Book of Revelation, Revelations, Apocalypse书启示录 章

General Information一般资料

The Book of Revelation is the last book of the New Testament of the Bible.启示录是新约圣经的最后一本书。Its title comes from the first verse of the text, "the revelation of Jesus Christ . . . to his servant John."它的标题来自文本的第一首诗歌,“耶稣基督的启示。。到他的仆人约翰。”The book is also called The Apocalypse, and it is the only piece of New Testament writing cast almost entirely in the apocalyptic mode.书也被称为启示,它是唯一的一块新约写作,几乎全部投在世界末日模式。Irenaeus states that Revelation was written during the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian, probably about AD 95.爱任纽国的启示是在位的罗马皇帝杜米仙,大概在公元95年,期间写的。Tradition asserts that the apostle Saint John wrote Revelation during his exile on Patmos.传统声称使徒圣约翰帕特莫斯流亡期间他写启示。Some scholars do not accept this attribution because of the stylistic differences between Revelation and the other works attributed to John - the Gospel and Epistles.有些学者不接受,这是因为启示和由于对约翰的其他作品之间的文体差异的归属 - 福音和书信。

After a prologue, the book comprises two main parts.拉开序幕后,这本书由两个主要部分组成。The first (chaps. 2 - 3) contains letters to the seven churches of Asia, warning them against false teachers and offering encouragement. The rest consists of a series of visions, replete with allegories, numbers and other symbols, and a strong eschatological message.第一(chaps. 2 - 3)包含亚洲的七个教会的信,警告他们对假教师,并提供鼓励,其余包括一系列的构想,充满了寓言,数字和其他符号,和强烈的末世的消息。 。These features are characteristic of the apocalyptic writing then in vogue.这些功能是世界末日书面然后在流行的特点。

Interpretation of the Book of Revelation has been a source of much controversy.启示录的解释一直是备受争议的来源。Some have held that it had a message only for the 1st century world.有些人认为它有一个只有一世纪世界的消息。Others maintain that the book is a prophecy to be fulfilled totally in the future (see Millenarianism).其他人则认为,本书是一本完全可以在未来实现的预言(见千禧年)。Undoubtedly, John spoke to the situation of his day.毫无疑问,约翰说,他每天的情况。The letters to the seven churches indicate a situation of crisis, probably brought on by Roman persecutions of the Christians.在七个教会的信中表明的危机形势下,可能带来的罗马迫害的基督教徒。From his understanding of the revelation of God for his day, he painted a vision of God's final triumph over evil that has sustained many Christians in later eras.从他的神对他一天的启示的理解,他画了上帝对已持续在以后的时代,许多基督徒邪恶的最后胜利的愿景。

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In the Book of Revelation, John is interpreting the significance of the cross and resurrection for the future, be it near or distant.在启示录中,约翰解释的十字架和复活为未来的意义,它附近或远处。He declares their meaning for time and history until the end.他宣称,直到最后他们的时间和历史的的意义。God is on his throne (chap. 4); Christ has won the victory (chap. 5); God is at work in the midst of apparent chaos (seals, trumpets, and bowls).上帝是他的宝座上(第4章);基督已经赢得了胜利(第5章);神的工作是在明显的混乱(海豹,小号,和碗)之中。The true victors are those called out in Christ from every tongue, nation, and people (chaps. 5, 20).从每一个舌头,民族和人民(chaps. 5,20),在基督称为真正的胜利者。Although God's work in history has been hidden except to eyes of faith, the final stanza will reveal that all history has truly been his story (chaps. 17, 20).虽然除了信仰的眼睛一直隐藏的神在历史上的工作,最终节将发现,所有的历史,真正被他的故事(chaps. 17,20)。 The victory won in history by the cross will be displayed in history by the return, and God will ultimately be revealed as all in all (chaps. 21, 22).跨在历史上赢得的胜利,将显示在历史上的回报,上帝最终将所有(chaps. 21,22)显示。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell

Bibliography 参考书目
WJ Abraham, Divine Revelation and the Limits of Historical Criticism (1982); J Baillie, The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought (1956); JW Bowman, The First Christian Drama: The Book of Revelation (1968); E Brunner, Revelation and Reason (1984); A Dulles, Models of Revelation (1983); J Ellul, Apocalypse: The Book of Revelation (1977); WJ Harrington, The Apocalypse of St. John: A Commentary (1969); WG Heidt, The Book of the Apocalypse (1962); G Moran, Theology of Revelation (1966); R Niebuhr, The Meaning of Revelation (1967). WJ亚伯拉罕,神的启示和历史的批评(1982年)的界限; J贝利,在最近的思想理念启示录(1956); JW鲍曼,第一个基督教戏剧:启示录(1968); E布伦纳,启示和原因(1984年);一个杜勒斯国际机场,模型的启示(1983年),J埃吕尔,启示:启示录(1977); WJ哈灵顿,圣约翰的启示:一个评论(1969),工作组Heidt,图书启示录(1962),G莫兰,神学的启示(1966年),R尼布尔,启示录(1967)的含义。


Book of Revelation预订的启示

Brief Outline简述

  1. Christ the critic of the Churches (1:1-3:22)基督的教会的评论家(1:1-3:22)
  2. Series of seals, trumpets and bowls; God's Judgment upon a world controlled by evil (4:1-16:21)系列密封件,小号和碗;上帝的判决后,被邪恶控制的一个世界(4:1-16:21)
  3. Overthrow of evil society, religion and government in the destruction of Babylon and the defeat of the beast and his armies by Christ (17:1-21:8)在巴比伦的破坏和兽和他的军队击败的邪恶社会,宗教和政府推翻基督(17:1-21:8)
  4. Establishment of the city of God, the Eternal Destiny of His people (21:9-22:5)建立城市的神,他的人永恒的命运(21:9-22:5)
  5. Epilogue: appeal and invitation (22:6-21)后记:呼吁和邀请(22:6-21)


Revelation启示

Advanced Information先进的信息

Revelation is an uncovering, a bringing to light of that which had been previously wholly hidden or only obscurely seen.启示录是一个揭露,使已完全隐藏或只隐晦地看到光。God has been pleased in various ways and at different times (Heb. 1:1) to make a supernatural revelation of himself and his purposes and plans, which, under the guidance of his Spirit, has been committed to writing.神已经高兴地以各种方式和在不同的时间(希伯来书1:1),使自己和他的目的和计划,其中,他的精神的指导下,一直致力于写作的超自然的启示。 (See WORD OF GOD.) The Scriptures are not merely the "record" of revelation; they are the revelation itself in a written form, in order to the accurate presevation and propagation of the truth.(见上帝的话)圣经不只是“记录”的启示,他们在书面形式的启示本身,为了准确presevation和传播真理。 Revelation and inspiration differ.启示和灵感不同。Revelation is the supernatural communication of truth to the mind; inspiration (qv) secures to the teacher or writer infallibility in communicating that truth to others.启示是真理的超自然的沟通,心灵的启示(QV)固定向他人传播真理的教师或作家犯错误。It renders its subject the spokesman or prophet of God in such a sense that everything he asserts to be true, whether fact or doctrine or moral principle, is true, infallibly true.这使得它的主题发言人或神的先知,在这样的意识,他声称是真实的,事实或理论或道德原则,是否是真实的,绝对无误真正的一切。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Revelation = The Apocalypse启示录=启示录

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Book of Revelation is the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon.启示录是收书和新约圣经佳能唯一的预言书。The author of this book was undoubtedly John the apostle.这本书的作者无疑是使徒约翰。His name occurs four times in the book itself (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8), and there is every reason to conclude that the "John" here mentioned was the apostle.他的名字出现在书本身(1:1,4,9,22时08分)的四倍,并有充分的理由得出结论,这里提到的“约翰”是使徒。 In a manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called "John the divine," but no reason can be assigned for this appellation.在有关12世纪的手稿,他被称为“约翰的神圣,”但没有任何理由可以为这个称谓分配。

The date of the writing of this book has generally been fixed at AD96, in the reign of Domitian.本书的写作日期已普遍被固定在AD96,在多米提安统治。There are some, however, who contend for an earlier date, AD 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero.也有一些,但是,谁争的日期较早,公元68或69年,在尼禄统治。Those who are in favour of the later date appeal to the testimony of the Christian father Irenaeus, who received information relative to this book from those who had seen John face to face.那些赞成日后呼吁证词基督教父亲爱任纽,谁看到了约翰的脸面对那些相对于这本书的信息。

He says that the Apocalypse "was seen no long time ago."他说,“启示录”被视为没有很久以前。“As to the relation between this book and the Gospel of John, it has been well observed that "the leading ideas of both are the same. The one gives us in a magnificent vision, the other in a great historic drama, the supreme conflict between good and evil and its issue. In both Jesus Christ is the central figure, whose victory through defeat is the issue of the conflict. In both the Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in language saturated with the Old Testament The difference of date will go a long way toward explaining the difference of style."至于这本书和约翰福音之间的关系,它已经清楚地观测,“双方的主导思想是相同的。一个给我们一个宏伟的构想,在一个伟大的历史话剧,最高法院之间的冲突善和恶的问题。在基督耶稣的核心人物,其胜利是通过失败的冲突问题。,是福音的准备,在这两个犹太人免除战争和胜利的基督描述与旧约的时间差,饱和的语言,将有助于解释不同的风格的一个很长的路要走。“ Plummer's Gospel of St. John, Introd.普卢默的圣约翰福音,Introd。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


General Revelation一般启示

Advanced Information先进的信息

Revelation General is that divine disclosure to all persons at all times and places by which one comes to know that God is, and what he is like.启示录一般是在所有时间和地点由哪一个来知道,上帝是,和他是什么样子所有的人,神圣的披露。While not imparting saving truths such as the Trinity, incarnation, or atonement, general revelation mediates the conviction that God exists and that he is self-sufficient, transcendent, immanent, eternal, powerful, wise, good, and righteous.他虽然不是传授节能真理,如三位一体,化身,或赎罪,一般启示介导的信念,即上帝存在,并是自给自足的,超然的,内在的,永恒的,强大的,明智的,良好的,和公义。 General, or natural, revelation may be divided into two categories: (1) internal, the innate sense of deity and conscience, and (2) external, nature and providential history.一般,或自然,启示可分为两类:(1)内部,先天神和良心感,(2)外部,自然和天赐的历史。

Summary of Positions职位概要

Biblical Data圣经资料

In the OT Elihu's speech to Job (esp. Job. 36:24-37:24) draws attention to the rain that waters the earth, the thunder and lightning that strikes terror in the heart, the fury of a thunderstorm, and the brilliant shining of the sun following the storm's departure.在旧约伊莱休的讲话作业(尤其是作业。36:24-37:24)提请注意雨水域地球,罢工在心里的恐怖雷电,雷雨交加的愤怒,和辉煌在阳光照耀下风暴的离去。 The text suggests that these natural phenomena attest the power, majesty, goodness, and severity of the creator God and that the data are there for all to behold (Job 36:25).文本建议,这些自然现象证明造物主上帝的权力,威严,善良,和严重程度的数据是大​​家都看哪(约伯记36:25)。 Moreover, God's address to Job (esp. Job 38:1-39:30) conveys the idea that natural phenomena (lightning, thunder, rain, snow), the daily rising of the sun, the majestic constellations in the heavens, and the complexity and harmonious interrelationships among the animal kingdom all attest the existence and glory of God.此外,神的地址作业(尤其是作业38:1-39:30)传达的想法,自然现象(闪电,雷鸣,雨,雪),每天上升的太阳,在天上雄伟的星座,和动物王国之间的复杂性和和谐的相互关系,都证明上帝的存在和荣耀。

