "teeth" represent his enemies as wild beasts ready to devour him. “面颊骨”和“牙齿”代表他的敌人,为准备要吞噬他的野兽。By faith he already sees these enemies overcome, and praises God as his deliverer (v. 8).因着信,他已经看到克服这些敌人,并称赞他的拯救者(8节)神。The word "Selah" at the close of verse two is obscure, and may denote a pause or rest, in the singing, or an emphasis to be laid on the particular sentiment expressed.单词“细拉”的诗句两个密切晦涩难懂,可能意味着暂停或休息,在唱歌,或强调要表达的感情特别奠定。

Psalm 4诗篇4

A cry of distress is this, composed by David, it may have been, on the same occasion as the last.一个窘迫的呼声是​​这样的,由大卫组成,它可能已被作为最后的同一场合上。He is not trusting in his own righteousness, but God's righteousness (v. 1).他不相信在他自己的义,但神的义(1节)。 The doctrine of imputed righteousness was apprehended by the spiritually enlightened in Old Testament, as well as in New Testament times.精神上的启迪在旧约中,以及在新约时代的估算义的教义被逮捕。For a further illustration of this in David compare the opening verses of Psalm 32, with Paul's application of them in Romans 4.对于进一步说明了在大卫的诗篇32,保罗对他们的应用在罗马书4比较开放的诗句。David is encouraged to utter this cry by past mercies, "Thou hast enlarged me," and I trust Thee again.大卫是鼓励说出过去的怜悯哭,“祢扩大我,”我相信祢再次。Verse 2 shows the source of his trouble.第2节显示他的麻烦之源。His "glory" may refer to his kingly dignity now dishonored by exile.他的“荣耀”可能是指他的王道尊严,现在流亡兑现。But the schemes of his enemies were "vanity," and brought about by lying "leasing").但他的敌人的计划“的虚荣心,”躺在“租赁”)带来的。His confidence was in the divine purpose towards him (v. 3), and they who are against him are cautioned to repent and turn to the Lord (vv. 4, 5).他的信心是在对他(3节)神的目的,他们对他的告诫悔改,转向主(vv. 4,5)。In the midst of his afflictions he values the divine favor (v. 6), which brings more experimental joy to him than the husbandman knows at harvest time (vv. 7, 8).在他的苦恼之中,他看重的神恩(6节),这带来了更多的实验的喜悦,他比农夫在收获的时候知道(vv. 7,8)。"To the chief musician on Neginoth," indicates the purpose for which it was set apart as a musical composition "Neginoth" were the stringed instruments used in the Levitical service, and the "chief musician" was the leader of that part of the choir. “上Neginoth首席音乐家表示,”它作为一部音乐作品“Neginoth”除了在利未服务使用的弦乐器,和“行政音乐家”是合唱团的部分领导人的目的。

Psalm 5诗篇5

Is a morning prayer (v. 3).一个上午的祈祷(3节)。The words, "look up" are rendered "keep watch" in the Revised Version.的话说,“看”呈现在修订版的“守望”。The psalmist would keep watch on himself, that his life and conduct might be such as to insure the answer to his prayer (v. 4-7).诗人将自己保持的手表,他的生活和行为,可能会如以确保他的祈祷的答案(4-7节)。The need of the prayer is indicated in verse eight.祷告的需要,是表示在诗八。The enemies referred to are then described (v. 9), and their judgment committed into God's hands who defends the righteous (vv. 11, 12).所指的敌人,然后描述(9节),和他们的判断力致力于为上帝的手中捍卫正义(vv. 11,12)。"Nehiloth," meants flutes or wind instruments.“Nehiloth,”meants长笛或管乐器。

Psalm 6诗篇6

Represents David in deeper distress of soul than we have found him hitherto.代表深入灵魂的窘迫,比我们已经找到了他迄今大卫。 Conviction of sin is upon him.他认罪。Those who have studied 2 Samuel will not need to be reminded of occasions for this experience, though the connection with Bathsheba will first suggest itself.那些研究2塞缪尔不会需要提醒的场合,这方面的经验,但与拔示巴的连接会先建议本身。He feels the justness of the divine rebuke (v. 1), but pleads for mercy (v. 2).他认为神的责备(1节)的公正性,但认罪求饶(2节)。The time of spiritual darkness has been long extended (vv. 3, 4).属灵的黑暗的时间久了延长(vv. 3,4)。Will it end in death (v. 5)?死亡结束(5节)?He is heartbroken (vv. 6, 7).他伤透了心(vv. 6,7)。Enemies are rejoicing in his sorrow, but their glee is short-lived (vv. 7, 8).敌人是大喜在他的悲哀,但他们的喜悦是短暂(vv. 7,8)。Light breaks, the morning dawn, tears are wiped away, for the Lord hath heard him!轻休息,早上天亮,眼泪擦干,耶和华听见他!Begone, mine enemies, be ashamed and turn back (vv. 9, 10)!走开,我的仇敌,是惭愧,回头(vv. 9,10)!Verse five need not be interpreted as expressing doubt of a future state, but may be simply a contrast between this scene of life and the unseen world of the dead symbolized by the "grave" (Heb. "sheol").诗句五个不需要解释为表达对未来的状态有疑问的,但可能只是一个这样的生活场景和看不见的世界的象征死者的“坟墓”(希伯来书“阴间”)之间的对比。 "Sheminith" means the "eighth," and perhaps this was a Psalm for the eighth key, or the bass of the stringed instruments.“Sheminith”是指“八五”,也许这是一个第八项的诗篇,或低音弦乐器。Questions 1.问题1。Memorize Psalm 1.背诵诗篇1。 2.2。What is an appropriate theme for it?什么是适当的主题?3.3。State the two-fold application of Psalm 2.国家的诗篇2倍的应用。4.4。Will the millennium represent only peace and cheerful obedience to God and His Son?千年仅代表和平和欢快的服从上帝和他的儿子吗?5.5。Did you re-read 2 Samuel 15?你重新阅读15 2塞缪尔?6.6。On what ground might God have forsaken David according to Psalm 3?在神可能有什么理由抛弃大卫诗篇3?7.7。What may "Selah" mean?怎么可能“细拉”是什么意思?8.8。What great Gospel doctrine finds illustration in the Psalms of David?什么伟大的福音教义认为在大卫的诗篇插图?9.9。Define "Neginoth" and "Nehiloth."定义“Neginoth”和“Nehiloth,”。10.10。What is the Hebrew for "grave"?什么是“坟墓”的希伯来文?

Psalms 7-10诗篇7-10

The length of our lessons in this book are determined rather arbitrarily by the length of the different Psalms, or the special interest found in them. We have in mind weekly classes wishing to study the whole Bible in a connected way, and yet avoid tediousness in the process. The six Psalms included in the last lesson might easily be read by the class in a week; and on the Lord's Day, the teacher with the assistance of the questions, would have little difficulty in fastening the facts and their application on their minds in a way both interesting and profitable. At the same time the average person, independent of any class preparation, reading a Psalm a day for private meditation, will probably find the brief comments and questions upon it as much as he will be able to assimilate.我们的教训在这本书的长度决定,而任意长度的不同的诗篇,或在其中发现的特殊利益。,我们有希望在连接的方式学习整本圣经是每周上课 ,但避免沉闷在在一个星期的类。的过程中的六个诗篇的最后一课,包括可能会很容易地读,主日上,老师的问题,协助,将有不难紧固的事实,并在他们的他们的应用程序头脑中的一个既有趣又有利可图的方式。一般人来说,独立于任何课前准备,阅读诗篇私人冥想一天,在同一时间可能会找到简短的评论和问题后,他尽可能将能够吸收。

Psalm 7诗篇7

We commence this new lesson with this Psalm because it offers a point of beginning in the title.我们开始与这诗篇这个新的教训,因为它提供了一个标题开始。This, however, is rather obscure since it is not clear who may be meant by "Cush."然而,这是相当晦涩的,因为它是不明确可能的意思是“古实。”The margin of the King James Version identifies him with "Shimei" of 2 Samuel 16:5-14, which story it would be well to peruse again, although there are several incidents in Saul's persecution of David which would fit about as well.国王詹姆斯版本的保证金标识与“师妹”,他2撒母耳记上16:5-14,这故事将再次细读,虽然也有几起事件,将容纳约以及在扫罗的迫害大卫。 The word "Shiggaion" in the title means "a plaintive song or elegy."单词“Shiggaion”为题的意思是“一个凄婉的歌曲或挽歌”。David is persecuted (vv. 1, 2), and charged with wrong-doing to one at peace with him (vv. 3, 4).大卫是迫害(vv. 1,2),并被控错误做一个和平与他(vv. 3,4)。The charge is so false that he can safely offer the challenge in verse five.充电是虚假的,他可以​​安全地提供诗句五个挑战。 Jehovah is appealed to, and asked to sit in judgment on this matter: "Return, Thou on high" (v. 7).耶和华是呼吁,并要求坐在这件事情上的判断:“返回”你高“(7节)。"My righteousness" (vv. 8-10) means his innocence of this particular charge.“我的义”(8-10节)是指他对这个特殊的充电的清白。 A warning is uttered against the wicked (vv. 11-13), whose folly is described in serious wit (vv. 14-16).警告是说出对恶人(11-13节),其愚蠢是在严重的机智(14-16节)。David's experience illustrates these concluding verses more than once.大卫的经验,说明了这些结论性的诗句不止一次。

Psalm 8诗篇8

If the whole book of Psalms be considered a mountain range of poetic prophecy, then this is one of the highest peaks.如果全书诗篇,被认为是一个诗意的预言山脉,那么这是最高的山峰之一。Observe in the margin how frequently it is quoted in the New Testament, and applied to Jesus Christ.在观察它如何经常被引用在新约中,并适用于耶稣基督的保证金。Read Hebrews 2:5-9 especially.尤其是阅读希伯来书2:5-9。"O LORD, our Lord," gves better sense as "O Jehovah, our Lord."“耶和华啊,我们的主,”gves更好地理解“耶和华啊,我们的上帝。”His glory is in the Heavens as we see in verse three, and yet it is "above the heavens," both in kind and in degree.他在天上的荣耀,因为我们在诗歌三中所看到的,但它是“上面的天空”,无论在种类和程度。So great is His glory that He uses "the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty."如此之大,是他的荣耀,他用“世界的薄弱事情混淆的东西,是强大的。”(Compare v. 2 with Matt. 11:25; 21:15, 16, and 1 Cor. 1:27).(比较第2节与马特11:25;。21:15,16,和林前1:27)。Verses 4-8 find a partial fulfilment in man as created in the first Adam, but their complete fulfilment is seen only in redeemed and regenerated man in the Second Adam.诗篇4-8在男子找到在第一亚当创造一个部分履行,但只有在赎回和可再生第二个亚当男子看到他们圆满完成。The passage in Hebrews shows this, and particularly alongside of 1 Corinthians 15:22-28.通过在希伯来显示,特别是哥林多前书15:22-28旁边。"Upon Gittith" is "set to the Gittith" (RV), which, some think, means a tune of a joyous character. “Gittith后”是“设置Gittith”(RV),有些人认为,这意味着一个愉快的性格格格不入。

Psalm 9诗篇9

Is one of the cursing or imprecatory Psalms which, as stated in the introductory lesson, find their key in the millennial age and the events introductory thereto.咒骂或imprecatory诗篇,正如在介绍课,发现他们在千禧年时代的关键事件介绍及其之一。It opens with rejoicing (vv. 1, 2).它打开大喜(vv. 1,2)。This rejoicing is for victory over enemies (v. 3), but they are God's enemies rather than the psalmist's.这大喜,是战胜敌人(3诉),但他们是上帝的敌人,而不是诗人的。It is His coming (presence) that has overcome them.这是他的未来(的存在)已经克服这些困难。Moreover, they are nations rather than individuals.此外,他们是国家而不是个人。("Heathen" in verse five, is "nations" in the RV) Their cities are destroyed (v. 6). (“异教徒”中的诗句五个,是“国家”在RV),他们的城市被摧毁(6节)。At the same time the Lord is seen sitting as King (v. 7, RV), judging the world in righteousness, comforting the oppressed, dwelling in Zion (vv. 9-12).同时主看到坐在国王(7节,RV),判断在正义的世界,安慰被压迫,居住在锡安(vv. 9-12)。All these are millennial figures.所有这些都是千年数字。Israel is lifted from the gates of death (v. 13), and the great tribulation is over.以色列解除从死亡之门“(13节),大灾难已经过去。She is praising God in Zion for the deliverance from the Gentile nations which are sunk in the pit they had digged for her (vv. 13-16).她称赞神为拯救沉没在他们挖的坑为她(13-16节)从詹蒂莱国家在锡安。And so on the end of the Psalm.等诗篇结束。"Muth-labben" may refer like "Gittith" to the name or character of the tune.“Muth - labben”可能是指像“Gittith”乐曲的名称或字符。

Psalm 10诗篇10

Seems allied in thought with that preceding, and the two may have been one, originally.似乎盟军思想,前两个可能已经之一,最初。The psalmist is not referring to personal experiences, but to those which are more general.诗人是不是指个人的经验,但那些更普遍。It seems as though the poor and oppressed of the nation and the whole world were uttering their complaint through him.它似乎穷人和被压迫民族和整个世界仿佛被说出他们通过他的投诉。Because God seems far away, the wicked are flourishing (vv. 1, 2).因为上帝似乎很远,邪恶的蓬勃发展(vv. 1,2)。It would not be out of place to conceive of the wicked in this Psalm as personified in the Antichrist at the end of this age, when, as we shall learn later, he will be persecuting Israel as God's witness in the earth.它不会是不合时宜的想象恶人在这诗篇在敌基督人格化在这个年龄段的结束时,我们应学习后,他将被迫害以色列作为上帝在地球的见证。 This is not to say that, in no sense, the Psalm is applicable to an earlier period in the history of that people, but that in its fuller sense, it is for the time to come.这并不是说,在没有任何意义,诗篇是适用于一个人的历史同期,但在其更全面的意义上,它是时间来。The wicked one is described as boastful, covetous, proud, atheistic, self-opinionated, bold, deceitful, oppressive, and cunning (vv. 3-11, RV).那恶者被描述为自夸,虎视眈眈,自豪,无神论,自以为是,大胆,骗人的,压迫,和狡猾(vv. 3-11,RV)。The "poor" means, as is customary in the Psalms, "the poor in spirit," described by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount.“穷人”的意思,是习惯在“诗篇”,“精神扶贫”,描述耶稣在登山宝训。They are sad and sorrowful sufferers for righteousness' sake, even through they may be rich in this world's goods.他们是为义而难过和悲哀的患者,即使通过,他们可能会在这个世界上丰富的商品。"Meek" would be a better word to describe them than "poor."“温顺”将是一个更好的词来形容比他们差。“The description of the wicked oppressor is followed by the usual appeal to God (vv. 12-15), who is represented as reigning over the millennial earth, punishing the wicked, establishing the meek, and judging the oppressed against "the man of the earth" who, as has been said, may well be taken for the Antichrist.其次是邪恶的压迫者的描述通常呼吁上帝(12-15节),谁是代表超过千年统治地球,惩罚恶人,建立温顺,反对“该名男子被压迫和判断地球“的人,正如人们所说的,很可能被敌基督。 Questions i.问题一What is the title or inscription of Psalm 7?什么是诗篇7的标题或题词?2.2。What is the meaning of "Shiggaion" and "Gittith"?“Shiggaion”和“Gittith”的含义是什么?3.3。Have you read 1 Corinthians 15:22-28 and Hebrews 2:5-9?有你读哥林多前书15:22-28,希伯来书2:5-9吗?4.4。What is the key to the imprecatory Psalms?imprecatory诗篇的关键是什么?5.5。To what period does Psalm 10 seem to apply?要什么时期诗篇10似乎适用于?6.6。Who are usually meant by the "poor" in these Psalms?世卫组织通常是由“穷人”,在这些诗篇?7.7。What title is given to the wicked one in Psalm 10?什么样的标题是在诗篇10恶人之一?

Psalm 11诗篇11

A song of trust.一首歌曲的信任。 The declaration of verse one, "In the Lord put I my trust," is buttressed by the reason in verse seven, while all between is descriptive of the condition in which David finds himself.的诗句之一的宣言“,在主把我的信任,”挟着在诗七的原因,而之间的所有描述中,大卫发现自己的条件。Urged to flee from his enemies (v. 1), he shows the futility of the attempt (v. 2).敦促逃离他的敌人(1节),他显示的尝试(2节)是徒劳的。The moral foundations are being undermined (v. 3), and only Jehovah is able to discriminate and judge (vv. 4-6).的道德基础被破坏(3节),只有耶和华是歧视和判断(4-6节)。

Psalm 12诗篇12

The evil speaker.邪恶的扬声器。 The close relation between this and the preceding Psalm is easily discovered.这和前面的诗篇之间的密切关系是容易被发现。David's enemy is the deceitful flatterer (vv. 1, 2).大卫的敌人是骗人的马屁精(vv. 1,2)。But his judgment is of the Lord (vv. 3-5), the sincerity of whose utterances are in contrast with those of the enemy (vv. 6-8).但他的判断是主(3-5节),其言论与敌人(6-8节)的诚意。

Psalm 13诗篇13

Sorrow.悲哀。The Lord seems long in coming to His servant's relief from the slanderers in the Psalms preceding (vv. 1, 2).主似乎诽谤者在前面的诗篇(vv. 1,2)来自他的仆人的救济。Will He never come (vv. 3, 4)?他将永远不会(vv. 3,4)?Yea, He cometh soon, and faith and hope rejoice (vv. 5, 6).是啊,他来不久,和信念,并希望飘柔(vv. 5,6)。

Psalm 14诗篇14

The whole world corrupt.整个世界的腐败。All sinners are fools (v. 1) because they think and act contrary to right reason First, they think wrong ("in his heart," Gen. 6:12), and then soon they act wrong (Prov. 23:7).所有的罪人是傻瓜(1节),因为他们认为行为违反权利的理由,首先,他们想错了(“在他心里,”将军6点12),然后很快,他们的行为错误(箴23时07分) 。This is true of the world generally (vv. 2-4).这是真实的世界一般(2-4节)。"Eat up My People" is a phrase denoting the "beastly fury" of the Gentile enemies of Israel. “吃了我的人”是一个短语,表示以色列外邦的敌人“野兽般的愤怒”。Verses 5 and 6 show their indifference rather than their ignorance of God.5和第6节,展示他们的冷漠,而不是神的无知。If the closing verse seems to refer to the period of the Babylonian captivity and therefore raises a question as to the Davidic authorship (see title), we should remember that the language is typical of any great evil, and that David may be speaking as in other instances, in the prophetic sense.如果关闭诗句似乎是指巴比伦囚禁期间,因此引起了大卫的作者(见标题)的问题,我们应该记住,语言是典型的任何大恶,和大卫可能在发言其他情况下,在预言的意义。 In that case the Psalm takes on a millennial aspect.在这种情况下的诗篇需要上千年方面。

Psalm 15诗篇15

Holiness and its reward.圣洁和奖励。Here a question is asked, verse one, which finds its answer in the verses following, the whole dialogue being summed up in the last sentence.这里的一个问题是问,经文之一,这将在下面的诗句,其答案,整个对话总结出在最后一句。 To abide in God's tabernacle, etc., is to hold fellowship with God and enjoy the blessings incident thereto.要遵守神的帐幕等,是与神相交和享受的祝福事件及其。These are for the man whose conduct is right, who is truthful, sincere, separate from the ungodly, and uninfluenced by covetousness and bribery.这些是人的行为是正确的,谁是真实的,真诚的,不敬虔的分离,贪婪和贿赂不受影响。

Psalm 16诗篇16

Sometimes called "The Psalm of the Resurrection," is one of the great Messianic Psalms (see introductory lesson).有时被称为“复活的诗篇”,是一个伟大的弥赛亚诗篇(见介绍课) 。While it is interesting to consider David as uttering the prayer, for it is a prayer, how much more so to think of Christ!虽然它是有趣的考虑说出的祷告大卫,这是一个祈祷,更加如此认为基督!On some mountain side, in the night's darkness, He may have poured out these petitions and praises.在一些山边,在夜晚的黑暗中,他可能已经倒出这些请愿和称赞。(For its Messianic application compare verses 8-11 with Acts 2:25-31, and 13:35).(比较其弥赛亚的应用与使徒行传2:25-31,和13时35 8-11节)。Observe the spirit of confidence (v. 1), loyalty to God (v. 2), love toward the saints (v. 3), separation from the world (v. 4), contentment (vv. 5, 6), obedience (vv. 7, 8), hope (vv. 9, 10), expectation (v. 11).观察精神的信心(1节),神(2节)的忠诚,走向圣人的爱(3节),来自世界各地(4节)的分离,知足(vv. 5,6),服从(vv. 7,8),希望(vv. 9,10),期望(11节)。The Revised Version throws light on the text.修订后的版本抛出灯上的文字。"Michtam" means "A Golden Psalm" (see margin) and such it is in its preciousness even above others. “Michtam”是指“金色诗篇”(见保证金)等,它甚至超过了其他珍贵。

Psalm 17诗篇17

Is a prayer in which vindication is desired.是一个平反,所需的祈祷。It makes such great claims that one thinks of it as Messianic also (vv. 1-4), and yet like Psalm 7, the writer may have some specific transaction in mind as to which his hands are clean.它使伟大的索赔等人认为,它也为弥赛亚(1-4节),但像诗篇7,作家可能有一些具体的交易,他的手是干净的的。Note the testimony to the power of God's word (v. 4).请注意神的话语(4节)的权力的证词。What is asked is guidance (vv. 5, 6), and preservation (vv. 7, 8).问的是指导(vv. 5,6),并保存(vv. 7,8)。The latter is desired from the wicked whose description follows as proud (vv. 9, 10), treacherous (vv. 11, 12), and yet prosperous in worldly things (v. 14).后者是从恶人,其描述如下为自豪(vv. 9,10),奸诈(vv. 11,12),世间万物(14节),但繁荣的期望。This prosperity is transient in comparison with his own expectation (v. 15).用他自己的期望(15节)相比,这种繁荣是短暂的。Have the Revised Version convenient in reading these Psalms, for the interpretation it casts on some obscure passages.有修订版的方便,在阅读这些诗篇蒙上一些不起眼的段落的解释。Questions 1.问题1。What is the leading thought of Psalm 11?诗篇11的主导思想是什么?2.2。Against what class of enemies are the psalmist's words frequently directed?反对什么阶级敌人,是诗人的话经常指示?3.3。Why are sinners called "fools"?为什么是罪人被称为“傻子”?4.4。Which of the Psalms of this lesson are millennial and messianic?这一课的诗篇是千年和弥赛亚?5.5。Have you compared the passages in Acts?你有比较行为的通道?6.6。What does "Michtam" mean?什么是“Michtam”是什么意思?

Psalm 18诗篇18

A song of victory.胜利之歌。 It opens with ejaculatory expressions of triumph for deliverance.它打开胜利射精表达式解脱。All nature is described as convulsed when the Almighty presses to the rescue.所有的性质描述为忍俊不禁全能印刷机时的救援。 The next division is meditation on the principles involved, the whole closing with a further outburst of triumph and confidence.接下来的分工是冥想所涉及的原则,整体关闭的胜利和信心,进一步突出。2 Samuel 22 is a copy of this ode saving a few variations, and the student is referred to our treatment of it at that place.2塞缪尔22是一个复制本ODE节省了一些变化,学生是在那个地方我们对它的治疗。

Psalm 19诗篇19

God's revelation in the world and in the Word.神的启示,在世界上和在Word。We have a contrast between these two in this Psalm.我们有这些诗篇在这两个之间的对比。In verses one to six there is the general revelation of the heavens, "wordless but extending their sphere over the whole earth," which then specializes to the sun as the chief figure of it all.在1至6节是天上的启示,“无言的,但其领域延伸到整个地球”,然后专门到太阳这一切的行政图。But in 7-14, the law is celebrated, whose function is to warn against sin, and by conformity to which only can our thought and conduct become acceptable to God.但在7-14,是著名的法律,其功能是对罪警告,并符合这不仅可以成为我们的思想和行为接受的上帝。Observe the literary beauty as well as the spiritual teaching in the description of the law, six names, six epithets and six effects.观察文学之美,以及在法的描述,6名,6个绰号和六个影响的精神教学。The clearer our apprehension of the law, so the Psalm teaches, the clearer is our view of sin, and the more evident that grace only can cleanse and keep us from it.使诗教,我们逮捕的法律更清晰,更清楚我们的罪的看法,并更加明显,宽限期只能清洁和保持我们。

Psalms 20 and 21诗篇20和21

Are coupled in The Modern Reader's Bible, and called "An Antiphonal War Anthem." The first gives the prayers of the king and the people before the battle, and the second the thanksgiving after the victory.加上在现代读者的圣经,和胜利后称为“对歌战争国歌。”首先给人的战斗前国王的祈祷和人民,和第二个感恩节。 As to the first, we hear the people (vv. 1-5), the king (v. 6), and then the people to the end.至于第一,我们听到的人(1-5节),国王(6节),然后人到最后。As to the second, the king is first (vv. 1-7), and then the people to the end.至于第二,国王是第一个(1-7节),然后到最后的人。While this may be the historical setting of these Psalms, yet we are at liberty to apply their utterances in the spiritual scene to the experiences of believers in the Christian Church.虽然这可能是这些诗篇的历史背景,但我们在自由精神的场景适用于他们的话语在基督教会的信徒的经验。

Psalm 22诗篇22篇

The Psalm of the Cross. Is this one of the great Messianic Psalms? Christ uttered the first verse on the cross (Matt. 27:46), and there is reason to think the words of the last were also heard.十字架的诗篇。这是一个伟大的救世主的诗篇? 基督在十字架上“(马太福音27:46)说出了第一首诗歌,并有有理由相信最后的话也听说过。"He hath done it" (RV), in the Hebrew, corresponds closely to, "It is finished" (John 19:30). “祂做到了”(RV)在希伯来文中,对应的紧密合作,以“完成”(约翰福音19:30)。If this were so, may we suppose that the whole Psalm was the language of the divine sufferer as He bare our sins on the cross?如果是这样,我们可以假设,整个诗篇是神圣的患者的语言,因为他裸我们的罪孽,在十字架上?There are three strophes, or great poetical divisions, each associated with the phrase, "Far from me."有三个strophes,还是很大的诗意部门,每个短语,“远离我。”The first covers verses 1 to 10, the second 11 to 18, the third 19 to 31.第一个涵盖1至10节,第二个11至18日,第三19日至31日。In the first, we have a cry of distress (vv. 1, 2), an expression of confidence (vv. 3-5), a description of the enemies (vv. 6-8), and a second expression of confidence (vv. 9-10).在第一阶段,我们有一个窘迫的呐喊(vv. 1,2),信心(3-5节)的表达,描述的敌人(6-8节),和第二个表达式的信心(维维9-10)。In the second, we have two descriptions, the surrounding enemies (vv. 11-13), and the sufferer's experiences (vv. 14-18).第二,我们有两个描述,周围的敌人(11-13节),与患者的经验(14-18节)。 In the third the whole tone is changed to a note of victory (vv. 19-21), a testimony of praise (vv. 22-26), and a prophecy of resurrection glory (vv. 27-31).在第三,整个基调是改变胜利的说明(19-21节),赞美(22-26节)的见证,和一个预言复活的荣耀(27-31节)。 The Psalm gives a graphic picture of death by crucifixion with circumstances precisely fulfilled at Calvary.诗篇提供了一个图形图像正是在各各履行的情况下,钉在十字架上的死亡。As that form of death penalty was Roman rather than Jewish, we agree with the Scofield Reference Bible that the "proof of inspiration is irrestible."由于这种形式的死刑是罗马而不是犹太人,我们同意与斯科菲尔德参考圣经“的灵感证明是irrestible。” At verse 22 the Psalm breaks from crucifixion to resurrection (compare John 20:17).在22韵文诗篇从钉在十字架上复活符(比较约翰福音20:17)。

Psalm 23诗篇23

The Shepherd Psalm is such a favorite with all as to make an attempted exposition almost an offence. 牧羊人的诗篇是这样一个与所有作为最喜爱的企图论述,几乎是一个罪行。Did David compose it as a youth tending his father's sheep?大卫抚育他父亲的羊作为一个青年组成吗?If not, it must have been when occupied in reminiscences of those early days.如果不是,它必须已经在这些初期的回忆占据。Note the possessive, "my shepherd," and the future, "shall not want."注意的占有欲,“我的牧者,”未来“,不想要的。”Because the Lord is my Shepherd I am Feeding on the Word, "pastures" Fellowshipping the Spirit, "waters" Being renewed, "restoreth" Surrendered in will, "leadeth" Trusting the promises, "fear no evil" Enjoying security, "a table" Doing service, "runneth over" Possessing hope, "forever."因为耶和华是我的牧者,我在Word饲养,“牧场”Fellowshipping的精神,“水”续期,“restoreth”在会投降,“leadeth”信任的承诺,“恐惧无恶”享受安全,“表“做好服务,”runneth过“拥有希望,”永远“。

Psalm 24诗篇24

Is frequently defined as the Ascension Psalm .经常被定义为阿森松诗篇The Scofield Bible speaks of these last three Psalms, however, 22 23 and 24, as a trilogy.斯科菲尔德圣经谈到这些过去的三个诗篇,然而,22 23和24,作为一个三部曲。In the first, the good Shepherd gives His life for the sheep (John 10:11), in the second, the great Shepherd "brought again from the dead through the blood of the everlasting covenant," tenderly cares for His sheep (Heb. 13:20), and in the last, the chief Shepherd appears as king of glory to own and reward the sheep (I Pet. 5:4).在第一,好牧人给他的羊的生命(约翰福音10:11),在第二个伟大的牧羊人“再次带来了从死的永约的血,”温柔的关心他的羊(希伯来书13:20),而在过去,行政牧羊犬显示为荣耀的王将自己和奖励羊(我宠物。5时04分)。 From this point of view the order is: (a), the declaration of title, "The earth is the Lord's" (vv. I, 2); (b), the challenge (vv. 3-6), it is a question of worthiness and no one is worthy but the Lamb (compare Dan. 7:13, 14; Rev. 5:3-10); (c), the king takes the throne (vv. 7-10), (compare Matt. 25: 31).从这个角度来看,顺序是:(一),所有权的声明,“地球是上帝的”vv.我,(2)(B),挑战(3-6节),它是一个老有所为,并没有一个问题是值得的,但羔羊(比较丹7点13,14;启示录5:3-10);(C),国王将王位(7-10节),(比较马特25:31)。 Questions 7.问题7。Where have we met earlier with the contents of Psalm 18?我们之前会见了诗篇18的内容?I. What theme would you assign to Psalm 19?一,什么主题,将分配给诗篇19?2.2。Give the names, epithets and effects of the law.给予的姓名,绰号和法律效果。3.3。What is the historical setting of Psalms 20 and 21?诗篇20和21的历史背景是什么?4.4。How does John 19:30 suggest the last verse of Psalm 22?约翰福音19:30建议诗篇22篇的最后一节?5.5。Of what is this Psalm a picture?什么是这一诗篇的图片?6.6。What proof of inspiration does it contain?它包含什么证明的灵感?7.7。By what name has Psalm 24 been called?什么样的名字已被称为诗篇24?8.8。How may the last three Psalms be classified?最后三个诗篇如何进行分类呢?9.9。Amplify this last idea.健全这最后的想法。10.10。From this point of view, what is the order of Psalm 24?从这个角度来看,诗篇24的顺序是什么?11.11。What may have been the historical origin of the Psalm last named?可能有什么历史渊源的诗篇,最后命名呢?

