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In the Old Testament particularly, punishments for sins were severe.特别是在旧约,为罪的处罚是严重的。Death was the punishment for striking or reviling a parent, for blasphemy, for Sabbath breaking, for witchcraft, for adultery, for rape, for incest, for kidnapping, for idolatry (Exod. 21:15,17; Lev. 24:14,16,23, Num. 15:32-36).死亡惩罚罢工或reviling父母,亵渎安息日打破,巫术,通奸,强奸,乱伦,绑架,偶像崇拜(出埃及记21:15,17;列弗24:14, 16,23,NUM。15:32-36)。Capital punishment was by stoning (Deut. 22:24).死刑被砸死(申命记22:24)。Romans introduced beheading (Matt. 14:10) and crucifixion (Mark 15:21-25).罗马人介绍斩首(马太14时10分)和受难(马可福音15:21-25)。Other forms of punishment were being sawed apart, cutting with iron harrows, stripes, burning, and by the sword.其他形式的惩罚被锯除,用铁耙,条纹,烧灼感,和剑切割。Punishment in kind was a common principle (Exod. 21:23-25).实物的处罚是一个共同的原则(出21:23-25​​)。

The New Testament suggests a less brutal approach to punishment.“新约”提出了处罚的那么残酷的方法。 This is primarily based on Christ's procuring forgiveness for man by bearing punishment for sin (Acts 2:38; 10:38-43).这主要是基于基督的采购人的宽恕轴承处罚罪(徒2:38; 10:38-43)。

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Everlasting Punishment永刑

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Everlasting punishment is taught in Scripture for those who reject God's love that is revealed in Christ (Matt. 25:46; Dan. 12:2).永刑是在那些拒绝神的爱是基督(马太福音25:46;丹12时02分)发现圣经教导。In Matt.在马特。25:46, the word aionion (translated "everlasting" and "eternal") applies to the destiny of both the saved and the lost.25:46,字aionion(译为“永恒”和“永恒”)适用于保存和失去的命运。 The final place of everlasting punishment is called the "lake of fire" (Rev. 19:20; 20:10,14,15).永刑的最后的地方被称为“火湖”(启示录19时20; 20:10,14,15)。It is also called "the second death" (Rev. 14:9-11; 20:6).它也被称为“第二次的死”(启示录14:9-11; 20:6)。

"Hell" in Scripture translates Hades , the unseen realm where the souls of all the dead are.“地狱”翻译在圣经中的地狱 ,所有死者的灵魂是看不见的境界。Gehenna is the place of punishment of Hades.地狱是阴间的惩罚的地方。Paradise is the place of blessing of Hades (Luke 16:19-31).天堂是祝福阎王(路加福音16:19-31)。The reason for eternal punishment is the rejection of the love of God in Christ (John 3:18,19).永恒的惩罚的原因是拒绝神的爱在基督(约翰福音3:18,19)。


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Throughout the Bible it is insisted that sin is to be punished.整本圣经是坚持,罪是要受到惩罚。 In an ultimate sense God will see that this is done, but temporarily the obligation is laid upon those in authority to see that wrongdoers are punished.在终极意义上,上帝会做到这一点,但暂时的义务后,当权者奠定看到肇事者受到惩罚。The lex talionis of Exod.出埃及记法talionis。21:23-25 is not the expression of a vindictive spirit.21:23-25​​是不是斗气精神的表达。Rather it assures an even justice (the rich and the poor are to be treated alike) and a penalty proportionate to the crime.相反,它保证一个更公正(贫富一视同仁)和惩罚犯罪相称。

Two important points emerge from OT usage.从旧约使用两个重要的点出现。The verb used in the sense of "punish" is paqad, which means "visit."在“惩罚”的意义上使用的动词是paqad,这意味着“访问”。For God to come into contact with sin is for him to punish it.神来接触到罪,是对他的惩罚。Of the nouns used, most are simply the words for sin.所用的名词,大多数只是为罪的话。Sin necessarily and inevitably involves punishment.仙必然和不可避免地涉及到处罚。

In the NT "punishment" is not as common as "condemnation," which may be significant.在NT的“惩罚”是不是“谴责”,这可能是重要的共同。To be condemned is sufficient.应该受到谴责的是足够的。Punishment is implied.惩罚是隐含的。The removal of punishment is brought about by the atoning death of our Lord.拆除的处罚是我们的主赎罪的死亡所带来的。It is not said in so many words that Jesus bore punishment, unless bearing our sins (Heb. 9:28; I Pet. 2:24) be held to mean this.这并不是说在这么多的话,耶稣孔的惩罚,我们的罪,除非轴承(希伯来书9时28;彼前2:24)举行的意思。 But that his sufferings were penal seems clearly to be the NT teaching.但是,他所遭受的苦难刑法似乎显然是NT教学。

L Morris大号莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
C. Brown, NIDNTT,III, 98ff., H. Buis, The Doctrine of Eternal Punishment; L. Boettner, Immortality; HE Guilleband, The Righteous Judge: A Study of the Biblical Doctrine of Everlasting Punishment; J. Schneider, TDNT, III, 814ff. C.布朗NIDNTT,三,98ff,H. Buis,永恒的惩罚主义; L. Boettner,仙道,正义的法官,他Guilleband:永刑圣经教义的研究; J.施耐德,TDNT第三,814ff。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The New Testament lays down the general principles of good government, but contains no code of laws for the punishment of offenders. Punishment proceeds on the principle that there is an eternal distinction between right and wrong, and that this distinction must be maintained for its own sake. “新约”奠定了良好的政府的一般原则,但没有法律的代码包含了对罪犯的处罚,处罚的原则,有一个永恒的区别正确与错误的收益,而且,这种区别必须保持自身的缘故。 It is not primarily intended for the reformation of criminals, nor for the purpose of deterring others from sin.这不是主要目的,对罪犯的改造,也没有阻止他人从罪恶的目的。These results may be gained, but crime in itself demands punishment.这些结果可能会上涨,但本身要求惩罚犯罪。Endless, of the impenitent and unbelieving.不已,不知悔改,信。The rejection of this doctrine "cuts the ground from under the gospel blots out the attribute of retributive justice; transmutes sin into misfortune instead of guilt; turns all suffering into chastisement; converts the piacular work of Christ into moral influence. The attempt to retain the evangelical theology in connection with it is futile" (Shedd).这一学说的拒绝“削减从地面下的福音 印迹了报应的正义属性; transmutes到的不幸,而不是有罪的罪;变成惩罚的一切苦难;转换成基督piacular工作道德的影响 是徒劳的企图保留在与此有关的的福音派神学“(谢德)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

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