According to Ps.根据诗篇。19 God reveals himself through the two-volume book of nature (vss. 1-6) and book of the law (vss. 7-13).19上帝揭示自己通过(VSS的1-6)两卷书的性质和法律书(VSS的7-13)。In the first volume we read, "The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands" (vs. 1).在第一册中,我们读到:“诸天述说神的荣耀,穹苍传扬他手中的工作”(1节)。That which the created order shows forth is the divine "glory" (kabod), namely, the external manifestation of God's inner being and attributes.这里面创建顺序显示列是神圣的“荣耀”(kabod),即上帝的内心和属性的外在表现形式。The revelation of God's glory through the heavens is declared to be perpetual or uninterrupted (vs. 2), wordless or inaudible (vs. 3), and world-wide in scope (vs. 4).通过天上的启示的神的荣耀被宣布为永久或不间断(2),无言的或无声(比3),和世界各地的范围(比4)。That Judaism held to a general revelation in nature is clear from Wisd.犹太教举行一个一般性的启示是明确的,从Wisd。 Sol.溶胶。13:5: "The greatness and beauty of created things give us a corresponding idea of their Creator." 13时05分:“的伟大和美丽创造的东西给我们相应的主意了他们的造物主。”

In the prologue to his Gospel, John makes two assertions about the eternal Word.约翰在他的福音的序幕,使两个断言,关于永恒的话语。First, "in him was life, and that life was the light of men" (1:4).首先,“在他的生命,生命是人的光”(1:4)。And second, the Word is "the true light that gives light to every man who comes into the world" (1:9).第二,这个词是“真光,照亮每个人到世上来的”(1:9)。The Greeks identified the Logos as the divine power that energizes man's intellectual and moral life.希腊人认定为神圣的力量,激励人的智力和道德的生活的标志。Wisdom, the parallel Jewish concept, was viewed as the power of God operative in the world to create, enlighten, and renew (cf. Wisd. Sol. 7:22-9:18).智慧,平行犹太人的概念,被视为神的手术在世界的力量,创建,开导,更新(参见Wisd。溶胶。7:22-9:18)。 Thus it seems likely that in John 1:4, 9 the apostle has in mind the universal work of the Logos whereby the human mind is divinely illumined so as to perceive God as a first principle, much the same as Calvin's "sense of divinity" or "seed of religion."因此,它似乎使徒约翰1时04分,9记的标志,即是神照亮人的心灵来感知上帝作为第一的原则,多为卡尔文的“神性意识”同样的普及工作或“宗教的种子”。

Preaching to Gentiles at Lystra, Paul and Barnabas appealed to knowledge they and their hearers held in common as a result of general revelation: namely, that God is the creator of all things (Acts 14:15) and the providential provider of the necessities of life (vs. 17).保罗和巴拿巴在路司得外邦人讲道,呼吁知识,他们和他们的的听众共同举行的一般启示:即上帝是万物的创造者(徒14:15)的必需品天赐供应商生活(17节)。 In his kindly dealings with humankind God "has not left himself without testimony" (amarturon, vs. 17).在他慈祥的交易与人类的上帝“没有离开自己没有的证词”(amarturon,比17)。Similarly, in his address to pagan Athenians (Acts 17:24-31) Paul referred, as a point of contact, to truths his audience knew by virtue of God's universal self-disclosure in nature and history.同样,在他的地址异教雅典(徒17:24-31),保罗提到,作为一个联络点,以真理凭借神在自然和历史的普遍自我揭露他的听众知道。 These include (1) God is the creator and sovereign of the universe (Acts 17:24); (2) he is self-sufficient (vs. 25a); (3) he is the source of life and all good (vs. 25b); (4) he is an intelligent being who formulates plans (vs. 26); (5) he is immanent in the world (vs. 27); and (6) he is the source and ground of human existence (vs. 28).这些措施包括(1)上帝是宇宙(徒17:24)的创建者和主权;(2)他是自给自足(与第25A条);(3)他的生命之源,都好(与25B),(4)他是一个聪明的是谁制定的计划(26);(5),他在世界上是内在的(27);(6)他是人类生存的源和地面(VS 28段)。

In Rom.在ROM中。2:14-15 Paul teaches that a further modality of general revelation is the implanted moral law attested to the heart by the faculty of conscience. 2:14-15保罗教导,进一步方式一般启示是植入道德良心的教师到心脏的法律证明。All men are guilty of transgressing the law, Paul argues: the Jews because they have violated the law written on stone, and the Gentiles because they have failed to live by the moral law written on their hearts (cf. Rom. 1:32).所有的人都犯逾越法律,保罗认为:犹太人,因为他们有违反法律写在石头上,和外邦人,因为他们没有生活写在他们心中的道德律(罗1:32。) 。Communicated to each rational person by the power of conscience is the existence of a supreme Lawgiver and his moral requirements.良心的力量传达到每一个理性的人,是一个至高无上的立法者和他的道德要求的存在。

The clearest teaching that all people possess a rudimentary knowledge of God as creator occurs in Rom.最明显的教学,所有的人具备的创造者是上帝的基本知识,发生在ROM。1:18-21.1:18-21。Paul argues that through the universal revelation in nature God is "clearly seen" (vs. 20), "understood" (vs. 20), and "known" (vs. 19; cf. vs. 21).保罗认为,通过在大自然神的普遍启示是“清楚地看到”(20),“理解”(20),和“已知”(与19;比照与21)。That which man gains knowledge of is defined as God's invisible qualities, his eternal power and divine nature (theiotes).那男子收益知识被定义为上帝的无形的素质,他的永恒的力量和神圣的性质(theiotes)。The Greek noun theiotes, "divinity," signifies the totality of the perfections that comprise the Godhead.希腊的名词theiotes,“神威”,象征着整体的完美,包括神性的。Moreover, the apostle claims that this elemental knowledge of God is acquired by rational reflection on the created order (vs. 20).此外,使徒声称,这神的元素知识是理性的反思(20)创建顺序收购。The word ginosko ("to know") used in vss.字ginosko(“知道”)在VSS使用。19, 21 connotes to perceive with the senses and to grasp with the mind.19,21张三与感官感知和把握头脑。

Implications启示

Scriptures that the consistent response of the sinner when confronted with the truth-content of general revelation is to dismiss it from his consciousness (Rom. 1:21-32).圣经“的罪人时遇到的一般启示的真理内容是一致的响应罢免他的意识(罗马书1:21-32)。Thus instead of worshiping and obeying God, the unregenerate person asserts his own autonomy and fashions lifeless idols which he proceeds to venerate.因此,神的崇拜和服从,而不是unregenerate人声称他的自主性和时尚无生命的偶像,他的收益供奉。Whereupon God deliberately gives man over to the sordid impulses of his sinful nature (Rom. 1:24, 26, 28).于是上天故意让男子到他的罪性的(罗马书1:24,26,28)肮脏的冲动。Instead of proving salvific, general revelation serves only to condemn the sinner and to establish his guiltworthiness before God (Rom. 1:20).相反的证明救赎,一般启示只会谴责罪人,并建立他的神(罗马书1:20)前guiltworthiness。

But general revelation serves several salutary ends.但一般的启示,提供一些有益的两端。(1) The universally implanted moral law provides the only authentic basis by which good and evil can be distinguished.(1)普遍植入道德法律规定可以区分善恶的唯一正宗的基础。The fact that good is enjoined and evil proscribed provides society with the only viable framework for existence.好是责成和邪恶被禁的事实,提供与社会存在的唯一可行的框架。(2) Since all people possess a rudimentary knowledge of God, the Christian witness is assured that when he speaks to a sinner the notion of God is not a meaningless cipher. (2)由于所有的人具备基本知识的上帝,基督徒的见证是有保证的,当他谈到一个罪人,神的概念不是一个毫无意义的密码。And (3) general revelation provides the rational basis for God's saving revelation mediated by Christ and the Bible.(3)一般启示提供了合理的基础,上帝的拯救介导的基督和圣经的启示。In this sense natural theology serves as the vestibule of revealed theology.在这个意义上的自然神学作为前庭显示神学。

BA Demarest广管局德马雷斯特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
BC Berkouwer, General Revelation; E. Brunner, Revelation and Reason; BA Demarest, General Revelation.公元前Berkouwer,一般启示; E.布伦纳,启示和理性;德马雷斯特霸,一般启示。


Special Revelation特别的启示

Advanced Information先进的信息

The midtwentieth century's revival of interest in special divine revelation occurs at a significant time in modern history.在特殊的神圣启示的兴趣midtwentieth世纪的复兴发生在现代史上的重大一次。Naturalism has become a virile cultural force in both East and West.自然主义已成为一个刚健在东方和西方的文化力量。In previous centuries the chief rivals of revealed religion were speculative idealism and philosophical theism; today the leading antagonists are materialistic communism, logical positivism, atheistic existentialism, and variant forms of Anglo-Saxon humanism.在以往几个世纪的启示宗教的主要竞争对手是思辨唯心主义和有神论的哲学;今天领先拮抗剂是唯物主义的共产主义,逻辑实证主义,无神论的存在主义,和盎格鲁 - 萨克逊的人文主义的变异形式。Since communist philosophy refers the whole movement of events to economic determinism, the recovery of the Judeo-Christian emphasis on special historical revelation gains pointed relevance.共产主义哲学,是指由于经济决定的事件的整个运动,恢复的犹太教和基督教强调,在特殊的历史启示收益指出的相关性。

The Meaning of Revelation启示录的意义

The term "revelaltion" means intrinsically the disclosure of what was previously unknown. “revelaltion”一词是指本质上什么是前所未知的披露。In Judeo-Christian theology the term is used primarily of God's communication to man of divine truth, that is, his manifestation of himself or of his will.在犹太教和基督教神学的长期主要用于上帝的沟通,以人的神圣真理,那就是他本人或他的意志的体现。The essentials of the biblical view are that the Logos is the divine agent in all revelation, this revelation being further discriminated as general or universal (ie, revelation in nature, history, and conscience) and special or particular (ie, redemptive revelation conveyed by wondrous acts and words). “圣经”的观点的要点的标志是神圣的代理人在所有的启示,这种启示正在进一步歧视一般或普遍(即,在自然,历史和良知的启示)和特殊的或特定的(即所传达的救赎的启示奇妙的行为和字)。 The special revelation in sacred history is crowned by the incarnation of the living Word and the inscripturation of the spoken word.特别在神圣的历史启示加冕生活字的化身和口语inscripturation。The gospel of redemption is therefore not merely a series of abstract theses unrelated to specific historical events; it is the dramatic news that God has acted in saving history, climaxed by the incarnate person and work of Christ (Heb. 1:2), for the salvation of lost humankind.赎回的福音,因此不只是一系列具体的历史事件无关的抽象的论断,它是戏剧性的消息,上帝在保存历史行事,肉身的人,基督(希伯来书1:2)的工作推向了高潮,失去了人类的救恩。 Yet the redemptive events of biblical history do not stand uninterpreted.然而,圣经历史的救赎事件不主张解释的。Their authentic meaning is given in the sacred writings, sometimes after, sometimes before the events.他们的真实的意思是在神圣的著作,有时后,有时事件之前。The series of sacred acts therefore includes the divine provision of an authoritative canon of writings, the sacred Scriptures, providing a trustworthy source of knowledge of God and of his plan.因此一系列神圣的行为,包括神圣的权威著作,圣经,神的知识和他的计划提供了一个可信赖的来源,佳能规定。