Psalm 25诗篇25

In the Hebrew this prayer is arranged as an acrostic, ie, the first word of each verse begins with a letter in alphabetical order from A to Z. Hereafter we shall not give as much attention to every Psalm as we have thus far, but trust the reader to do the analyzing after the examples given. The purpose of the Commentary is not so much textual explanation as a stimulus to Bible study in a broader sense, and it is assumed that the reader has been studying the Bible side by side with the Commentary from the beginning. The more difficult Psalms, some of the more familiar and popular, and those distinctively Messianic and millennial may be treated more at length, but others must be passed over.在希伯来文这个祷告是作为一个离合词的安排,即,每个诗的第一个字的开头字母按字母顺序从A到Z。此后,我们将不给予尽可能多的关注到每一个诗篇,因为我们迄今,但信任读者做的分析后,给出的例子。,评注的目的是没有这么多的文字解释为刺激圣经中更广泛的意义上研究,并假定读者已经通过一边学习与“圣经 “方从一开始的评论 。越是困难的诗篇,一些比较熟悉和流行,这些独特的弥赛亚和千年可能被视为在长度多,但其他人必须通过以上。 In the present instance the prayer is for defence (vv. 1-3), guidance (vv. 4, 5), forgiveness (vv. 6-11), etc., intermingled with testimony to the divine goodness (vv. 12-15).在目前情况下,防御(1-3节),指导(5 vv. 4,),宽恕(6-11节)等混合,见证神的良善(vv. 12,祈祷 - 15)。

Psalm 26诗篇26

Is another appeal to God on the basis of avowed integrity and innocence of the charges of enemies.是另一个宣称的完整性和敌人的收费无罪的基础上呼吁上帝。Note the features of righteous character of which the psalmist speaks, as well as the description of his enemies.请注意诗人讲正义的性格特点,以及他的敌人的描述。The Modern Reader's Bible names this Psalm, "Searchings of heart before worship."现代读者的圣经名称本诗篇,“Searchings心前的崇拜。”

Psalm 27诗篇27

Is called by the volume named above "An Anthem of Deliverance," and throughout it exhibits confidence, hope and joy, in God's worship, with prayer for help and guidance in danger.量以上命名的“国歌解脱,被称为和整个它表现出的信心,希望和喜悦,在神的崇拜与祈祷处于危险之中的帮助和指导。 The secret of the psalmist's confidence is given in verse four as his delight in divine fellowship expressed in worshiping in God's tabernacle.诗人的信心的秘诀是在四个诗句作为他在神圣的团契在崇拜神的帐幕表示高兴。 God will protect and deliver him (vv. 5, 6).上帝会保护,并提供他(vv. 5,6)。He will be more to him than earthly parents (v. 10).他将超过尘世的父母给他(10节)。All he craves is guidance (v. 11).他渴望已久的指导意见(第11节)。He concludes with counsel to others in a like case (vv. 13, 14).他的结论与律师他人在这样的情况下(vv. 13,14)。

Psalm 29诗篇29

"The Song of the Thunderstorm," encourages confidence in God by the celebration of His power in His dominion over the natural world.“雷雨之歌”,鼓励在庆祝他的权柄,他的权力,对自然世界的神的信心。 "Discovereth the forests" (v. 9) means "stripping them bare."“Discovereth的森林”(9节)意味着“剥离他们裸露的。”In the midst of this sublimity God's worshipers cry, "Glory!"在这一崇高上帝的信徒哭的情况下,“荣耀!”(RV)(RV)

Psalm 30诗篇30

States its occasion in the title, the reference being to David's own house or palace (compare Deut. 20:5); 2 Sam.国的称号,是大卫自己的房屋或宫殿(申命记20:5)。参考其际; 2山姆。5:11; 7:2).5点11分; 7:2)。

Psalm 31诗篇31

Is a cry of one in distress, which some have referred to as the period of David's persecution by Saul at Keilah.在危难的呼声之一,其中的一些被称为大卫的迫害期间在基伊拉扫罗。Read 1 Samuel 23:1-15, and then note in the Psalm, verses 4, 8, 10-15, 20-22.读撒母耳记上23:1-15,然后在诗篇注意,经文4,8,10-15,20-22。

Psalm 32诗篇32

Reads like "David's Spiritual Biography."喜欢读“大卫的精神传记。”It is thought to have been written after his sin with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 11, 12).它被认为已书面后,他与拔示巴的罪(2山姆。11,12)。He has been brought to repentance for that sin and forgiven (Psalm 51), and now is praising God for that forgiveness, and telling what led up to it.他已经悔改,罪,赦免(诗篇51),现在是赞美上帝宽恕,并告诉是什么导致它。It opens with a general declaration of his blessedness and why (vv. I, 2).它打开了他的幸福宣言和vv.我,(2)。This is followed by his experience before forgiveness and when he was undergoing conviction of sin (vv. 3, 4).其次是他的宽恕,当他正处于罪定罪(vv. 3,4)前的经验。Confession brought forgiveness (v. 5).供认带来宽恕(5节)。Let others act similarly in the same circumstances (v. 6).让他人的行为同样在相同的情况下(第6节)。See what God is to him now (v. 7).神是什么,他现在(7节)。The Psalm takes the form of a dialogue at this point, and God speaks at verses eight and nine, which should be read in the Revised Version.诗篇采取对话的形式,在这一点上,神八和九节,应在修订版读讲。The whole concludes with a warning and exhortation (vv. 10, 11).整个最后警告,告诫(vv. 10,11)。

Psalm 33诗篇33

Is one of praise.赞美之一。 It opens with a general chorus (vv. 1-3).它与一般的合唱团(1-3节)打开。This is followed by a semi-chorus (vv. 4-11), a second semi-chorus (vv. 12-19), and a final chorus (vv. 20-22).其次是半合唱团(4-11节),第二个半合唱(12-19节),和最后的合唱(20-22节)。To follow this division suggested by the Modern Reader's Bible, is to obtain a good idea of the several subjects.要按照现代读者的圣经提出这样的划分,是为了获得一个好主意的几个科目。

Psalm 34诗篇34

Has its occasion indicated in the title which refers to I Samuel 21:13.其场合表示这是指我塞缪尔21点13在标题。The name there is Achish, but some think Abimelech was the general name given the sovereigns of Gath at that time (Gen. 20:2).这个名字有亚吉,但有些人认为亚比米勒是当时迦特的主权(创20:2)的通用名称。This is also an acrostic, and from a musical point of view consists of an introduction (vv. I, 2), solos and choruses.这也是一个离合词,从音乐的角度看来,包括介绍(vv.我,2),独奏和合唱团。For one solo, see verses 3-6, and for another 11-14.对于一个独奏,见诗句3-6,和另一11-14。

Psalm 35诗篇35

May be read in connection with I Samuel 24, which some regard as its occasion.可以读撒母耳记上24,其中有些方面作为其际。A comparison of that chapter will throw light on the meaning of several of its expressions.该章的比较将抛出几个表达式的含义。

Psalm 37诗篇37

Is one of the most popular of the Psalms of trust and confidence, whose contents are illustrated in David's personal history.最流行的诗篇的信任和信心,其内容在大卫的个人历史说明。It is an acrostic, which requires little in the way of explanation to any heart who really knows God through Jesus Christ.它是一个离合词,这需要一点在解释任何谁真正知道上帝透过耶稣基督的心。The theme is the prosperity of the wicked with counsel as to how the child of God should act in regard to it.会议的主题是邪恶与律师作为神的孩子应该如何行事关于繁荣。Questions I. What is an acrostic Psalm?问题一,什么是离合的诗篇?2.2。What earlier Psalm is suggested by the theme of Psalm 26?早期诗篇建议的诗篇26“的主题?3.3。Point out the poetic descriptions of a thunder-storm in Psalm 29.指出雷暴在诗篇29的诗意描述。4.4。What experience is Psalm 31 thought to describe?诗篇31的经验是什么思想来形容?5.5。Have you again read 1 Samuel 23:1-15?有你再次阅读1撒母耳记23:1-15?6.6。Give a title of Psalm 32, and a reason for it.给出的诗篇“32的称号,并为它的一个原因。7.7。What idea is conveyed by "semichorus"?“semichorus”传达的想法是什么?8.8。Memorize Psalm 37:1-9.背诵诗篇37:1-9。

(NOTE: Gray's Commentary continues throughout the remaninder of the Psalms) (注:灰色的评论继续在整个诗篇remaninder)


Psalms诗篇

Catholic Information天主教信息

The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" (Kethubhim or Hagiographa), ie of the third section of the printed Hebrew Bible of today.诗篇,诗篇,是第一册的“著作”(Kethubhim或Hagiographa),即今天的第三部分印制希伯来文圣经。 In this section of the Hebrew Bible the canonical order of books has varied greatly; whereas in the first and second sections, that is, in the Law and the Prophets, the books have always been in pretty much the same order.在本节的希伯来文圣经的书籍的规范秩序差别很大,而在第一和第二部分,也就是律法和先知的书一直在几乎相同的顺序。The Talmudic list (Baba Bathra 14 b) gives Ruth precedence to Psalms.塔木德列表(巴巴Bathra 14 B)使露丝优先诗篇。St. Jerome heads the "Writings" with Psalms, in his "Epistola ad Paulinum" (PL, XXII, 547); with Job in his "Prologus Galeatus" (PL, XXVIII, 555).圣杰罗姆元首与诗篇“文章”,在他的“Epistola广告Paulinum”(PL,22,547);与在他的“Prologus Galeatus”作业“(PL,二十八,555)。Many Masoretic manuscripts, especially Spanish, begin the "Writings" with Paralipomena or Chronicles.许多马所拉的手稿,尤其是西班牙语,开始Paralipomena或编年史“书面形式”。German Masoretic manuscripts have led to the order of book in the Kethubhim of the modern Hebrew Bible.德国马所拉的手稿,有书的顺序,在现代希伯来语圣经Kethubhim。The Septuagint puts Psalms first among the Sapiential Books.七十诗篇之间的智斗书第一。These latter books, in "Cod. Alexandrinus", belong to the third section and follow the Prophets.这些后者书籍,“鳕鱼。Alexandrinus”,属于第三部分,并按照先知。The Clementine Vulgate has Psalms and the Sapiential Books in the second section, and after Job.克莱门汀武加大诗篇,并在第二部分的智斗书籍,作业完成后。This article will treat the name of the Psalter, its contents, the authors of the Psalms, their canonicity, text, versions, poetic form, poetic beauty, theological value, and liturgical use.本文将治疗的psalter的名称,它的内容,作者的诗篇,他们的正规,文字,版本,诗的形式,如诗如画的美景,神学的价值,和礼仪的使用。

I. NAME一,名称

The Book of Psalms has various names in the Hebrew, Septuagint, and Vulgate texts.诗篇在希伯来文译本和武加大文本的各种名称。

A. The Hebrew name is , "praises" (from , "to praise"); or , "book of praises". A.希伯来文的名字,“赞美”(从“赞美”);“,​​称赞本书”。This latter name was known to Hippolytus, who wrote Hebraioi periegrapsanten biblon Sephra theleim (ed. Lagarde, 188).后者的名字被称为希波吕托斯,谁写Hebraioi periegrapsanten biblon Sephra theleim主编拉加德(188)的。There is some doubt in regard to the authenticity of this fragment.有一些关于这个片段的真实性的怀疑。There can be no doubt, however, in regard to the transliteration Spharthelleim by Origen (PG, XII, 1084); and "sephar tallim, quod interpretatur volumen hymnorum" by St. Jerome (PL, XXVIII, 1124).然而,可以有毫无疑问,关于奥利(PG,第十二,1084)的音译Spharthelleim;和“sephar tallim,狴interpretatur volumen hymnorum”圣杰​​罗姆(PL,二十八,1124)。The name "praises" does not indicate the contents of all the Psalms.“赞美”这个名字并不表示所有的诗篇的内容。Only Ps.只有诗篇。cxliv (cxlv) is entitled "praise" ().cxliv(cxlv)题为“赞”()。A synonymous name hallel was, in later Jewish ritual, given to four groups of songs of praise, Pss.同义名称hallel,在以后的犹太教仪式,四组的赞美歌,PSS。civ-cvii, cxi-cxvii, cxxxv-cxxxvi, cxlvi-cl (Vulgate, ciii-cvi, cx-cxvi, cxxxvi-cxxxviii, cxlv-cl).CIV - cvii,CXI cxvii,cxxxv cxxxvi,cxlvi - CL(武加大,CIII CVI,CX - cxvi,cxxxvi cxxxviii,cxlv - CL)。Not only these songs of praise, but the entire collection of psalms made up a manual for temple service -- a service chiefly of praise; hence the name "Praises" was given to the manual itself.不仅是这些歌曲的赞美,但整个收集诗篇一个寺庙服务手册 - 一个主要的赞美服务,故名“称赞”手册本身。

B. The Septuagint manuscripts of the Book of Psalms read either psalmoi, psalms, or psalterion, psalter.B.图书阅读要么psalmoi诗篇,诗篇,或psalterion,诗篇的译本手稿。The word psalmos is a translation of , which occurs in the titles of fifty-seven psalms.这个词psalmos是一个翻译,这发生在五十七个诗篇标题。Psalmos in classical Greek meant the twang of the strings of a musical instrument; its Hebrew equivalent (from , "to trim") means a poem of "trimmed" and measured form.在古典希腊Psalmos意味着鼻音一种乐器的琴弦;希伯来相当于(从“微调”)是指一首诗“修剪”和测量的形式。The two words show us that a psalm was a poem of set structure to be sung to the accompaniment of stringed instruments.这两个词表明我们的诗是弦乐器的伴奏下演唱的设置结构的诗句。The New Testament text uses the names psalmoi (Luke 24:44), biblos psalmon (Luke 20:42; Acts 1:20), and Daveid (Hebrews 4:7).新约文本使用的名称psalmoi(路加福音24:44),biblos psalmon(路加福音20时42;徒1:20),并Daveid(希伯来书4:7)。

C. The Vulgate follows the Greek text and translates psalmi, liber psalmorum. C.武加大如下希腊文和翻译psalmi,LIBER psalmorum。

The Syriac Bible in like manner names the collection Mazmore.在喜欢的方式名称收集Mazmore叙利亚文圣经。

II.二。CONTENTS目录

The Book of Psalms contains 150 psalms, divided into five books, together with four doxologies and the titles of most of the psalms.诗篇包含150诗篇,分为五书,连同四个doxologies和大部分的诗篇的标题。

A. NUMBER答:数

The printed Hebrew Bible lists 150 psalms.印制希伯来文圣经列出150诗篇。Fewer are given by some Masoretic manuscripts.更少一些马所拉手稿。The older Septuagint manuscripts (Codd. Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus) give 151, but expressly state that the last psalm is not canonical: "This psalm was written by David with his own hand and is outside the number", exothen tou arithmou.旧的译本手稿(Codd.西奈抄本,Vaticanus和Alexandrinus)给151,但最后的诗篇是不规范的明确规定:“这诗篇是写由大卫与他自己的手和数量外”,exothen头arithmou。 The Vulgate follows the numeration of the Septuagint but omits Ps.武加大如下记数的译本,但忽略了诗。cli.CLI。The differences in the numerations of the Hebrew and Vulgate texts may be seen in the following scheme:在希伯来文和拉丁文圣经文本numerations的差异可能会出现在下面的方案:

Hebrew 1-8 = Septuagint/Vulgate 1-8希伯来文1-8 =译本/武加大1-8

Hebrew 9 = Septuagint/Vulgate 9-10希伯来9 =译本/武加大9-10

Hebrew 10-112 = Septuagint/Vulgate 11-113希伯来语10-112 =译本/武加大11-113

Hebrew 113 = Septuagint/Vulgate 114-115希伯来文113 =译本/武加大114-115

Hebrew 114-115 = Septuagint/Vulgate 116希伯来语114-115 =译本/武加大116

Hebrew 116-145 = Septuagint/Vulgate 117-146希伯来语116-145 =译本/武加大117-146

Hebrew 146-147 = Septuagint/Vulgate 147希伯来语146-147 =译本/武加大147

Hebrew 148-150 = Septuagint/Vulgate 148-150希伯来语148-150 =译本/武加大148-150

In the course of this article, we shall follow the Hebrew numeration and bracket that of the Septuagint and Vulgate.在这篇文章的过程中,我们应当遵循希伯来文译本和武加大记数和支架。Each numeration has its defects; neither is preferable to the other.每一个记数也有其缺陷;既不是优于其他的。The variance between Massorah and Septuagint texts in this numeration is likely enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms; such neglect was occasioned by liturgical uses and carelessness of copyists. Massorah和七十文本之间在这记数的差异可能是足够的由于一个原始的诗歌形式的诗篇逐步忽视,这种忽视礼仪用途和抄写员的疏忽所引致。It is admitted by all that Pss.这是承认所有PSS。ix and x were originally a single acrostic poem; they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate.第九和第十最初单一的离合诗,他们被错误地通过Massorah分离,正确的译本和武加大美国。On the other hand Ps.另一方面PS。cxliv (cxlv) is made up of two songs -- verses 1-11 and 12-15.cxliv(cxlv)是由两首歌曲 - 1-11和12-15节。Pss.PSS。xlii and xliii (xli and xlii) are shown by identity of subject (yearning for the house of Jahweh), of metrical structure and of refrain (cf. Heb. Ps. xlii, 6, 12; xliii, 5), to be three strophes of one and the same poem.四十二和四十三(XLI和XLII)显示的韵律结构和避免(参希伯来PS XLII,6,12。; XLIII,5),主体的身份(向往亚威房子),是三一个strophes和相同的诗句。The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps.希伯来文是在正确计数作为一个PS。cxvi (cxiv + cxv) and Ps. cxvi(cxiv +第一百一十五)和PS。cxlvii (cxlvi + cxlviii). cxlvii(cxlvi + cxlviii)。Later liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms.后来似乎已经分手了这些礼仪的使用,而不是其他一些诗篇。Zenner ("Die Chorgesange im Buche der Psalmen", II, Freiburg im Br., 1896) ingeniously combines into what he deems were the original choral odes: Pss.(“模具Chorgesange IM布车DER Psalmen”,第二,弗莱堡BR,1896年)真兰巧妙地组合成他认为原来的合唱颂歌:PSS的。i, ii, iii, iv; vi + xiii (vi + xii); ix + x (ix); xix, xx, xxi (xx, xxi, xxii); xlvi + xlvii (xlvii + xlviii); lxix + lxx (lxx + lxxi); cxiv + cxv (cxiii); cxlviii, cxlix, cl.I,II,III,IV,VI + XIII(VI + XII); IX + X(IX); XIX,XX,XXI(XX,XXI,22); XLVI + XLVII(XLVII + XLVIII); lxix + LXX( LXX + lxxi); cxiv +第一百一十五(cxiii); cxlviii,cxlix,CL。 A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss.合唱颂歌,似乎已PSS原始形式。xiv + lxx (xiii + lxix).第十四+ LXX(十三+ lxix)。The two strophes and the epode are Ps.两个strophes和epode是PS。xiv; the two antistrophes are Ps.第十四;两个antistrophes是PS。lxx (cf. Zenner-Wiesmann, "Die Psalmen nach dem Urtext", Munster, 1906, 305).LXX(参真兰维泽曼,“模具Psalmen nach DEM Urtext”,明斯特,1906年,305)。It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter: Ps.值得注意的是,打破了原有的颂歌,每一部分蹑手蹑脚的psalter两次到:PS。xiv = liii, Ps.第十四= LIII,PS。lxxx = xl, 14-18.LXXX = XL,14日至18日。Other such duplicated psalms are Ps.其他如重复的诗篇是PS。cviii, 2-6 (cvii) = Ps. cviii,2-6(cvii)= PS。lvii, 8-12 (lvi); Ps. LVII,8-12(LVI); PS。cviii, 7-14 (cvii) = Ps. cviii,7-14(cvii)= PS。lx, 7-14 (lix); Ps. LX,7-14(LIX); PS。lxxi, 1-3 (lxx) = Ps.lxxi 1-3(LXX)= PS。xxxi, 2-4 (xxx).第31,2-4(XXX)。This loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes.已经由于礼仪使用的圣经委员会(5月1日,1910年),抄写忽视,或其他原因造成的这种失去原有的一些诗篇形式是允许的。

B. DIVISION二分部

The Psalter is divided into five books.的psalter分为五本书。Each book, save the last, ends with a doxology.每本书,保存最后,结束与doxology。These liturgical forms differ slightly.这些礼仪形式略有不同。All agree that the doxologies at the end of the first three books have nothing to do with the original songs to which they have been appended.大家都同意,在前三本书结束的doxologies什么都没有做他们被追加的原创歌曲。 Some consider that the fourth doxology was always a part of Ps.有人认为,第四doxology总是一个PS的一部分。cvi (cv) (cf. Kirkpatrick, "Psalms", IV and V, p. 6343).CVI(CV)(参见帕特里克,“诗篇”,Ⅳ和V,6343页)。We prefer, with Zenner-Wiesmann (op. cit., 76) to rate it as a doxology pure and simple.我们希望与真兰维泽曼(同上,76),率作为doxology纯粹和简单。The fifth book has no need of an appended doxology.第五册,已没有必要附加doxology。Ps.聚苯乙烯。cl, whether composed as such or not, serves the purpose of a grand doxology which fittingly brings the whole Psalter to its close.CL,是否如或不组成,提供了隆重的doxology这恰如其分地带来整个诗篇密切的目的。

The five books of the Psalter are made up as follows:五书的psalter如下:

Bk. BK。I: Pss.我:PSS。i-xli (i-xl); doxology, Ps.I - XLI(I - XL); doxology,诗。xli, 14.XLI,14。

Bk. BK。II: Pss. (二):PSS。xlii-lxxii (xli-lxxi); doxology, Ps.XLII - LXXII(XLI - lxxi); doxology,PS。 lxxii, 18-20. LXXII,18日至20日。

Bk. BK。III: Pss.第三:PSS。lxxiii-lxxxix (lxxii-lxxxviii); doxology, Ps.lxxiii - lxxxix(LXXII lxxxviii); doxology,PS。lxxxix, 53.lxxxix,53。

Bk. BK。IV: Pss.第四:PSS。xc-cvi (lxxxix-cv); doxology, Ps.XC - CVI(lxxxix - CV); doxology,诗篇。cvi, 48.CVI,48。

Bk. BK。V: Pss.五:PSS。cvii-cl (cvi-cl); no doxology. cvii - CL(CVI - CL);没有doxology。

In the Masoretic text, the doxology is immediately followed by an ordinal adjective indicating the number of the succeeding book; not so in the Septuagint and Vulgate.马所拉文本,doxology紧接着由一个序,说明成功的书数量的形容词;中译本和武加大。This division of the Psalter into five parts belongs to early Jewish tradition.这种分工的psalter分为五个部分,属于早期犹太传统。The Midrash on Ps.米德拉士对PS。i tells us that David gave to the Jews five books of psalms to correspond to the five books of the Law given them by Moses.我告诉我们,大卫给犹太人的诗篇书籍对应摩西所赋予的“五书。This tradition was accepted by the early Fathers.由早期教父接受了这一传统。Hippolytus, in the doubtful fragment already referred to, calls the Psalter and its five books a second Pentateuch (ed. Lagarde, 193).希波吕托斯已经提到的可疑片段,调用的诗篇和其五本书的第二个摩西五主编拉加德(193)。 St. Jerome defends the division in his important "Prologus Galeatus" (PL, XXVIII, 553) and in Ep.圣杰罗姆辩护师,在他重要的“Prologus Galeatus”(PL,二十八,553)和EP。cxl (PL, XXII, 11, 68). CXL(PL,22,11,68)。Writing to Marcella (PL, XXIII, 431), he says: "In quinque siquidem volumina psalterium apud Hebraeos divisum est".写作Marcella(PL,二十三,431),他说:“在quinque siquidem volumina psalterium APUD Hebraeos divisum EST”。He, however, contradicts this statement in his letter to Sophronius (PL, XXVIII, 1123): "Nos Hebraeorum auctoritatem secute et maxime apostolorum, qui sempter in Novo Testamento psalmorum librum nominant, unum volumen asserimus".不过,他矛盾在他的信Sophronius(PL,二十八,1123)这样的说法:“NOS Hebraeorum auctoritatem secute等MAXIME apostolorum,归仁诺Testamento psalmorum librum nominant,UNUM volumen asserimus sempter”。

C. TITLES三业权

In the Hebrew Psalter, all the psalms, save thirty-four, have either simple or rather complex titles.在希伯来文诗篇,所有的诗篇,节省三十四个,有简单或相当复杂的标题。The Septuagint and Vulgate supply titles to most of the thirty-four psalms that lack Hebrew titles.七十和武加大供应产品大部分34个的诗篇,缺乏希伯来文标题。These latter, called "orphan psalms" by Jewish tradition, are thus distributed in the five books of the Psalter:这些后者,被称为“孤儿诗篇”犹太传统,因此,分布式的psalter五书:

Bk. BK。I has 4 -- Pss.一4 - PSS。I, iii, x, xxxiii [i, iii, ix (b), xxxii].Ⅰ,Ⅲ,X,XXXIII [I,III,IX(二),三十二]。Of these, Ps.其中,PS。x is broken from Ps. x是脱离PS。ix; Ps. IX; PS。xxxiii has a title in the Septuagint and Vulgate.XXXIII有中译本和武加大的标题。

Bk. BK。II has 2 -- Pss.II有2 - PSS。xliii, lxxi (xlii, lxx).四十三,lxxi(XLII,LXX)。Of these, Ps.其中,PS。xliii is broken from Ps. XLIII脱离PS。xlii. XLII。

Bk. BK。III has none.三,有没有。

Bk. BK。IV has 10 -- Pss.四,有10 - PSS。xci, xciii-xcvii, xcix, xiv-cvi (xc, xcii-xcvi, xcviii, ciii-cv).XCI,xciii - xcvii,xcix,XIV - CVI(XC,xcii xcvi,xcviii,CIII - CV)。Of these, all have titles in the Septuagint and Vulgate.这些,都在译本和武加大职称。

Bk. BK。V has 18 -- Pss.V有18 - PSS。cvii, cxi-cxix, cxxxv-cxxxvii, cxlvi-cl (cvi, cx-cxviii, cxxxiv, cxlv-cl).cvii,CXI cxix,cxxxv cxxxvii,cxlvi - CL(CVI,CX - cxviii cxxxiv,cxlv - CL)。Of these, Ps.其中,PS。cxii has a title in the Vulgate, Ps.cxii已在武加大,PS标题。cxxxvii in the Septuagint and Vulgate; the quasi-title hallelu yah precedes nine (cxi-cxiii, cxxxv, cxlvi-cl); the Greek equivalent Allelouia precedes seven others (cvii, cxiv, cxvi-cxix, cxxxvi).cxxxvii中译本和武加大;准标题hallelu盐田前面九个(CXI cxiii,cxxxv,cxlvi - CL),相当于希腊Allelouia前面七人(cvii,cxiv,cxvi cxix,cxxxvi)。Only Ps.只有诗篇。cxv [cxiii (b)] has no title either in the Hebrew or the Septuagint.第一百一十五[cxiii(二)在希伯来文的译本没有标题。

(1) Meaning of Titles(1)标题的含义

These titles tell us one or more of five things about the psalms: (a) the author, or, perhaps, collection; (b) the historical occasion of the song; (c) its poetic characteristics; (d) its musical setting; (e) its liturgical use.这些标题告诉我们,5有关的诗篇的事情中的一个或多个:(一)作者,或者,也许,收集;(b)该歌曲的历史时刻;(三)如诗如画的特点;(d)其音乐设置; (五)礼仪使用。