Despite the distinction of general and special revelation, God's revelation is nonetheless a unity, and it must not be artificially sundered.尽管一般和特殊的启示的区别,上帝的启示仍然是一个团结,绝不能人为地切开。Even prior to man's fall, Adam in Eden was instructed by specially revealed statutes (eg, to be fruitful and multiply, to eat and not to eat of certain fruit).即便在人的堕落,亚当在伊甸园指示特别透露的法规(例如,富有成效和繁殖,吃,不要吃某些水果)。In view of man's corruption, after the fall any one-sided reliance simply on general revelation would be all the more arbitrary.在人的腐败,,任何片面依赖简单的一般启示后回落将更加随心所欲。Yet we are not on that account to minimize the fact and importance of general revelation, on which the Bible insists (Ps. 19; Rom. 1-2).然而,我们在该帐户,以尽量减少的事实和一般的启示,“圣经”坚持(诗篇19; ROM 1-2)。的重要性。But taken alone the so-called theistic proofs have led few men to the living God.但仅采取所谓的有神论的证明,导致数人活着的上帝。The assumption of Thomas Aquinas that God can be known by natural reason apart from a revelation of Jesus Christ may be viewed, in fact, as an unwitting preparation for the revolt of early modern philosophy against special revelation and its contrary emphasis solely on general revelation.托马斯阿奎那的假设可能被视为上帝可以被称为自然的原因,除了耶稣基督的启示,其实作为一个不知情的准备起义早期现代主义哲学对特殊的启示,相反强调,单靠一般启示。 The many types of speculative theism and idealism arising in the wake of this emphasis were only temporarily able to hold a line against the decline to naturalism.在强调这一点之后所产生的投机有神论和唯心主义的种类很多,只有暂时能够保持对自然下降。

While the Bible indeed affirms God's general revelation, it invariably correlates general revelation with special redemptive revelation.虽然“圣经”确实肯定神的启示,它总是关联与一般启示特别救赎的启示。It declares at one and the same time that the Logos is creator and redeemer (John 1).它宣称在同一个时间标识的创造者和救赎(约1)。It does not present general revelation on the thesis that the true knowledge of God is possible to fallen man through the natural light of reason apart from a revelation of Christ, but rather introduces general revelation alongside special revelation in order to emphasize man's guilt.它不存在真正的上帝的知识是堕落的人可能通过自然光的原因,除了基督的启示上的论文一般启示,而是引入了一般启示和特殊启示,以强调人的罪责。 Thus the Scripture adduces God's unitary revelation, general and special, to display man's true predicament; he is a finite creature with an eternal destiny, made for spiritual fellowship with God, but now separated from his maker by sin.因此,圣经引证神的单一的启示,一般和特殊,显示人的真正的困境,他是一个永恒的命运与有限的生物,与上帝的精神奖学金,但现在从他的制造商分开罪。

Special revelation is redemptive revelation. It publishes the good tidings that the holy and merciful God promises salvation as a divine gift to man who cannot save himself (OT) and that he has now fulfilled that promise in the gift of his Son in whom all men are called to believe (NT). 特殊启示是救赎的启示。它出版的,的神圣和仁慈的上帝的承诺作为一个神圣的礼物人谁可以不保存自己(OT)和他有现在完成,在他儿子的人所有男人的礼物承诺救恩好福音被称为相信(新台币)。 The gospel is news that the incarnate Logos has borne the sins of doomed men, has died in their stead, and has risen for their justification.福音的化身标识已承担的罪过注定男子,代之而起的死亡,并已上升为他们的理由是新闻。 This is the fixed center of special redemptive revelation.这是固定的特殊救赎的启示中心。

False Views of Revelation虚假点击的启示

Christian theology has had to protect the biblical view of special revelation against many perversions.基督教神学有保护对许多变态的特殊启示圣经的看法。Platonic preoccupation with "eternal ideas" accessible to men by rational contemplation alone, plus the disregard of history as a meaningful arena of events, tended to militate against essential elements of the biblical view, viz., divine initiative and particularity, and redemptive history as a carrier of absolute revelation.柏拉图与“永恒想法”理性观照男子单独访问,加上无视历史,作为一个有意义的活动舞台的当务之急,往往妨碍对圣经的看法基本要素,即神圣的主动性和特殊性,和救赎历史载体绝对的启示。 The idealistic notion that God's revelation is given only generally, that it is a universally accessible idea, is destructive of biblical emphases such as the particularity of special revelation and a historical sequence of special saving events (climaxed by the incarnation, atonement, and resurrection of Christ as the unique center of redemptive revelation).如的特殊启示的特殊性和一个特殊的节能活动的历史序列(的化身,赎罪,和复活的高潮圣经重点破坏性的理想化的概念,上帝的启示是给定的只有一般,这是一个普遍获得的主意基督救赎的启示独特的中心)。 Eighteenth century rationalism revived the notion of pre-Christian Greek idealism that historical facts are necessarily relative and never absolute, and that revelation consequently is to be divorced from historical actualities and identified with ideas alone.十八世纪理性主义的复兴前基督教希腊唯心主义的概念,历史事实必然是相对的,从来不是绝对的的,因此,启示是脱离历史现状和思路确定单独。 While still professing to speak of Christian revelation, this form of rationalism dissolved the essential connection of special revelation with historical disclosure.虽然仍然信奉基督教的启示发言,这种形式的理性主义解散了特别的启示与历史披露的基本连接。

Moreover, it freely abandoned crucial aspects of redemptive history without protest to the destructive critics.此外,自由放弃不抗议的破坏性批评救赎历史的重要方面。And it surrendered the defense of the uniqueness or once-for-allness of special revelation in deference to the notion that revelation is always and only general.它的独特性的国防或一度allness的尊重特别的启示的启示是始终,只有一般的概念投案。Wherever Christianity has been confronted by idealistic speculations of this kind, it has had to contend against a determination to dissolve the central significance of the virgin birth, unique divinity, atoning death, and bodily resurrection of Christ.只要基督教一直面临这种理想化的猜测,具备了抗衡的决心解散中央的处女生育的意义,独特的神性,赎罪的死亡,和身体复活的基督。 Since revelation was equated necessarily with a universal manifestation, every historical event was regarded simply as one of many reflections (in lower or higher degree) of this general principle, while an absolute revelation in some particular strand or at some particular point of history was arbitrarily excluded.由于启示不一定等同于带有普遍性的表现,每一个历史事件被视为仅仅作为这一总的原则之一,许多反射(程度较低或较高的),而在某些特别股,或在一些特定的历史点的绝对启示任意排除在外。

Modern evolutionary theory, on the other hand, has attached new importance to the historical process.现代进化理论,另一方面,重视新的历史进程中的重要性。But this concern for history also has generally been pursued on presuppositions hostile to the biblical view.但这种对历史的关注也已普遍推行敌视“圣经”的观点上的前提。The tendency to exalt evolution itself into an ultimate principle of explanation works against the recognition of a fixed center or climax of history in the past.发扬演变成一个最终的解释原则本身的倾向反对承认一个固定的中心或在过去的历史高潮。While history may be approached with sentimental notions of hidden divinity, and major turning-points in the long sweep of events singled out as providential, the secred redemptive history of the past is leveled to the plateau of other elements in history, and history as a whole is no longer understood in revelation to the unique revelation of God in Christ as its center.尽管历史可能会接近隐藏的神性的感性的概念,横扫长期单独作为天赐的事件的主要转折点,secred过去的救赎历史水平等要素,在历史的高原,和历史的作为整个不再是理解的启示在基督为中心的神独特的启示。

In fact the tendency to view reason itself only as a late emergent in the evolutionary process suppresses the biblical declaration that reality itself has its ultimate explanation in the Logos (John 1:3), and in effect contravenes the doctrine of rational divine revelation.事实上,仅作为后期新兴的趋势,以查看在进化过程中的原因本身抑制圣经宣言,现实本身有其标志的最终解释(约翰一书1:3),实际上违反了理性的神圣启示的教义。 That is why the question of the nature and significance of mind is one of the crucial problems of contemporary philosophy in its bearing upon both Christian and communist philosophy.这就是为什么心态的性质和意义的问题是当代哲学在其轴承后,基督教和共产主义的哲学的关键问题之一。The modern philosphical revolt against reason, anchored first in skeptical theories about the limitations of human knowledge of the spiritual world and then in skeptical theories about the limitations of human knowledge of the spiritual world and then in evolutionary dogmas, has an obvious bearing upon the Christian contention that God communicates truths about himself and his purposes.现代philosphical反抗的原因,第一挂靠在怀疑关于人类知识的精神世界局限性的理论,然后在怀疑的精神世界人类知识的局限性和理论,然后在进化过程中的教条,具有明显的轴承后,基督教论点,即上帝传达关于他自己和他的目的的真理。

While it is the case that Christianity in contending for special revelation is concerned for spiritual decision between Jesus Christ and false gods, and not merely for an acceptance of certain revealed truths, yet the Christian movement does not on that account demean the importance of divinely revealed doctrines.虽然是基督教的争夺特别的启示是有关耶稣基督和假神之间的精神决定的,并不仅仅是接受某些揭示真理,但基督教运动,帐户贬低上没有神透露的重要性教义。 Christian experience involves both assensus (assent to revealed doctrines) and fiducia (personal trust in Christ).基督教经验涉及assensus(同意透露学说)和德信(个人在基督的信任)。Moreover, saving trust is impossible without some authentic knowledge of God (Heb. 11:6; I Cor. 15:1-4; Rom. 10:9).此外,节能的信任是不可能没有一些神的真实知识(希伯来书11:6;林前15:1-4;罗马书10:9)。

Since Schleiermacher's day Protestant theology has been influenced repeatedly by antiintellectualistic strands in modern philosophy, especially by such thinkers as Kant, James, and Dewey.由于施莱尔马赫的一天新教神学一直影响反复antiintellectualistic股现代哲学,尤其是康德,詹姆斯和杜威等思想家。 Schleiermacher's formulas, that we know God only in relation to us and not as he is in himself, and that God communicates life and not doctrines, have been influential in encouraging an artificial disjunction in many Protestant expositions of special revelation.施莱尔马赫的公式,我们只知道我们不是神,因为他是在自己身上,上帝传达生活不是教条,已在许多新教论述特别的启示,鼓励人工脱节有影响力的。 Although often striving to advance beyond these restrictions, more recent existential and dialectical expositions nonetheless do not consistently rise above the quicksands of a merely relational theology.虽然经常争取提前超越这些限制,但是更近的存在和辩证的论述不一贯上升仅仅是关系神学的流沙之上。

Revelation as Rational作为理性的启示

Because of its implications for rational revelation the traditional identification of the Bible as the word of God written has been especially repugnant to contemporary neo-orthodox theology.由于其理性的启示影响,传统鉴定圣经作为神的书面字一直特别令人反感的当代新正统神学。It is contended that Jesus Christ alone should be identified as the Word of God, and that to speak of Scripture in this way demeans Christ.它是有争议的,应确定为神的话语,只有耶稣基督,并贬低基督,这样说话的经文。The evangelical Protestant, however, distinguishes carefully between the logos theou and the rhema theou, that is, between the ontological Word incarnate and the epistemological word inscripturate.福音派新教,但是,仔细区分标志theou和rhema theou,就是之间的本体论字的化身和认识论的字inscripturate之间。The motives for the neo-orthodox complaint are, in fact, speculative rather than spiritual.新东正教投诉的动机,其实投机,而不是精神。For the witness of Scripture, to which neo-orthodox dogmaticians profess to appeal, is especially damaging to their case here.对于圣经的见证,新正统dogmaticians信奉上诉,尤其是损害他们的情况。The OT prophets consistently speak of their words as the words of God, using the formula "Thus saith the Lord" with untiring regularity.旧约先知一直讲自己的言行,作为神的话,使用公式与不懈的规律性“耶和华如此说”。The NT apostles, moreover, speak of divine revelation in the form of difinite ideas and words (cf. I Thess. 2:13, where the Thessalonians are said to have "received the word of God which you heard from us not as the word of men but as the word of God"; cf. also Rom. 3:2, where Paul characterizes the OT as "the oracles of God").此外,新台币使徒,发言difinite的思想和文字的形式(参帖前2:13,帖撒罗尼迦说:“收到我们的上帝的话,你听到这个词不是神的启示的男人,但 上帝的话“; CF也罗马书3:2,保罗形容为催产素。”上帝的神谕“)。The disciples also spoke of Scripture as divine revelation and, in fact, had the sacred example and authority of Jesus Christ for so doing.门徒还谈到圣经作为神的启示,其实,有这样神圣的例子和耶稣基督的权威。Jesus identified his own words with the word of the Father (John 14:34) and spoke of Scripture as the word of God (John 10:35).耶稣发现了父亲的话(约翰福音14:34)他自己的话说,和圣经的话(约翰福音10:35)神的话语。The Biblical nowhere protests against the identification of Scripture with revelation, but rather supports and approves this identification.“圣经”对鉴定与启示圣经无处抗议,而是支持和批准这个识别。The neo-orthodox tendency to look upon Scripture as simply witness to revelation, in fact, contravenes the historic Christian view that the Bible itself is a form of revelation specially provided for man in sin as an authentic disclosure of the nature and will of God.后经文看起来简单的见证启示新正统的倾向,事实上,违反了“历史上的基督教认为”圣经“本身是一个人在罪中,作为一个地道的性质披露特别规定,上帝的意志形式的启示。

From all this it is clear how significant is the Christian assertion that the laws of logic and morality belong to the imago Dei in man.这一切是如何重要的是基督教的说法,逻辑和道德的法律属于成虫在人工会。Christian theology has always been under biblical compulsion to affirm the identity of the Logos with the Godhead, and to find a connection between God as rational and moral and the form and content of the divine image in man.基督教神学一直圣经的强迫下,肯定与神性的身份标识,并找到一个理性和道德的和在人的神圣形象的形式和内容之间的连接神。 That Jesus Christ is himself the truth; that man bears the divine image on the basis of creation and that this image while distorted by sin is not destroyed; that the Holy Bible is a rational revelation of the nature of God and his will for fallen man; that the Holy Spirit uses truth as a means of conviction and conversion, all these facts indicate in some measure the undeniable premium assigned to rationality by the Christian religion.耶稣基督是自己的道理,人创造的基础上负有神圣的形象,而被罪扭曲的形象不被破坏,“圣经”是上帝的本质的理性的启示和他堕落的人将圣灵使用真理的信念和转换的手段,所有这些事实表明在一定程度上不可否认的保费由基督教理性。 Yet human reason is not viewed as a source of truth; rather, man is to think God's thoughts after him.然而,人类的理性是不被视为真理的源泉;,而不是后,他认为,人是神的思想。Revelation is the source of truth, and reason, as illuminated by the Spirit, the instrument for comprehending it.启示是真理的来源和原因,的精神,领会它的仪表照明。

Contemporary theology is marked by its reaffirmation of the priority of revelation to reason.当代神学的特点是其重申优先启示原因。In this respect it is distinguished from the liberal Protestant dogmatics of the nineteenth century, which tended to view human reason as a selfsufficient and independent criterion.在这方面,它是区别于自由新教教义的19世纪,它倾向于认为人类的理性作为selfsufficient和独立标准。 Some neo-Thomistic studies today restate the philosophy even of Thomas Aquinas so as to set the usual summary of his approach, "I understand in order to believe," in a context of faith.一些新Thomistic研究今天重申甚至托马斯阿奎那的哲学,以设置他的做法通常摘要,“据我所知,才能相信,”在信仰方面。 The Thomistic hostility to innate ideas, and the Thomistic support for knowledge of God by the way of negation and the way of analogy are, however, firmly reasserted. Thomistic敌视先天的想法,和神的知识的否定的方式和类推的方式Thomistic支持,然而,坚定地重申。Protestant theology, heavily influenced by Karl Barth and Emil Brunner, now characteristically reasserts the priority of revelation over reason.新教神学,卡尔巴特和埃米尔布伦纳的严重影响,现在典型的reasserts优先的启示原因。Thus the epistemological formulas representative of Augustine ("I believe in order to understand") and of Tertullian ("I believe what is absurd," ie, to the unregenerate man) are much in the climate of current theological dialogue.因此,认识论公式代表奥古斯丁(“我相信,以了解”)和特土良(“我相信什么是荒谬的”,即的,unregenerate男子)在当前的神学对话的气候的。 But the modern tendency to exaggerate the transcendence of God, by way of revolt against the classic liberal overstatement of divine immanence, subserves the Tertullian more than the Augustinian formula.但现代倾向夸大神的超越,对经典的神圣的内在自由言过其实的反抗方式,subserves比奥古斯丁公式良。The historic Christian confidence in a revealed world-and-life view takes its rise from a prior confidence in the reality of rational divine revelation.历史悠久的基督教信心在揭示世界和人生的看法,需要从一个现实理性的神圣启示的前信心上升。The modern tendency to veer toward a doctrine of revelation whose locus is to be found in an immediate existential response, rather than in an objectively conveyed Scripture, thwarts the theological interest in biblically revealed doctrines and principles from which an explanatory view of the whole of reality and life may be exposited.现代的倾向,转向走向的启示教义,其轨迹是立即的生存反应,而不是在客观上传达的经文,被发现,阻碍圣经揭示的教义和原则的神学利益的整个现实的解释和寿命可能会exposited。 Thus it is apparent that a recovery of confidence in the intelligible integration of the whole of life's experiences depends significantly upon a virile sense of the actuality of rational divine revelation.因此很明显,在整个人生经历的可理解一体化的信心的恢复很大程度上取决于一个理性的神圣启示的现实刚健感。

CH Henry CH亨利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J. Baillie, The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought; J. Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1.6-9; CFH Henry, "Divine Revelation and the Bible," in Inspiration and Interpretation, ed.J.贝利,在最近的思想观念的启示; J.卡尔文学院的基督教,1.6-9; CFH亨利,“神的启示,”圣经“,”灵感和口译,编辑。JF Walvoord, and (ed.), Revelation and the Bible; PK Jewett, Emil Brunner's Concept of Revelation; H. Kraemer, Religion and the Christian Faith; BB Warfield, Revelation and Inspiration; HD McDonald, Theories of Revelation and Ideas of Revelation.JF Walvoord,(编),启示和圣经; PK朱伊特,埃米尔布伦纳的启示的概念; H.克雷默,宗教和基督教的信仰; BB沃菲尔德,启示和灵感,高清麦当劳,理论的启示和思想的启示。


Apocalypse启示

Catholic Information天主教信息

Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto, to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the Bible.启示,从动词apokalypto透露,在“圣经”的最后一本书的名字。It is also called the Book of Revelation.它也被称为启示录。

Although a Christian work, the Apocalypse belongs to a class of literature dealing with eschatological subjects and much in vogue among the Jews of the first century before, and after, Christ.虽然基督教的工作,“启示录”属于一类文学处理末世论科目和很多犹太人的第一个世纪前,后,基督之间的时尚。

AUTHENTICITY真实性

The author of the Apocalypse calls himself John.“启示录”的作者自称约翰。"John to the seven churches which are in Asia" (Ap., i, 4).“约翰在亚洲的七个教会”,(Ap.,我,4)。And again, "I, John, your brother and your partner in tribulation . . . was in the island which called Patmos, for the word of God" (i, 9).再次,“我,约翰,​​你哥哥和你的伴侣在患难中。。在岛内称为帕特莫斯,上帝的话”(I,9)。

The Seer does not further specify his personality.先知并没有进一步说明他的个性。But from tradition we know that the Seer of the Apocalypse was John the Apostle the son of Zebedee, the Beloved Disciple of Jesus.但是,从传统,我们知道,先知的启示是使徒约翰西庇太的儿子,耶稣的爱徒。At the end of the second century the Apocalypse was acknowledged by the historical representatives of the principal churches as the genuine work of John the Apostle. “启示录”的第二个世纪结束在承认由使徒约翰的真正工作的主要教堂的历史代表。

In Asia, Melito, Bishop of Sardis, one of the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse, acknowledged the Revelation of John and wrote a commentary on it (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., IV, 26).在亚洲,美利托,主教撒狄,七个教会的启示之一,承认约翰的启示,并写了它的评注(优西比乌,组织胺。传道书,四,26)。 In Gaul, Irenaeus firmly believes in its Divine and Apostolic authority (Adversus Haer., V, 30).爱任纽在高卢,坚信它的神圣和使徒权威(Adversus Haer,V 30)。In Africa, Tertullian frequently quotes Revelation without apparent misgivings as to its authenticity (C. Marcion, III, 14, 25).在非洲,良经常引用其真实性(C.马吉安,三,14,25)无明显疑虑的启示。In Italy, Bishop Hippolytus assigns it to the Apostle St. John, and the Muratorian Fragment (a document about the beginning of the third century) enumerates it along with the other canonical writings, adding, it is true, apocryphal Apocalypse of St. Peter, but with the clause, quam quidam ex nostris in ecclesia legi nolunt.在意大利,西波吕主教赋予它的使徒圣约翰,以及穆拉多利片段(有关的第三个世纪开始文件)列举了它与其他规范的著作,加入,这是事实,杜撰的圣彼得的启示,但与条款,在教会legi nolunt华富嘉洛quidam前nostris。The Vetus Itala, moreover, the standard Latin version in Italy and Africa during the third century, contained the Apocalypse.Vetus伊泰莱,此外,在第三个世纪的标准在意大利和非洲的拉丁版本,包含的启示。In Egypt, Clement and Origen believed without hesitation in its Joannine authorship.在埃及,克莱门特和奥利认为毫不犹豫地Joannine作者。They were both scholars and men of critical judgment.他们都是学者和关键判断的男子。Their opinion is all the more valuable as they had no sympathy with the millennial teaching of the book.他们认为更有价值,因为他们没有同情千年教学书。They contented themselves with an allegorical interpretation of certain passages but never ventured to impugn its authority.他们满足自己的寓言解释某些段落,但从来都不敢抨击其权威。

Approaching more closely the apostolic age we have the testimony of St. Justin Martyr, about the middle of the second century.更加紧密地走近使徒时代,我们的第二个世纪中叶,圣贾斯汀烈士的证词。 From Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., IV, xviii, 8), as well as from his dialogue with the Jew, Tryphon (c. 81), held in Ephesus, the residence of the apostle, we know that he admitted the authenticity of the Apocalypse.从尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,四,18,8),以及从他的犹太人,Tryphon(C. 81)以弗所,使徒的住所举行,对话,我们知道,他承认的真实性“启示录”。Another witness of about the same time is Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, a place not far from Ephesus.大约在同一时间的另一个证人是帕皮亚,主教希拉波利斯,从以弗所不远的地方。If he himself had not been a hearer of St. John, he certainly was personally acquainted with several of his disciples (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., III, 39).如果他自己没有被圣约翰听话,他肯定是亲自了解他的几个弟子“(优西比乌,组织胺。传道书。,三,39)。His evidence however is but indirect.然而,他的证据,但间接。Andreas, Bishop of Caesarea, in the prologue to his commentary on the Apocalypse, informs us that Papias admitted its inspired character.安德烈亚斯,凯撒利亚主教,他对“启示录”的评注的序幕,告诉我们,帕皮亚承认其灵感的性格。From the Apocalypse undoubtedly Papias derived his ideas of the millennium, on which account Eusebius decries his authority, declaring him to have been a man of limited understanding.从启示录“无疑是帕皮亚派生千年,哪个帐户尤西比乌斯decries他的权力,他的想法,宣布他已了解有限的人。 The apostolic writings which are extant furnish no evidence for the authenticity of the book.这是现存的使徒著作提供没有证据显示书的真实性。