(a) Titles indicating the author(一)表明作者的标题

Bk. BK。I has four anonymous psalms out of the forty-one (Pss. i, ii, x, xxxiii).我有四个匿名的诗篇第四(Pss. I,II,X,三十三)。The other thirty-seven are Davidic.其他的三十七个大卫。Ps.聚苯乙烯。x is part of ix; Ps.x是第九部分; PS。xxxiii is Davidic in the Septuagint; and Pss.XXXIII大卫在七十;和PSS。I and ii are prefatory to the entire collection.I及II前言整个集合。-- Bk.- BK。II has three anonymous psalms out of the thirty-one (Pss. xliii, lxvi, lxxi).II有三个匿名诗篇第三(Pss. XLIII,LXVI,lxxi)。Of these, eight Pss., xlii-xlix (xli-xlviii) are "of the sons of Korah" (libne qorah); Ps.其中,8个PSS,XLII XLIX(XLI - XLVIII)“可拉的儿子”(libne qorah),PS。1 is "of Asaph"; Pss.1日是“亚萨”; PSS。li-lxxii "of the Director" (lamenaççeah) and Ps.李LXXII“处长”(lamenaççeah)和Ps。lxxii "of Solomon". LXXII“所罗门”。Ps.聚苯乙烯。xliii (xlii) is part of xlii (xli); Pss.XLIII(XLII)XLII(XLI)的一部分; PSS。lxvi and lxvii (lxv and lxvi) and Davidic in the Septuagint and Vulgate.LXVI LXVII(第六十五和LXVI)中译本和武加大大卫。-- Bk.- BK。III has one Davidic psalm, lxxxvi (lxxxv); eleven "of Asaph", lxxiii-lxxxiii (lxxii-lxxxii); four "of the sons of Korah", lxxxiv, lxxxv, lxxxvii, lxxxviii (lxxxiii, lxxxiv, lxxxvi, lxxxvii); and one "of Ethan", lxxxix (lxxxviii).第三,捌拾陆大卫的诗篇之一(捌拾伍);“亚萨”十一,lxxiii LXXXIII(LXXII捌拾);四个“可拉的儿子”,lxxxiv,捌拾伍,lxxxvii,lxxxviii(捌拾叁,lxxxiv,捌拾陆,lxxxvii )和一个“伊桑”,lxxxix(lxxxviii)。Ps.聚苯乙烯。lxxxviii is likewise assigned to Heman the Ezrahite.lxxxviii同样分配到热合曼的Ezrahite。-- Bk.- BK。IV has two Davidic psalms, ci and ciii (c and cii), and one "of Moses".第四两个大卫的诗篇,CI和CIII(C和CII)和“摩西”。 Moreover, the Septuagint assigns to David eight others, Pss.此外,该septuagint分配给大卫八人,PSS。xci, xciii-xcvii, xciv, civ (xc, xcii-xcvi, xcviii, ciii).XCI,xciii - xcvii,XCIV,CIV(XC,xcii xcvi,xcviii,CIII)。The remainder are anonymous.其余的都是匿名的。-- Bk.- BK。V has twenty-seven anonymous psalms out of forty-four.V有四十四名匿名诗篇二十七个。Pss.PSS。cviii-cx, cxxii, cxxiv, cxxxi, cxxxiii, cxxxviii-cxlv (cvii-cix, cxxi, cxxiii, cxxx, cxxxii, cxxxvii-cxlv) are Davidic.cviii - CX,cxxii,cxxiv,cxxxi,cxxxiii,cxxxviii - cxlv(cvii - CIX cxxi,cxxiii,CXXX,第一百三十二号,cxxxvii cxlv)大卫。Ps.聚苯乙烯。cxxvii is "of Solomon". cxxvii是“所罗门”。The Septuagint and Vulgate assign Ps.译本和武加大分配诗。cxxxvii (cxxxvi) David, Pss. cxxxvii(cxxxvi)大卫,PSS。cxlvi-cxlviii (cxlv-cxlviii) to Aggeus and Zacharias.cxlvi - cxlviii(cxlv cxlviii)Aggeus和撒迦利亚。Besides these title-names of authors and collections which are clear, there are several such names which are doubtful.除了这些明确的作者和集合标题名称,有几个这样的名字,怀疑。-- Lamenaççeah (; Septuagint, eis to telos; Vulg., in finem; Douai, "unto the end"; Aquila, to nikopoio, "for the victor"; St. Jerome, victori; Symmachus, epinikios, "a song of victory"; Theodotion, eis to nikos, "for the victory") now generally interpreted "of the Director".- Lamenaççeah(译本,EIS到终极目的; Vulg,finem;杜埃,“你们到底”;拉奎拉,nikopoio,“胜利者”,圣杰罗姆,victori; Symmachus,epinikios“的歌曲。胜利“; Theodotion,EIS尼科斯,”胜利“)现在一般解释为”处长“。The Pi'el of the root means, in I Par., xv, 22, "to be leader" over the basses in liturgical service of song (cf. Oxford Hebrew Dictionary, 664).根Pi'el手段,在我票,十五,22日,“领袖”在歌曲的礼仪服务(参见牛津希伯来语词典,664)贝司,。The title "of the Director" is probably analogous to "of David", "of Asaph", etc., and indicates a "Director's Collection" of Psalms.“主任”称号可能是类似于“大卫”,“亚萨”等,并表示“主任的收藏”的诗篇。This collection would seem to have contained 55 of our canonical psalms, whereof 39 were Davidic, 9 Korahite, 5 Asaphic, and 2 anonymous.此集合,似乎有55载,我们的规范诗篇,其中39人大卫,9 Korahite,5 Asaphic,和2个无名氏。Al-Yeduthun, in Pss.铝Yeduthun,在PSS。lxii and lxxvii (lxi and lxxvi), where the preposition al might lead one to interpret Yeduthun as a musical instrument or a tune.LXII和第七十七号(LXI及LXXVI),介词的人可能会导致解释为一种乐器或一首曲子Yeduthun。 In the title to Ps.在诗的标题。 xxxix (xxxviii), "of the Director, of Yeduthun, a song of David", Yeduthun is without al and seems to be the Director (Menaççeah) just spoken of. XXXIX(三十八),“主任,Yeduthun,一首歌曲大卫”,Yeduthun没有人似乎主任(Menaç​​çeah)刚才发言的。That David had such a director is clear from I Par., xvi, 41.大卫有过这样的导演是从我票,十六,41。

(b) Titles indicating the historical occasion of the song(二)标题说明歌曲的历史时刻

Thirteen Davidic psalms have such titles.十三大卫的诗篇有这样的标题。Pss.PSS。vii, xviii, xxxiv, lii, liv, lvi, lvii, lix, cxlii (vii, xvii, xxxiii, li, liii, lv, lvi, lviii, cxli) are referred to the time of David's persecution by Saul; Ps.七,十八,三十四,LII,LIV,LVI,LVII,LIX,cxlii(七,十七,三十三,李,LIII,LV,LVI,LVIII,cxli)被称为大卫的迫害扫罗的时间; PS。lx (lix) to that of the victories in Mesopotamia and Syria; Ps. LX(LIX)在美索不达米亚和叙利亚的胜利,PS。li(l) to his sin; Pss.李(L),他的罪过; PSS。iii and lxiii (lxii) to his flight from Absalom.三和LXIII(LXII)他从押沙龙飞行。

(c) Titles indicating poetic characteristics of the psalm(三)标题说明诗意特征的诗篇

Mizmor (; Septuagint, psalmos; Vulg., psalmus; a psalm), a technical word not used outside the titles of the Psalter; meaning a song set to stringed accompaniment. Mizmor(译本,psalmos。Vulg,psalmus诗篇),技术字以外的psalter标题不使用;意义弦乐器伴奏的歌曲。There are 57 psalms, most of them Davidic, with the title Mizmor.有57诗篇,其中大多数是大卫,标题Mizmor。

Shir (; Septuagint, ode; Vulg., Canticum; a song), a generic term used 30 times in the titles (12 times together with Mizmor), and often in the text of the Psalms and of other books.事儿(ODE,译本; Vulg,Canticum;一首歌曲),一个通用的术语使用中的标题(12次与Mizmor)30倍,而且往往在文字的诗篇和其他书籍。In the Psalms (xlii, 9; lxix, 31; xxviii, 7) the song is generally sacred; elsewhere it is a lyric lay (Genesis 31:27; Isaiah 30:29), a love poem (Cant., i, 1.1), or a bacchanalian ballad (Isaiah 24:9; Ecclesiastes 7:5).在歌曲一般是神圣的,其他地方,它是一首抒情奠定(创世记31:27;以赛亚书30:29),爱情诗(Cant.,我1.1的诗篇(XLII,9月31 lxix,二十八,7) ),或发酒疯的民谣(以赛亚书24:9;传道书7:5)。

Maskil (; Septuagint, synedeos, or eis synesin; Vulgate intellectus or ad intellectum), an obscure form found in the titles of 13 psalms (xxxii, xlii, xliv, xlv, lii, lv, lxxiv, lxxviii, lxxxviii, lxxxix, cxliv).Maskil(译本,synedeos,或EIS synesin;武加大智洋或广告intellectum),一个不起眼的形式在13诗篇(三十二,四十二,四十四,四十五,LII,LV,LXXIV,LXXVIII,lxxxviii,lxxxix,cxliv的标题)。 (a) Gesenius and others explain "a didactic poem", from Hiph'il of (cf. Psalm 32:8; 1 Chronicles 28:19); but only Pss.(一)Gesenius和其他解释“说教的诗”从Hiph'il(参见诗篇32:8;历代志上28:19),但只有PSS。 xxxii and lxxviii are didactic Maskilim.XXXII和LXXVIII Maskilim说教。(b) Ewald, Riehm and others suggest "a skilful artistic song", from other uses of the cognate verb (cf. 2 Chronicles 30:22; Psalm 47:7); Kirkpatrick things "a cunning psalm" will do. (二)埃瓦尔德,Riehm和他人的建议“一个巧妙的艺术歌曲”同源动词(参见历代志下30:22;诗篇47:7);其他用途,柯克帕特里克的东西“一个狡猾的诗篇”将尽。 It is difficult to see that the Maskil is either more artistic or more cunning than the Mizmor.这是很难看到的Maskil是无论是艺术或以上的Mizmor狡猾。(c) Delitzch and others interpret "a contemplative poem"; Briggs, "a meditation". (三)Delitzch和其他解释“沉思的诗”;布里格斯,“冥想”。This interpretation is warranted by the usage of the cognate verb (cf. Isaiah 41:20; Job 34:27), and is the only one that suits all Maskilim.这种解释是必要的同源动词的用法(参见以赛亚书41:20;工作34:27),是唯一一个适合所有Maskilim。

Tephillah (); Septuagint, proseuche; Vulg., oratio; a prayer), the title to five psalms, xvii, lxxxvi, xc, cii, cxlii (xvi, lxxv, lxxxix, ci, cxli). Tephillah();译本,proseuche; Vulg,oratio;祈祷),标题五个诗篇,第十七捌拾陆,XC,CII,cxlii(XVI,lxxv,lxxxix,CI,cxli)。 The same word occurs in the conclusion to Bk.同一个词出现在浅滩结论。II (cf. Ps. lxxii, 20), "The prayers of David son of Yishai have been ended". II(参见诗篇。LXXII,20),“伊沙伊的儿子大卫的祈祷已经结束”。Here the Septuagint hymnoi (Vulgate, laudes) points to a better reading, , "praise".这里的译本hymnoi(武加大,laudes)点,以更好的阅读,“赞美”。

Tehillah (; Septuagint, ainesis; Vulg., laudatio; "a song of praise"), is the title only of Psalm 145.Tehillah(译本,ainesis; Vulg,laudatio。“一首赞美”),是标题的诗篇145。

Mikhtam (; Septuagint, stelographia or eis stelographian; Vulg., tituli inscriptio or in tituli inscriptionem), an obscure term in the title of six psalms, xvi, lvi-lx (xv, lv-lix), always to "of David".Mikhtam(译本,或EIS stelographian stelographia; Vulg,tituli inscriptio或tituli inscriptionem),在六个标题晦涩的术语诗篇,十六,LVI - LX(XV,LV - 59),始终以“大卫” 。Briggs ("Psalms", I, lx; New York, 1906) with the Rabbis derives this title from , "gold".布里格斯(“诗篇”,我,LX,纽约,1906年)的拉比来自,“黄金”这个称号。The Mikhtamim are golden songs, "artistic in form and choice in contents". Mikhtamim是金色的歌曲,“艺术在形式和内容的选择”。Shiggayon (; Septuagint merely psalmos; Vulg., psalmus; Aquila, agnonma; Symmachus and Theodotion, hyper agnoias; St. Jerome, ignoratio or pro ignoratione), occurs only in the title to Ps. Shiggayon(只是译本psalmos; Vulg,psalmus;拉奎拉agnonma; Symmachus和Theodotion,超agnoias;圣杰罗姆,ignoratio或亲ignoratione),只发生在诗的标题。 vii.七。The root of the word means "to wander", "to reel", hence, according to Ewald, Delitzch, and others, the title means a wild dithyrambic ode with a reeling, wandering rhythm.这个词的根,意味着“漫步”,“卷轴”,因此,根据埃瓦尔德,Delitzch和其他标题意味着与一个步履蹒跚,徘徊的节奏的野生dithyrambic的颂歌。

(d) Titles indicating the musical setting of a psalm (a specially obscure set) (四)标题表明了诗篇的音乐设置(特别晦涩集)

Eight titles may indicate the melody of the psalm by citing the opening words of some well-known song:八项冠军可能表明通过列举一些知名的歌曲的开头语的圣歌的旋律:

Nehiloth (; Septuagint and Theodotion, hyper tes kleronomouses; Aquila, apo klerodosion; Symmachus, hyper klerouchion; St. Jerome, super haereditatibus; Vulg., pro ea quae haereditatem consequitur), occurs only in Ps. Nehiloth(septuagint和Theodotion,超工商业污水附加费kleronomouses;拉奎拉,APO klerodosion; Symmachus,超klerouchion;圣杰罗姆,超haereditatibus; Vulg,亲EA quae haereditatem consequitur),只发生在PS。v. The ancient versions rightly derive the title from , "to inherit"; Baethgen ("Die Psalmen", 3rd ed., 1904, p. xxxv) thinks Nehiloth was the first word of some ancient song; most critics translate "with wind instruments" wrong assuming that Nehiloth means flutes (, cf. Is. xxx, 29).诉古老的版本正确地推导出的标题,“继承”; Baethgen(“模具Psalmen”,第3版,1904年,第XXXV)认为Nehiloth的第一个字是一些古老的歌曲,多数评论家转化与风“文书“错误的假设Nehiloth长笛(CF是,XXX,29)。

Al-tashheth [; Septuagint, Aquila, Symmachus, peri aphtharsias, except Ps.铝tashheth [;译本,拉奎拉,Symmachus,城郊aphtharsias,除了聚苯乙烯。lxxv, Symmachus, peri aphtharsias; St. Jerome, ut non disperdas (David humilem et simplicem); Vulg., ne disperdas or ne corrumpas], in Pss. lxxv,Symmachus,城郊aphtharsias;圣杰罗姆,UT非disperdas(大卫humilem等simplicem); Vulg,NE disperdas或NE corrumpas],在PSS。lvii-lix, lxxv (lvi-lviii, lxxiv), meaning "destroy not", may be the beginning of a vintage song referred to in Is., lxv, 8.LVII - 59,lxxv(LVI - 58,LXXIV),意思是“不破坏”,可能是一个老式的歌曲开头所指的是,第六十五,8。Symmachus gives, in title to Ps. Symmachus给出,标题中的PS。lvii, peri tou me diaphtheires; and in this wise suggests that originally preceded . LVII,围头我diaphtheires;在这个明智的建议,原来前面。Al-Muth-Labben (; Septuagint, hyper ton kyphion tou yiou; Vulg., pro occultis filii, "concerning the secret sins of the son"; Aquila, hyper akmes tou hiou, "of the youth of the son"; Theodotion, hyper akmes tou hyiou, "concerning the maturity of the son") in Ps.铝Muth - Labben(译本,超吨kyphion头yiou; Vulg,亲occultis filii,“关于儿子的秘密的罪”。拉奎拉,超akmes头hiou,“儿子的青年”; Theodotion超akmes头hyiou,“关于儿子的成熟”),在PS。ix, probably means "set to the tune 'Death Whitens'".九,可能意味着“设置调”死亡“漂白”。

Al-ayyeleth hasshahar (; Septuagint, hyper tes antilepseos tes heothines; Vulg., pro susceptione matutina, "for the morning offering"; Aquila, hyper tes elaphou tes orthines; Symmachus, hyper tes boetheias tes orthines, "the help of the morning"; St. Jerome, pro cervo matutino), in Ps.(铝ayyeleth hasshahar;译本,超工商业污水附加费antilepseos工商业污水附加费heothines; Vulg,亲susceptione matutina,“早上提供”;拉奎拉,超工商业污水附加费elaphou工商业污水附加费orthines; Symmachus,超工商业污水附加费boetheias工商业污水附加费orthines,“早上的帮助“圣杰罗姆,亲Cervo的matutino),在PS。 xxii (xxi, very likely means "set to the tune 'The Hind of the Morning'". Al Shoshannim in Pss. xlv and lxix (xliv and lxviii), Shushan-eduth in Ps. lx (lix), Shoshannim-eduth in Ps. lxxx (lxxix) seem to refer to the opening of the same song, "Lilies" or "Lilies of testimony". The preposition is al or el. The Septuagint translates the consonants hyper ton Alloiothesomenon; Vulg., pro iis qui commutabuntur, "for those who shall be changed". Al Yonath elem rehoqim, in Ps. lvi (lv) means "set to 'The dove of the distant terebinth'", or, according to the vowels of Massorah, "set to 'The silent dove of them that are afar'". The Septuagint renders it hyper tou laou tou apo ton hagion memakrymmenou; Vulg., pro populo qui a sanctis longe factus est, "for the folk that are afar from the sanctuary". Baethgen (op. cit., p. xli) explains that the Septuagint understands Israel to be the dove; reads elim for elem, and interprets the word to mean gods or sanctuary. 'Al Mahalath (Ps. liii), Mahalath leannoth (Ps. lxxxviii) is transliterated by the Septuagint Maeleth; by Vulg., pro Maeleth. Aquila renders epi choreia, "for the dance"; the same idea is conveyed by Symmachus, Theodotion, Quinta, and St. Jerome (pro choro). The word 'Al is proof that the following words indicate some well-known song to the melody of which Pss. liii and lxxxviii (lii and lxxxvii) were sung. XXII(XXI,​​极有可能意味着“设置调”早晨的后腿“。铝Shos​​hannim PSS。XLV和lxix(XLIV和LXVIII),蜀山eduth在PS。LX(LIX),Shoshannim eduth PS LXXX(LXXIX)似乎是指同一首歌曲,“百合”或“证词百合”开幕介词是人或EL的译本翻译辅音超吨Alloiothesomenon;。Vulg,亲IIS归仁commutabuntur。 ,“对于那些应改变”。铝Yonath ELEM rehoqim,在PS。LVI(LV)是指“”遥远的笃耨香松节油鸽子“设置”,或者,根据Massorah元音,“设置为”他们沉默的鸽子在远方“。七十呈现超头laou头APO吨hagion memakrymmenou;。Vulg,populo归仁一个sanctis寿命长factus EST,”从圣域远道而来的“民间Baethgen(OP。 。企业所得税,第XLI)解释说,该septuagint理解以色列的鸽子;读取ELEM琳,并解释这个词意味着神或避难所“基地Mahalath(诗篇LIII),Mahalath leannoth(诗篇lxxxviii)。音译七十Maeleth。Vulg,亲Maeleth拉奎拉呈现EPI choreia,“舞蹈”,同样的想法转达Symmachus,Theodotion,金塔,和圣杰罗姆(亲绍罗)字'基地。是证明下面的话表明,一些知名的歌曲,其中PSS。LIII lxxxviii(LII和lxxxvii)被传唱的旋律。

'Al-Haggittith, in titles to Pss.“铝Haggittith,PSS的冠军。viii, lxxxi, lxxxiv (vii, lxxx, lxxxiii).第八,捌拾,lxxxiv(第七,LXXX,LXXXIII)。The Septuagint and Symmachus, hyper ton lenon; Vulg., and St. Jerome, pro torcularibus, "for the wine-presses".七十和Symmachus,超吨lenon; Vulg,圣杰罗姆,亲torcularibus,“酒按”。 They read gittoth, pl.他们阅读gittoth,PL。of gath.迦特。The title may mean that these psalms were to be sung to some vintage-melody.标题可能意味着这些诗篇,要唱一些复古的旋律。 The Masoretic title may mean a Gittite instrument (Targ., "the harp brought by David from Gath"), or a Gittite melody.马所拉的标题可能意味着一个迦特人的仪器(Targ.,“大卫从迦特带来的竖琴”),或迦特人的旋律。Aquila and Theodotion follow the reading of Masorah and, in Ps.拉奎拉和Theodotion Masorah阅读,在PS。viii, translate the title hyper tes getthitidos; yet this same reading is said by Bellarmine ("Explanatio in Psalmos", Paris, 1889), I, 43) to be meaningless.八,翻译标题超工商业污水附加费getthitidos,但此相同的阅读是说贝拉明(“Explanatio在Psalmos”,巴黎,1889年),我43),是没有意义的。

One title probably means the kind of musical instrument to be used.一个标题可能意味着要使用的一种乐器。Neginoth (; Septuagint, en psalmois, in Ps. iv, en hymnois elsewhere; Vulg., in carminibus; Symmachus, dia psalterion; St. Jerome, in psalmis) occurs in Pss.Neginoth(; psalmois译本,EN,在PS第四,EN hymnois别处; Vulg,carminibus; Symmachus,直径psalterion;圣杰罗姆,psalmis)发生在PSS。 iv, vi, liv, lxvii, lxxvi (iv, vi, liii, liv, lxvi, lxxv).四,六,LIV,LXVII,LXXVI(四,六,LIII,LIV,LXVI,lxxv)。The root of the word means "to play on stringed instruments" (1 Samuel 16:16-18, 23).这个词的根,意味着“发挥弦乐器”(撒母耳记上16:16-18,23)。The title probably means that these psalms were to be accompanied in cantilation exclusively "with stringed instruments".标题可能意味着这些诗篇陪同cantilation专“与弦乐器”。Ps.聚苯乙烯。lxi (lx) has Al Neginath in its title, and was perhaps to be sung with one stringed instrument only. LXI(LX)在其标题铝Neginath,也许与弦乐器只唱。

Two titles seem to refer to pitch.两个冠军头衔,似乎是指间距。Al-Alamoth (Psalm 46), "set to maidens", ie, to be sung with a soprano or falsetto voice.AL - Alamoth(诗篇46)的设置,“少女”,即要唱女高音或假声的声音。The Septuagint renders hyper ton kryphion; Vulg., pro occultis, "for the hidden"; Symmachus, hyper ton aionion, "for the everlasting"; Aquila, epi neanioteton; St. Jerome, pro juventutibus, "for youth".七十呈现超吨kryphion; Vulg,亲occultis,“隐藏”。Symmachus,超吨aionion,“永恒的”;拉奎拉,EPI neanioteton;圣杰罗姆,juventutibus,“青年”。

Al-Hassheminith (Pss. vi and xii), "set to the eighth"; Septuagint, hyper tes ogdoes; Vulg., pro octava.AL - Hassheminith(Pss.第六和第十二章),“设置为第八届”;译本,超工商业污水附加费ogdoes;。Vulg,亲octava。 It has been conjectured that "the eighth" means an octave lower, the lower or bass register, in contrast with the upper or soprano register.有人猜测,“第八届”意味着低一个八度,降低或低音寄存器,在上部或女高音注册的对比。In I Pr., xv, 20-21, Levites are assigned some "with psalteries set to 'Alamoth'" (the upper register), others "with harps set to Sheminith" (the lower register).一些在我镨,XV,20日至21日,利分配的“设置”Alamoth psalteries“(上部寄存器),其他”设置为Sheminith与竖琴“(寄存器)。

(e) Titles indicating the liturgical use of a psalm(五)标题表明了诗篇的礼仪使用

Hamma'aloth, in title of Pss.Hamma'aloth,PSS标题。cxx-cxxxiv (cxix-cxxxiii); Septuagint, ode ton anabathmon; St. Jerome, canticum graduum, "the song of the steps".CXX - cxxxiv(cxix cxxxiii);译本,ODE吨anabathmon;圣杰罗姆,canticum graduum,“歌曲的步骤”。The word is used in Ex., xx, 26 to denote the steps leading up from the women's to the men's court of the Temple plot.使用这个词是在Ex 26,XX,表示导致妇女的男子寺积法院的步骤。There were fifteen such steps.有15个这样的步骤。Some Jewish commentators and Fathers of the Church have taken it that, on each of the fifteen steps, one of these fifteen Gradual Psalms was chanted.一些犹太评论家和教会的神父已上的15个步骤中的每一个,其中15个渐进的诗篇之一,是高呼。Such a theory does not fit in with the content of these psalms; they are not temple-psalms.这种理论不适合在这些诗篇的内容,它们不是寺的诗篇。Another theory, proposed by Gesenius, Delitzsch, and others, refers "the steps" to the stair-like parallelism of the Gradual Psalms. Gesenius,Delitzsch,和其他人提出的,另一种理论,是指楼梯似的并行的逐步诗篇“中的步骤”。This stair-like parallelism is not found in all the Gradual Psalms; nor is it distinctive of any of them.楼梯似的并行是没有发现在所有的渐进式的诗篇,也不是其中的任何鲜明。A third theory is the most probable.第三个理论是最有可能的。Aquila and Symmachus read eis tas anabaseis, "for the goings up"; Theodotion has asma to nanabaseon.阿奎拉和Symmachus阅读EIS TAS anabaseis,“最多的探班”; Theodotion阿斯玛到nanabaseon。These are a Pilgrim Psalter, a collection of pilgrim-songs of those "going up to Jerusalem for the festivals" (1 Samuel 1:3).这些朝圣者的诗篇,那些“走出去到耶路撒冷的节日”(撒母耳记上1:3)的朝圣者,歌曲的集合。Issias tells us the pilgrims went up singing (xxx, 29).Issias告诉我们的朝圣者去唱(XXX,29)。The psalms in question would be well suited for pilgrim-song.诗篇问题将非常适合朝圣者的歌。The phrase "to go up" to Jerusalem (anabainein) seems to refer specially to the pilgrim goings-up (Mark 10:33; Luke 2:42, etc.).短语“齐升”的耶路撒冷(anabainein),似乎是指专门朝圣者的心情(马克10时33分;卢克2点42分,等)。 This theory is now commonly received.这一理论是现在普遍好评。A less likely explanation is that the Gradual Psalms were sung by those "going up" from the Babylonian exile (Ezra 7:9).一个不太可能的解释是,逐步诗篇传唱这些“走出去”从巴比伦流亡(以斯拉记7:9)。

Other liturgical titles are: "For the thank-offering", in Ps.其他礼仪的标题是:“感谢祭”,在PS,的。 c (xcix); "To bring remembrance", in Pss.C(xcix);“带来的纪念”,在PSS。xxxviii and lxx (xxxvii and lxix); "To teach", in Ps.XXXVIII和LXX(三十七和lxix);“教”,在PS。xl (xxxix); "For the last day or the Feast of Tabernacles", in the Septuagint of Ps. XL(三十九);“或住棚节的最后一天的盛宴”,在PS的译本。xxix (xxviii), exodiou skenes; Vulg., in consummatione tabernaculi.XXIX(XXVIII),exodiou skenes; Vulg,consummatione tabernaculi。Psalm xxx (xxix) is entitled "A Song at the Dedication of the House".诗篇XXX(XXIX)题为“在众议院的奉献之歌”。The psalm may have been used at the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple, the Encaenia (John 10:22).诗篇可能已被用于寺,Encaenia(约翰福音10:22)的奉献精神的盛宴。This feast was instituted by Judas Machabeus (1 Maccabees 4:59) to commemorate the rededication of the temple after its desecration by Antiochus.提起犹大Machabeus(1马加比4:59),以纪念这个节日后,由安提阿哥亵渎寺庙重新致力于。Its title shows us that Ps.它的标题,显示我们的诗篇。xcii (xci) was to be sung on the Sabbath.xcii(XCI)在安息日传唱。The Septuagint entitles Ps.七十有权PS。xxiv (xxiii) tes mias sabbaton, "for the first day of the week"; Ps.XXIV(XXIII)MIAS sabbaton工商业污水附加费,“一周的第一天”,PS。xlviii (xlvii) deutera sabbatou, "for the second day of the week"; Ps.XLVIII(四十七)deutera sabbatou,“”一周第二天,PS。xciv (xciii), tetradi sabbaton, "for the fourth day of the week"; Ps.XCIV(xciii),tetradi sabbaton,“一周第四天”,PS。xciii (xcii) eis ten hemeran, "for the day before the Sabbath".xciii(xcii)EIS十个hemeran,“安息日前一天”。The Old Latin entitles Ps.旧拉丁美洲有权诗。lxxxi (lxxx) quinta sabbati, "the fifth day of the week".捌拾(LXXX)QUINTA sabbati,“一周的第五天”。The Mishna (Tamid, VII, 13) assigns the same psalms for the daily Temple service and tells us that Ps. “密西拿”(Tamid,第七,13)的日常寺服务分配相同的诗篇告诉我们,诗。lxxxii (lxxxi) was for the morning sacrifice of the third day (cf. James Wm. Thirtle, "The Titles of the Psalms, Their Nature and Meaning Explained", New York, 1905).捌拾(捌拾)是第三天的早晨(参见詹姆斯WM。Thirtle“的诗篇,其性质和意义的标题解释”,纽约,1905年)的牺牲。

(2) Value of the Titles(2)标题的价值

Many of the critics have branded these titles as spurious and rejected them as not pertaining to Holy Writ; such critics are de Wette, Cheyne, Olshausen, and Vogel.许多批评者有品牌作为杂散这些标题,并拒绝为他们不涉及到圣经,这样的批评,DE Wette,进益,Olshausen和Vogel。More recent critical Protestant scholars, such as Briggs, Baethgen, Kirkpatrick, and Fullerton, have followed up the lines of Ewald, Delitzsch, Gesenius, and Koster, and have made much of the titles, so as thereby to learn more and more about the authors, collections, occasions, musical settings, and liturgical purposes of the Psalms.最近的关键新教的学者,如布里格斯,Baethgen,帕特里克,及Fullerton,随访埃瓦尔德,Delitzsch,Gesenius,科斯特和线路,并取得了大部分的标题,从而了解更多有关作者,收藏,场合,音乐设置,和礼仪用途的诗篇。

Catholic scholars, while not insisting that the author of the Psalms superscribed the titles thereof, have always considered these titles as an integral part of Holy Writ.天主教学者,而不是坚持的诗篇“的作者superscribed标题为何,一直视为神圣不可分割的部分令状这些头衔。St. Thomas (in Ps. vi) assigns the titles to Esdras: "Sciendum est quod tituli ab Esdra facti sunt partim secundum ea quae tune agebantur, et partim secundum ea quae contigerunt."圣托马斯(诗六)以埃斯德拉斯分配的标题:“Sciendum EST狴tituli AB Esdra facti必须遵守partim孔型EA quae调agebantur等partim孔型EA quae contigerunt。”So comprehensive a statement of the case is scarcely to the point; most modern scholars give to the titles a more varied history.因此,全面的情况下发表声明,几乎点;最现代化的学者提供更多样化的历史标题。Almost all, however, are at one in considering as canonical these at times obscured directions.然而,几乎所有的在一个规范这些有时模糊方向。In this unanimity Catholics carry out Jewish tradition.在这种一致的天主教徒开展犹太传统。Pre-Masoretic tradition preserved the titles as Scripture, but lost much of the liturgical and musical meaning, very likely because of changes in the liturgical cantilation of the Psalms.前马所拉的传统保留下来作为圣经的标题,但丢失了很多礼仪和音乐的意义,很可能是因为在礼仪cantilation的诗篇的变化。 Masoretic tradition has kept carefully whatsoever of the titles it received.马所拉的传统一直仔细任何它收到的标题。It makes the titles to be part of Sacred Scripture, preserving their consonants, vowel-points, and accents with the very same care which is given to the rest of the Jewish Canon.它的标题是圣经的一部分,维护他们的辅音,元音点和口音非常相同的护理,这是考虑到其余的犹太佳能。The Fathers give to the titles that respect and authority which they give to the rest of Scripture.父亲给的标题是尊重和权威,他们给其余的经文。True, the obscurity of the titles often leads the Fathers to mystical and highly fanciful interpretations.诚然,默默无闻的标题往往导致父亲到神秘和高度幻想的解释。

St. John Chrysostom ("De Compunctione", II, 4; PG, XLVII, 415) interprets hyper tes ogdoes, "for the eighth day", "the day of rest", "the day of eternity".圣约翰金口(“德Compunctione”,二,四,PG,四十七,415)解释超工商业污水附加费ogdoes的“第八天”,“休息日”,“永恒的一天”。 St. Ambrose (In Lucam, V, 6) sees in this title the same mystical number which he notes in the Eight Beatitudes of St. Matthew, in the eighth day as a fulfilment of our hope, and in eight as a sum of all virtues: "pro octava enim multi inscribuntur psalmi".圣刘汉铨(Lucam,五,六)认为这一称谓相同的神秘,这是他在八八福圣马太指出,在为实现我们的希望的第八天,在八个所有的总和美德:“亲octava enim多inscribuntur psalmi”。In this matter of mystical interpretations of the titles, St. Augustine is in advance of the generally literal and matter-of-fact Sts.在这个标题的神秘解释问题,圣奥古斯丁是提前在一般文字和事实的STS。 Ambrose and John Chrysostom.刘汉铨和约翰金口。Yet when treating the worth and the genuiness of the titles, no Father is more decided and pointed than is the great Bishop of Hippo.然而,当治疗的价值和​​genuiness标题,没有父亲的决定和比指出的是伟大的主教河马。