ARGUMENTS AGAINST ITS AUTHENTICITY针对其真实性的争论

The Alogi, about AD 200, a sect so called because of their rejection of the logos-doctrine, denied the authenticity of the Apocalypse, assigning it to Cerinthus (Epiphanius, LI, ff, 33; cf. Iren., Adv. Haer., III, 11, 9). Alogi,约公元200年,一个教派所谓的,因为他们拒绝标志的学说,否认“启示录”的真实性,分配到Cerinthus(埃皮法尼乌斯,李,FF,33;比照伊伦,高级Haer。三,11,9)。 Caius, a presbyter in Rome, of about the same time, holds a similar opinion.凯厄斯,长老在罗马,大约在同一时间,持有类似的观点。 Eusebius quotes his words taken from his Disputation: "But Cerinthus by means of revelations which he pretended were written by a great Apostle falsely pretended to wonderful things, asserting that after the resurrection there would be an earthly kingdom" (Hist. Eccl., III, 28).尤西比乌斯引用他的话从他的争议:“但通过他假装的启示Cerinthus被写了一个伟大的使徒虚假假装美好的事物,断言,复活后会有一个地上的王国”(Hist.传道书,三。 ,28)。The most formidable antagonist of the authority of the Apocalypse is Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, disciple of Origen.最可怕的拮抗剂权威的启示是狄奥尼修斯,主教亚历山德里亚,奥利弟子。 He is not opposed to the supposition that Cerinthus is the writer of the Apocalypse.他并不反对假定Cerinthus是作家的启示。"For", he says, "this is the doctrine of Cerinthus, that there will be an earthly reign of Christ, and as he was a lover of the body he dreamed that he would revel in the gratification of the sensual appetite". “对于”,他说,“这是Cerinthus学说,将会有一个基督的尘世的统治,和他是一个情人的身体,他梦见他会陶醉在满足食欲的感官”。He himself did not adopt the view that Cerinthus was the writer.他自己也没采取Cerinthus认为是作家。He regarded the Apocalypse as the work of an inspired man but not of an Apostle (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., VII, 25).他视为一个灵感的人的工作“启示录”,但不是一个使徒(优西比乌,组织胺。传道书,七,25)。During the fourth and fifth centuries the tendency to exclude the Apocalypse from the list of sacred books continued to increase in the Syro-Palestinian churches.在第四和第五世纪的倾向排除启示神圣的书籍清单继续增加Syro巴勒斯坦教堂。Eusebius expresses no definite opinion.尤西比乌斯表示没有明确的意见。He contents himself with the statement: "The Apocalypse is by some accepted among the canonical books but by others rejected" (Hist. Eccl., III, 25).他内容的发言:“启示录是通过一些典型的书籍中接受,而是由别人拒绝”(Hist.传道书,三,25)。St. Cyril of Jerusalem does not name it among the canonical books (Catech. IV, 33-36); nor does it occur on the list of the Synod of Laodicea, or on that of Gregory of Nazianzus.圣西里尔耶路撒冷之间的名称不典型的书籍(Catech.四,33-36);也不发生在老底嘉主教名单,或格雷戈里的nazianzus。 Perhaps the most telling argument against the apostolic authorship of the book is its omission from the Peshito, the Syrian Vulgate.也许最有说服力的论据是对书的使徒作者从Peshito,叙利亚武加大遗漏。But although the authorities giving evidence against the authenticity of the Apocalypse deserve full consideration they cannot annul or impair the older and unanimous testimony of the churches.不过,虽然当局提供对证据真实性的启示,值得充分考虑他们不能废止或损害教会的旧的和一致的证词。The opinion of its opponents, moreover, was not free from bias.其反对者的意见,而且,没有偏见。From the manner in which Dionysius argued the question, it is evident that he thought the book dangerous as occasioning crude and sensual notions concerning the resurrection.从狄奥尼修斯争辩的问题以何种方式,这是显而易见的,他认为这本书occasioning原油和感性的概念,关于复活的危险。 In the West the Church persevered in its tradition of apostolic authorship.在西方教会坚持在其使徒作者的传统。St. Jerome alone seemed to have been influenced by the doubts of the East.圣杰罗姆单独似乎已被东方的疑虑影响。

THE APOCALYPSE COMPARED WITH THE FOURTH GOSPEL相比,第四福音的启示

The relation between the Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel has been discussed by authors, both ancient and modern.已讨论了作者,既古老又现代的启示和第四福音之间的关系。Some affirm and others deny their mutual resemblance.一些肯定和其他否认彼此间的相似。

The learned Alexandrine Bishop, Dionysius, drew up in his time a list of differences to which modern authors have had little to add.据悉亚历山大主教,狄奥尼修斯,吸引了他的时间的现代作家有什么补充的差异列表。He begins by observing that whereas the Gospel is anonymous, the writer of the Apocalypse prefixes his name, John.他通过观察,而福音是匿名的,作家的启示前缀他的名字,约翰开始。He next points out how the characteristic terminology of the Fourth Gospel, so essential to the Joannine doctrine, is absent in the Apocalypse.他接着指出,如何特征术语第四福音,如此重要的Joannine教义,是在缺席的启示。The terms, "life", "light", "grace", "truth", do not occur in the latter.在后者的条款,“生命”,“轻”,“宽限期”,“真理”,不发生。Nor did the crudeness of diction on the part of the Apocalypse escape him.也没有粗野的文辞“启示录”的一部分,逃避他。The Greek of the Gospel he pronounces correct as to grammar, and he even gives its author credit for a certain elegance of style.希腊的福音,他发音,语法是正确的,他甚至给出了一定的风格典雅的作者信贷。But the language of the Apocalypse appeared to him barbarous and disfigured by solecisms.但“启示录”的语言出现在他面前野蛮和solecisms毁容。He, therefore inclines to ascribe the works to different authors (Hist. Eccl., VII, 25).因此他倾向于归于不同作者的作品(Hist.传道书,七,25)。

The upholders of a common authorship reply that these differences may be accounted for by bearing in mind the peculiar nature and aim of each work.李家铭记每个工作的特殊性质和目的,这些差异可能是占一个共同作者的答复。The Apocalypse contains visions and revelations.启示包含异象和启示。In conformity with other books of the same kind, eg the Book of Daniel, the Seer prefixed his name to his work.在符合其他同类书籍,如丹尼尔,他的名字前缀他的工作先知书。The Gospel on the other hand is written in the form of an historical record.另一方面福音是书面形式的历史记录。In the Bible, works of that kind do not bear the signature of their authors.在“圣经”中,那种不承担其作者的签名。So also as regards the absence of Joannine terminology in the Apocalypse.所以也至于Joannine术语在“启示录”的情况下。 The object of the Gospel is to prove that Jesus is the life and the light of the world, the fullness of truth and grace.福音的对象是证明耶稣是企业的生命和世界的光,丰满的真理和恩典。But in the Apocalypse Jesus is the conqueror of Satan and his kingdom.但在“启示录”耶稣是撒旦和他的王国的征服者。The defects of grammar in the Apocalypse are conceded.启示的语法的缺陷承认。Some of them are quite obvious.其中有些是相当明显的。Let the reader but notice the habit of the author to add an apposition in the nominative to a word in an oblique case; eg iii, 12; xiv, 12; xx, 2.让读者,但要注意作者的习惯添加主格并置在一个倾斜的情况下字,如三,12;第十四条,12,XX,2。It further contains some Hebrew idioms: eg the Hebrew equivalent to erchomenos, "the one that is to come", instead of esomenos, i, 8.它还包含了一些希伯来文的成语:如希伯来相当于erchomenos“,一个​​是来”,而不是esomenos,我8。But it should be borne in mind that when the Apostle first came to Ephesus he was, probably wholly ignorant of the Greek tongue.但应牢记,当使徒首先来到以弗所,他可能完全不了解希腊舌头。

The comparative purity and smoothness of diction in the Gospel may be adequately accounted for by the plausible conjecture that its literary composition was not the work of St. John but of one of his pupils.相对纯度和福音文辞的平滑度,可充分占似是而非的推测,其文学成分是不是圣约翰的工作,但他的学生之一。The defenders of the identity of authorship further appeal to the striking fact that in both works Jesus is called the Lamb and the Word.作者还呼吁惊人的事实,在这两个工程耶稣被称为羔羊和Word的身份的维护者。 The idea of the lamb making atonement for sin by its blood is taken from Isaiah 53.其血的罪赎罪的羔羊的想法是从以赛亚书53章。Throughout the Apocalypse the portraiture of Jesus is that of the lamb.耶稣的肖像,是整个启示的羔羊。Through the shedding of its blood it has opened the book with seven seals and has triumphed over Satan.通过脱落的血,它揭开七印的书,并已超过撒旦的胜利。In the Gospel Jesus is pointed out by the Baptist as the "Lamb of God . . . him who taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29).在福音中耶稣指出浸会为“上帝的羔羊。。他除去世人罪孽的”(约翰福音1:29)。Some of the circumstances of His death resemble the rite observed in the eating of the paschal lamb, the symbol of redemption.他的死亡的情况有些像在吃逾越节的羔羊,赎回的象征观察到的仪式。His crucifixion takes place on the selfsame day on which the Passover was eaten (John xviii, 28).他钉在十字架上正当那日的逾越节吃(约十八28)。Whilst hanging on the cross, His executioners did not break the bones in His body, that the prophecy might be fulfilled: "no bone in it shall be broken" (John 19:36).虽然挂在十字架上,他的刽子手没有打破他的身体的骨头,可能实现的预言:“没骨中应打破”(约翰19时36)。The name Logos, "Word", is quite peculiar to the Apocalypse, Gospel and first Epistle of St. John.的名称标志,“字”,是相当奇特的圣约翰的启示,福音和第一书信。The first sentence of the Gospel is, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God".福音的第一句话就是,“在开始的话语,道与神,道就是神”。The first epistle of St. John begins, "That which was from the beginning which we have heard . . . of the word of life".第一书信的圣约翰开始,“从我们听到的开始。。字的生活”。So also in the Apocalypse, "And his name is called the Word of God" (19:13).所以,也启示“和他的名字被称为神的话语”(19:13)。

TIME AND PLACE时间和地点

The Seer himself testifies that the visions he is about to narrate were seen by him whilst in Patmos.先知本人的证明,他叙说的愿景看到他,而在帕特莫斯。"I John . . . was in the island which is called Patmos for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus" (1:9).“我约翰。被称为上帝的话和耶稣的见证帕特莫斯岛”(1:9)。Patmos is one of the group of small islands close to the coast of Asia Minor, about twelve geographical miles from Ephesus.帕特莫斯是一个从以弗所的地理约十二公里,靠近小亚细亚沿岸的小岛屿。Tradition, as Eusebius tells us, has handed down that John was banished to Patmos in the reign of Domitian for the sake of his testimony of God's word (Hist. Eccl., III, 18).尤西比乌斯告诉我们,传统,流传下来的,约翰被放逐在统治的多米提安为了他的神的话语(Hist.传道书,三,18)证词,以帕特莫斯。 He obviously refers to the passage "for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus" (i, 9).他显然是指通过“上帝的话和耶稣的见证”(一,9)。It is true that the more probable meaning of this phrase is, "in order to hear the word of God", etc., and not "banished because of the word of God", etc., (cf. i. 2).这是事实,这句话的含义更可能是“为了听到上帝的话”等,而不是“上帝的话,因为放逐”等,(参一2)。But it was quite natural that the Seer should have regarded his banishment to Patmos as prearranged by Divine Providence that in the solitude of the island he might hear God's word.但它是很自然的,应该有先见把他流放到神圣的普罗维登斯预先安排的,在孤独的岛屿,他可能会听到神的话语帕特莫斯。The tradition recorded by Eusebius finds confirmation in the words of the Seer describing himself as "a brother and partaker in tribulation" (i, 9).由尤西比乌斯记录的传统,发现在确认自己描述为“在患难的兄弟和有分”(I,9)的先知的话。Irenaeus places the Seer's exile in Patmos at the end of Domitian's reign.爱任纽的地方先知的流亡帕特莫斯在多米提安的统治结束。 "Paene sub nostro saeculo ad finem Domitiani imperii" (Adv. Haer., V. 4).“Paene分nostro saeculo广告finem Domitiani imperii”(Adv. Haer,五4)。The Emperor Domitian reigned AD 81-96.皇帝多米提安公元81-96年在位。In all matters of Joannine tradition Irenaeus deserves exceptional credit.在Joannine传统爱任纽的所有事项值得特殊的信贷。 His lifetime bordered upon the Apostolic age and his master, St. Polycarp, had been among the disciples of St. John.他的一生接壤使徒时代后,和他的主人,圣polycarp,门徒圣约翰之间。Eusebius, chronicling the statement of Irenaeus without any misgivings, adds as the year of the Seer's exile the fourteenth of Domitian's reign.尤西比乌斯记载的爱任纽的声明没有任何疑虑,增加了先知的流亡多米提安的统治的第十四年。St. Jerome also, without reserve or hesitation, follows the same tradition.圣杰罗姆还毫无保留地或犹豫,遵循相同的的传统。 "Quarto decimo anno, secundam post Neronem persecutionem movente Domitiano, in Patmos insulam relegatus, scripsit Apocalypsim" (Ex libro de Script. Eccl).“季刊decimo ANNO,movente Domitiano Neronem persecutionem secundam后,在帕特莫斯insulam relegatus,scripsit A​​pocalypsim”(当然libro脚本。传道书)。Against the united testimony of these three witnesses of tradition the statement of Epiphanius placing the Seer's banishment in the reign of Claudius, AD 41-54, appears exceedingly improbable (Haer., li, 12, 33).对美国的传统这三个证人的声明放置在克劳狄斯,公元41-54年间的先知的流放埃皮法尼乌斯证词,显得极其不可能(Haer.,李,12,33)。