To him the titles are inspired Scripture.他的标题灵感来自圣经。Commenting on the title to Ps.在谈到诗的标题。li, "of David, when Nathan the Prophet came to him, what time he had gone into Bethsabee", St. Augustine (PL, XXXVI, 586) says it is an inspired as is the story of David's fall, told in the Second Book of Kings (xi, 1-6); "Utraque Scriptura canonica est, utrique sine ulla dubitatione a Christianis fides adhibenda est".李大卫,当先知拿向他走来,他什么时候到Bethsabee了“,圣奥古斯丁(PL,三十六,586)说,这是一个启发,是大卫的秋天的故事,告诉记者,在二预订国王(十一1-6),“圣经Utraque卡诺尼卡EST,utrique正弦乌拉dubitatione一个Christianis惹人adhibenda EST”。Some recent Catholic scholars who are of St. Augustine's mind in this matter are: Cornely, "Specialis Introduction in libros VT", II, 85; Zschokke, "Hist. Sacr. VT", 206; Thalhofer, "Erklärung der Psalmen", 7th ed., 1904, 8; Patrizi, "Cento Salmi", Rome, 1875, 32; Danko, "Historia VT", 276; Hoberg, "Die Psalmen der Vulgata", 1892, p.圣奥古斯丁的心灵,在这个问题上最近的一些天主教学者:Cornely,,二,85“特别在libros VT导言”; Zschokke,“组织胺SACR的VT。”206; Thalhofer,“Erklärung DER Psalmen”,第7版,1904年8;。柏德,“琴托萨尔米”,罗马,1875年,32;丹科,“Historia的VT”,276;霍贝格,“模具Psalmen DER Vulgata”,1892年,第xii.XII。Only a very few Catholic scholars have denied that the titles are an integral art of Holy Writ.只有极少数的天主教学者否认的标题是一个神圣不可分割的艺术令状。Gigot, in "Special Introductions to the Old Testament" (New York, 1906), II, 75, cites with approval this denial by Lesêtre, "Le Livre des Psaumes" (Paris, 1883), p. Gigot,(纽约,1906年),第二,75“旧约专门介绍”濒危物种贸易公约批准Lesêtre这种否定,“乐Livre DES Psaumes”(巴黎,1883年),第1.1。Barry, in "Tradition of Scripture" (New York, 1906), 102, says: "It is plausible to maintain that inscriptions to which the Massorah, LXX, and Vulgate bear witness cannot be rejected. But to look on them, under all circumstances, as portions of Scripture would be to strain the Tridentine Decrees".在(纽约,1906),102“圣经的传统”,巴里说:“这是合理的维护,铭文,以其中的Massorah,LXX,和武加大承担证人不能拒绝但以看他们,在所有。情况下,正如圣经的部分将应变律但丁法令“。 Because of the danger that, without grave reason, these time-honoured parts of the Bible may be rated as extra-canonical, the Biblical Commission has recently (1 May, 1910) laid special stress on the value of the titles.由于危险,没有严重的原因,这些时间的荣幸,“圣经”的部分可作为课外典型额定,圣经委员会最近(5月1日,1910年)冠军的价值奠定了特别强调。 From the agreement we have noted between the titles of Massorah and those of the Septuagint, Vulgate, Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, St. Jerome, etc., the Commission has decided that the titles are older than the Septuagint and have come down to us, if not from the authors of the Psalms, at least from ancient Jewish tradition, and that, on this account, they may not be called into doubt, unless there be some serious reason against their genuineness.从我们之间Massorah职称的译本,武加大,拉奎拉Symmachus,Theodotion,圣杰罗姆等指出的协议,委员会已决定,标题是年龄比七十,来给我们,如果不从“诗篇”的作者,至少从古代犹太人的传统,而且,这个帐户上,他们可能不会被称为成疑问,除非有一些严重的理由反对其真实性。 Indeed, the very disagreements which we have noted led us to the same conclusion.事实上,我们注意到非常分歧,导致了同样的结论。 By the time the Septuagint was written, the titles must have been exceedingly old; for the tradition of their vocalization was already very much obscured.的译本撰写时,标题必须有极其岁;为他们发声的传统已经很远模糊。

III.三。AUTHORS OF THE PSALMS作者的诗篇

A. WITNESS OF TRADITIONA.证人的传统

(1) Jewish tradition is uncertain as to the authors of the Psalms. (1)犹太人的传统是不确定的诗篇“的作者。Baba Bathra (14 f) mentions ten; Pesachim (10) attributes all the Psalms to David.巴巴Bathra(14楼)提到10个; Pesachim(10)的所有属性的诗篇大卫。

(2) Christian tradition is alike uncertain.(2)基督教传统是一样的不确定性。St. Ambrose, "In Ps. xliii and xlvii" (PL, XIV, 923), makes David to be the sole author.圣刘汉铨,“诗四十三和四十七”(PL,第十四条,923),大卫是唯一的作者。St. Augustine, in "De Civitate Dei", XVII, 14 (PL, XLI, 547), thinks that all the Psalms are Davidic and that the names of Aggeus and Zacharias were superscribed by the poet in prophetic spirit.圣奥古斯丁,“德Civitate之”,第十七条,14(PL,四十一,547),认为所有的诗篇是大卫和诗人预言的精神superscribed Aggeus和撒迦利亚的名称。St. Philastrius, Haer.圣Philastrius,Haer。130 (PL, XII, 1259), brands the opposite opinion as heretical.130(PL,第十二,1259),品牌为异端邪说相反的意见。 On the other hand, plurality of authorship was defended by Origen, "In Ps."另一方面,署名权的多元化是由奥利辩护,“在PS。”(PG, XII, 1066); St. Hilary, "In Ps. Procem. 2) (PL, IX, 233); Eusebius, "In Ps.(PG,12,1066);街的书籍,“在PS Procem 2)(PL,第九,233);。尤西比乌斯”,在PS。Procem.Procem。In Pss.在PSS。41, 72" (PG, XXIII, 74, 368); and many others. St. Jerome, "Ad Cyprianum, Epist. 41,72“(PG,二十三,74,368);和许多其他圣杰罗姆,”广告Cyprianum,Epist。140, 4 (PL, XXII, 1169), says that "they err who deem all the psalms are David's and not the work of those whose names are superscribed". 140,4(PL,22,1169),说:“他们犯错,认为所有的诗篇是大卫的,而不是名称superscribed那些工作”。

(3) This disagreement, in matter of authorship of the Psalms, is carried from the Fathers to the theologians.(3)本意见分歧,诗篇作者的问题,是从父亲的神学家。Davidic authorship is defended by St. Thomas, the converted Jew Archbishop Paul of Burgos, Bellarmine, Salmeron, S, Mariana; multiple authorship is defended by Nicholas of Lyra, Cajetan, Sixtus Senensis, Bonfrere, and Menochio.大卫的作者是捍卫圣托马斯,Salmeron,转换犹太人大主教保罗的布尔戈斯,贝拉明,S,马里亚纳;多个作者是尼古拉天琴座,Cajetan,Sixtus Senensis,邦弗雷雷,并Menochio辩护。

(4) The Church has come to no decision in this matter.(4)教会已经在这个问题上作出任何决定。The Council of Trent (Sess. IV, 8 April, 1546), in its decrees on Sacred Scripture, includes "Psalterium Davidicum, 150 Psalmorum" among the Canonical Books.安理会的遄达(Sess.四,4月8日,1546),其对圣经的法令,包括“150 Psalmorum Psalterium Davidicum,”在典型的书籍。This phrase does not define Davidic authorship any more than the number 150, but only designates the book, which is defined to be canonical (cf. Pallavicino, "Istoria del Concilio di Trento", l. VI, 1591. Naples, 1853, I, 376).这句话并不确定大卫作者任何数目比150,但只有指定的书,它被定义为规范(参见帕拉维奇诺,“Istoria DEL Concilio迪特伦托”湖六,1591。那不勒斯,1853年,我,376)。In the preliminary vota, fifteen Fathers were for the name "Psalmi David"; six for "Psalterium Davidicum"; nine for "Libri Psalmorum"; two for "Libri 150 Psalmorum"; sixteen for the name adopted, "Psalterium Davidicum 150 Psalmorum"; and two had no concern which of these names was chosen (cf. Theiner, "Acta Authentica Councilii Tridentini", I, 72 sq.).在初步外界知道,15父亲的名字“Psalmi大卫”,“Psalterium Davidicum”6“Libri Psalmorum”9“Libri 150 Psalmorum”两个名称的16个通过了“Psalterium Davidicum 150 Psalmorum” ;和两个没有这些名称选择(参见Theiner,“文献Authentica的Councilii Tridentini”,我,72平方米)的关注。 From the various vota it is clear that the Council had no intention whatsoever of defining Davidic authorship.从各种外界知道的很清楚,安理会没有定义大卫作者无意。

(5) The recent Decree of the Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) decides the following points:(5)圣经委员会最近的法令“(5月1日,1910年)决定以下几点:

Neither the wording of the decrees of the councils nor the opinions of certain Fathers have such weight as to determine that David is sole author of the whole Psalter.既不是措辞的议会法令,也不一定父亲的意见,这样的重量来确定,大卫是整个诗篇的唯一作者。

It cannot be prudently denied that David is the chief author of the songs of the Psalter.审慎不能否认大卫诗篇歌曲的主要作者。

Especially can it not be denied that David is the author of those psalms which, either in the Old or in the New Testament, are clearly cited under the name of David, for instance ii, xvi, xviii, xxxii, lxix, cx (ii, xv, xvii, xxxi, lxviii, cix).特别是,这是不容否认的,大卫是诗篇的作者,无论是在旧的或在新约中,明确列举下大卫的名字,例如二,十六,十八,三十二,lxix,CX(二,十五,十七,三十一,LXVIII,CIX)。

B. WITNESS OF OLD TESTAMENTB.旧约的见证

In the above decision the Biblical Commission has followed not only Jewish and Christian tradition, but Jewish and Christian Scripture as well.在上述决定的圣经委员会一直遵循不仅是犹太教和基督教的传统,但犹太教和基督教圣经。The Old Testament witness to the authorship of the Psalms is chiefly the titles.旧约的见证“诗篇”的作者是主要的标题。 These seem to attribute various psalms, especially of Books I-III, to David, Asaph, the sons of Korah, Solomon, Moses, and others.这些似乎属性的各种诗篇,尤其是书籍的I - III,大卫,亚萨,可拉的儿子,所罗门,摩西,和其他人。

(1) David (1)大卫

The titles of seventy-three psalms in the Masoretic Text and of many more in the Septuagint seem to single out David as author: cf.马所拉文本和许多更在该septuagint诗篇73个冠军,似乎出单作为比照作者:大卫。Pss.PSS。iii-xli (iii-xl), ie all of Bk. III - XLI(III - XL),即所有的浅滩。I save only x and xxxiii; Pss.我只保存x和XXXIII; PSS。li-lxx (l-lxix), except lxvi and lxvii, in Bk.李LXX(L - lxix),除LXVI和LXVII,在BK。II; Ps.二,PS。lxxxvi (lxxxv) of Bk.捌拾陆(捌拾伍)的浅滩。III; Ps.三; PS。ciii (cii) in Bk. CIII(CII)在浅滩。IV; Pss.第四; PSS。cviii-cx, cxxii, cxxiv, cxxxi, cxxxiii, cxxxv-cxlv (cvii-cix, cxxi, cxxiii, cxxx, cxxxiv-cxliv) of Bk.cviii - CX,cxxii,cxxiv,cxxxi,cxxxiii,cxxxv cxlv(cvii - CIX cxxi,cxxiii,CXXX,cxxxiv cxliv)的浅滩。V. The Hebrew title is .五,希伯来文的标题是。It is now generally held that, in this Hebrew, the preposition le has the force of a genitive, and that the Septuagint tou David "of David", is a better translation than the Vulgate ipsi David, "unto David himself".现在人们普遍认为,在这希伯来文,乐介词一个所有格的力量,和七十头大卫“大卫”,是一个更好的翻译比武加大IPSI大卫“,”献给大卫自己。 Does this preposition mean authorship?这是否意味着作者的介词?No in every title; else both David and the Director are the authors of Ps.没有在每一个标题,否则大卫和主任是PS的作者。xix (xviii), and all the sons of Korah, together with the Director, are joint authors of the psalms attributed to them.第十九(XVIII),和可拉的儿子,与主任一起,归因于他们的联合作者的诗篇。In the case of such composite titles as "of the Director, a psalm of David" (Ps. xix), or "of the Director, of the sons of Korah, a psalm" (Ps. xlviii), we probably have indications not of authorship but of various collections of psalms -- the collections entitled "David", "the Director", "the sons of Korah".在“主任,大卫的诗篇”(诗篇十九),或“主任,可拉,诗篇的儿子”(诗篇XLVIII)等复合标题的情况下,我们可能有迹象表明,不署名权,但各种集合的诗篇 - 题为“国宝”,“处长”,“可拉的儿子”的集合。Just as the New Testament, the Council of Trent, and many Fathers of the Church speak of "David", "the Psalter of David", "the Psalms of David", not in truth to infer that all the psalms are David's, but because he was the psalmist par excellence, so the titles of many psalms assign them not so much to their authors as to their collectors or to the chief author of the collection to which they pertain.正如新约中,安理会的遄达,和教会的许多父亲说话“大卫”,“在大卫的诗篇”,“在大卫的诗篇”不是真理来推断,所有的诗篇是大卫的,但因为他是出类拔萃的诗人,所以许多诗篇的标题与其说它们分配给他们的收藏家,或收集它们属于的主要作者,他们的作者。 On the other hand, some of the longer titles go to show that "of David" may means authorship.另一方面,一些较长的标题去显示,“大卫”可能是指作者。Take an instance: "Of the Director, to the tune 'Destroy not', of David, a chosen piece (Mikhtam), when he fled from the face of Saul into the cave" (Ps. lvii).一个实例:“处长,以调”毁灭不“,选择片(Mikhtam)大卫从扫罗面前,当他逃到山洞”(诗篇LVII)。The historical occasion of the Davidic composition of the song, the lyric quality of the song, its inclusion in the early collection "of David" and later in the Director's hymnbook, the tune to which the psalm was either written by David or set by the Director -- all these things seem to be indicated by the very composite title under consideration. “的歌曲的歌曲的抒情质量,它的早期收集”大卫“列入,并在署长的hymnbook后面,在的诗篇或者书面大卫或由调整大卫组成的历史之际董事 - 所有这些事情似乎是非常复合的标题下审议表示。Of a sort with the Davidic titles is the ending subscribed to the first two books of the Psalms: "Amen, Amen; ended are the phrases of David, son of Yishai" (Ps. lxxii, 20).是一种与大卫职称结束认购前两书的诗篇:“阿门,阿门;结束,伊沙伊的儿子大卫的短语”(诗篇LXXII,20)。This subscription is more ancient than the Septuagint; it would be altogether out of place were not David the chief author of the psalms of the two books whereto it is appended.订阅超过七十古,它会出来的地方干脆没有大卫的诗篇whereto它是追加两书的主要作者。Further Old-Testament evidence of Davidic authorship of the Psalms, as suggested by the Biblical Commission's recent Decree, are David's natural poetic talent, shown in his song and dirges of 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles, together with the fact that it was he who instituted the solemn levitical cantilation of psalms in the presence of the Ark of the Covenant (1 Chronicles 16:23-25).此外,旧全书证据的诗篇大卫的作者,在圣经委员会的最近法令的建议,是大卫的自然诗意的人才,在他的歌曲和2撒母耳记和历代dirges中所示,加上,它是他谁提起庄严的利未cantilation诗篇中的方舟“公约”(历代志上16:23-25​​)的存在。 The songs and dirges attributed to David are significantly alike to the Davidic psalms in spirit and style and wording.dirges归于大卫的歌曲和明显精神和风格和措辞都大卫诗篇。Let us examine the opening line of 2 Samuel 22:让我们来看看2塞缪尔22日开行:

"And David spoke to Jahweh the words of this song in the day that Jahweh saved him from the grasp of his foes and out of the hands of Saul, and he said: 2. Jahweh is my Cliff, my Fortress, my Way of Escape, 3. My God, my Rock to Whom I betake me, My Shield, the Horn of my salvation, my Tower. My Refuge, my Saviour, from wrong dost Thou save me. 4. Shouting praise, I cry to Jahweh, And from my foe I get salvation". “大卫谈到亚威在亚威保存从他的仇敌和扫罗的手抓住他的这首歌曲的话,他说:2亚威是我的悬崖,我的山寨,我无路可逃,3,我的上帝,我的磐石,我向他们奔往我,我的盾牌,是拯救我的角,我的塔我的避难所,我的救主,你从错误多斯特的救我。4。高呼赞美,我哭亚威,从我的敌人,我得到救赎“。

The two songs are clearly identical, the slight differences being probably due in the main to different liturgical redactions of the Psalter.两首歌曲,显然是相同的,略有差异可能主要是由于不同的psalter礼仪删节。In the end the writer of 2 Samuel gives "the last words of David" (xxiii, 1) -- to wit, a short psalm in the Davidic style wherein David speaks of himself as "Israel's sweet singer of songs", "egregius psaltes Israel" (2 Samuel 23:2).在年底的2塞缪尔作家“大卫的遗言”(XXIII,1) - 机智,在其中大卫大卫风格的短诗篇谈到自己“以色列的甜歌手的歌曲”,“egregius psaltes以色列“(撒母耳记下23时02分)。 In like manner the Chronicler (1 Chronicles 16:8-36) quotes as Davidic a song made up of Ps.在喜欢的方式大卫的一首歌曲的编年史(历代志上16:8-36)报价的诗篇。cv, 1-13, Ps.简历,1-13,PS。 xcvi, and a small portion of Ps. xcvi,和PS的一小部分。cvi. CVI。Finally, the Prophet Amos addresses the Samarians: "Ye that sing to the sound of the psaltery; they have thought themselves to have instruments of music like David" (vi, 5).最后,先知阿摩司地址Samarians:“叶瑟的声音唱,他们认为自己拥有的乐器,像大卫”(六,5)。The poetic power of David stands out as a characteristic of the Shepherd King.大卫的诗的力量脱颖而出牧羊人国王的一个特点。His elegiac plaints at the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Samuel 1:19-27) reveal some power, but not that of the Davidic psalms.扫罗和约拿单死亡(撒母耳记下1:19-27),他的挽联感叹透露着一定的权力,但不是大卫的诗篇。 The above reasons for Davidic authorship are impugned by many who insist on the late redaction of 2 Samuel 21-24 and upon the discrepancies between the passages we have paralleled.大卫的作者基于上述原因,是许多人坚持的21-24 2塞缪尔后期后,我们有平行通道之间的差异,节录和责难。 The question of late redaction of the Davidic songs in 2 Samuel is not within our scope; nor does such late redaction destroy the force of our appeal to the Old Testament, since that appeal is to the Word of God.迟到2塞缪尔大卫的歌曲节录的问题不是我们的范围内,也没有这样的后期节录摧毁力量,我们呼吁旧约,提出上诉,因为这是神的话语。 In regard to the discrepancies, we have already said that they are explainable by the admission that our Psalter is the result of various liturgical redactions, and does not present all the psalms in the precise form in which they proceeded from their original writers.方面的差异,我们已经表示,他们承认,我们的诗篇是各种礼仪删节的结果,并不存在于所有的诗篇中,他们从原来的作家进行精确的格式解释。

(2) Asaph (2)亚萨

Asaph is accredited, by the titles, with twelve psalms, l, lxxiii-lxxxiii (xlix, lxxii-lxxxii).亚萨是认可的,由标题,lxxiii - LXXXIII(XLIX,LXXII -捌拾),L,十二个月诗篇。These psalms are all national in character and pertain to widely-separated periods of Jewish history.这些诗篇是所有国家在性质上属于犹太人的历史,广泛分隔期间。Ps.聚苯乙烯。lxxxiii (lxxxii), although assigned by Briggs ("Psalms", New York, 1906, p. lxvii) to the early Persian period, seems to have been written at the time of the havoc wrought by the Assyrian invasion of Tiglath-pileser III in 737 BC Ps. LXXXIII(捌拾),虽然布里格斯(“诗篇”,纽约,1906年,第LXVII)分配给早期的波斯时期,似乎已经在Tiglath - pileser III亚述人入侵造成的破坏时间的书面在737公元前PS。lxxiv (lxxiii) was probably written, as Briggs surmises, during the Babylonian Exile, after 586 BC Asaph was a Levite, the son of Barachias (1 Chronicles 6:39), and one of the three chiefs of the Levitical choir (1 Chronicles 15:17). LXXIV(lxxiii)可能是书面,布里格斯的猜测,在巴比伦流亡后,公元前586年亚萨是利未人,Barachias儿子(历代志上6时39分),和利未合唱团的三个酋长(历代志上15:17)。 The "sons of Asaph" were set aside "to prophesy with harps and with psalteries and with cymbals" (1 Chronicles 25:1).“亚萨的儿子”预留“预言与竖琴和psalteries和钹”(历代志上25:1)。It is probable that members of this family composed the psalms which later were collected into an Asaph psalter.这是可能的,这个家庭的成员组成,后来被收集到一个亚萨诗篇诗篇。The features of these Asaph psalms are uniform: frequent allusions to the history of Israel with a didactic purpose; sublimity and vehemence of style; vivid description; an exalted conception of the deity.这些亚萨诗篇的特点是统一的:频繁以色列历史典故说教目的;崇高的气势和风格;生动的描述;本尊的崇高概念。

(3) The Sons of Korah(3)可拉的儿子

The Sons of Korah are named in the titles of eleven psalms -- xlii-xlix, lxxxiv, lxxxv, lxxxvii, lxxxviii (xli-xlviii, lxxxiii, lxxxiv, lxxxvi, lxxxvii).可拉的儿子是在11个诗篇的标题 - XLII - XLIX,lxxxiv,捌拾伍,lxxxvii,lxxxviii(XLI - XLVIII,LXXXIII,lxxxiv,捌拾陆,lxxxvii)命名。The Korahim were a family of temple singers (2 Chronicles 20:19).Korahim寺歌手(历代志下20时19分)的家庭。It can scarcely be that each psalm of this group was jointly composed by all the sons of Korah; each was rather composed by some member of the guild of Korah; or, perhaps, all were gathered from the various sources into one liturgical hymnal by the guild of the sons of Korah.它几乎可以被,每本组诗篇是可拉的儿子共同组成,而每个可拉公会的一些成员组成,或者,也许,都是从各种渠道收集到一个礼仪赞美诗由公会可拉的儿子。 At all events, there is a oneness of style to these hymns which is indicative of oneness of Levitical spirit.在所有事件中,有一个风格的统一性,这是合一的指示精神,利未这些赞美诗。The features of the Korahite psalms are; a great love for the Holy City; a yearning for the public worship of Israel; a supreme trust in Jahweh; and a poetic form which is simple, elegant, artistic, and well-balanced. Korahite诗篇的特点是圣城的一个伟大的爱情;以色列公众崇拜的向往;在亚​​威的最高信任和诗的形式,古朴,典雅,艺术,和均衡的。From their Messianic ideas and historical allusions, these psalms seem to have been composed between the days of Isaias and the return from exile.从他们的救世主的思想和历史典故,这些诗篇似乎已组成之间的伊萨亚斯天,从流放地返回。

(4) Moses (4)摩西

Moses is in the title of Ps.摩西是在PS的称号。xc (lxxxix).XC(lxxxix)。 St. Augustine (PL, XXXVII, 1141) does not admit Mosaic authorship; St. Jerome (PL, XXII, 1167) does.圣奥古斯丁(PL,三十七,1141)不承认花叶作者;圣杰罗姆(PL,22,1167)。The author imitates the songs of Moses in Deut., xxxii and xxxiii; this imitation may be the reason of the title.作者模仿摩西在申命记的歌曲,三十二及三十三;这种模仿可能是标题的原因。

(5) Solomon(5)所罗门

Solomon is in the titles to Pss.所罗门是在PSS标题。lxxii and cxxvii (lxxi and cxxvi), probably for a similar reason.LXXII和cxxvii(lxxi和cxxvi),可能是出于同样原因。

(6) Ethan (6)阮经天

Ethan, in the title of Psalm 89, should probably be Idithun.阮经天,在89诗篇的标题,也许应该是Idithun。The Psalter of Idithun, of Yeduthun, contained also Psalms 39, 62 and 77. Idithun诗篇Yeduthun,还载有诗篇39,62和77。

C. WITNESS OF THE NEW TESTAMENTC.新约圣经的见证

To Catholics, believing as they do fully in the Divinity of Christ and inerrancy of Holy Writ, New Testament citations render Pss.天主教徒,相信他们完全在基督和无误的圣经神,新约圣经引文呈现PSS。ii, xvi, xxxii, xxxv, lxix, cix, cx (ii, xv, xxxi, xxxiv, lxviii, cviii, cix) Davidic without the shadow of a doubt.二,十六,三十二,三十五,lxix,CIX,CX(二十五,三十一,三十四,LXVIII,cviii,CIX)大卫没有疑问的阴影。 When the Pharisees said that the Christ was the Son of David, Jesus put them the question: "How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying: The Lord said to my Lord" (cf. Matthew 22:43-45; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44; Psalm 110:1).当法利赛人说,基督是大卫的儿子,耶稣把他们的问题:“那么如何doth大卫的精神,称他为主,他说:主对我主说”(参见马太22:43-45,马可福音12:36-37,路加福音20:42-44;诗篇110:1)。 There can be here no question of the name of a collection "of David".可以在这里有没有收集的“大卫”的名称问题。Nor is there question of a collection when St. Peter, on the first Pentecost in Jerusalem, says: "For David ascended not into heaven; but he himself said: The Lord said to my Lord etc."也没有集合的问题时,圣彼得大教堂,在耶路撒冷的第一个五旬节,说:“大卫不升天;但他自己说:主说我的主,等等。”(Acts 2:34).(徒2:34)。 Davidic authorship is meant by Peter, when he cites Pss.大卫的作者是彼得,当他援引PSS。lxix (lxviii), 26, cix (cviii), 8, and ii, 1-2 as "from the mouth of David" (Acts 1:16; 4:25). lxix(LXVIII),26,CIX(cviii),8,和二,“从大卫的嘴”1-2(徒1:16; 4:25)。And when the chief Apostle has quoted Ps.当行政使徒引述诗篇。xvi (xv), 8-11, as the words of David, he explains how these words were intended by the dead patriarch as a prophecy of centuries to come (Acts 2:25-32).第十六(XV),8-11,作为大卫的话,他解释说这些话是如何作为一个世纪的预言死亡族长来(徒2:25-32)。 St. Paul's testimony is conclusive, when he (Romans 4:6; 11:9) assigns to David parts of Pss.圣保罗的证词是决定性的,当他(罗马书4时06分,11时09分)分配给大卫PSS部分。xxxii, xxxv, and lxix ( xxxi, xxxiv, lxviii).三十二,三十五,并lxix(三十一,三十四,LXVIII)。A non-Catholic might object that St. Paul refers to a collection called "David", especially as such a collection seems clearly meant by "in David", en Daveid of Heb., iv, 7.一个非天主教的可能对象,圣保罗是指一个集合称为“国宝”,尤其是这样一个集合似乎显然由“国宝”,EN希伯来Daveid,四,七的意思。 We answer, that this is an evasion: had St. Paul meant a collection, he would have dictated en Daveid in the letter to the Romans.我们的答案,这是逃税:圣保罗意味着一个集合,他将有EN Daveid决定在罗马人的信中。

D. The Critics incline to do away with all question of Davidic authorship.四,批评倾斜做了所有大卫的著作权问题。Briggs says: "It is evident from the internal character of these psalms, with a few possible exceptions, that David could not have written them" (Psalms, p. lxi).布里格斯说:“这是显而易见的,从这些诗篇的内部字符,与一些可能的例外,大卫没有写他们”(诗篇,LXI页)。Ewald allows that this internal evidence shows David to have written Pss.埃瓦尔德允许内部证据表明这大卫书面PSS。 iii, iv, vii, xi, xv, xviii, first part of xix, xxiv, xxix, xxxii, ci (iii, iv, vii, xi, xiv, xvii, xxiii, xxviii, xxxi, c).第三,第四,第七,第十一,第十五,第十八,第十九第一部分,二十四,二十九,三十二,CI(第三,第四,第七,第十一,第十四,十七,二十三,二十八,三十一,C)。

IV.四。CANONICITY正规

Christian canon基督教佳能

A. The Christian Canon of the Psalms presents no difficulty; all Christians admit into their canon the 150 psalms of the Canon of Trent; all reject Ps. A.诗篇基督教佳能并没有任何困难,所有的基督徒都承认他们的佳能公司,佳能公司的遄达150诗篇;所有拒绝诗篇。cli of the Septuagint, probably a Machabean addition to the canon.CLI的译本,可能是一个Machabean除了佳能。

Jewish canon犹太佳能

B. The Jewish Canon presents a vexing problem.B.犹太佳能提出了一个棘手的问题。How has the Psalter been evolved?的psalter如何发展?The traditional Jewish opinion, generally defended by Catholic scholars, is that not only the Jewish Canon of the Psalms but the entire Palestinian Canon of the Old Testament was practically closed during the time of Esdras (see CANON).一般由天主教学者辩护,是传统的犹太看来,不仅犹太佳能的诗篇,但整个旧约的巴勒斯坦佳能几乎埃斯德拉斯的时间(见佳能)期间关闭。 This traditional opinion is probable; for the arguments in its favour, cf.这种传统的看法是可能的;为对其有利的,比照论点。Cornely, "Introductio Generalis in NT Libros", I (Paris, 1894), 42.Cornely,“新台币Libros Generalis Introductio”,我(巴黎,1894年),42。

(1) The Critical View(1)持批评态度

These arguments are not all admitted by the critics.这些参数是不是所有的批评者承认。Says Driver: "For the opinion that the Canon of the Old Testament was closed by Ezra, or his associates, there is no foundation in antiquity whatever" ("Introducton to the Literature of the Old Testament", New York, 1892, p. x).说驱动程序:“对于佳能旧约以斯拉,或他的同伙被关闭的意见,有没有在古代任何的基础”(“Introducton旧约文学”,纽约,1892年,第X)。 In regard to the Psalms Wellhausen says: "Since the Psalter is the hymn-book of the congregation of the Second Temple, the question is not whether it contains any post-exilic psalms, but whether it contains any pre-exilic psalms" (Bleek's "Introduction", ed. 1876, 507).在有关的诗篇豪森说:“以来的psalter是的第二圣殿众赞歌的书,的问题是不是是否它包含任何后exilic诗篇,但是否它包含任何前放​​逐诗篇”(Bleek是“导言”,主编,1876年,507)。 Hitzig ("Begriff der Kritik", 1831) deems that Books III-V are entirely Machabean (168-135 BC).希齐格(“Begriff DER Kritik”,1831)认为,图书的III - V是完全Machabean(168-135 BC)。Olshausen ("Die Psalmen", 1853) brings some of these psalms down to the Hasmonaean dynasty, and the reign of John Hyrcanus (135-105 BC). Olshausen(“Psalmen模具”,1853年)将这些诗篇Hasmonaean王朝,和约翰Hyrcanus王朝(公元前135-105)。 Duhm ("Die Psalmen", 1899, p. xxi) allows very few pre-Machabean psalms, and assigns Pss. Duhm(“Psalmen模具”,1899年,第XXI)允许极少数预先Machabean诗篇,并分配给PSS。ii, xx, xxi, lxi, lxiii, lxxii, lxxxiv (b),cxxxii [ii, xix, lx, lxii, lxxi, lxxxiii (b), cxxxi] to the reigns of Aristobulus I (105-104 BC) and his brother Alexander Jannaus (104-79 BC); so that the Canon of the Psalter was not closed till 70 BC (p. xxiii).二,XX,XXI,LXI,LXIII,LXXII,lxxxiv(b)项,第一百三十二号二,十九,LX,LXII,lxxi,LXXXIII(二),cxxxi]的统治阿里斯托布鲁斯我(公元前105-104)和他的哥哥亚历山大Jannaus(公元前104-79);使佳能的psalter是不封闭,直到70年(第XXIII)。 Such extreme views are not due to arguments of worth.这种极端的观点是不值得争论。So long as one refuses to accept the force of the traditional argument in favour of the Esdras Canon, one must at all events admit that the Jewish Canon of the Psalms was undoubtedly closed before the date of the Septuagint translation.只要拒绝接受的传统论点赞成埃斯德拉斯佳能的力量,必须在承认犹太佳能的诗篇,无疑是septuagint翻译的日期前关闭所有事件。 This date is 285 BC, if we accept the authority of the Letter of Aristeas (see SEPTUAGINT); or, at the very latest 132 BC, the period at which Ben Sirach wrote, in the prologue to Ecclesiasticus, that "the law itself and the prophets and the rest of the books [ie the Hagiograha, of which were the Psalms] had been translated into Greek".此日期是285公元前,如果我们接受权威信Aristeas(见七十);,在最新的132公元前,奔西拉奇期间写了序幕Ecclesiasticus,“法律本身先知和其他的书籍[即Hagiograha,其中的诗篇]已经被翻译成希腊文“。 This is the opinion of Briggs (p. xii), who sets the final redaction of the Psalter in the middle of the second century BC这是套在公元前二世纪中叶的最后的节录的psalter布里格斯(第12),认为

The gradual evolution of the Book of Psalms is now quite generally taken by the critics as a matter of course.诗篇逐步演变为现在相当普遍采取的批评理所当然。Their application of the principles of higher criticism does not result in any uniformity of opinion in regard to the various strata of the Psalter.申请更高的批评原则,不会导致任何意见方面各阶层的psalter的统一性。 We shall present these strata as they are indicated by Prof. Briggs, probably the least rash of those who have lately published what are called "critical editions" of the Psalms.我们应当出示这些阶层,因为他们是教授布里格斯表示,可能是那些最近出版了什么是所谓的“关键版本”的诗篇至少皮疹。 His method of criticism is the usual one; by a rather subjective standard of internal evidence, he carves up some psalms, patches up others, throws out portions of others, and "edits" all.他批评的方法是通常的内部证据,而主观的标准,他雕刻了一些诗篇,同比增长补丁,抛出其他部分,“编辑”所有。He assigns seven psalms to the early Hebrew monarchy; seven to the middle monarchy; thirteen to the late monarchy; thirteen to the time of exile; thirty-three to the early Persian period; sixteen to the middle Persian period (the times of Nehemias); eleven to the late Persian period; "the great royal advent psalm" (Psalms 93, 96-100) together with eight others to the early Greek period (beginning with Alexander's conquest); forty-two to the late Greek period, and to the Machabean period Pss.他分配了七个诗篇早期希伯来君主制;七个中间君主制;十三后期君主;十三流亡的时间;三十三,早期的波斯时期;十六到中间的波斯时期(内赫米亚斯时代) 〔11个后期的波斯时期,“伟大的皇家来临诗篇”(诗篇93,96-100)连同八人早期希腊时期与亚历山大的征服开始;四十晚期希腊时期,并Machabean期间PSS。 xxxiii, cii (b), cix (b), cxviii, cxxxix (c), cxxix of the Pilgrim Psalter and cxlvii, cxlix of the Hallels. XXXIII,CII(二),(二)CIX,cxviii,cxxxix(C),cxxix的朝圣者的诗篇和cxlvii,cxlix的Hallels。 Of these psalms and portions of psalms, according to Briggs, thirty-one are "psalms apart", that is, never were incorporated into a Psalter before the present canonical redaction was issued.这些诗篇和部分诗篇,根据布里格斯,第三是“除了诗篇”,就是,从来没有成为一个诗篇成立之前,目前的规范节录发出。 The rest were edited in two or more of the twelve Psalters which mark the evolution of the Book of Psalms.其余的编辑在两个或两个以上的12 Psalters标记诗篇的演变。The earliest collection of psalms was made up of seven Mikhtamim, "golden pieces", of the middle Persian period.最早收集的诗篇是由七Mikhtamim,“黄金块”,中间的波斯时期。In the late Persian period thirteen Maskilim were put together as a collection of meditations.在后期的波斯时期的十三Maskilim放在一起作为冥想收集。At the same time, seventy-two psalms were edited, as a prayer-book for use in the synagogue, under the name of "David"; of these thirteen have in their titles references to David's life, and are thought to have formed a previous collection by themselves.与此同时,七十-两个诗篇编辑,作为一个在犹太教堂祷告的书“大卫”的名义下,;这些十三已在他们的标题引用大卫的生活,和被认为已经形成一个自己以前的集合。 In the early Greek period in Palestine, eleven psalms were gathered into the minor psalter entitled the "Sons of Korah".早在希腊时期在巴勒斯坦,11个诗篇聚集到未成年人的诗篇,题为“可拉的儿子”。

About the same time in Babylonia, twelve psalms were made into a Psalter entitled "Asaph".关于在巴比伦的同时,十二诗篇制作成题为“亚萨”一个诗篇。Not long thereafter, in the same period, the exilic Ps.不久,在同一时期,在放逐PS。lxxxviii, together with two orphan Pss.lxxxviii,连同两个孤儿PSS。lxvi and lxvii, were edited along with selections from "David," "Sons of Korah", and "Asaph", for public worship of song in the synagogue; the name of this psalter was "Mizmorim".LXVI LXVII,编辑一起从“大卫”,“可拉的儿子”,“亚萨选择”,为公众崇拜在犹太教堂的歌曲,这诗篇的名称是“Mizmorim”。A major psalter, the Elohist, Pss.一个主要的诗篇,在Elohist,PSS。xlii-lxxxiii (xli-lxxxii), is supposed to have been made up, in Babylonia, during the middle Greek period, of selections from "David", "Korah", "Asaph" and "Mizmorim"; the name is due to the use of Elohim and avoidance of Jahweh in these psalms.XLII - LXXXIII(XLI -捌拾),已提出,在巴比伦,在中间希腊时期的“大卫”,“可拉”,“亚萨”和“Mizmorim”的选择,是应该的名称是由于亚威耶洛因和避免使用这些诗篇。 About the same time, in Palestine, a prayer-book was made up of 54 from "Mizmorim, 16 psalms from "David", 4 from "Korah", and 1 from "Asaph"; this major psalter bore the name of the "Director". The Hallels, or Alleluiatic songs of praise, were made up into a psalter for temple service in the Greek period. These psalms have halleluyah (Praise ye Yah) either at the beginning (Pss. cxi, cxii), or at the close (Pss. civ, cv, cxv, cxvii), or at both the beginning and close (Pss. cvi, cxiii, cxxxv, cxlvi-cl). The Septuagint gives Allelouia also the beginning of Pss. cv, cvii, cxiv, cxvi, cxix, cxxxvi. Briggs includes as Hallels all these except cxviii and cxix, "the former being a triumphal Machabean song, the latter the great alphabetic praise of the law". A like minor psalter of the Greek period was the "Pilgrim Psalter" (Pss. cxx-cxxxiv), a collection of "Songs of Pilgrimage", the "Songs of Ascents", or "Gradual Psalms", which the pilgrims chanted while going up to Jerusalem for the three great feasts.大约在同一时间,在巴勒斯坦,祈祷书是由54“Mizmorim,16诗篇”国宝“,从”可拉“,并从”亚萨“这一重大诗篇孔的名称”署长“。Hallels,或赞美Alleluiatic的歌曲,诗篇成寺在希腊时期的服务,这些诗篇有halleluyah(赞美你们盐田)无论是在开始(Pss. CXI,cxii),或在关闭(CIV Pss.,简历,第一百一十五,cxvii),或在开始和关闭(Pss. CVI,cxiii,cxxxv,cxlvi - CL)。译本给Allelouia也PSS开始。简历,cvii,cxiv cxvi,cxix,cxxxvi。布里格斯包括Hallels除cxviii和cxix所有这些,“前者是一个凯旋Machabean歌曲,后者的伟大法律的字母赞誉”。一个像轻微希腊时期的诗篇是“朝圣诗篇“(Pss. CXX - cxxxiv),收集”歌曲的朝圣之旅“,”攀登歌“,或”渐进式的诗篇“,朝圣者高呼而上升到耶路撒冷的三个伟大的节日。

(2) The Catholic View(2)天主教查看

So extensive an application of divisive criticism to the Psalter does not meet the approval of Catholic exegetes.如此广泛的应用程序的psalter分裂批评不符合天主教exegetes批准。Successive redaction of the Psalms they readily admit, provided the doctrine of the inspiration of Holy Writ be not impugned.连续节录的诗篇,他们毫不迟疑地承认,提供了灵感的神圣令状是不责难的学说。The doctrine of inspiration has regard to the Psalms as they now stand in the canon, and does not impede a Catholic from admitting various redactions of the Psalter previous to our present redaction; in fact, even uninspired liturgical redaction of the inspired Psalms would not be contrary to what the Church teaches in the matter of inspiration, so long as the redactor had preserved intact and absolutely unaltered the inspired meaning of the Sacred Text.灵感的学说方面的诗篇,因为他们现在站在佳能,不承认的诗篇,以我们目前的节录之前的各种删节妨碍了天主教;事实上,甚至平庸的启发诗篇礼仪节录不会相反,教会的教导灵感的问题,所以只要保存完好,绝对不变的神圣文本的启发意义的redactor。 The Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) will not allow that our present redaction contains many Machabean psalms; nor will Drive, Delitzsch, Perowne, Renan, and many other critical scholars.圣经委员会(5月1日,1910年)将不会允许我们目前的节录包含许多Machabean诗篇,也将推动Delitzsch,扫管笏,雷南,和许多其他重要的学者。 "Had so many psalms dated from this age, it is difficult not to think that they would have borne more prominent marks of it in their diction and style" (Driver, "Introduction to their Literature of the Old Testament", New York, 1892, 365). “如果这么多的诗篇从这个年龄段的日期,这是很难不认为,他们将承担他们的用词和风格更加突出的标志”(驱动器“,介绍旧约文学”,纽约,1892年,365)。 Pss.PSS。xliv, lxxiv, lxxix, and lxxxiii, which Delitzsch and Perowne on historical grounds admit to be Machabean, occasion to Davison (Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", IV, 152) "unquestionable difficulties arising from their place in the second and third books".四十四,LXXIV,LXXIX,并LXXXIII,Delitzsch和扫管笏的历史理由承认Machabean机会戴维森(黑斯廷斯,“快译通”圣经“。”四,152)“不容置疑的困难,从他们的地方,发生在第二和第三书“。 There are no certain proofs that these or any psalms are Machabean.有没有一定的证明,这些或任何诗篇Machabean。The Biblical Commission does not, on this account, deny any of the psalms are Machabean; it leaves that question still open.,这个帐户上,圣经委员会不否认的诗篇Machabean;离开这个问题仍然处于打开状态。In the matter of redaction, it allows that "for liturgical or musical or other unknown reasons, psalms may have been split up or joined together" in course of time; and that "there are other psalms, like the Miserere mei, Deus [Ps. li], which, in order that they might be better fitted to the historical circumstances and the solemnities of the Jewish people, were slightly re-edited and changed by the omission or addition of a verse or two, so long as the inspiration of the entire text remains intact".在节录的问题,它允许“礼仪或音乐或其他不明原因,诗篇可能已经分裂或联手”随着时间的推移;,“有其他的诗篇,如求主怜悯美,杀出[PS李],其中,为了他们可能会更好地适应和犹太人民的历史条件下的solemnities,稍重的编辑和改变的遗漏或另外一个或两个诗句,只要灵感整个文本保持不变“。 That is the important thing; the doctrine of the inspiration of Holy Writ must not suffer in the least.这是最重要的事情;的灵感圣经的教义必须在至少不会受到。How, then, is the doctrine of the inspiration of the entire text kept intact?那么,是整个文本主义的灵感保持不变呢? Were the previous redactors inspired?是以前编纂的启发呢?Nothing has been determined by any authority of the Church in these matters.已确定没有任何教会在这些问题上的权威。We incline to the opinion that God inspired the meanings of the Psalms as originally written, and in like manner inspired every redactor who gathered and edited these songs of Israel until the last inspired redactor set them together in their present form.我们倾向于认为神启发最初写的诗篇的意义,和喜欢的方式激发了每redactor谁收集和编辑以色列的这些歌曲,直到最后启发redactor的设置在其目前的形式在一起。

V. TEXT五,文本

The Psalms were originally written in Hebrew letters, such as we see only on coins and in a few lapidary inscriptions; the text has come down to us in square Aramaic letters.诗篇原先书面希伯来字母,比如我们看到只有硬币和几个宝石铭文;文本已回落,我们在广场阿拉姆字母。Only the versions give us any idea of the pre-Masoretic text.只有版本给我们前马所拉文本的任何想法。Thus far no pre-Masoretic manuscript of the Psalms has been discovered.迄今为止,没有前马所拉手稿的诗篇已被发现。The Masoretic text has been preserved in more than 3400 manuscripts, of which none is earlier than the ninth century and only nine or ten are earlier than the twelfth (see MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE).超过3400手稿一直保存在马所拉文本,其中没有一个是早在第九世纪,只有九个或十个早于第十二届(见“圣经”手稿)。 These Masoretic manuscripts represent two slightly variant families of one tradition -- the texts of Ben Asher and of Ben Naftali.这些马所拉手稿代表一个传统的两个轻微变种家庭 - 本Asher和本纳夫塔利文本。Their variations are of little moment in the interpretation of the Psalms.它们的变化是小的时刻,在解释的诗篇。The study of the rhythmic structure of the Psalms, together with the variations between Massorah and the versions, have made it clear that our Hebrew text is far from perfect, and that its points are often wrong.的节奏结构的诗篇,连同Massorah和版本之间的差异,研究已经清楚表明,我们的希伯来文是远远不够完善,这点往往是错误的。 The efforts of critics to perfect the text are at times due to no more than a shrewd surmise.批评家的努力,以完美的文本有时由于没有比一个精明的猜测。The metrical mould is chosen; then the psalm is forcibly adapted to it.格律模具选择;诗篇是被迫适应它。It were better to leave the text in its imperfect condition than to render it worse by guess-work.更好地留在其不完善的条件文本呈现猜测的工作情况变得更糟。The decree of the Biblical Commission is aimed at those to whom the imperfections in the Masoretic Text are an occasion, though no excuse, for countless conjectural emendations, at times wild and fanciful, which nowadays pass current as critical exegesis of the Psalms.圣经委员会的法令,目的是为了在马所拉文本的不完善是其中一个场合,虽然没有任何借口,为无数的臆测emendations,在野生和幻想,如今通过目前的关键训诂学的诗篇。

VI.六。VERSIONSVERSIONS

A. GREEK答:希腊

The chief version of the Psalms is the Septuagint.首席版本的诗篇的译本。It is preserved to us in Cod.这是保留给我们的鳕鱼。U, Brit.U,英国人。Mus.亩。Pap.PAP。37, seventh century, containing Pss.37,七世纪,含PSS。x-xxxiii; Leipzig Pap., fourth century, containing Pss.X - XXXIII;子宫颈抹片莱比锡,第四个世纪,含PSS。xxix-liv; , Cod.XXIX - LIV,鳕鱼。Sinaiticus, fourth century, complete; B. Cod.西奈抄本,第四个世纪,完整的; B.鳕鱼。Vaticanus, fourth century, complete, except, Pss.Vaticanus,第四世纪,完整的,除了PSS。cv, 27-cxxxvii, 6; A, Cod.CV,27 cxxxvii,6,鳕鱼。Alexandrinus, fifth century, complete except Pss.Alexandrinus,第五世纪,除了PSS完成。 xlix, 19-lxxvi, 10; I, Cod. XLIX,19 LXXVI,10人;我,鳕鱼。Bodleianus, ninth century, complete; and in many other later manuscripts The Septuagint Version is of great value in the exegesis of the Psalms. Bodleianus,第九世纪,完整的,和其他许多后来手稿septuagint版本是训诂学的诗篇,具有极大的价值。It provides pre-Masoretic readings which are clearly preferable to those of the Massoretes.它提供前马所拉的读数,这是明显优于的Massoretes。It brings us back to a text at least of the second century BC In spite of a seeming servility to words and to Hebrew constructions, a servility that probably existed in the Alexandrian Greek of the Jews of the period, the Septuagint translator of psalms shows an excellent knowledge of Hebrew, and fears not to depart from the letter and to give the meaning of his original.它把我们带回到一个文本在一个表面上的文字和希伯来建设,在亚历山大希腊的犹太人期间,可能存在一个奴性的奴性,但至少在公元前二世纪,译本翻译的诗篇,显示了精通希伯来语和恐惧,不背离信和给他原来的意思。 The second-century AD Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion are extant in only a few fragments; these fragments are witnesses to a text pretty much the same as our Masoretic.第二个世纪AD拉奎拉,Symmachus,并Theodotion希腊的版本是现存仅有的几个片段,这些碎片是证人到一个文本几乎为我们的马所拉一样。

B. LATIN B.拉丁美洲

About the middle of the second century the Septuagint Psalter was translated into Latin.关于中间的第二个世纪七十诗篇被翻译成拉丁文。Of this Old Latin, or Itala, Version we have only a few manuscripts and the citations by the early Latin Fathers.这个旧拉丁美洲,或伊泰莱,版本,我们只有少数手稿由早期拉丁教父和引文。At the request of Pope St. Damasus I, AD 383, St. Jerome revised the Itala and brought it back closer to the Septuagint.教皇圣达玛斯我的要求,公元383,圣杰罗姆修订伊泰莱,并把它带回接近的译本。His revision was soon so distorted that he complained, "plus antiquum errorem quam novam emendationem valere" (PL, XXIX, 117).他的修订很快就被如此扭曲,他抱怨说,“加antiquum errorem华富novam emendationem valere”(PL,二十九,117)。This is St. Jerome's "Roman Psalter"; it is used in the recitation of the Office in St. Peter's, Rome, and in the Missal.这是圣杰罗姆的“罗马诗篇”,它是在背诵的办公室在圣彼得大教堂,罗马,并在Missal。The corruption of his first translation led St. Jerome to undertake an entirely new translation of the Hexapla edition of the Septuagint.他的第一次翻译的腐败导致圣杰罗姆进行一个全新的翻译Hexapla版的septuagint。 He worked with great care, in Bethlehem, some time before AD 392.他非常谨慎,在伯利恒,公元392之前的一段时间。He indicated by asterisks the parts of the Hebrew text which had been omitted by the Septuagint and were borrowed by him from Theodotion; he marked with the obelus () the parts of the Septuagint which were not in the Hebrew.他表示,以星号的希伯来文的部分被漏掉的译本,被他从Theodotion借用他的短剑号(),标志着在希伯来文的译本部分。 These critical marks came in course of time to be utterly neglected.这些重要的标志是被完全忽略了时间的过程。This translation is the "Gallican Psalter"; it is part of the Vulgate.这个翻译是“高卢诗篇”,它是武加大的一部分。A third Latin translation of the Psalms, made from the Hebrew Text, with Origen's Hexapla and the other ancient versions in view, was completed by St. Jerome about the end of the fourth century at Bethlehem.第三拉丁文译本的诗篇,奥利Hexapla和在其他古老的版本,从希伯来文,圣杰罗姆完成关于在伯利恒的第四个世纪结束。 This version is of great worth in the study of the Psalter.这个版本是值得研究的psalter。Dr. Briggs says: "Where it differs from H. and G., its evidence is especially valuable as giving the opinion of the best Biblical scholar of ancient times as to the original text, based on the use of a wealth of critical material vastly greater than that in the possession of any other critic, earlier or later" (p. xxxii).布里格斯博士说:“它来自何处H.和G.不同,其证据是,给人以原始文本古代最好的圣经学者的意见,尤其是有价值的,基于使用的关键材料的财富大大比在其他任何评论家,较早或较晚的“(第XXXII)占有更大。

OTHER VERSIONS其他版本

For other translations, see VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE; RHYMED BIBLES.对于其他的翻译,看到的圣经版本,押韵的“圣经”。

VII.七。POETIC FORM诗的形式

A. PARALLELISM答:并行

Parallelism (qv) is the principle of balance which is admitted by all to be the most characteristic and essential feature of the poetic form of the Psalms.平行(QV)是平衡的原则,都承认这是最具特色和本质特征的诗歌形式的诗篇。By synonymous, synthetic, antithetic, emblematic, stair-like, or introverted parallelism, thought is balanced with thought, line with line, couplet with couplet, strophe with antistrophe, in the lyric upbuilding of the poetic picture or imprecation or exhortation.通过代名词,合成,对偶,象征,楼梯状,或内敛并行,想到的是平衡的思想,线与线,对联与对联,与antistrophe strophe,抒情诗意的图片或诅咒,或劝诫upbuilding。

B. METRE二公尺

Is there metre in the Psalms?是否有在诗篇米?The Jews of the first century AD thought so.公元一世纪的犹太人是这么认为的。Flavius Josephus speaks of the hexameters of Moses (Antiq., II, xvi, 4; IV, viii, 44) and the trimeters and tetrameters and manifold meters of the odes and hymns of David (Antiq., VII, xii, 3).弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫说摩西(Antiq.,二,十六,4,第四,第八,44)hexameters和大卫的颂歌和赞美诗trimeters和tetrameters和多方面的米(Antiq.,七,十二,3)。 Philo says that Moses had learned the "theory of rhythm and harmony" (De vita Mosis, I, 5).斐洛说,摩西学会了“节奏与和谐的理论”(维Mosis,我5)。Early Christian writers voice the same opinion.早期的基督教作家的声音相同的看法。Origen (d. 254) says the Psalms are in trimeters and tetrameters (In Ps. cxviii; cf. Card. Pitra, "Analecta Sacra", II, 341); and Eusebius (d. 340), in his "De Praeparatione evangelica", XI, 5 (PG, XXI, 852), speaks of the same metres of David.奥利(254 D.)的诗篇说trimeters和tetrameters(诗cxviii。CF卡Pitra,“Analecta萨克拉”,第二,341);和尤西比乌斯(卒于340),在他的“德Praeparatione evangelica “十一,5(PG,二十一世纪,852),谈大卫相同的米。St. Jerome (420), in "Praef. ad Eusebii chronicon" (PL, XXVII, 36), finds iambics, Alcaics, and Sapphics in the psalter; and, writing to Paula (PL, XXII, 442), he explains that the acrostic Pss.圣杰罗姆(420)“。Praef广告Eusebii chronicon”(PL,二十七,36),发现iambics,Alcaics的psalter Sapphics,书面保(PL,22,442),他解释说,离合PSS。cxi and cxii (cx and cxi) are made up of iambic trimeters, whereas the acrostic Pss. CXI和cxii(CX及CXI)的抑扬格trimeters,而离合PSS。cxix and cxlv (cxviii and cxliv) are iambic tetrameters.cxix和cxlv(cxviii和cxliv)抑扬格tetrameters。Modern exegetes do not agree in this matter.现代注释者不同意在这个问题上。For a time many would admit no metre at all in the Psalms.一时间许多人都承认没有米,在所有的诗篇。Davison (Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", sv) writes: "though metre is not discernible in the Psalms, it does not follow that rhythm is excluded".戴维森(Hast.“圣经”,SV)。快译通写道:“虽然米是不是在诗篇可辨,它不遵循节奏是排除”。This rhythm, however, "defies analysis and systematization".然而,这样的节奏,“蔑视分析和系统化”。Driver ("Introd. to Lit. of OT", New York, 1892, 339) admits in Hebrew poetry "no metre in the strict sense of the term".驱动器(“Introd。变为点亮。旧约”,纽约,1892年,339)承认在希伯来诗歌“没有严格意义上的米”。Exegetes who find metre in the Psalms are of four schools, according as they explain Hebrew metre by quantity, by the number of syllables, by accent, or by both quantity and accent.发现在诗篇米的解经的四所学校,根据数量,因为他们解释希伯来语米,音节数,口音,或由数量和口音。

(1) Defenders of the Latin and Greek metrical standard of quantity as applied to Hebrew poetry are Francis Gomarus, in "Davidis lyra", II (Lyons, 1637), 313; Mark Meibom, in "Davidis psalmi X" (Amsterdam, 1690) and in two other works, who claim to have learned his system of Hebrew metre by Divine revelation; William Jones, "Poeseos Asiaticae commentariorum" (Leipzig, 1777), who tried to force Hebrew words into Arabic metres. (1)适用于希伯来诗歌格律的数量标准的拉丁文和希腊文的捍卫者,在“大卫迪斯天琴座”弗朗西斯Gomarus,II(里昂,1637年),313;马克Meibom在“大卫迪斯psalmi X”的,(阿姆斯特丹,1690 )和2张其他作品,那些声称已经学会了他的神的启示希伯来米制度;威廉琼斯,“Poeseos Asiaticae commentariorum”(莱比锡,1777),试图强行希伯来文翻译成阿拉伯文米。

(2) The number of syllables was taken as the standard of metre by Hare, "Psalmorum liber in versiculos metrice divisus" (London, 1736); he made all feet dissyllabic, the metre trochaic in a line of an even number of syllables, iambic in a line of an odd number of syllables.(2)音节数是由野兔米标准,“Psalmorum LIBER versiculos metrice divisus”(伦敦,1736年);他所有的脚dissyllabic,一个音节偶数行的扬抑米,在奇数行的音节抑扬格。The Masoretic system was rejected, the Syriac put in its stead.马所拉的系统被拒绝,叙利亚在其代替。The opinion found chief defence in the writings of the learned Innsbruck Professor Gustav; and in Bickell's "Metrices biblicae" (Innsbruck, 1879), "Suplementum ad Metr. Bibl." “意见”中所学到的因斯布鲁克教授古斯塔夫著作发现的首席辩护; Bickell“Metrices biblicae”(因斯布鲁克,1879年),“Suplementum广告Metr Bibl。”(Innsbruck), "Carimina veteris testamenti metrice" (1882), "Dichtungen der Hebraer" (1882-84). (因斯布鲁克),“Carimina veteris testamenti metrice”(1882年),“Dichtungen明镜Hebraer”(1882年至1884年)。Gerard Gietmann, SJ, "De re mentrica Hebraeorum" (Freiburg im Br., 1880); A. Rohling, "Das Solomonische Spruchbuch" (Mainz, 1879); H. Lesetre, "Le livre des psaumes" (Paris, 1883); J. Knabenbauer, SJ, in "Job" (Paris, 1885), p.杰拉德Gietmann,SJ的“德重新mentrica Hebraeorum”(弗莱堡BR,1880年); A. Rohling,“达斯Solomonische Spruchbuch”(美因茨,1879年),H. Lesetre,“乐livre psaumes”(巴黎,1883年)研究Knabenbauer,律政司司长,在“工作”(巴黎,1885年),第 18; F. Vigouroux, "Manuel biblique", II, 203, have all followed in Bickell's footsteps more or less closely. 18楼Vigouroux,“曼努埃尔biblique”,二,203,都遵循Bickell的脚步或多或少密切。Against this system some patent facts.在这一系统中的一些专利的事实。The quantity of a word is made to vary arbitrarily.一个字的数量是任意更改。Hebrew is treated as Syriac, a late dialect of Aramaic -- which it is not; in fact, even early Syriac poetry did not measure its lines by the number of syllables.希伯来语被视为叙利亚,后期的阿拉姆语方言 - 它不是,事实上,即使是早期的叙利亚文诗没有音节数衡量其行。Lastly the Massorah noted metrical structure by accents; at least soph pasuk and athnah indicate comlete lines or two hemistichs.最后Massorah指出口音格律结构; soph pasuk和athnah至少表明comlete线或两个hemistichs。

(3) Accent is the determining principle of Hebrew metre according to CA Anton, "Conjectura de metro Hebraeorum" (Leipzig, 1770), "Vindiciae disput. de metr. Hebr." (3)的口音是希伯来文米确定的原则,根据CA的安东,“Conjectura地铁Hebraeorum”(莱比锡,1770年),“Vindiciae disput。metr。黑布尔。”(Leipzig, 1771), "Specimen editionis psalmorum" (Vitebsk, 1780); Leutwein, "Versuch einer richtigen Theorie von der biblischen Verkunst" (1775); Ernst Meier, "Die Form der hebraischen Poesie nachgewiesen" (Tübingen, 1853); Julius Ley, "Die Metrischen Formen der hebraischen Poesie" (Leipzig, 1886); "Ueber die Alliteration im Hebraischen" in "Zeitsch. d. Deutsch. Morgenlandisch. Ges.", XX, 180; JK Zenner, SJ, "Die Chorgesange im Buche der Psalmen" (Freiburg im Br., 1896), and in many contributions to "Zeitsch. fur kathol. Theol.", 1891, 690; 1895, 373; 1896, 168, 369, 378, 571, 754; Hontheim, SJ, in "Zeitsch. fur kathol. Theol.", 1897, 338, 560, 738; 1898, 172, 404, 749; 1899, 167; Dr. CA Briggs, in "The Book of Psalms", in "International Critical Commentary" (New York, 1906), p. (莱比锡,1771),“标本editionis psalmorum”(维特布斯克1780年); Leutwein,“Versuch richtigen einer Theorie冯DER biblischen Verkunst”(1775年),厄恩斯特迈尔,“裸片形式DER hebraischen POESIE nachgewiesen”(蒂宾根大学,1853年);朱利叶斯莱伊,“模具Metrischen Formen DER hebraischen POESIE”(莱比锡,1886年);“Ueber死头韵IM Hebraischen”,XX,180“Zeitsch D.德语Morgenlandisch GES。。。”; JK真兰,律政司司长,“模具Chorgesange IM布车DER Psalmen“(弗莱堡BR,1896年),并在许多贡献”Zeitsch皮毛kathol Theol“​​,1891年,690;。。1895年,373; 1896年,168,369,378,571,754; Hontheim律政司司长,在“Zeitsch毛皮kathol Theol。”,1897年,338,560,738; 1898年,172,404,749; 1899年,167个博士CA布里格斯,在“诗篇”,“国际评论文章“(纽约,1906年),第xxxix, and in many other publications therein enumerated; Francis Brown, "Measures of Hebrew Poetry: in "Journal of Biblical Literature", IX, 91; CH Toy, "Proverbs" in "Internat. XXXIX和许多其他出版物,其中列举;弗朗西斯布朗“,希伯来诗歌措施:在”圣经“文学杂志”,九,91; CH玩具,“箴言”中的“INTERNAT。 Crit.暴击。Comm." (1899); WR Harper, "Amos and Hosea" in "Internat.COMM“(1899年); WR哈珀,”阿莫斯和何西阿“INTERNAT”。Crit.暴击。Comm." (1905); Cheyne, "Psalms" (New York), 1892; Duhm, "Die Psalmen" (Freiburg im Br., 1899), p. xxx. This theory is the best working hypothesis together with the all-essential principle of parallelism; it does far less violence to the Masoretic Text than either of the foregoing theories. It does not force the Masoretic syllables into grooves that are Latin, Greek, Arabic, or Aramaic. It is independent of the shifting of accent; and postulates just one thing, a fixed and harmonious number of accents to the line, regardless of the number of syllables therein. This theory of a tonic and not a syllabic metre has this, too, in its favour that accent is the determining principle in ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, and Assyrian poetry.通讯“(1905年);进益,”诗篇“(纽约),1892; Duhm,”模具Psalmen“(弗莱堡BR,1899年),第XXX这个理论是最好的工作假设,连同所有并行的基本原则。它远不如暴力比上述理论之一的马所拉文本,它不会强迫凹槽,拉丁文,希腊文,阿拉伯文,或阿拉姆的马所拉的音节,它是独立的重音转移;和假设一件事,行的重音固定和和谐,无论音节其中一剂强心剂,这理论不是一个音节米,也有利于自己的口音,是确定的原则古埃及,巴比伦,亚述和诗歌。