CONTENTS目录

(1) THE SEVEN CHURCHES(1)七个教会

1:1-3. 1:1-3。Title and description of the book书的标题和描述

The revelation made by Jesus the Messias to John.耶稣的messias约翰启示。

1:4-9. 1:4-9。Salutation招呼

Salutation prefatory to the seven Epistles, wishing the churches the grace and the peace of God and Jesus.称呼前言七书信,希望教会的恩典,上帝和耶稣的和平。

1:9-20. 1:9-20。The vision of Jesus as the Son of man作为人子耶稣的愿景

The portrait is taken from Daniel 10 and Henoch 46.画像是从丹尼尔10和过敏46。Cf.比照the phrases, "one like the son of man" (Apocalypse 1:13, Daniel 10:16 and 7:13); "girded with gold" (Apocalypse 1:13; Daniel 10:5); "eyes like flames of fire" (Apocalypse 1:14; Daniel 10:6); "a voice like that of a multitude" (Apocalypse 1:15; Daniel 10:6); "I fell down like one senseless" (Apocalypse 1:17; Daniel 10:9); "and he touched me" (Apocalypse 1:17, Daniel 10:18); "hair white like wool" (Apocalypse 1:14; Daniel 7:9; Henoch 46:1).词组(启示录1:13,丹尼尔10:16和7:13),“像人子”;“束腰带金”(启示录1:13;丹尼尔10:5);“眼睛像火焰“(启示录1:14;丹尼尔10:6);”像一个多种声音“(启示录1:15;丹尼尔10:6);”我爱上像一个无厘头“(启示录1:17;丹尼尔10 :9),“他让我感动”(启示录1:17,丹尼尔10:18);“头发白如羊毛”(启示录1:14;丹尼尔7:9;过敏46:1)。

2:1-3:22. 2:1-3:22。The Epistles, to the seven Churches书信,七个教会

The Churches are Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.教会是以弗所,士每拿,别迦摩,推雅推喇,撒狄,费城,和老底嘉。The Epistles are short exhortations to the Christians to remain steadfast in their faith, to beware of false apostles and to abstain from fornication and from meat offered to idols.书信短规劝基督徒保持坚定自己的信仰,要提防假使徒和弃权私通和肉类提供的偶像。

(2) THE BOOK WITH THE SEVEN SEALS(2)与七印的书

Chapters 4 and 5.第4和第5章。The vision of God enthroned upon the Cherubim The throne is surrounded by twenty-four elders.登基后的基路伯的宝座,周围是由二十四位长老神的视野。In the right hand of God is a scroll sealed with seven seals.在神的右边是滚动七封条密封。In the midst of the Cherubim and the elders the Seer beholds a lamb, "agnus tamquam occisus", having on its throat the scar of the gash by which it was slain.在基路伯和长老中的先知beholds的羔羊“,agnus tamquam occisus”加什其中被杀害的疤痕,其咽喉。The Seer weeps because no one either in heaven or on earth can break the seals.先知哭泣,因为没有人在天堂还是在地球上可以打破了封条。 He is comforted on hearing that the lamb was worthy to do so because of the redemption it had wrought by its blood.他是安慰审理后认为,羊肉是值得做,因为它造成其血液的赎回。The portrait of the throne is taken from Ezechiel 1.画像的宝座是取自Ezechiel 1。Compare in both accounts the description of the four beasts.在这两个帐户,比较四兽的描述。They resemble a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle.他们像狮子,牛,一个男人,和一个老鹰球。Their bodies are full of eyes (cf. Revelation 4:8; and Ezekiel 10:12).他们的尸体的眼睛(参见启示录4:8;和以西结书10:12)。 The twenty-four elders were probably suggested by the twenty-four courses of priests ministering in the Temple.二十四位长老,祭司在圣殿服事的二十四门课程可能建议。The lamb slain for the sins of mankind is from Isaias 53.为人类的罪被杀的羔羊是从伊萨亚斯53。

Chapters 6 and 7.第6和第7章。The seven seals and the numbering of the Saints At the opening of four seals, four horses appear.七印和编号圣徒在四个密封的开放,四匹马出现。Their colour is white, black, red, and sallow, or green (chloros, piebald).它们的颜色是白色,黑色,红色,灰黄色,或绿色(chloros,花斑)。They signify conquest, slaughter, dearth and death.他们象征的征服,屠杀,缺乏和死亡。The vision is taken from Zach., vi, 1-8.我们的目标是采取从扎克,六,1-8。At the opening of the fifth seal the Seer beholds the martyrs that were slain and hears their prayers for the final triumph.在开放第五密封先知beholds烈士被杀害,并听取他们的祈祷,为最后的胜利。At the opening of the sixth seal the predestined to glory are numbered and marked.在开幕的第六届密封缘荣耀的编号和标记。 The Seer beholds them divided into two classes.先知beholds它们分为两类。First, 144,000 Jews, 12,000 of every tribe.首先,144000犹太人,12000每一个部落。Then a numberless multitude chosen from all nations and tongues.然后无数的多种选择,从所有国家和舌头。

Chapters 8 and 9.第8和第9章。The seventh seal第七封印

After the interval of about half an hour, the seventh seal is broken; seven angels issue forth, each one holding a trumpet.间隔约半小时后,第七封印被打破;七位天使的问题提出,每个人拿着一个小号。The sounding of the first four trumpets causes a partial destruction of the elements of nature.冠冕堂皇的前四个喇叭造成局部破坏了大自然的元素。One-third of the earth is burned, as also one-third of the trees and all the grass.地球的三分之一,也三分之一的树木和草被烧毁。One-third of the sea becomes blood (cf. Exodus 7:17).海的三分之一变成血(参出埃及记“7:17)。One-third of the rivers is turned into water of wormwood.有三分之一的河流变成艾草水。One-third of the sun, moon, and stars is obscured, causing one-third of the day to be dark (cf. Exodus 10:21).三分之一的太阳,月亮和星星是模糊不清,导致在同一天的三分之一,是黑暗的(参出埃及记10:21)。At the sounding of the fifth trumpet locusts ascend from the abyss.探空第五小号蝗虫升天的深渊。Their work is to torment men for five months, They are specially charged not to touch the grass.他们的工作是折磨5个月的男性,他们是专门负责不要触摸草。Their shape is that of horses (Joel 2:4) their teeth like those of lions (Joel 1:6), their hair like the hair of women.它们的形状是马(珥2:4)他们的牙齿像狮子(珥1:6),他们像头发的妇女的头发。They have the tails of scorpions where with to chastise man.它们的尾巴的蝎子,斥责男子。The command over them is held by the Angel of the Abyss, named Abaddon, the destroyer.对他们的命令是深渊的天使,名为阿巴顿,驱逐舰举行。At the sound of the sixth trumpet the four angels chained at the Euphrates are let loose.在第六小号声中,四个天使在幼发拉底河链放开。They lead forth an army of horsemen.他们领导了军队的骑兵。By the fire which the horses spit out and by their tails which are like serpents, one-third of mankind is killed.火马吐了出来,和它们的尾巴像蛇,人类三分之一被杀害。After the sixth trumpet there are two digressions.第六小号后,有两个离题。(1) The angel standing on the land and the sea.(1)天使站在陆地和海洋。He swears that at the sound of the seventh trumpet the mystery will be completed.他发誓,在第七小号的声音,将完成其中的奥秘。He hands to the Seer a little book.他手中的先知一本小书。When eaten by him it is found sweet to taste, but bitter when once devoured.当他吃的是甜的味道,但苦一旦吞噬。Taken from Ezech., ii.两者从Ezech。,II。8; iii, 3.8,三,3。(2) The contamination of the court of the Temple by the heathens.(2)污染异教徒寺法庭。It lasts three and a half years.持续3年半。Taken from Dan., vii, 25; ix, 27; xii, 7-11.摘自丹,七,25 27九,十二,7-11。During that time two witnesses are sent to preach in Jerusalem.在这期间,两名证人被发送到在耶路撒冷讲道。They are the two olive-trees foretold by Zach., iv, 3,11.他们两个橄榄树预言扎克,四,3,11。At the end of their mission they are slain by the beast.在他们的使命结束时,他们被杀害的野兽。They are raised to life after three and a half days (= years).他们提出的生命,经过三年半的时间(年)。The seventh trumpet is now sounded, the nations are judged and the kingdom of Christ is established.第七号角响起,各国的判断和建立基督的国度。

(3) THE DIVINE DRAMA(3)神圣的戏剧

First Act.第一幕。Chapters 12-14章12-14

The lamb, the woman, and her seed; and opposed to them, the dragon, the beast from the sea, and the beast from the land.羊肉,女人,和她的种子;和反对他们,龙,兽从海中,并从土地兽。The main idea is taken from Gen., iii, 15.其主要思想是从将军,三,15。"I will put enmities between thee (the serpent) and the woman, and thy seed and her seed". “我会把你(蛇)的女人,和你的后裔和她的种子之间的敌意”。The woman is arrayed in heavenly splendour; a crown of twelve stars on her head and the sun and the moon under her feet (cf. Gen. xxxvii, 9, 10).女人是排列在天上的辉煌;十二星在她的头冠,根据她的脚,太阳和月亮(参创三十七,9,10)。She is in travail.她是在阵痛。 Her first-born is destined to rule all the nation (Psalm 2:8, 9).她的第一个出生的是注定要统治所有的民族(诗篇2:8,9)。She herself, and her other seed, are persecuted for three and a half years by the great dragon who tries to kill them.她本人和她的其他种子,被迫害三年半的时间里,由大龙谁试图杀死他们。The great dragon is Satan (Genesis 3:1).大龙是撒旦(创世记3:1)。He is cast out of heaven.他投出的天堂。With his tail he drags after him one-third of the stars.随着他的尾巴,他一拖再拖后,他的明星之一,第三。Taken from Dan., viii, 10.两者从丹,八,10。The fallen stars are the fallen angels.倒下的明星们的堕落天使。The beast from the sea is in great part taken from Daniel's description of the four beasts.兽从海中从丹尼尔的四兽的描述采取的很大一部分。It arises from the sea (Dan., vii, 3); has seven heads marked all over with blasphemies.它产生于海“(但以理书,七,3);有七头标记各地与亵渎。It had also ten horns, like the fourth beast of Daniel (vii, 7); it resembled a leopard, the third beast of Daniel (vii, 6), it had feet like a bear, the second beast of Daniel (vii, 5); and teeth like a lion, the first beast of Daniel (vii, 4).它也十角,像第四兽的丹尼尔(七,7);它像一只豹,第三野兽的丹尼尔(七,6),它有像熊的脚,第二野兽的丹尼尔(七,5 );和牙齿像狮子,兽首的丹尼尔(七,4)。The great dragon gives full power unto the beast, whereupon all the world worship it (viz. those whose names are not contained in the book of the lamb).大龙兽给你们完整的权力,于是世界上所有的崇拜(即那些是没有的羔羊书所载的名称)。The followers of the beast have its mark on their head and hand.兽的追随者们对他们的头部和手部的标志。The beast from the land has two horns like a ram.从土地的野兽有两个角,像一只公羊。Its power lies in its art of deceiving by means of tokens and miracles.它的力量在于它由令牌和奇迹的手段欺骗的艺术。Throughout the remainder of the book it is called the false prophet.纵观本书的剩余部分,​​它被称为假先知。Its office is to assist the beast from the sea, and to induce men to adore its image.其办公室是协助兽从海,并促使男性崇拜自己的形象。The first act of the drama concludes with a promise of victory over the beast by the lamb of God.戏剧的第一幕,最后战胜兽神的羔羊的承诺。