(4) Of recent years the pendulum of Hebrew metrical theories has swung back upon quantity; the syllabic must not be utterly neglected. (4)近年来希伯来语格律理论的钟摆已经摆回到后数量;音节绝不能完全忽视。Hubert Grimme, in "Grundzuge der Hebraischen Akzent und Volkallehre", Freiburg, 1896, and "Psalmenprobleme" (1902), builds up the metre chiefly upon the tonic principle, at the same time taking into account the morae or pauses due to quantity.休伯特机Grimme,“Grundzuge DER Hebraischen AKZENT和Volkallehre”,弗赖堡,1896年,和“Psalmenprobleme”(1902年),建立米,主要是后进补的原则,同时考虑到了morae或暂停由于数量。 Schlogl, "De re metrica veterum Hebraeorum" (Vienna, 1899), defends Grimme's theory.Schlogl,“德重新metrica veterum Hebraeorum”(维也纳,1899年),格力莫的理论辩护。Sievers, "Metrische Studien" (1901), also takes in the unaccented syllables for metrical consideration; so does Baethgen, "Die Psalmen" (Gottingen, 1904), p.的Sievers,“Metrische(研究)”(1901年),也需要在格律考虑重音音节,所以不Baethgen,“模具Psalmen哥廷根,”(1904年),第 xxvii.二十七。

C. OTHER CHARACTERISTICSC.其他特点

Alliteration and assonance are frequent.头韵,谐音是频繁。Acrostic or alphabetic psalms are ix-x, xxv, xxxiv, xxxvii, cxi, cxii, cxix, cxlv (ix, xxiv, xxxiii, xxxvi, cx, cxi, cxviii, cxliv).离合或字母诗篇IX - X,​​二十五,三十四,三十七,CXI,cxii,cxix,cxlv(第九,二十四,三十三,三十六,CX,CXI,cxviii,cxliv)。 The letters of the alphabet begin successive lines, couplets, or strophes.字母表中的字母开始了连续的线条,贴春联,或strophes。In Ps.在PS。cxix (cxviii) the same letter begins eight successive lines in each of the twenty-two alphabetic strophes. cxix(cxviii)相同字母开头的二十二个字母strophes的8个连续的行。In Pss.在PSS。xiii, xxix, lxii, cxlviii, and cl (xii, xxviii, lxi, cxlvii, and cxlix) the same word or words are repeated many times.十三,二十九,LXII,cxlviii,CL(第十二,二十八,LXI,cxlvii,和cxlix)相同的字或词是重复多次。 Rhymes, by repetition of the same suffix, are in Pss.押韵,重复相同的后缀,在PSS。ii, xiii, xxvii, xxx, liv, lv, cxlii, etc. (ii, xii, xxvi, xxix, liii, liv, cxli, etc.); these rhymes occur at the ends of lines and in caesural pauses.二,十三,二十七,三十,LIV,LV,cxlii等(第二,十二,十六,二十九,LIII,LIV,cxli等),这些童谣发生在线路的两端caesural暂停。 Lines were grouped into strophes and antistrophes, commonly in pairs and triplets, rarely in greater multiples; at times an independent strophe, like the epode of the Greek chorus, was used between one or more strophes and the corresponding antistrophes.线分成strophes和antistrophes,通常在双和三胞胎,很少在更大的倍数;一个独立的strophe,有时像希腊的合唱团epode,之间的一个或多个strophes和相应的antistrophes使用。 The word Selah () almost invariably marks the end of a strophe.这个词(细拉)()几乎总是标志着strophe结束。The meaning of this word and its purpose is still a moot question.这个词的意义,其目的仍然是一个有争议的问题。We think it was originally (from , "to throw"), and meant "a throwing down", "a prostration".我们认为,它最初(从“扔”),并意味着“扔下”,“虚脱”。During the antiphonal cantilation of the Psalms, the priests blew their trumpets to mark the end of a strophe, and at the signal the two choirs or the people or both choirs and people prostrated themselves (cf. Haupt, "Expository Times", May, 1911).在对歌cantilation的诗篇,祭司吹自己的喇叭标志strophe结束,信号的两个合唱团或合唱团和人民的人或自己拜倒(见豪普特,“说明性时报”,5月, 1911年)。The principle of parallelism determined these stophic arrangements of the lines.并行的原则,确定这些stophic安排行。Koster, in "die Psalmen nach ihrer strophischen Anordnung" (1837), distinguishes various kinds of parallelism in lines and half-lines, synonymous, antithetical, synthetic, identical, introverted.科斯特,在“死Psalmen nach ihrer strophischen Anordnung”(1837年),区分各种并行线和半线的代名词,对立的,合成的,相同的,性格内向。Zenner, SJ, in his "Chorgesange im Buche der Psalmen" (Freiburg im Br., 1896) has very cleverly arranged many of the psalms as choral odes, chanted by two or three choirs.真兰,律政司司长,在他的“Chorgesange IM布车DER Psalmen”(弗莱堡BR,1896年)已经很巧妙地安排合唱颂歌很多的诗篇,由两个或三个合唱团吟唱。Hermann Wiesmann, SJ, in "Die Psalmen nach dem Urtext" (Munster, 1906), has applied the metrical principles of Zenner, and revised and published the latter's translations and studies of the Psalms.赫尔曼维泽曼,律政司司长在“模具Psalmen nach DEM Urtext”(明斯特,1906年),已申请了真兰的韵律原则,修订并公布了后者的翻译和研究的诗篇。This work takes too great liberty with the Sacred Text, and has lately (1911) been put on the Index.这项工作需要与神圣文本太大的自由,以及近来(1911)指数。

VIII.八。POETIC BEAUTY如诗如画的美景

The extravagant words of Lamartine in "Voyage en Orient" are classic: "Lisez de l'Horace ou du Pindare apres un Psaume! Pour moi, je ne le peux plus".拉马丁的奢侈的话,在“东方之旅EN”是经典之作:“Lisez DE L'贺拉斯OU杜Pindare apr镳联合国Psaume倒入MOI,JE NE乐peux加!”。One wonders whether Lamartine ever read a psalm in the original.人们不禁要问是否拉马丁在原来读过的诗。To criticise the Psalms as literature is very difficult.要批评的诗篇,文学是非常困难的的。Their text has reached us with many losses in the matter of poetic form.他们的文字已经达到了我们许多诗歌形式的问题损失。The authors varied much in style.作者在风格多样。Their literary beauty should not be judged by comparison with the poetry of Horace and Pindar.他们的文学之美,不应该贺拉斯和品达的诗比较判断。It is with the hymns of ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Assyria that we should compare the songs of Israel.它是古代埃及,巴比伦和亚述,我们应该比较以色列的歌曲赞美诗。Those ancient hymns are crude and rude by the side of the Psalms.那些古老的赞美诗是原油和粗鲁的一侧的诗篇。Even the imprecatory Pss.即使imprecatory PSS。xviii, xxxv, lii, lix, lxix, cix, cxxxvii (xvii, xxxiv, li, lviii, lxviii, cviii, cxxxvi), those national anthems so full of love of Israel and almost startling in their hatred of the foes of Jahweh and of Israel, if read from the viewpoint of the writers, are sublime, vivid, glowing, enthusiastic, though exaggerated, poetic outbursts, instances of a "higher seriousness and a higher truthfulness", such as Aristotle never would have found ina song of Babylonia or of Sumeria.十八,三十五,LII,LIX,lxix,CIX,cxxxvii(十七,三十四,李LVIII,LXVIII,cviii,cxxxvi),那些充满爱以色列,几乎惊人的亚威的敌人的仇恨的国歌和以色列,如果从作家的角度阅读,是崇高的,生动的,发光,热情,虽然夸张,富有诗意的爆发,一个“更高的严肃性和较高的真实性”,如亚里士多德,的实例永远不会发现的巴比伦INA歌曲苏美尔。 Whether their tones are those of praise or blame, of sorrow or of joy, of humiliation or of exaltation, of deep meditation or of didactic dogmatism, ever and everywhere the writers of the Psalms are dignified and grand, true to the ideals of Jahweh's chosen folk, spiritual and devotional.无论其色调是毁誉的悲伤或喜悦的屈辱,或对提高深冥想或说教教条主义或,,永远和无处不在诗篇的作者是端庄和隆重,真实亚威选择的理想民俗,精神和献身。 The range of thought is immense.思想的范围是巨大的。It takes in Jahweh, His temple, cult, priests, creation; man, friend and foe; beasts, birds; all nature, animate and inanimate.在亚威,他的寺庙,邪教,祭司,创造人,朋友和敌人;兽类,鸟类;所有的性质,生命和无生命。The range of emotions is complete; every emotion of man that is pure and noble has been set to words in the Psalms.情感的范围是完整的,是纯洁高尚的人,每个的情感已被设置为在诗篇的话。As an instance of poetic beauty, we subjoin the famous Ps.作为一个如诗如画的美景实例,我们添了著名的诗篇。xxiii (xxii), translated from the Hebrew.XXIII(二十二),从希伯来文翻译。The poet first speaks in his own person, then in the guise of the sheep.诗人首先谈到他自己的人,然后在羊的幌子。The repetition of the first couplet as an envoi is suggested by Zenner and many commentators, to complete the envelope-form of the poem, or the introverted parallelism of the strophic structure:重复第一对联作为envoi真兰和许多评论家建议,完成的信封形式的诗句,或内敛strophic结构并行:

The Poet:诗人:

1. 1。Jahweh is my Shepherd;亚威是我的牧者;

I have no want,我不想要的,

The Sheep:羊:

2. 2。In pastures of tender grass he setteth me;在嫩草牧场,他setteth我;

Unto still waters he leadeth me;他leadeth我你们仍然水域;

3. 3。He turneth me back again;他turneth我回来;

He guideth me along right paths for his他沿着正确的路径,我为他的guideth

Own name's sake.自己的名字的缘故。

4. 4。Yea, though I walk through the vale of我虽然走过的淡水河谷公司

The shadow of death,死亡的阴影,

I fear no harm;我担心没有坏处;

For thou art with me;你与我的艺术;

Thy bludgeon and they staff, they stay me.你的棍棒和他们的工作人员,他们留我。

5. 5。Thou settest food before me,你settest在我面前的食物,

In the presence of my foes;在我的敌人的存在;

Thou has anointed my head with oil;你用膏膏我与油头;

My trough runneth over.我的低谷runneth以上。

The Poet:诗人:

6. 6。Ah, goodness and mercy have followed me啊,善良和怜悯都跟着我

All the days of my life,所有的天,我的生活

I will go back to the house of Jahweh我会回到亚威房子

Even for the length of my days.即使我的天的长度。

Jahweh is my Shepherd;亚威是我的牧者;

I have no want!我不想要!

IX.九。THEOLOGICAL VALUE神学的价值

The theological ideas of the Psalms are comprehensive; the existence and attributes of God, the soul's yearning for immortality, the economy of grace and the virtues, death, judgement, heaven, hell, hope of resurrection and of glory, fear of punishment -- all the main dogmatic truths of Israel's faith appear again and again in her Psalter.诗篇的神学思想是全面的;神的存在和属性,灵魂不死的向往,风度和美德的经济,死亡,审判,天堂,地狱,复活的希望和荣耀,惩罚的恐惧 - 所有主要的以色列信仰的教条式的真理一次又一次地出现在她的诗篇。These truths are set down not in dogmatic form, but now in the simple and childlike lyric yearning of the ingenuous soul, again in the loftiest and most vehement outbursts of which man's nature is capable.这些真理不是教条式的形式,但现在的简单和稚气的童心的灵魂的抒情的向往,最崇高和最强烈的爆发,其中人的本性是能够再次。 The Psalms are at once most human and most superhuman; they sink to the lowest depths of the human heart and soar to the topmost heights of Divine contemplation.诗篇是大多数人的最超人的一次,他们沉到人类内心深处的最低飙升到神沉思的最顶层高度。So very human are the imprecatory psalms as to make some to wonder how they can have been inspired of God.因此,非常人性化的imprecatory的诗篇,使一些怀疑他们如何能有灵感上帝。Surely Jahweh cannot have inspired the singer who prayed:当然亚威不能有启发的人祈祷歌手:

"As for them that plan my soul to destroy, Down to the depths of the earth shall they go; To the grasp of the sword shall they be delivered; A prey to the jackals shall they become".“为他们的计划我的灵魂,毁灭,地球深处,他们去;把握剑不得交付;一个猎物的豺,他们应成为”。-- Psalm 83:10-11 (82:10-11)- 诗篇83:10-11(82:10-11)

Such an objection is based upon a misunderstanding.这种反对是基于一种误解。The perfection of the counsels of Christ is one thing, the aim of the good Levite is quite another thing.完善的基督律师是一回事,良好的利未人的目的是另一回事。The ideals of the Sermon on the Mount are of higher spirituality than are the ideals of the imprecatory psalm.登山宝训的理想是比imprecatory诗篇的理想,更高的灵性。Yet the ideals of the imprecatory psalm are not bad -- nay, are good, are Divine in their origin and authority.然而,imprecatory诗篇的理想不坏 - 不,是好的,其来源和权威的神圣。The imprecatory psalms are national anthems; they express a nation's wrath, not an individual's. imprecatory诗篇国歌,他们表达一个民族的愤怒,而不是个人的。Humility and meekness and forgiveness of foe are virtues in an individual; not necessarily so of a nation; by no means so of the Chosen Nation of Jahweh, the people who knew by revelation that Jahweh willed they should be a great nation and should put out their enemies from the land which he gave them.谦卑和温柔和宽恕的敌人不一定是在一个人的美德;一个民族;并不意味着这样的选择亚威,人们的启示知道亚威任性,他们应该是一个伟大的民族,应该拿出国家从他给他们的土地,他们的敌人。 Their great national love for their own people postulated a great national love for Jahweh.他们的伟大国家的爱自己的人,假设一个伟大民族的爱,为亚威。The love for Jahweh postulated a hatred of the foes of Jahweh, and, in the theocratic economy of the Jewish folk, the foes of Jahweh were the foes of Israel.亚威爱假定亚威的敌人的仇恨,并在政教合一的犹太民间经济,亚威的敌人是以色列的敌人。If we bear this national purpose in mind, and forget not that all poetry, and especially Semitic poetry, is highly coloured and exaggerated, we shall not be shocked at the lack of mercy in the writers of the imprecatory psalms.如果我们铭记这个国家的目的,不会忘记所有的诗歌,特别是犹太人的诗歌,是高度的颜色和夸张,我们将不会感到震惊imprecatory诗篇作家缺乏怜悯。

The chief theological ideas of the Psalms are those that have regard to the Incarnation.首席神学思想的诗篇是那些方面的化身。Are there Messianic psalms?有救世主的诗篇?Unaided by the authentic interpreting power of the Church and neglectful of the consensus of the Fathers, Protestants have quite generally come to look upon the Psalms as non-Messianic either in literal or in typical meaning; the older Messianic interpretation is discarded as worn-out and threadbare.肉眼正宗的解释权力的教会和的父亲的共识疏忽,新教徒一般比较来看看非弥赛亚后,无论是文字或典型意义的诗篇;弥赛亚的解释是旧的丢弃的破旧和破旧。 Delitzsch admits only Ps. Delitzsch承认只PS。cx (cix) to be Messianic in its literal meaning.CX(CIX),其字面意思是弥赛亚。Cheyne denies both literal and typical Messianic meaning to the Psalms ("Origin of Ps.", 339).进益否认文字和典型的弥赛亚意义的诗篇(“原产地PS ”,339)。Davison (Hast., loc. cit.) says, "it may well be that the Psalter contains hardly a single instance of direct Messianic prophecy".戴维森(Hast.,同上。)说,“它很可能是诗篇包含难以直接弥赛亚的预言的一个单一实例”。 Catholics have ever held that some of the Psalms are Messianic in meaning, either literal or typical.天主教徒们不断举行,一些弥赛亚的意思,无论是文字或典型的诗篇。(Cf. articles INCARNATION; JESUS CHRIST; MESSIAS.) The New Testament clearly refers certain psalms to the Messias.(参见文章化身;耶稣基督;。弭赛亚)“新约”显然是指一定的诗篇向messias。The Fathers are unanimous in interpreting many psalms as prophecies of the coming, kingdom, priesthood, passion, death, and resurrection of the Messias.父亲是一致解释为预言未来,英国,祭司,激情,死亡,复活的messias许多诗篇。The coming of the Messias is predicted in Pss.预计在PSS的messias。xviii, l, lxviii, xcvi-xcviii (xvii, xlix, lxvii, xcv-xcvii).十八,L,LXVIII,xcvi xcviii(第十七XLIX,LXVII,XCV xcvii)。St. Paul (Ephesians 4:8) interprets of Christ's ascent into heaven the words of Ps.圣保罗(弗4:8)基督上升到天堂PS的话解释。lxviii, 18, description of Jahweh's ascent after conquering the world.LXVIII,18征服世界后,亚威的崛起说明。The kingdom of the Messias is predicted in Pss.英国的messias是在PSS预测。ii, xviii, xx, xxi, xlv, lxi, lxxii, lxxxix, cx, cxxxii (ii, xvii, xix, xx, xliv, lx, lxxi, lxxxviii, cix, cxxxi); the priesthood in Ps.二,第十八,XX,XXI,XLV,LXI,LXXII,lxxxix,CX,第一百三十二号(二,十七,十九,二十,四十四,LX,lxxi,lxxxviii,CIX,cxxxi);神职人员在PS。 cx.CX。The passion and death of the Messias are clear in the sufferings of the Servant of Jahweh of Pss.的激情和死亡的messias是明确的PSS亚威的仆人的痛苦。xxii, xl, lxix (xxi, xxxix, lxviii).二十二,XL,lxix(XXI,​​XXXIX,LXVIII)。Ps.聚苯乙烯。xxii was used in part, perhaps entirely, by Christ on the Cross; the Psalmist describes as his own the emotions and sufferings of the Messias. XXII部分使用了,也许完全由基督在十字架上的诗人描述自己的情感和痛苦的messias。Hence it is that the Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) rejects the opinion of those who do away with the Messianic and prophetic character of the Psalms and refer only to the future lot of the Chosen People those words which are prophecies concerning Christ.因此,它是圣经委员会(5月1日,1910年),拒绝那些弥赛亚和先知性的诗篇,仅指所选择的人的话,这是关于基督的预言未来很多的意见。 Cf.比照Maas, "Christ in Type and Prophecy" (New York, 1893).马斯类型和预言,“基督”(纽约,1893年)。

X. LITURGICAL USE十,礼仪使用

A. Jewish liturgyA.犹太礼仪

The use of the Psalms in Jewish liturgy has been spoken of.一直谈到犹太礼仪中使用的诗篇。Cf.比照also articles SYNAGOGUE; TEMPLE.第犹太教堂,寺庙。---

B. Christian liturgyB.基督教礼仪

Christian liturgical use of the Psalter dates from the time of Christ and His Apostles.基督教礼仪的psalter使用日期从基督和他的门徒的时间。He recited the Hallels at the last Passover, Pss.他陈述了在最后的逾越节,PSS Hallels。cxiii-cxiv before the Last Supper, Pss.cxiii cxiv前最后的晚餐,PSS。cxv-cxviii thereafter; Ps.第一百一十五cxviii此后,PS。xxii was His dying words; authoritative citations of other psalms appear in His discourses and those of His Apostles (cf. Luke 20:42; 24:44; Acts 1:20). XXII是他垂危的话;其他诗篇权威的引文出现在他的话语和他的使徒(参见路加福音20时42分; 24:44;徒一点20分)。The Apostles used the Psalms in worship (cf. Acts 16:25; James 5:14; 1 Corinthians 14:26).用于崇拜的诗篇使徒(参徒16时25分,詹姆斯5时14分;哥林多前书14:26)。The earliest liturgical service was taken from the Psalter.最早的礼仪服务是从诗篇。St. Paul represents the Ephesian Christians, to all seeming, psalmodizing, one choir answering the other; "Speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and psalmodizing [psallontes] in your hearts to the Lord, giving thanks [eucharistountes] always for all things" (Ephesians 5:19).圣保罗代表所有表面上的以弗所的基督徒,psalmodizing,一个合唱团的回答;“说起在诗章,颂词,灵歌,歌唱和psalmodizing [psallontes]在你的心中,向上帝祷告,感谢[eucharistountes ]总是为所有的事情“(以弗所书5:19)。Probably the Eucharistic agape is referred to.可能被称为圣体爱德。A like reference is in Col., iii, 16.像参考上校,三,16。St. Basil (PG, XXXII, 764) speaks of this psalmodizing in two choirs -- antipsallein allelois.圣罗勒(PG,三十二,764)谈到这两个合唱团的psalmodizing - antipsallein allelois。The custom of psalmody, or antiphonal singing, is said to have been introduced into the Church of Antioch by St. Ignatius (Socrates, "Hist. Eccl.", VI, viii).唱赞美诗的习俗,或对歌,据说已被引入到安提阿教会圣依纳爵(苏格拉底,“组织胺。传道书”,第六,第八)。From Syria, this custom of the Synagogue would seem to have passed over to Palestine and Egypt, to Asia Minor, Constantinople, and the West.来自叙利亚,这种习俗似乎已经过去,巴勒斯坦和埃及,小亚细亚,君士坦丁堡,与西方的犹太教堂。St. Ambrose was the first to inaugurate in the West the chanting of the Psalms by two choirs (cf. Batiffol, "Histoire du breviaire romain", 1893).圣刘汉铨是第一次在西方开创吟诵的诗篇,两个合唱团(参见Batiffol“Histoire杜breviaire罗曼”,1893年)。 In the Proprium de tempore of the Roman Rite, all the Psalms are chanted at least once a week, some twice and oftener.在去罗马成年礼临时Proprium,所有的诗篇歌颂至少有一次一个星期,有两次和oftener。In Matins and Lauds, according to the Vulgate's numeration, are Pss.在晨祷和赞扬,根据武加大的记数,是PSS。i-cx, excepting a few that are fixed for Prime and other hours; in Vespers are Pss.I - CX,除总理和其他时间固定的一个数;在晚祷PSS。cxi-cxlvii, excepting a few fixed for other hours.CXI cxlvii,其他时间除了几个固定的。The great alphabetic praise of the Law, Ps.法,按字母顺序排列的赞誉,PS。cxviii, is distributed between Prime, Terce, Sext, and None.cxviii,是总理,Terce,SEXT和无之间的分布。The Benedictines, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Dominicans, who have their own rite, all chant the Psalter once a week; the Jesuits follow the Roman ritual.本笃会士,方济会,加尔默罗,多米尼加共和国,有自己的仪式,所有吟咏的诗篇,每周一次,耶稣会士,按照罗马的仪式。

In the Latin Rite, Pss.在拉丁美洲成年礼,PSS。vi, xxxi, xxxvii, l, ci, cxxix, cxlii (Douai) have long been recited, in the above order, as prayers of sorrow for sin; they are lyric cries of the sorrowing soul and have hence been called the "Penitential Psalms".六,三十一,三十七,L,CI,cxxix cxlii(杜埃)长期以来一直背诵,在上面的命令,罪悲哀的祈祷;他们悲伤的灵魂的抒情呼声,并因此被称为“忏悔诗篇“。Their recitation during Lent was ordered by Innocent III (1198-1216).他们背诵四旬期期间被勒令诺森三世(1198年至1216年)。 Pius V (1566-72) established the custom, now no longer of general obligation, whereby these psalms became a part of the Friday ferial Office of Lent.皮乌斯五(1566年至1572年)设立的习俗,现在不再是一般义务,即这些诗篇成为周五的平日四旬期办公室的一部分。

The Ambrosian Rite, still used in Milan cathedral, distributes the Psalms over two weeks.安布罗之祭“,”仍然在米兰大教堂,分配了两个多星期的诗篇。The Oriental Rites in union with Rome (Melchite, Maronite, Syriac, Chaldean, Coptic, Æthiopic, etc.), together with the heretical Oriental Churches, all keep up the recitation of the Psalter as their Divine Office.东方礼仪工会一起邪教东方教会与罗马(Melchite,龙族,叙利亚,迦勒底,科普特人,Æthiopic等),所有跟不上他们的神圣办公室背诵的诗篇。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息写沃尔特鼓。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to the memory of Rev. AJ Maas, SJ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.专门的牧师AJ马斯SJ天主教百科全书,卷第十二的记忆。Published 1911.发布1911。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

The bibliography of the Psalms is naturally enormous and can be given only in small part.诗篇书目自然是巨大的,只能在一小部分。

Greek Fathers: ORIGEN, Selecta in Psalmos in PG, XII.希腊教父:奥利,PG,第十二Psalmos Selecta。1043; IDEM, Homiliae in Psalmos in PG, XII, 1319; IDEM, Originis Hexaplorum quae supersunt, ed.1043;同上,Psalmos Homiliae PG,第十二,1319;同上,Originis Hexaplorum quae supersunt,主编。FIELD; EUSEBIUS, Comm.场;尤西比乌斯,通讯。in Psalmos in PG, XXIII, 65; XXIV, 9; ST.在PG,二十三,65 Psalmos;二十四,9; ST。ATHANASIUS, Epist.亚他那修,Epist。Ad Marcellinum in PG, XXVII, 11; IDEM, Exegeses in Psalmos in PG, XXVII, 55; IDEM, De Titulis Psalmorum in PG, XXVII, 645; ST.广告Marcellinum PG 11,二十七,同上,PG,55岁的二十七,在Psalmos注疏解;同上,Titulis在PG,二十七,645 Psalmorum; ST。 BASIL, Homiliae in Pss.罗勒,Homiliae在PSS。in PG, XXIX, 209; ST.在PG,二十九,209; ST。DIDYMUS OF ALEXANDRIA in PG, XXIX, 1155; ST.亚历山德里亚DIDYMUS PG,XXIX,1155; ST。GREGORY OF NYSSA in PG, XLIV, 431, 608; ST.格雷戈里的nyssa PG,四十四,431,608; ST。JOHN CHRYSOSTOM in PG, LV, 35, 527; ST.约翰金口PG LV,35,527; ST。CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA in PG, LXIX, 699; THEODORETUS in PG, LXXX, 857.CYRIL PG,LXIX,699亚历山大; PG,LXXX,857 THEODORETUS。Latin Fathers: ST.拉丁教父:ST。AMBROSE, Enarrationes in XII Psalmos in PL, XIV, 921; ST.刘汉铨,Enarrationes在第十二,第十四条,921在PL Psalmos; ST。 JEROME, Liber Psalmorum juxta hebraicam veritatem in PL, XXVIII, 1123; IDEM, Excerpta de Psalterio (Maredsous, 1895); IDEM, Epistolae in PL, XXII, 433, 441, 837; IDEM, Breviarium in Psalmos in PL, XXVI, 821; ST.杰罗姆,LIBER Psalmorum JUXTA hebraicam veritatem在PL,二十八,1123;同上,文摘Psalterio(Maredsous 1895年),同上,在PL,22,433,441,837 Epistolae;同上,Psalmos Breviarium在PL,二十六,821 ; ST。AUGUSTINE, Enarrationes in Pss.奥古斯丁,在PSS Enarrationes。in PL, XXXVII, 67; IDEM, Expositio in Pss.PL,三十七,67;同上,在PSS Expositio。C-CL in PL, LI, 277; CASSIODORIUS in PL, LXX, 9.C - Cl键,277,李在PL PL,LXX,9 CASSIODORIUS。

Commentators of the Middle Ages: BEDE, PETER LOMBARD, ST.中世纪评论员:BEDE,王泽伦巴第,ST。 THOMAS, ST.托马斯,意法半导体。 BONAVENTURE and others of the Middle Ages depend chiefly upon the Fathers for their interpretations.文德和其他中世纪的依赖,主要是根据他们的解释的父亲。NICHOLAS OF LYRA, in his Postilla, and the converted Jew, PAUL, ARCHBISHOP OF BURGOS, in his Additions to the Postilla, gives us much of rabbinic interpretation.尼古拉天琴座,在他的Postilla,和转换的犹太人,郑明,布尔戈斯主教,在他的Postilla添置,为我们提供了许多拉比解释。

Moderns: BELLARMINE, Explanatio in Psalmos (1611), was by far the best commentator on the Psalms till recent times, as he used scientific methods in textual criticism; SCHEGG, Die Psalmen (Munich, 1845); ROHLING (1871); THALHOFER (Ratisbon, 1904); WOLTER, Psallite Sapienter (Freiburg im Br., 1904); BICKELL, Der Psalter (1884); VAN STEENKISTE (1870); PATRIZI, Cento Salmi tradotti e commentati (1875); MINOCHI, I Salmi tradotti del Testo Ebreo (1895); LE HIR, Les Psaumes traduits de l'hebreu en latin avec la Vulgate en regard (Paris, 1876); LESETRE (Paris, 1883); FILLION, Les Psaumes commentes selon la Vulgate et l'Hebreu (Paris, 1893); CRAMPTON (1889); PANNIER (1908); ZENNER-WIESMANN, Die Psalmen nach dem Urtext (Munster, 1906); NIGLUTSCH (Trent, 1905); EATON, Sing ye to the Lord (London, 1909); HOBERG, Die Psalmen nach der Vulgata (Freiburg, 1892); M'SWINEY, Psalms and Canticles (St. Louis, 1901).现代人:贝拉明,Psalmos Explanatio(1611年),是迄今为止诗篇最佳评论员,直到最近,他用科学方法考证; SCHEGG,模具Psalmen(慕尼黑,1845年); ROHLING(1871); THALHOFER(拉蒂斯邦,1904年); WOLTER,Psallite Sapienter(弗莱堡BR,1904年);。BICKELL,明镜诗篇(1884年);凡STEENKISTE(1870年);柏德,琴托萨尔米tradotti发送commentati(1875年); MINOCHI,我萨尔米tradotti德图Ebreo(1895年);埃镑的HIR,莱斯Psaumes traduits DE L' hebreu EN拉丁美洲AVEC LA武加大EN方面(巴黎,1876年); LESETRE(巴黎,1883年);菲利安,莱斯Psaumes commentes聚赛龙工程塑料LA武加大ET L' Hebreu(巴黎, 1893年);克兰普顿(1889);裙撑(1908年);真兰维泽曼,模具Psalmen nach DEM Urtext(明斯特,1906年); NIGLUTSCH(遄达,1905年);伊顿公司,星叶主(伦敦,1909年);霍贝格模具Psalmen nach DER Vulgata(弗赖堡,1892年); M'SWINEY,诗篇和canticle的(圣路易斯,1901年)。

Protestants: the commentaries of DE WETTE (1811-56); HITZIG (1863-65); OLSHAUSEN (1853); HUPFELD (1855-88); EWALD (1839-66); DELITZSCH (1895); DUHM (Freiburg im Br., 1899); BAETHGEN (Gottingen, 1904); CHEYNE (New York, 1892); International Critical Commentary, ed.新教徒:DE WETTE(1811年至1856年)的评论;希齐格(1863年至1865年); OLSHAUSEN(1853年);霍普菲(1855年至1888年);埃瓦尔德(1839年至1866年); DELITZSCH(1895年); DUHM(弗莱堡BR。 ,1899); BAETHGEN(哥廷根,1904年);进益(纽约,1892年);国际评论文章,主编。BRIGGS (New York, 1907), the best of non-Catholic commentators on the Psalms; KIRKPATRICK in Cambridge Bible (1893-95).布里格斯(纽约,1907年),最好的诗篇非天主教评论家帕特里克在剑桥圣经(1893年至1895年)。


Psalms诗篇

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

Hymns of Praise:圣诗赞美:

Elegies:挽歌:

Didactic Psalms:说教诗篇:

Literary Form.文学形式。

Religious and Ethical Content.宗教和道德的内容。

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

Composition of the Psalter.组成的诗篇。

Liturgical Songs.礼仪歌曲。

Hymn-Book of Second Temple.歌书的第二圣殿。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

Didactic Psalms.说教诗篇。

The "Lamed Auctoris."“Lamed Auctoris。”

Date of Psalter.日期的诗篇。

Reflection of History.历史的反思。

Reflex of Politics.政治条件反射。

Pilgrim Songs.香客歌曲。

Musical Accompaniment.乐器伴奏。

Name derived from the Greek ψαλμός (plural ψαλμοί), which signifies primarily playing on a stringed instrument, and secondarily the composition played or the song accompanied on such an instrument.从希腊ψαλμός的名称(复数ψαλμοί),这标志着主要演奏上的弹拨乐器,其次是组成或播放的歌曲伴随着这样的文书。 In the Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus) ψαλτήριον is used, which denotes a large stringed instrument, also a collection of songs intended to be sung to the accompaniment of strings (harp).在septuagint(食品Alexandrinus)ψαλτήριον使用,这是指一个大的弦乐器,也拟字符串(琴)伴奏唱的歌曲的集合。 These terms are employed to translate the Hebrew "mizmor" and "tehillim."这些术语翻译希伯来文“mizmor”和“tehillim。” The exact derivation and meaning of the former are uncertain.精确的推导和前者的意思是不确定的。It would seem that, etymologically denoting "paragraph," it owes its signification of "psalm," "song," or "hymn" to the circumstance that it is found prefixed to the superscriptions of a number of psalms.这似乎是,词源表示“段”,它欠其意义“诗篇”,“歌曲”或“赞歌”的前缀,它是发现诗篇superscriptions的情况下。 The word "tehillim" is a plural, not occurring in Biblical Hebrew, from the singular "tehillah" = "song of praise."单词“tehillim”是复数不是出现在圣经希伯来语奇异tehillah =赞美歌。It is thus a fitting title for the collection of songs found in the "Ketubim" or Hagiographa (the third main division of the Hebrew canon), and more fully described as "Sefer Tehillim," or the "Book of Psalms."因此,这是一个“诗篇”Ketubim“或Hagiographa(第三希伯来语佳能的主要分工),并充分描述更多”Tehillim之书“,或发现的歌曲的集合装修称号。” "Tehillim" is also contracted to "tillim" (Aramaic, "tillin").“Tehillim”承包“tillim”(阿拉姆,“tillin”)。

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

In the printed Hebrew Bible the Book of Psalms is the first of the Ketubim; but it did not always occupy this position, having formerly been preceded by Ruth.在印制希伯来文圣经诗篇Ketubim,但它始终没有占据这个位置,以前一直由露丝之前。(BB 14b; Tos. to. BB lc).(BB 14B;。TOS给BB LC)。Jerome, however ("Prologus Galeatus"), has another order, in which Job is first and the Psalms second, while Sephardic manuscripts assign to Chronicles the first and to the Psalms the second place (comp. 'Ab. Zarah 19a).杰罗姆(“Prologus Galeatus”),另一种秩序,在其中的职位是第一和诗篇第二,而西班牙裔手稿分配给历代的第一和诗篇的第二位(comp.'抗体。Zarah 19A)。The Book of Psalms is one of the three poetic books denoted as (EMaT = Job [Iyyob], Proverbs [Mishle], and Psalms [Tehillim]) and having an accentuation (see Accents in Hebrew) of their own.诗篇表示为三个诗意的书籍之一(EMAT =作业[Iyyob]箴言[Mishle],和诗篇[Tehillim]),并有自己的重读(见希伯来口音)。

The Sefer Tehillim consists of 150 psalms divided into five books, as follows: book i.分为五书之书Tehillim由150诗篇,如下:一书= Ps.= PS。i.-xli.一- XLI。ii.II。= Ps.= PS。xlii.-lxxii.; iii.xlii. - LXXII; III。= Ps.= PS。lxxiii.-lxxxix.; iv.lxxiii. - lxxxix;四。= Ps.= PS。xc.-cvi.; v. = Ps.xc. CVI;诉= PS。cvii.-cl., the divisions between these books being indicated by doxologies (Ps. xli. 14 [AV 13]; lxxii. 19 [18-19]; lxxxix. 53 [52]; cvi. 48). cvii.-cl.,这些书之间的分歧表示doxologies(XLI 14 [AV 13]诗篇; LXXII 19 [18-19]; lxxxix 53 [52]。CVI 48)。The conclusion of book ii.第二册的结论。is still further marked by the gloss = "The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended."还在进一步显着的光泽度=“,耶西的儿子大卫的祈祷结束。”Of the 150 psalms 100 are ascribed, in their superscriptions, to various authors by name: one, Ps.诗篇100的150是属于他们superscriptions,许多作者的名字:一,PS。xc., to Moses; seventy-three to David; two, lxxii.XC,对摩西;七十三到大卫;二,LXXII。and cxxvii., to Solomon; twelve, 1.cxxvii,所罗门;十二,1。and lxxiii.lxxiii。to lxxxiii., to Asaph; one, lxxxviii., to Heman; one, lxxxix., to Ethan; ten to the sons of Korah (eleven if lxxxviii., attributed also to Heman, is assigned to them).LXXXIII,亚萨; lxxxviii,热合曼。之一,lxxxix,阮经天;十个可拉的儿子(如果lxxxviii,也归于热合曼,11个是分配给他们。)。In the Septuagint ten more psalms are credited to David.在七十十余诗篇贷记大卫。Sixteen psalms have other (mostly musical) headings.十六诗篇有其他(主要是音乐)的标题。According to their contents, the Psalms may be grouped as follows: (1) hymns of praise, (2) elegies, and (3) didactic psalms.诗篇根据其内容,可归纳如下:(1)赞美诗赞美,(2)挽歌,和(3)说教的诗篇。

Hymns of Praise:圣诗赞美:

These glorify God, His power, and His loving-kindness manifested in nature or shown to Israel, or they celebrate the Torah, Zion, and the Davidic kingdom.这些荣耀神,他的权力,和他的慈爱表现在性质或向以色列表明,他们庆祝诵读经文,锡安,和大卫的王国。In this group are comprised the psalms of gratitude, expressing thankfulness for help extended and refuge found in times of danger and distress.在这一组中包括的感激之情的诗篇,表达感恩扩展的帮助和在危险和痛苦的时候发现的庇护。The group embraces about one-third of the Psalter.该组包​​含了约三分之一的psalter。

Elegies:挽歌:

These lend voice to feelings of grief at the spread of iniquity, the triumph of the wicked, the sufferings of the just, the "humble," or the "poor," and the abandonment of Israel.这些借出的罪孽蔓延的悲伤之情的声音,恶人的胜利,痛苦的公正,“谦虚”,或“差”和以色列放弃。In this category are comprehended the psalms of supplication, the burden of which is fervent prayer for the amelioration of conditions, the restoration of Israel to grace, and the repentance of sinners.在此类别的理解诗篇的恳求,这是热切的祈祷,为改善条件的负担,以色列恢复宽限期,和悔改的罪人。The line of demarcation between elegy and supplication is not sharply drawn.没有明显的挽歌和祈求之间的划界线。Lamentation often concludes with petition; and prayer, in turn, ends in lamentation.哀悼往往最后请愿和祈祷,反过来,在哀悼结束。Perhaps some of this group ought to be considered as forming a distinct category by themselves, and to be designated as psalms of repentance or penitential hymns; for their key-note is open confession of sin and transgression prompted by ardent repentance, preluding the yearning for forgiveness.也许本组中,有些应该被视为形成自己鲜明的类别,并指定悔过或悔罪赞美诗诗篇,其主旨是开放供认罪和殷切悔改提示侵,preluding的向往宽恕。 These aredistinct from the other elegies in so far as they are inspired by consciousness of guilt and not by the gnawing sense of unmerited affliction.这些aredistinct到目前为止,因为他们不配得痛苦的痛苦感觉不内疚和意识的启发其他挽歌。

Didactic Psalms:说教诗篇:

These, of quieter mood, give advice concerning righteous conduct and speech, and caution against improper behavior and attitude.这些,更安静的心情,关于正义的行为和言论,提供意见和反对不正当的行为和态度谨慎。Of the same general character, though aimed at a specific class or set of persons, are the imprecatory psalms, in which, often in strong language, shortcomings are censured and their consequences expatiated upon, or their perpetrators are bitterly denounced.虽然针对一个特定的类或人士,在相同的一般性质的imprecatory的诗篇,在其中,往往在强大的语言,缺点是谴责和其后果的阐述后,恨恨地谴责肇事者。 Most of the 150 psalms may, without straining the context and content of their language, be assigned to one or another of these three (or, with their subdivisions, seven) groups.大多数的150诗篇可能不紧张的背景和他们的语言内容,被分配到这三个(或与他们的下属,七)群体中的一个或另一个。 Some scholars would add another class, viz., that of the king-psalms, eg, Ps.有些学者将添加另一个类,即,王诗篇,如PS。ii., xviii., xx., xxi., xlv., lxi., lxxii., and others.二,第十八,XX,XXI,XLV,LXI,LXXII,和其他人。Though in these king-psalms there is always allusion to a king, they as a rule will be found to be either hymns of praise, gratitude, or supplication, or didactic songs.虽然在这些王的诗篇总是有针对一个国王,作为一项规则将会发现,赞美,感谢,或祈求,或说教的歌曲无论是赞美诗。Another principle of grouping is concerned with the character of the speaker.另一个分组的原则是扬声器的性格有关。 Is it the nation that pours out its feelings, or is it an individual who unburdens his soul?它是盆满钵满的民族,其感情,或者这是个别人unburdens自己的灵魂吗?Thus the axis of cleavage runs between national and individual psalms.因此,国家和个人诗篇之间的裂解轴运行。

Literary Form.文学形式。

In form the Psalms exhibit in a high degree of perfection charm of language and wealth of metaphor as well as rhythm of thought, ie, all of the variety of parallelism.在形式上高度在一个完美的隐喻的语言和财富的魅力,以及节奏的思想,即所有的各种并行的诗篇展览。The prevailing scheme is the couplet of two corresponding lines.当时的计划是两个相应行的对联。The triplet and quatrain occur also, though not frequently.三重和绝句,虽然不经常发生也。For the discussion of a more regular metrical system in the Psalms than this parallelism reference is made to J. Ley ("Die Metrischen Formen der Hebräischen Poesie," 1866; "Grundzüge des Rhythmus der Hebräischen Poesic," 1875), Bickell ("Carmina VT Metrice," 1882; and in "ZDMG" 1891-94), Grimme ("Abriss der Biblisch-Hebräischen Metrik," ib. 1896-97), and Ed.对于并行参考比这更经常在诗篇格律系统讨论J.莱伊(“模具Metrischen Formen DER Hebräischen POESIE,”1866“; Grundzüge Rhythmus DER Hebräischen Poesic”,1875年),(“布兰Bickell VT Metrice,“1882和”ZDMG“1891年至1894年),格力莫(”Abriss DER Biblisch - Hebräischen Metrik,“IB 1896年至1897年),和埃德。Sievers ("Studien zur Hebräischen Metrik," Leipsic, 1901; see also "Theologische Rundschau," 1905, viii. 41 et seq.).的Sievers(“(研究)楚Hebräischen Metrik”Leipsic,1901年也见“Theologische评论报”,1905年,第八及以下41。)。The refrain may be said to constitute one of the salient verbal features of some of the psalms (comp. Ps. xlii. 5, 11; xliii. 5; xlvi. 7, 11; lxxx. 3, 7, 19; cvii. 8, 15, 21, 31; cxxxvi., every half-verse of which consists of "and his goodness endureth forever").避免可能构成的诗篇(comp. PS XLII一些突出的口头功能之一,5,11;。XLIII 5 XLVI 7,11; LXXX 3,7,19。cvii 8。 ,15,21,31; cxxxvi,每半节经文“和他的善良长存到永远”)组成。。Several of the psalms are acrostic or alphabetic in their arrangement, the succession of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet occurring in various positions-the beginning of every verse, every hemistich, or every couplet; in the last-mentioned case the letters may occur in pairs, ie, in each couplet the two lines may begin with the same letter.几个诗篇离合或字母,在他们的安排,陆续在最后提到的情况下的信件,可能会出现在希伯来文字母表的字母出现在各个岗位,开始每一个诗句,每hemistich,或每对联对,即,在每个对联两行可能开始使用相同的信。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。cix.CIX。has throughout eight verses beginning with the same letter.整个8个具有相同字母开头的诗句。Occasionally the scheme is not completely carried out (Ps. ix.-x.), one letter appearing in the place of another (see also Ps. xxv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii.).偶尔,该计划是不能完全进行(诗ix.-x.),一个字母,出现在另一个地方(诗二十五。,XXXVII,CXI,cxii。)。

Religious and Ethical Content.宗教和道德的内容。

The religious and ethical content of the Psalms may be summarized as a vivid consciousness of God's all-sustaining, guiding, supreme power.的宗教和道德的诗篇的内容可概括为一个生动的意识,上帝的所有维持,指导,至高无上的权力。The verbal terms are often anthropomorphic; the similes, bold (eg, God is seated in the heavens with the earth as His footstool; He causes the heavens to bow down; He scatters the enemies of His people; He spreads a table).口头条款往往是拟人化的比喻,大胆的(例如,在天空与大地为他的脚凳,神是坐在他的原因天上低头,他驱散他的人民的敌人,他利差表)。 God's justice and mercy are the dominant notes in the theology of the Psalms.神的公义和怜悯的诗篇的神学中占主导地位的音符。His loving-kindness is the favorite theme of the psalmists.他的慈爱,是最喜欢的psalmists的主题。God is the Father who loves and pities His children.神是爱和怜悯他的孩子的父亲是谁。He lifts up the lowly and defeats the arrogant.他举起了弱旅和失败的傲慢。His kingdom endures for ever.他的王国天长地久。He is the Holy One.他是圣地之一。The heavens declare His glory: they are His handiwork.诸天述说他的荣耀:,他们是他的手笔。The religious interpretation of nature is the intention of many of these hymns of praise (notably Ps. viii., xix., xxix., lxv., xciii., civ.).宗教性质的解释是许多赞美(特别是诗篇第八,第十九,二十九,第六十五,xciii,CIV。)这些赞美诗的意图。Man's frailty, and withal his strength, his exceptional position in the sweep of creation, are other favorite themes.人的脆弱,他的实力withal,他的特殊地位,在创造扫其他喜欢的主题。Sin and sinners are central to some psalms, but even so is the well-assured confidence of the God-fearing.罪和罪人的一些诗篇,但即便如此,是敬畏上帝的信心保证。Repentance is the path-pointer to the forgiving God.悔改是路径指针,以宽容的上帝。Ps.聚苯乙烯。1., for instance, rings with an Isaianic protest against sacrificial ritualism. 1,例如,对牺牲形式主义的Isaianic抗议环。The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit.上帝的牺牲,是一个破碎的精神。Often the nation is made to speak; yet the "I" in the Psalms is not always national.通常情况下,民族发言,但“我”在诗篇并不总是国家。Individualization of religion is not beyond the horizon.个性化的宗教是没有超越地平线。Nor is it true that the national spirit alone finds expression and that the perfect man pictured is always and necessarily conceived of as a son of Israel.它也不是真正的民族精神表现,图为完美的人总是和一定的设想,以色列的儿子。The universalistic note is as often struck.普遍性注意经常袭击。The imprecations of such psalms as cix.作为CIX诅咒等诗篇。are not demonstrations of the vindictiveness of narrow nationalism.是不是狭隘的民族主义的斗气示威。Read in the light of the times when they were written (see Psalms, Critical View), these fanatical utterances must be understood as directed against Israelites-not non-Jews.当他们写的(见诗篇,批判的观点)的时间阅读,必须了解这些狂热的话语,对以色列人不非犹太人。Ps.聚苯乙烯。xv.十五。is the proclamation of an ethical religion that disregards limitations of birth or blood.是出生或血液的限制,无视道德宗教的宣讲。Again, the "poor" and the "meek" or "humble," so often mentioned-"poverty" or humility being found even among God's attributes (xviii. 35)-are Israelites, the "servants of Yhwh," whose sufferings have evoked Deutero-Isaiah's description (Isa. liii:).同样,“穷人”和“温顺”或“谦虚”,所以经常提到的“贫穷”或谦逊被发现,即使在上帝的属性(xviii. 35)是以色列人,“耶和华的仆人”,其痛苦有诱发第二以赛亚的描述(赛LIII:)。The "return of Israel" and the establishment of God's reign of justice contemporaneously with Israel's restoration are focal in the eschatology of the Psalms, treated as a whole.“以色列回归”和建立神的统治的正义与以色列恢复的同时焦距在末世的诗篇,被视为一个整体。But perhaps this method of regarding the Psalms as virtually reflecting identical views must be abandoned, the reasons for which are detailed in Psalms, Critical View.但也许这种方法实际上反映了相同的看法的诗篇必须被抛弃,这是在诗篇,关键查看详细的原因。

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

The richest in content and the most precious of the three large Ketubim (Ber. 57a), the Sefer Tehillim is regarded as a second Pentateuch, whose virtual composer was David, often likened to Moses (Midr. Teh. ch. i.).在内容上最富有和最珍贵的三个大型Ketubim(Ber. 57A)之书Tehillim被视为第二个五经,其虚拟的作曲家大卫常比喻摩西(Midr.。CH。一)。"Moses gave [Israel] the five books of the Torah, and to correspond with them [] David gave them the Sefer Tehillim, in which also there are five books" (ib.). “摩西[以色列]五个”托拉“的书籍,并与他们对应[]大卫给他们之书Tehillim,其中也有五书”(同上)。Its sacred character as distinct from such books as the "Sifre Homerns" (works of Hermes, not Homer) is explicitly emphasized (Midr. Teh. lc; Yalḳ. ii. 613, 678).明确强调其作为有别于“Sifre Homerns”(爱马仕,不是荷马的作品)等书籍的神圣性(Midr. LC;。YalḳII 613,678)。The Psalms are essentially "songs and laudations" ().诗篇是本质“的歌曲和laudations”()。According to Rab, the proper designation for the book would be "Halleluyah" (Midr. Teh. lc), because that term comprehends both the Divine Name and its glorification, and for this reason is held to be the best of the ten words for praise occurring in the Psalms.据拉布,将适当的指定书“Halleluyah”(Midr.,LC),因为这个词理解神的名字和它的颂扬,基于这个原因,被认定为最好的十个字赞美发生在诗篇。 These ten words, corresponding in number to the ten men who had a part in composing the Psalms, are: "berakah" (benediction); Hallel; "tefillah" (prayer); "shir" (song); "mizmor" (psalm); "neginah" (melody); "nazeaḥ" (to play on an instrument); "ashre" (happy, blessed); "hodot" (thanks); "halleluyah" (ib.).相应数量十名男子曾谱写的诗篇中的一部分,这十个字,是:“berakah”(祝福); Hallel“; tefillah”(祈祷);“事儿”(歌曲)“mizmor”(诗篇);“neginah”(旋律);“nazeaḥ”(仪器上的发挥)“; ashre”(幸福,祝福);“hodot”(谢谢)“; halleluyah”(同上)。

Composition of the Psalter.组成的诗篇。

Ten men had a share in the compilation of this collection, but the chief editor was David (BB 15a; Midr. Teh. i.).10名男子已在此集合汇编分一杯羹,但总编辑大卫(BB 15A;。Midr一)。Of the ten names two variant lists are given, namely: (1) Adam, Moses, Asaph, Heman, Abraham, Jeduthun, Melchizedek, and three sons of Korah; (2) Adam, Moses, Asaph, Heman, Abraham, Jeduthun, David, Solomon, the three sons of Korah counted as one, and Ezra (BB 14b; Cant. R. to verse iv. 4; Eccl. R. to vii. 19; sometimes for Abraham, Ethan ha-Ezraḥi is substituted).两个变种列出的十个名字,即:(1)亚当,摩西,亚萨,希幔,亚伯拉罕,耶杜顿,麦基洗德,和可拉的儿子;(2)亚当,摩西,亚萨,希幔,亚伯拉罕,耶杜顿,大卫,所罗门,可拉为一体的三个儿子,和以斯拉(BB 14B。斜面R.的诗句四4;传道书河至第七章第19条;有时对亚伯拉罕,伊桑公顷Ezraḥi取代)。Adam's psalms are such as refer to cosmogony, creation.亚当的诗篇,如参考宇宙的起源,创造。Ps.聚苯乙烯。v., xix., xxiv., xcii.五,十九,二十四,xcii。(Yalḳ. ii. 630) were said to have been written by David, though Adam was worthy to have composed them.(Yalḳ.II 630)说,已经写了大卫,但亚当已经组成,他们是值得。

The division into five books known to the Rabbis corresponded with that observed in modern editions.五书拉比的划分对应观察到,在现代版本。The order of the Psalms was identical with that of modern recensions; but the Rabbis suspected that it was not altogether correct.诗篇的顺序与现代的recensions一致,但拉比怀疑这是不是完全正确的。Rabbi Joshua ben Levi is reported to have desired to make alterations (Midr. Teh. xxxvii.).据报道,希望进行修改(Midr.。XXXVII。)拉比约书亚贲利维。Moses was credited with the authorship of eleven psalms, xc.-c.摩西被记入11个诗篇,xc.-c.作者(ib. xc.).(同上XC。)。They were excluded from the Torah because they were not composed in the prophetic spirit (ib.).他们被排除在“托拉”,因为他们不是在预言的精神(同上)组成。Ps.聚苯乙烯。xxx.XXX。("at the dedication of the house") was ascribed to David as well as to Ezra (ib. xxx.). (“在奉献的房子”)一度冲高到大卫,以及以斯拉(同上XXX)。Twenty-two times is "ashre" found in the Psalms; and this recalls the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet (ib. i.).二十两次“ashre”在诗篇中发现,这回忆的希伯来文字母表(同上一)二十二个字母。"Barki nafshi" occurs five times in Ps.“Barki nafshi”发生在PS五倍。ciii., recalling the analogy with the Pentateuch (ib. ciii.).CIII。回顾与摩西五经“(同上CIII)。比喻。Ps.聚苯乙烯。xxix.二十九。names Yhwh eighteen times, in analogy with the eighteen benedictions of the Shemoneh 'Esreh (ib. xxix.).名耶和华在比喻的18倍,Esreh Shemoneh“(同上XXIX。)十八祝福。Ps.聚苯乙烯。cxxxvi.cxxxvi。is called "Hallel ha-Gadol" (Pes. 118a), to which, according to some, the songs "of degrees" also belong.被称为“Hallel HA - Gadol”(Pes. 118A),其中,根据一些,“度”的歌曲,也属于。The ordinary "Hallel" was composed of Ps.普通的“Hallel”是由PS。cxiii-cxviii.cxiii - cxviii。(Pes. 117a).(Pes. 117A)。The Masorah divides the book into nineteen "sedarim," the eleventh of these beginning with Ps.在Masorah分为十九书“sedarim,”用PS这些开始的第十一届。lxxviii.LXXVIII。38(see Masoretic note at end of printed text).38(打印文本结束时,看到马所拉注)。

One Palestinian authority, R. Joshua b.巴勒斯坦权力机构,R.约书亚乙Levi, counts only 147 psalms (Yer. Shah. 15).列维,计数只有147诗篇(Yer.沙阿15)。According to Grätz ("Psalem," p. 9), this variance was due to the effort to equalize the number of psalms with that of the Pentateuchal pericopes according to the triennial cycle.据格拉茨(“Psalem”,第9页),这种差异是由于与根据三年周期的Pentateuchal pericopes的努力,以平衡诗篇。Ps.聚苯乙烯。i.and ii.及ii。were counted as one in Babylon (Ber. 9b, 10a; as in the LXX.).算作在巴比伦(Ber. 9B,10A;的lxx)。Ps.聚苯乙烯。x.X.15 belonged to ix. 15属于IX。(Meg. 17b).(Meg. 17B)。The concluding verse of Ps. PS结论诗句。xix.十九。was added to Ps.被添加到PS。 xviii.十八。(Ber. 9b); xlii.(Ber. 9B); XLII。and xliii.四十三。were counted as one (see Fürst, "Kanon," p. 71).算作一个(见弗斯特,“加隆,”第71页)。Ps.聚苯乙烯。lxxviii.LXXVIII。was divided into two parts comprising verses 1 to 37 and 38 to 72 respectively (Ḳid. 30a).被分成两个部分组成的诗句1至37及38至72(Ḳid.30A)。Ps.聚苯乙烯。cxiv.cxiv。and cxv.第一百一十五。were united (see Ḳimḥi, commentary on Ps. cxiv.), and cxviii, was divided into two.美国(见Ḳimḥi,评诗。cxiv。),和cxviii,被一分为二。Psalms whose authors were not known, or the occasion for whose composition was not indicated, were described as "orphans" (; 'Ab. Zarah 24b).诗篇“的作者是不知道,或没有表明,其组成之际,被形容为”孤儿“(”AB Zarah 24B)。

Liturgical Songs.礼仪歌曲。

According to Talmudic tradition, psalms were sung by the Levites immediately after the daily libation of wine; and every liturgical psalm was sung in three parts (Suk. iv. 5).据塔木德“的传统,诗篇是由利未人唱后,立即对葡萄酒的日常奠酒;每礼仪诗篇三个部分(Suk.四5)。传唱。During the intervals between the parts the sons of Aaron blew three different blasts on the trumpet (Tamid vii. 3).在各部分之间的时间间隔,亚伦的儿子吹小号(Tamid七3)不同的爆炸。The daily psalms are named in the order in which they were recited: on Sunday, xxiv.; Monday, xlviii.; Tuesday, lxxxii.; Wednesday, xciv.; Thursday, lxxxi.; Friday, xciii.; and Sabbath, xcii.每日诗篇在他们背诵的顺序被命名为:上周日,XXIV星期一,XLVIII;捌拾;周二,周三,XCIV;捌拾周四,周五,xciii;和安息日,xcii。。。。 (Tamid lc).(Tamid LC)。 This selection shows that it was made at a time when Israel was threatened with disaster (see Rashi on Suk. 55a).这一选择表明这是一次在以色列与灾害威胁(见淑Rashi。55A)。The fifteen "Songs of Degrees" were sung by the Levites at the Feast of Tabernacles, at the festive drawing of water.十五“度歌”被传唱由利未人在住棚节,在节日的水绘图。Ps.聚苯乙烯。cxxxv.cxxxv。and cxxxvi.cxxxvi。were recited antiphonally by the officiating liturgist and the people.背诵antiphonally礼liturgist和人民。 As New-Year psalms, lxxxi.随着新的一年的诗篇,捌拾。and the concluding verses of xxix.XXIX的结论性的诗句。were used (RH 30b).(RH 30B)。Those designated for the semiholy days of Sukkot are enumerated in Suk. semiholy天的住棚节的指定列举淑。55a.55A。Massek.马塞克。Soferim xviii.Soferim十八。 2 names those assigned for Passover.逾越节分配的有2名。At New Moon a certain psalm (number not given in the Talmud) was sung in the Temple (Suk. 55a); Soferim names Ps.在新的月亮一定的诗篇(不是在犹太法典)是崇安寺(Suk. 55A); Soferim名诗。cv.CV。with the concluding verses of civ.与文明的结论诗句。For Ḥanukkah Ps.光明节PS。 xxx.XXX。is reserved (Soferim xviii. 2).保留(2 Soferim第十八)。From Soṭah ix.从Soṭah九。 10 (see Tosefta ad loc.) it is apparent that at one time Ps.10(见陀瑟他广告同上。)很明显,在同一时间,诗。xliv.XLIV。constituted a part of the Temple morning liturgy, while xxx.构成寺早上礼仪的一部分,而XXX。was sung during the offering of the First-Fruits.宋在提供第一水果。The same psalm, as well as iii.同样的诗篇,以及为第三。and xci., was sung to the accompaniment of musical instruments on the occasion of the enlargement of Jerusalem (Shebu. 14a).XCI。扩大耶路撒冷(Shebu. 14A)之际乐器伴奏唱。

Hymn-Book of Second Temple.歌书的第二圣殿。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