Second Act.第二幕。Chapters 15-16章15-16

The seven vials.7瓶。They are the seven plagues preceding the destruction of the great city, Babylon.他们是伟大的城市,巴比伦的毁灭前的七灾。 They were for the greater part suggested by the Egyptian plagues.他们建议由埃及瘟疫的大部份。The first vial is poured out on the earth.第一瓶是倾注了出来在地上。Men and beasts are smitten with ulcers (Exodus 9:9-10).男人和野兽是重拳出击溃疡(出埃及记9:9-10)。The second and third vial upon the seas and rivers.第二和第三瓶后,海洋和河流。They become blood (Exodus 7:17-21).他们成为血(出埃及记7:17-21)。The fourth vial upon the sun.根据太阳的第四瓶。It burns men to death.它烧伤男子死亡。The fifth vial upon the throne of the beast.兽的宝座后的第五瓶。It causes great darkness (Exodus 10:11-29).它造成了巨大的黑暗(出埃及记10:11-29)。The sixth vial upon the Euphrates.第六小瓶后幼发拉底河。Its waters are dried up and form a passage for the kings of the East (Exodus 14).其水域干涸,形成一个东(出埃及记14)国王的推移。The seventh upon the air.后,空气中的第七位。Storm and earthquake destroy Babylon.风暴和地震摧毁巴比伦。

Third Act.第三幕。Chapters 17-18章17-18

The great harlot.伟大的妓女。She is seated upon the scarlet beast with the seven heads and ten horns.她坐在猩红色的七头十角兽。She is robed in scarlet and decked with gold.她是穿着长袍在血色,并加盖与黄金。On her head is written: Mystery, Babylon the great.在她的头上写的是:神秘,巴比伦的伟大。The kings of the earth commit fornication with her.地上的君王与她私通提交。But the day of her visitation has come.但她的探视权的时代已经来临。She is made a desolate place, the habitation of unclean animals (Ls., xiii, 21, 22).她是一个荒凉的地方,不洁的动物居住(Ls.,十三,21,22)。Her fall is lamented by the rulers and merchants of the earth.她的下降是由地球的统治者和商人感叹。

Fourth Act.第四幕。Chapters 19-20章19-20

The victory over the beast and the great dragon.在兽和大龙的胜利。A knight appears mounted on a white horse.一个骑士装在白色骏马。His name is "The word of God".他的名字是“上帝的话”。He defeats the beast and the false prophet.他击败了兽和假先知。They are cast alive in the pool of fire.他们都投了活着的消防水池。Their defeat is followed by the first resurrection and the reign of Christ for a thousand years.其次是他们的失败是第一次复活和基督统治了一千多年。The martyrs rise to life and partake with Christ in glory and happiness.烈士的生命与基督分享的荣耀和幸福。During these thousand years the great dragon is held in chains.在这一千多年的大龙举行的链。At their completion he is once more set at large to torment the earth.在他们的完成,他是一次大折腾地球。He deceives the nations Gog and Magog.他欺骗联合国Gog和Magog。These two names are taken from Ezech., chaps.这两个名字取自Ezech,CHAPS。xxviii, xxxix, where however Gog is the king of Magog.二十八,三十九,其中不过歌革玛王。At last he also is cast for all eternity in the pool of fire.最后,他还投永恒的消防水池。Hereupon the general judgement and the resurrection take place.于此的总体判断和复活的地方。

Fifth Act.第五幕。Chapters 21-22章21-22

The new Jerusalem (cf. Ezechiel 40-48).新耶路撒冷(参Ezechiel 40-48)。God dwells in the midst of His saints who enjoy complete happiness.神住在他的圣人,享受完整的幸福之中。The new Jerusalem is the spouse of the lamb.新耶路撒冷是配偶的羔羊。The names of the Twelve Tribes and the Twelve Apostles are written on its gates.十二个​​支派和十二使徒的名字都写上了大门。 God and the lamb are the sanctuary in this new city.上帝和羔羊在这个新的城市的避难所。Epilogue.尾声。Verses 18-21诗篇18-21

The prophecy of the book is soon to be fulfilled.书中的预言,不久将实现。The Seer warns the reader not to add anything to it or take away from it under pain of forfeiting his share in the heavenly city.先知警告读者,它不添加任何或根据疼痛没收他在天上的城市份额采取远离它。

PURPOSE OF THE BOOK本书的目的

From this cursory perusal of the book, it is evident that the Seer was influenced by the prophecies of Daniel more than by any other book.从这个粗略细读的书,这是显而易见的,先知的预言丹尼尔超过任何其他的书的影响。Daniel was written with the object of comforting the Jews under the cruel persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes.丹尼尔写的安慰下安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯犹太人的残酷迫害的对象。The Seer in the Apocalypse had a similar purpose.在启示的先知也有类似的目的。The Christians were fiercely persecuted in the reign of Domitian.基督徒被狠狠多米提安统治的迫害。The danger of apostasy was great.叛教的危险是很大的。False prophets went about, trying to seduce the people to conform to the heathen practices and to take part in the Caesar-worship.关于假先知去,试图勾引人符合异教徒的做法,并采取在凯撒崇拜的一部分。The Seer urges his Christians to remain true to their faith and to bear their troubles with fortitude.先知敦促基督徒他忠于自己的信仰,并承担自己的烦恼与刚毅。He encourages them with the promise of an ample and speedy reward.他鼓励他们充分和迅速的奖励的承诺。He assures them that Christ's triumphant coming is at hand.他保证,他们说,基督的胜利的未来就在眼前。Both in the beginning and at the end of his book the Seer is most emphatic in telling his people that the hour of victory is nigh.在他的著作,无论是在开始和结束的先知是最言之凿凿告诉他的人民,胜利的时刻近。He begins, saying: "Blessed is he that . . . keepeth those things which are written in it; for the time is at hand" (i. 3).他开始说:“是有福的,他keepeth写的那些事情,时间是在眼前。。”(一3)。He closes his visions with the pathetic words: "He that giveth testimony of these things saith, Surely I come quickly: Amen. Come, Lord Jesus".他关闭他的视觉与可悲的话:“他,所赐的这些东西仰的证词,当然我很快到来:阿门来,主耶稣”。With the coming of Christ the woes of the Christians will be avenged.随着基督的来临的基督徒的困境将会报复。Their oppressors will be given up to the judgment and the everlasting torments.将放弃他们的压迫者的判断和永恒的折磨。 The martyrs that have fallen will be raised to life, that they may share the pleasures of Christ's kingdom, the millennium.下降的烈士,将提高到生活,使他们可以分享基督的王国,千年的乐趣。Yet this is but a prelude to the everlasting beatitude which follows after the general resurrection.然而,这是但永恒的至福后一般复活如下的一个前奏。It is an article of faith that Christ will return at the end of time to judge the living and the dead.这是一篇文章的信仰,基督将在年底的时候返回来判断活人与死人。But the time of His second advent is unknown.但他的第二次来临的时间是未知的。"But of that day and hour no one knoweth, no, not the angels of heaven, but the Father alone" (Matthew 24:36).“但是,日和小时,没有之一knoweth,没有,没有天使的天堂,但父亲单独”(马太福音24:36)。It would appear, and is so held by many that the Christians of the Apostolic age expected that Christ would return during their own lifetime or generation.这样看来,所以许多人认为使徒时代的基督徒,基督将返回在自己的有生之年或代。This seems to be the more obvious meaning of several passages both in the Epistles and Gospels (cf. John 21:21-23, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18).这似乎是在书信和福音(参见约翰福音21:21-23,帖前4:13-18)的几个段落更明显的意义。The Christians of Asia Minor and the Seer with them, appear to have shared this fallacious expectation.小亚细亚的基督徒和与他们的先知,似乎有共享这一谬误的期望。Their mistaken hope, however, did not affect the soundness of their belief in the essential part of the dogma.误认为他们的希望,然而,并没有影响他们在信仰的教条的重要组成部分的稳健。Their views of a millennial period of corporal happiness were equally erroneous.一个千年期间下士幸福的,他们的意见,同样的错误。 The Church has wholly cast aside the doctrine of a millennium previous to the resurrection.教会完全抛开一千年以前的复活学说。St. Augustine has perhaps more than any one else helped to free the Church from all crude fancies as regards its pleasures.圣奥古斯丁也许超过任何其他人帮助摆脱教会所有原油望梅止渴至于它的乐趣。He explained the millennium allegorically and applied it to the Church of Christ on earth.他解释了千年的寓言,并把它应用到地球上的基督的教会。With the foundation of the Church the millennium began.随着教会的基础上千年开始。The first resurrection is the spiritual resurrection of the soul from sin (De Civ. Dei Lib. XX).第一次复活的灵魂从罪恶(CIV。之LIB。XX)的精神复活。Thus the number 1,000 is to be taken indefinitely.因此1000应采取无限期。

STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK AND ITS LITERARY COMPOSITION结构的书和其文学的组成

The subject-matter of the Apocalypse required a threefold division.标的物的启示需要三倍的分工。

The first part comprises the seven exhortatory letters.第一部分包括七个劝诫信。

The leading idea in the second part is the wisdom of Christ.在第二部分中的主导思想是基督的智慧。 It is symbolized by the book with seven seals.它是象征七印书。In it are written the eternal decrees of God touching the end of the world, and the final victory of good over evil.在它被写入了永恒的法令神触摸世界的尽头,和良好的战胜邪恶的最后胜利。No one except Jesus, the lamb slain for the sins of the world, is worthy to break the seals and read its contents.除了耶稣为世人的罪被杀的羔羊,没有人是值得打破了封条,并阅读其内容。

The third part describes the power of Christ over Satan and his kingdom.第三部分介绍了基督,撒旦和他的王国的权力。The lamb defeats the dragon and the beast.羔羊击败龙兽。This idea is developed in a drama of five acts.这个想法是开发中的五幕话剧。In five successive scenes we see before us the struggle, the fall of Babylon the harlot, the victory, and final beatitude.在连续五个场景中,我们看到摆在我们面前的斗争中,巴比伦的妓女的秋天,胜利,并最终至福。