The Book of Psalms may be said to be the hymn-book of the congregation of Israel during the existence of the Second Temple, though not every psalm in the collection is of a character to which this designation may apply.诗篇可以说是在第二圣殿的存在对以色列的众赞歌书,虽然不是每一个集合中的诗篇是一个人物,这个称号,可申请。By earlier critics advancing this view of the nature of the Psalms it was held that they were hymns sung in the Temple either by the Levites or by the people.早期推进这一观点的诗篇的性质批评,认为他们在寺庙由利未人,或由人民唱赞美诗。Later scholars have modified this opinion in view of the circumstance that the participation of the people in the Temple ritual was very slight and also because the contents of many of the psalms are such that their recitation at sacrificial functions is not very probable (eg, Ps. xl. and l., which have a certain anti-sacrificial tendency).后来的学者已经修改了这个意见的情况下,在庙仪式的人的参与是非常轻微,也因为许多诗篇的内容是这样的,他们在牺牲功能的背诵是不太可能的(例如,PS XL和L,其中有一定的抗牺牲的倾向)。While B. Jacob (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1897, xvii.) insists that the Psalter is a hymn-book for the congregation assisting at or participating in the sacrificial rite, and as such must contain also liturgical songs intended for individuals who had to bring offerings on certain occasions, others maintain that, while a number of the hymns undoubtedly were of sacerdotal import and, consequently, were intended to be sung in the Temple, many were written for intonation at prayer in the synagogue. B.雅各布(在体育场的“(杂志),”1897年,第十七条)。坚持诗篇是为协助或参与祭众赞歌的书,这样,也必须包含个人谁曾打算的礼仪歌曲在某些场合带来的产品,其他的维持,而无疑sacerdotal进口,因此,拟在寺庙唱的赞美诗,许多被写在祈祷的语调,在犹太教堂。 In this connection the determination of the reference in the so-called "I" psalms is of importance.在这方面,在所谓的“我”诗篇参考的决心是非常重要的。The discovery of the Hebrew text of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) has caused Nöldeke (Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1900, xx.), on the strength of the observation that in Ecclus.希伯来文Ecclesiasticus(西拉奇)的发现已引起Nöldeke(体育场的“(杂志),”1900,XX。)观察的力量,在Ecclus。 (Sirach) li.(西拉奇)李。 2-29 the "I" refersto Ben Sira, to urge that the "I" psalms must similarly be construed as individual confessions.2-29的“我”refersto本西拉,督促同样必须解释为个人的口供,“我”的诗篇。The traditional view was that David, the reputed author of most of these "I" psalms, was in them unbosoming his own feelings and relating his own experiences.传统的看法是,这些“我”的诗篇最知名的作者,大卫,他们unbosoming自己的感受和有关他自己的经验。 It is more probable, however, that, while the "I" in some instances may have its individual significance, on the whole this personal pronoun has reference to the "congregation of Israel" or to a circle or set of congregants at prayer, the "pious," the "meek," the "righteous.",但是,它更可能,而“我”在某些情况下可能有其个别的意义,对整个人称代词有参考“以色列会众”,或圆或设置在祈祷的教友, “虔诚”,“温顺”,“正义的。”The metrical reconstruction of the Psalms (see Baethgen, "Commentar," 3d ed.) promises to throw light on this problem, as the assumption is well grounded that hymns written for or used on public liturgical occasions had a typical metrical scheme of their own (comp. "Theologische Rundschau," viii., Feb., 1905).韵律的诗篇重建(见Baethgen,“Commentar,”3D版。)承诺抛出这个问题,假设有据,赞美诗书面或在公共礼仪场合使用,有一个属于自己的典型格律计划(comp.“Theologische评论报”八,1905年2月)。 At all events, some of the psalms must have served at private devotion (eg, Ps. cxli.), as, indeed, the custom of hymn-singing at night-time by some of the pious is alluded to (ib. lix., xcii., cxix., cxlix.).在所有事件中,一些诗篇,必须有私人奉献服务(如诗篇。cxli),因为,事实上,夜间的习俗,一些虔诚的赞美诗歌唱提到(同上LIX。 xcii。cxix。cxlix)。

Didactic Psalms.说教诗篇。

On the other hand, many of the didactic psalms remind one of the general type of gnomic anthologies.另一方面,许多说教诗篇提醒的格言选集普通型之一。It seems more likely that these were recited, not sung, and were learned by heart for ethical instruction and guidance.它似乎更容易,这些是背诵,不唱,是由道德的指示和指导的心脏中汲取。That the "alphabetical" psalms were not intended originally for liturgical uses may be inferred at least from Ps. “按字母”诗篇礼仪使用原本并不打算可以推断,至少从诗篇。cxi.CXI。Most of this class reflect the study-room of the scholar, and lack entirely the spontaneity of the worshipful spirit.这个类的最能反映学者的学习室,完全缺乏自发性的崇拜精神。There are good reasons for regarding Ps.关于诗有很好的理由。i.as a prologue, prefaced to the whole collection by its latest editors, who were not priests (Sadducees), but scribes (Pharisees) interested in the rise and establishment of synagogal worship as against the sacerdotal liturgy of the Temple.作为序幕,开头整个集合了其最新的编辑,谁不祭司(撒都该人),但synagogal崇拜的兴起和建立对寺庙的sacerdotal礼仪感兴趣的文士(法利赛人)。 If so regarded, Ps.如果因此认为,诗。i.reveals the intention of the editors to provide in this collection a book of instruction as well as a manual of prayer.揭示了编辑的意图,在此集合的指令书,以及祈祷手册提供。

The existing Psalter is a compilation of various collections made at various times.现有的诗篇是在不同时间作出的各种集合的汇编。The division into several parts was not in every case altogether due to a desire to imitate the structure of the Pentateuch.划分成几部分,与在任何情况下不完全由于渴望模仿的pentateuch结构。Books i.书籍一(Ps. i.-lxi.), ii.(诗篇一- 61),二。(Ps. lxii.-lxxii.), and iii.(诗篇lxii. LXXII),及iii。(Ps. lxxiii.-lxxxix.) are marked as separate collections by doxologies, a fact which points to their separate compilation.(诗篇lxxiii. lxxxix)被标记为单独的集合doxologies,其实这点,他们的单独的编译。 The doxology which now divides books iv.doxology现在分为书IV。and v. after Ps.后PS诉。 cvi.CVI。has the appearance of being the beginning of another psalm (comp. I. Chron. xvi., where it occurs at the close of the interpolation verses 8 to 36).已开始出现另一个诗篇(一comp.专栏。十六。插值8至36节结束时,它)。It is impossible to determine the date at which these older collections may have been put together.这是不可能的,以确定这些年龄较大的集合可能已被放在一起的日期。Book i., containing "David" psalms (originally without Ps. i. and ii.), may have been the first to be compiled.一书,包含“大卫”诗篇(原来没有诗一和二),可能已先编译。In books ii.在书本上。and iii.及iii。(Ps. lxii-lxxxix.) several older and smaller compilations seem to be represented, and that, too, in some disorder.(诗篇LXII lxxxix。)几个年龄较大和较小的汇编似乎代表,并认为,太,在一些障碍。

The (a) "David" hymns (ὐμνοι = ; ib. li-lxxii.) are clearly distinct from the (b) songs of the sons of Korah (xlii.-xlix.), (c) "Asaph" songs (l., lxxiii.-lxxxiii.), and (d) later supplements of promiscuous psalms (lxxxiv.-lxxxix.). (一)“大卫”赞美诗(ὐμνοι=;。IB李LXXII)清楚可拉的儿子(xlii. XLIX)。(二)歌曲不同,(三)“亚萨”歌曲(L lxxiii. - LXXXIII),和(D)混杂诗篇(lxxxiv. lxxxix。)以后补充。It is noteworthy that in the "David" hymns duplicates of psalms are found, incorporated also in book i.值得注意的是,在“大卫诗篇”赞美诗重复发现,纳入书一(Ps. liii. = xiv.; lxx. = xl. 14-18; lxxi. 1-3 = xxxi. 2-4), while lvii.(诗篇LIII =第十四;。LXX = XL 14-18;。lxxi 1-3 = XXXI 2-4),而LVII。8 et seq.8起。is duplicated in book v. (cviii. 2-6).是重复的书诉(cviii. 2-6)。Another peculiarity of this book is the use of "Elohim" for "Yhwh," except in the supplement (lxxxiv.-lxxxix.).这本书的另一个特点是“耶和华”,除补充(lxxxiv. lxxxix。)“耶洛因”使用。 Comparison of the texts of the duplicate psalms, as well as the circumstance that these duplicates occur, indicates the freedom with which such collections were made, and suggests that many collections were in existence, each with variant content.重复诗篇的文字,以及这些重复出现的情况下,比较,表明这种集合的自由,并提出许多集合存在,每个变种的内容。Book iv.第四册。is distinct in so far as it contains, with the exception of three psalms (xc. "of Moses"; ci., ciii. "of David"; but in the Septuagint nine more), only anonymous ones.是显著的,到目前为止,因为它包含三个诗篇例外(“摩西”xc.; CI,CIII“大卫”,但在七十九个),只有匿名的。 The character of the doxology (see above) suggests that this book was separated from the following only to carry out the analogy with the Pentateuch. doxology的字符(见上文),这本书是从下面的分隔,只开展与摩西五经的比喻。

Books iv.图书IV。and v. are characterized by the absence of "musical" superscriptions and instructions.诉的特点是由“音乐剧”superscriptions和指示的情况下。In book v. the group comprising cvii.在书诉小组,成员包括cvii。to cix.以CIX。is easily recognized as not organically connected with that composed of cxx.-cxxxiv.很容易确认为有机地连接cxx. - cxxxiv组成。It is possible that the liturgical character and use of cxiii.这可能是礼仪性质和cxiii使用。 to cxviii.到cxviii。(the [Egyptian] "Hallel") had necessitated the redaction of the "Hallel" psalms separately. ([埃及]“Hallel”)有必要的编辑“Hallel”诗篇分别。The "Songs of Degrees" (see below) must have constituted at one time a series by themselves. “度歌”(见下文)必须在同一时间,一个系列构成本身。The metrical arrangement is the same in all, with the exception of cxxxii.格律的安排是在​​所有的相同,与第一百三十二号例外。The rest of book v. is composed of loose "Halleluyah" psalms, into which have been inserted "David" psalms (cxxxviii.-cxlv.) and an old folk-song (cxxxvii.).诉书的其余部分组成松散的“Halleluyah”诗篇,融入其中已插入“大卫诗篇”(cxxxviii. cxlv)和一个古老的民间歌曲(cxxxvii.)。

The "Lamed Auctoris."“Lamed Auctoris。”

As to who were the compilers of these distinct collections it has been suggested that an inference might be drawn in the case of the psalms marked "to the sons of Korah" or "to Asaph, Heman, Ethan, Jeduthun," respectively.至于谁是这些不同的集合,编译器,它已被建议的诗篇的情况下得出的推论可能标有“可拉的儿子”或“亚萨,希幔,阮经天,耶杜顿,”。 But theprefixed to the superscription in these cases is plainly not a "lamed auctoris," the names being those of the leaders of the choir-gilds (established, according to Chronicles, by David).前缀在这些案件中的上标显然是不是一个“lam​​ed auctoris,”合唱团吉尔兹(成立,根据编年史由大卫)领导人的名称。The headings in which标题occurs merely indicate that the hymns were usually sung by the choristers known as "sons of Korah," etc., or that the psalm constituting a part of the repertoire of the singers so named was to be sung according to a fixed melody introduced by them.发生只是表示通常唱的赞美诗称为“儿子可拉”等的choristers,或诗篇,构成了一个命名的歌手的曲目,据他们介绍一个固定的旋律唱。 These choir-masters, then, had collected their favorite hymns, and, in consequence, these continued to be named after their collector and to be sung according to the melody introduced by the gild.这些合唱团的主人,然后,收集了自己喜爱的赞美诗,和,因此,这些仍然是命名后的收藏家,并根据由镀金介绍的旋律唱。It has also been urged as explaining the terms ("unto David," "unto Moses") that a certain melody was known by that term, or a collection happened to be labeled in that way.它也一直敦促解释的条款(“对大卫”,“摩西”),这个词有一定的旋律,或收集发生在这样的标记。It is, however, manifest that in some instances the superscription admits of no other construction than that it is meant to name the author of the psalm (Moses, for instance, in Ps. xc.), though such expressions as "David song," "Zion song" = "Yhwh song" may very well have come into vogue as designations of sacred as distinguished from profane poems and strains.然而,这是清单,在某些情况下承认的是,虽然这样的表达式为“大卫的歌曲名称诗篇的作者(摩西,例如,在诗篇。XC),没有其他的建筑相比,它的上标, “锡安歌”=“耶和华歌曲”很可能有神圣称号的亵渎诗歌和菌株区分成为时尚。Still, one must not forget that these superscriptions are late additions.尽管如此,人们不应忘记,这些superscriptions都是后期添加。The historical value of the note (= "unto David") is not greater than that of others pretending to give the occasion when and the circumstances under which the particular psalm wascomposed.注意的历史价值(=“对大卫”)是不是比别人,何时和在何种情况下,特别是诗篇wascomposed假装给机会更大。 The variants in these superscriptions in the versions prove them to be late interpolations, reflecting the views of their authors.在这些版本superscriptions的变种,证明他们是插值后期,反映其作者的意见。

Date of Psalter.日期的诗篇。

By tradition David was regarded as the writer of most of the psalms, even the other names occurring in the captions being construed to be those of singers under his direction (David Ḳimḥi, Commentary on Psalms, Preface).传统,大卫被视为作家的诗篇,甚至其他名称出现在被解释为他的领导下(大卫Ḳimḥi,评上的诗篇,前言)歌手标题。 He was held to be also the editor of the Biblical Book of Psalms.他举行的“圣经”的诗篇书的编辑。But this ascription of authorship to him is due to the tendency to connect with the name of a dominating personality the chief literary productions of the nation.但是,这是由于他的署名权归属的倾向与主导个性的民族文学首席制作名称来连接。Thus Moses figures as the lawgiver, and the author of the Pentateuch; Solomon, as the "wise" man and, as such, the writer of the Wisdom books; David, as the singer and, in this capacity, as the composer of hymns and as the collector of the Psalms as far as they are not his own compositions.因此,摩西作为立法者的数字,和作者的pentateuch;索罗门的“明智”的男子,正因为如此,作家的智慧书,大卫,作为歌手,在这方面的能力,作为赞美诗作曲家至于他们是不是他自己的作品为收藏家的诗篇。

When the Book of Psalms first assumed its present form is open to discussion.当诗篇首先假设其目前的形式是值得商榷的。Certain it is that the New Testament and Josephus presuppose the existence of the Biblical Psalter in the form in which it is found in the canon.肯定地说,新约和约瑟夫假定它是佳能的形式存在的圣经诗篇。This fact is further corroborated by the date of the so-called "Psalms of Solomon."这个事实进一步证实了所谓的“诗篇所罗门的日期。”These are assigned to about 68 BC; a fact which indicates that at that period no new psalms could be inserted in the Biblical book, which by this time must have attained permanent and fixed form as the Book of Psalms of David.这些被分配到公元前约68年,这一事实表明,在这期间没有新的诗篇,可以在圣经的书,这个时候必须具备大卫诗篇“永久和固定的形式插入。 It is safest then to assign the final compilation of the Biblical book to the first third of the century immediately preceding the Christian era.它是最安全的,然后分配的圣经书的最后汇编世纪的第一个第三,紧接基督教时代。

Concerning the date of the two psalms lxxix.关于两个诗篇LXXIX日期。and cxlvi., I Maccabees furnishes a clue.cxlvi。,我马加furnishes线索。In I Mace.我锤。vii.七。17, Ps.17,诗。lxxix.LXXIX。2 is quoted, while cxlvi.二是报价,而cxlvi。4 is utilized in I Macc.四是利用我MACC。ii.II。63.63。These psalms then were known to a writer living in the time of the Hasmonean rulers.这些诗篇,被称为哈斯蒙尼统治者的时间生活在一个作家。He construed Ps.他解释诗篇。 lxxix.LXXIX。as applying to the time of Alcimus.作为申请的Alcimus时间。As remarked above, the historical superscriptions are worthless for the purpose of fixing the chronology, even if the concession be made that some of these pretendedly historical notes antedate the final compilation of the Psalter and were taken from the historical romances relating the lives of the nation's heroes, in which, according to prevailing ancient literary custom, poetry was introduced to embellish prose (comp. Ex. xv.; I Sam. ii.), as indeed Ps.至于说上面的,在历史superscriptions毫无价值固定年表,即使特许权被提出,一些这些pretendedly历史笔记早于的的psalter最终汇编,并分别从相关国家的生活的历史传奇采取英雄,其中,根据当时的古代文学的习俗,诗歌被引入美化散文(comp.前XV;。我心二),确实诗。 xviii.十八。is found also in II Sam.还发现,在二,三。xxii.二十二。

Reflection of History.历史的反思。

By comparison with what is known of the events of Jewish internal and external history during the last centuries before the destruction of the Second Temple, critical scholars have come to the conclusion that the political and religious circumstances and conflicts of these turbulent times are reflected in by far the greater number of psalms.什么是在第二圣殿被毁前的上个世纪的犹太人内部和外部的历史事件相比,关键的学者们得出的结论,政治和宗教的情况下,这些动荡的时代冲突反映在由迄今为止更大的诗篇。 Most of the 150 in the Biblical book, if not all of them, are assigned a post-exilic origin.大多数的150在圣经的书,如果不是所有的人,被分配一个放逐后的起源。Not one among competent contemporaneous scholars seriously defends the Davidic authorship of even a single psalm; and very few of the recent commentators maintain the pre-exilic character of one or the other song in the collection.不属于一个主管同时代的学者认真防守甚至一个单一的诗篇的大卫上署名的;最近评论家很少保持放逐前一个字符或集合中的其他歌曲。 Of exilic compositions Ps. PS放逐组成。cxxxvii. cxxxvii。is perhaps the only specimen.也许是唯一的标本。To the Persian period some psalms might be assigned, notably the "nature" psalms (eg, viii., xix.), as expressive of monotheism's opposition to dualism.波斯时期的一些诗篇,可能是分配,特别是“性质”的诗篇(例如,第八条,第十九)。反对一神教的二元论的表现。But there is no proof for this assumption.但并没有证明这一假设。Still a goodly number of psalms must have been composed in pre-Maccabean years.还有一个优美的诗篇,必须已经由马加比前几年。 Some psalms presuppose the existence and inviolability of the Temple and the Holy City (for instance, xlvi., xlviii., lxxvi.).一些诗篇的前提是存在的圣殿和圣城(例如,XLVI。48。LXXVI。)和不可侵犯。Ps.聚苯乙烯。iii., iv., xi., and lxii.三,四,十一,和LXII。might reflect the confidence of pious priests before the Maccabean disturbances.可能反映了马加比骚乱前虔诚的牧师的信心。

Reflex of Politics.政治条件反射。

But it is obvious that other psalms refer to the trickery and treachery of the house of Tobias (Ps. lxii.).但很明显,其他诗篇,是指房子的托比亚斯(诗篇LXII。)的欺骗和背叛。The Maccabean revolution-with its heroism on the one hand, its cowardice on the other, its victories, and its defeats-has supplied many a hymn of faith and defiance and joy.马加比革命,其一方面的英雄气概,另一方面,它的胜利,而它的失败提供了很多的信心和蔑视和喜悦赞歌的怯懦。The and -the "faithful," the "righteous," the "meek"-find voice to praise God for His help and to denounce the "wicked," the foreign nations that have made common cause with Syria (see lxxiv., lxxxiii., cxviii., and cxlix.).和“忠实”,“正义”,“温顺”的声音赞美上帝对他的帮助,并谴责“恶人”,与叙利亚的共同事业的外国国家(见LXXIV,LXXXIII ,cxviii,并cxlix)。Ps.聚苯乙烯。xliv.XLIV。and lxxvii., point to events after the death of Judas Maccabeus; Ps.第七十七号,指向犹大Maccabeus后死亡的事件;。诗篇。lv.LV。and others seem to deal with Alcimus.和其他人似乎处理Alcimus。The establishment of the Hasmonean dynasty on the throne and the conflicts between Pharisees (nationalists and democrats) and Sadducees (the representatives of aristocratic sacerdotalism) have left their impress on other hymns (Ps. ex. 1-4, "Shim'on" in acrostic).宝座上和法利赛人(民族主义者和民主派)和撒都该人(贵族sacerdotalism代表)之间的冲突哈斯蒙尼王朝的建立已经离开他们留下深刻的印象其他赞美诗(诗篇当然,“Shim'on”1-4离合词)。 Some of the psalms are nothing less than the pronunciamentos of the Pharisees (ix., x., xiv., lvi., lviii.).一些诗篇都小于法利赛人的pronunciamentos(ix.,十,十四,LVI,LVIII。)。Dates can not be assigned to the greater number of psalms, except in so far as their content betrays their character as Temple or synagogal hymns, as eschatological constructions, or as apocalyptic renderings of ancient history or of mythology.日期不能被分配​​到更多的诗篇,但到目前为止,其内容背叛寺或synagogal赞美诗他们的性格,作为末世论建设,或作为世界末日渲染的古代历史或神话,。

Synagogal liturgy and strictly regulated Temple ceremonial are productions of the Maccabean and post-Maccabean conflicts.Synagogal礼仪和严格监管庙仪式马加比和后马加比冲突的制作。Apocalyptic ecstasy, didactic references to past history, and Messianic speculations point to the same centuries, when foreign oppression or internal feuds led the faithful to predict the coming glorious judgment.启示“忘我”,过去的历史教学参考,和救世主的猜测指向到同一个世纪以来,当外来的压迫或内部争斗导致友们来预测未来的光荣判断。 The "royal" or "king" psalms belong to the category of apocalyptic effusions.“皇家”或“王”的诗篇,属于类世界末日积液。 It is not necessary to assume that they refer to a ruling king or monarch.这是没有必要的假设,它们是指裁决国王或君主的。The Messianic king warring with the "nations"-another apocalyptic incident-is central in these psalms.弥赛亚王交战事件与“国家”的另一个世界末日,是中央在这些诗篇。The "'Aniyim" and the "'Anawim" are the "meek" as opposed to the "Gewim" and "'Azim" (which readings must often be adopted for "Goyim" and "'Ammim"), the "proud" and "insolent." “Aniyim”和“Anawim”是“温顺”反对“Gewim”和“(”Ammim“阿齐姆”这读数必须经常“Goyim”,并通过“),”骄傲“和“傲慢无礼”。 The former are the (Pharisaic) pious nationalists battling against the proud (Sadducean) violators of God's law; but in their fidelity they behold the coming of the King of Glory, the Messianic Ruler, whose advent will put to flight and shame Israel's foreign and internal foes.前者是在(Pharisaic)作战反对的骄傲(Sadducean)上帝的法律违反虔诚的民族主义者,但在他们的保真度,他们注视的的荣耀之王,在弥赛亚标尺,其问世将会把飞行和耻辱以色列的外国的未来和内部的敌人。

Pilgrim Songs.香客歌曲。

The "Songs of Degrees" are pilgrim songs, which were sung by the participants in the processions at the three pilgrim festivals; all other explanations are fanciful.“度的歌曲”朝圣者,在三个节日的朝圣者在游行的参与者传唱的歌曲;所有其他的解释是天马行空。David Ḳimḥi in his commentary quotes the usual interpretation that these, songs were sung by the Levites standing on the fifteen stepsbetween the court of the women and that of the Israelites.大卫在他的评论Ḳimḥi引号,站在法庭的妇女和以色列人的十五stepsbetween利唱这些歌曲通常的解释。 But he also suggests that they refer to the post-exilic redemption, being sung by those that "ascend" from captivity.但他也表明,他们放逐后的赎回,唱“升天”,从囚禁。In fact, Ḳimḥi often reveals a very clear perception of the psalms of the post-exilic origin.事实上,Ḳimḥi往往揭示了一个非常清楚的认识诗篇后放逐的起源。

The text is often corrupt.文字往往是腐败。It contains interpolations, marginal glosses transposed into the body of psalms, quotations not in the original, liturgical glosses, notes, and intentional alterations.它包含插值,进入体内的诗篇调换的边际掩盖,而不是在原始的,礼仪的粉饰,票据,故意改变的报价。Consonantal interchanges abound.辅音交汇处比比皆是。Many of the psalms are clearly fragmentary torsos; others, as clearly, are composed of two or more disjointed parts drawn from other psalms without connection or coherence (comp. the modern commentaries, especially those of Duhm and Baethgen; also Grätz, "Psalmen," Introduction).许多诗篇显然是零零碎碎的躯干;他人,显然,从其他诗篇绘制无连接的一致性(comp.现代评论,尤其是那些Duhm和Baethgen的两个或两个以上的脱节部分组成;也格拉茨,“Psalmen “导言)。According to Grätz (lcp 61), such combinations of two psalms in one was caused by the necessities of the liturgical services.据格拉茨(LCP 61),这样的组合,在一两个诗篇造成的礼仪服务的必需品。It is not unlikely that some psalms were chanted responsively, part of the Levites singing one verse, and the others answering with the next.这不是不可能的,一些诗篇高呼回应,唱一首诗,回答和其他与未来利的一部分。In the synagogues the Psalms were chanted antiphonally, the congregation often repeating after every verse chanted by the precentor the first verse of the psalm in question.在犹太教堂的诗篇antiphonally高呼,众后,每节经文经常重复高呼的领唱的诗篇的第一首诗歌中的问题。 "Halleluyah" was the word with which the congregation was invited to take part in this chanting. “Halleluyah众被邀请参加在此念经”的话。“Hence it originally prefaced the Psalms, not, as in the Masoretic text, coming at the end.因此,它最初开头的诗篇,没有,因为在马所拉文本,在年底。At the conclusion of the psalm the "maḳre" or precentor added a doxology ending with ("and say ye Amen"), whereupon the congregation replied "Amen, Amen" ("Monatsschrift," 1872, p. 481).在结束的诗篇“maḳre”或领唱增添了doxology(“说你们阿门”)结束,届时众回答说:“阿门,阿门”(“月刊”,1872年,第481页)。 The synagogal psalms, according to this, then, are cv., cvi., cvii., cxi., cxii., cxiii., cxiv., cxvi., and cxvii. synagogal诗篇,根据这个,然后,CV,CVI,cvii,CXI,cxii,cxiii,cxiv,cxvi,和cxvii。(the shortest of all psalms), cxviii., cxxxv., cxxxvi., cxlvi.-cl.(最短所有诗篇),cxviii,cxxxv,cxxxvi,cxlvi. - CL。

Musical Accompaniment.乐器伴奏。

Concerning the musical accompaniment less is known.关于音乐的伴奏下而闻名。Boys seem to have been added to the men's chorus ('Ar. 13b).男孩似乎已被添加到男人的合唱(“AR。13B)。Twelve adult Levites constituted the minimum membership of a chorus; nine of these played on the "kinnor," two on the "nebel," and one on the cymbals (ib. ii. 3-5). 12个成年利构成最低合唱团的成员;九“kinnor,”两上播放这些“nebel,”和钹(ib.二3-5)。Singing seems to have been the principal feature of their art, the instruments being used by the singers for their self-accompaniment only.歌唱似乎已被他们的艺术的主要特征,正在使用的仪器为他们的自我伴奏的歌手。 The kinnor, according to Josephus, had ten strings and was struck with a plectrum ("Ant." vii. 12, § 3), while the nebel had twelve notes and was played with the fingers. kinnor,根据约瑟夫,有十弦和用拨子袭击(“蚂蚁。”七,12,§ 3),而nebel了12个音,并用手指发挥。This information is not confirmed by what is known of the "lyra" or "kithara" of the Greeks.此信息不确认什么是“希腊人”莱拉“或”kithara。Jewish coins display lyres of three strings, and in a single instance one of five strings.犹太硬币显示lyres三个字符串,并在五个字符串的单个实例之一。Tosef., 'Ar.Tosef。“AR。 ii.II。gives the kinnor seven strings.给人的kinnor七弦。According to Ps.根据诗篇。 xcii.xcii。3, there must have been known a ten-stringed instrument.3,要有已被称为10弦乐器。The Jerusalem Talmud agrees with Josephus in assigning the nebel to the class of stringed instruments (Yer. Suk. 55c; 'Ar. 13b).耶路撒冷犹太法典同意在指定的nebel弦乐器类(Yer.淑55C。“AR 13B),约瑟夫。 But it seems to have had a membranous attachment or diaphragm to heighten the effect of the strings (Yer. Suk. lc).但它似乎已经膜附件或膜片来烘托效果的字符串(Yer.淑。LC)。The nebel and the "alamot" (I Chron. xv. 20; Ps. xlviii.; Ps. ix., corrected reading) are identical (see Grätz, lcp 71).nebel和“alamot”(我专栏XV 20;,PS XLVIII;。第九,PS,纠正读)是相同的(见格拉茨,LCP 71)。The flute, "ḥalil," was played only on holy days ('Ar. ii. 3).长笛,“ḥalil,”只打了神圣的天(“AR二3)。The Hebrew term for choir-master was "menaẓẓeaḥ."合唱团主希伯来词是“menaẓẓeaḥ。”See also Cymbals.也钹。

Fifty-seven psalms are designated as ; this is a word denoting "paragraph," hence a new beginning.被指定为第五十七个诗篇,这是一个词,表示“段”,因此一个新的开始。Thirty psalms are designated as (= "song"), probably indicating that the psalm was actually sung in the Temple.三十诗篇被指定为(=“宋”),可能表明寺在实际传唱的诗篇。Thirteen psalms are labeled , the meaning of which word is doubtful (see Hebrew dictionaries and the commentaries).十三诗篇标签,其中的字是值得怀疑的(见希伯来文字典和评注)的含义。Six psalms are superscribed -another puzzle-three times with the addition , once (lx.), and in lvi.六诗篇superscribed,除了与另一个难题三次,一次(lx.)和LVI。with .处理。Five psalms are called = "prayer" (xvii., xl., lxxxvi., cii., cxlii.).五诗篇被称为“祈祷”(xvii.,XL,捌拾。CII,cxlii)。Two psalms are marked = "to remember" (xxxviii., lxx.), the meaning of which is not known.两个诗篇是标记=“记住”(xxxviii.,LXX),这是不知道的意思。Ps.聚苯乙烯。c.C.is designated by = "for thanksgiving," probably indicating its use in the liturgy as a hymn for the thank-offering.=指定的“感恩节”,可能说明其使用的礼仪歌感谢祭。Ps.聚苯乙烯。clv.CLV。is marked = "jubilee song or hymn," indicating its content.标记=“银禧歌曲或赞美诗”,说明其内容。Ps.聚苯乙烯。lx.LX。has , probably a dittogram for = "for David.",可能为=一个dittogram“大卫。”Ps.聚苯乙烯。lxxxviii.lxxxviii。has the heading , which seems to be also a dittogram of the preceding .的标题,这似乎也是前dittogram。Ps.聚苯乙烯。vii.七。has another enigmatical caption (see commentaries).另一个阴阳怪气的标题(见评论)。

Emil G. Hirsch埃米尔G.赫希

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography:参考书目:

The most modern commentaries are those by Duhm, in KHC; Baethgen (3d ed.), in Nowack's Handcommentar; and Wellhausen, in SBOT Cheyne's translation (1900) and introduction (1891) give the latest literature up to those dates.EGH最现代的评论是那些由Duhm KHC,Baethgen(3D版),Nowack的Handcommentar;豪森(1891年)在SBOT进益的翻译(1900年)和引进最新文献那些dates.EGH



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