The third part is not only the most important, but also the most successful from a literary point of view.第三部分,不仅是最重要的,但也从文学的角度来看,最成功的。The drama of the lamb contains several beautiful thoughts of lasting value.戏剧的羔羊包含几个漂亮的想法,持久的价值。The lamb, symbolizing gentleness and purity, conquers the beast, the personification of lust and cruelty.羊肉,象征温柔和纯洁性,征服野兽,欲望和残酷的人格化。The harlot signifies idolatry.妓女标志着偶像崇拜。The fornication which the rulers and the nations of the earth commit with her signifies the worship they pay to the images of Caesar and the tokens of his power.地球的统治者和各国承诺与她私通,标志着他们付出的崇拜凯撒的图像和他的权力的令牌。The second part is inferior in literary beauty.第二部分是劣质的文学之美。It contains much that is taken from the Old Testament, and it is full of extravagant imagery.它包含许多是从旧约,这是奢侈的图像。The Seer shows a fanciful taste for all that is weird and grotesque.先知显示了一个奇特的味道怪异,怪诞。He delights in portraying locusts with hair like that of women and horses with tails like serpents.他在描绘头发的妇女和马尾巴像蛇一样的蝗虫美食。There are occasional passages revealing a sense of literary beauty.有偶尔通道揭示了文学之美的感觉​​。God removes the curtain of the firmament as a scribe rolls up his scrolls.神删除苍穹帷幕,作为隶推出了他的滚动。 The stars fall from the heavens like figs from the fig-tree shaken by the storm (vi, 12-14).星星像无花果无花果树动摇风暴(六12-14)从天上掉下。On the whole, however the Seer shows more love for Oriental splendour than the appreciation of true beauty.但是从总体上看,先知显示更加热爱比真正的美的欣赏东方的辉煌。

INTERPRETATION释义

It would be alike wearisome and useless to enumerate even the more prominent applications made of the Apocalypse.这将是一样的疲倦和无用列举甚至更加突出的启示提出的申请。Racial hatred and religious rancour have at all times found in its vision much suitable and gratifying matter.种族仇恨和宗教的积怨在任何时候都发现,在其远景多少合适可喜的事情。Such persons as Mohammed, the Pope, Napoleon, etc., have in turn been identified with the beast and the harlot.穆罕默德,教皇,拿破仑等,这类人反过来被确定与野兽和妓女。To the "reformers" particularly the Apocalypse was an inexhaustible quarry where to dig for invectives that they might hurl then against the Roman hierarchy. “改革者”,特别是“启示录”哪里挖谩骂,他们可能投反对罗马的层次结构,然后是一个取之不尽,用之不竭的采石场。The seven hills of Rome, the scarlet robes of the cardinals, and the unfortunate abuses of the papal court made the application easy and tempting.罗马的枢机主教的猩红色长袍,和不幸的践踏教皇法庭的七个山丘容易和诱人的应用程序。Owing to the patient and strenuous research of scholars, the interpretation of the Apocalypse has been transferred to a field free from the odium theologicum.由于学者的耐心和艰苦的研究,“启示录”的解释已经转移到外地odium theologicum。But then the meaning of the Seer is determined by the rules of common exegesis.但先知的意思是由共同训诂的规则。Apart from the resurrection, the millennium, and the plagues preceding the final consummation, they see in his visions references to the leading events of his time.除了从复活,千年,和灾前的最后圆满,他们看到在他的视野引用他的时间主要事件。Their method of interpretation may be called historic as compared with the theological and political application of former ages.与应用前年龄的神学和政治相比,他们的解释方法,可称为历史性的。The key to the mysteries of the book they find in 17:8-14.他们发现在17:8-14书的奥秘的关键。For thus says the Seer: "Let here the mind that hath understanding give heed".对于先知说:“让我们记住,祂所了解留心”。

The beast from the sea that had received plenitude of power from the dragon, or Satan, is the Roman Empire, or rather, Caesar, its supreme representative.从海上权力已经收到来自龙,或撒旦,充实兽是罗马帝国,或更确切地说,凯撒,其最高代表。The token of the beast with which its servants are marked is the image of the emperor on the coins of the realm.标出其受雇人的野兽的标记,是皇帝的境界硬币的形象。This seems to be the obvious meaning of the passage, that all business transactions, all buying and selling were impossible to them that had not the mark of the beast (Apocalypse 13:17).这似乎是通过明显的意义,所有商业交易,所有的买入和卖出是不可能的,没有野兽的标记(启示录13:17)。Against this interpretation it is objected that the Jews at the time of Christ had no scruple in handling money on which the image of Caesar was stamped (Matthew 22:15-22).在这样的解释,它是反对的时候,基督的犹太人在处理金钱上凯撒的形象加盖(马太福音22:15-22)没有顾忌。 But it should be borne in mind that the horror of the Jews for the imperial images was principally due to the policy of Caligula.但也应铭记的是,犹太人的恐怖帝国图像,主要是由于卡里古拉政策。He confiscated several of their synagogues, changing them into heathen temples by placing his statue in them.他没收了他们的犹太教堂,他的雕像放置在他们转变成异教徒的寺庙。He even sought to erect an image of himself in the Temple of Jerusalem (Josephus, Ant., XVIII, viii, 2).他甚至希望自己的形象竖立在耶路撒冷圣殿(约瑟夫,蚂蚁,十八,八,2)。

The seven heads of the beast are seven emperors.兽的七头7个皇帝。Five of them the Seer says are fallen.其中五先知说是堕落。They are Augustus Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.他们是奥古斯都提比略,卡里古拉,克劳狄斯和Nero。The year of Nero's death is AD 68.Nero的死亡年份是公元68。The Seer goes on to say "One is", namely Vespasian, AD 70-79.先知接着说“是”,即维斯帕先,公元70-79。He is the sixth emperor.他是第六个皇帝。The seventh, we are told by the Seer, "is not yet come. But when he comes his reign will be short".第七,我们的先知告诉记者,“尚未到来,但他来时,他的统治将短”。Titus is meant, who reigned but two years (79-81).提图斯的意思,谁统治,但两年(79-81)。The eighth emperor is Domitian (81-96).第八个皇帝杜米仙(81-96)。Of him the Seer has something very peculiar to say.他的先知有非常奇特的东西说。He is identified with the beast.他是确定与野兽。He is described as the one that "was and is not and shall come up out of the bottomless pit" (17:8).他被形容为一个“不出来的无底洞”(17:8)。In verse 11 it is added: "And the beast which was and is not: the same also is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into destruction".添加在第11节:“兽是不相同的是第八,和七个,并goeth到销毁”。

All this sounds like oracular language.这一切听起来像oracular语言。But the clue to its solution is furnished by a popular belief largely spread at the time.但其解决方案的线索提供,主要是当时传播流行的看法。The death of Nero had been witnessed by few.Nero的死亡已经目睹了极少数。Chiefly in the East a notion had taken hold of the mind of the people that Nero was still alive.主要在东,一个概念,尼禄还活着的人的头脑保持。Gentiles, Jews, and Christians were under the illusion that he was hiding himself, and as was commonly thought, he had gone over to the Parthians, the most troublesome foes of the empire.外邦人,犹太人和基督徒的假象下,他隐藏自己,并作为普遍认为,他已经到帕提亚帝国的最棘手的敌人。From there they expected him to return at the head of a mighty army to avenge himself on his enemies.从那里,他们预计他在头一个强大的军队返回自己对他的敌人报仇。The existence of this fanciful belief is a well-attested historic fact.这种奇特的信仰的存在是一个确凿的历史事实。Tacitus speaks of it: "Achaia atque Asia falso exterrit velut Nero adventaret, vario super ejus exitu rumore eoque pluribus vivere eum fingentibus credentibusque" (Hist., II, 8).塔西谈到:“亚该亚atque亚洲falso exterrit velut NERO adventaret,VARIO超级ejus exitu rumore eoque pluribus vivere EUM fingentibus credentibusque”(Hist.,二,8)。 So also Dio Chrysostomus: kai nyn (about AD 100) eti pantes epithymousi zen oi de pleistoi kai oiontai (Orat., 21, 10; cf. Suetonius, "Vit. Caes."; sv NERO and the SIBYLINE ORACLES).所以也迪欧Chrysostomus:启nyn(约公元100年)ETI pantes epithymousi禅爱DE pleistoi启oiontai(Orat.,21,10,CF苏埃托尼乌斯,“维生素CAES。”SV NERO和SIBYLINE神谕)。 Thus the contemporaries of the Seer believed Nero to be alive and expected his return.因此先知同时代认为尼禄还活着,并预计他返回。The Seer either shared their belief or utilized it for his own purpose.先见分享他们的信仰,或利用它为自己的目的。Nero had made a name for himself by his cruelty and licentiousness.NERO了他的残酷和淫为自己的名字。The Christians in particular had reason to dread him.尤其是基督徒害怕他的理由。Under him the first persecution took place.在他的第一个迫害发生。The second occurred under Domitian.第二次发生在多米提安。But unlike the previous one, it was not confined to Italy, but spread throughout the provinces.但不同于以往的一个,它并不局限于意大利,但遍布全国各省。Many Christians were put to death, many were banished (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., III, 17-19).许多基督徒被处死,许多被放逐(优西比乌,组织胺。传道书,三,17-19)。In this way the Seer was led to regard Domitian as a second Nero, "Nero redivivus".在这样的先知是导致方面多米提安作为第二尼禄,“redivivus尼禄”。Hence he described him as "the one that was, that is not, and that is to return".因此,他形容他“,这就是一个,这不是,那就是返回”。Hence also he counts him as the eighth and at the same time makes him one of the preceding seven, viz.因此,他也数他作为第八,同时使得他前7个,即。the fifth, Nero.第五,NERO。 The identification of the two emperors suggested itself all the more readily since even pagan authors called Domitian a second Nero (calvus Nero, Juvenal. IV, 38).确定两个皇帝建议本身更容易,因为即使是异教徒作者多米提安第二的Nero(calvus尼禄,尤维纳利斯四,38)。The popular belief concerning Nero's death and return seems to be referred to also in the passage (13:3): "And I saw one of its heads as it were slain to death: and its death's wound was healed".民间信仰有关Nero的死亡,并返回似乎也被称为通道(13:3):“我看到了它的头之一,因为它被杀害致死,其死亡的伤口愈合”。

The ten horns are commonly explained as the vassal rulers under the supremacy of Rome.十角,通常解释为在罗马至高无上的附庸统治者。They are described as kings (basileis), here to be taken in a wider sense, that they are not real kings, but received power to rule with the beast.他们被描述为国王(basileis),这里要采取更广泛的意义上,他们是不是真正的国王,但收到的权力,规则与野兽。 Their power, moreover, is but for one hour, signifying its short duration and instability (17:17).此外,他们的权力,但一小时,足见其期限短,且不稳定(17:17)。The Seer has marked the beast with the number 666.先知,有明显的兽的数目666。His purpose was that by this number people may know it.他的目的是,通过这个号码的人可能知道它。He that has understanding, let him count the number of the beast.他已了解,让他计算兽的数目。For it is the number of a man: and his number is six hundred and sixty-six.它是人的数目和他的数目是六百六十六个。A human number, ie intelligible by the common rules of investigation.一个人的数量,即由调查的共同规则的理解。We have here an instance of Jewish gematria.我们这里有一个犹太人gematria的实例。Its object is to conceal a name by substituting for it a cipher of equal numerical value to the letters composing it.其对象是隐瞒的名称,取代它的数值相等的字母组成的密码。For a long time interpreters tried to decipher the number 666 by means of the Greek alphabet, eg Irenæus, "Adv. Haer.", V, 33.口译很长一段时间试图破译666希腊字母,如爱任纽,意思是“高级。Haer。”V,33。Their efforts have yielded no satisfactory result.他们的努力没有取得令人满意的结果。Better success has been obtained by using the Hebrew alphabet.更好的成功,已获得使用希伯来文字母表。Many scholars have come to the conclusion that Nero is meant.许多学者得出的结论是NERO。For when the name "Nero Caesar" is spelled with Hebrew letters, it yields the cipher 666.希伯来字母拼写“尼禄凯撒”的名称时,它产生的密码666。

The second beast, that from the land, the pseudoprophet whose office was to assist the beast from the sea, probably signifies the work of seduction carried on by apostate Christians.第二兽,从土地,pseudoprophet他的办公室是协助兽从海,可能意味着工作叛教基督徒的诱惑。They endeavoured to make their fellow Christians adopt the heathen practices and submit themselves to the cultus of the Caesar.他们努力使他们的同胞基督徒通过异教徒的做法,并提交自己的凯撒礼拜。They are not unlikely the Nicolaitans of the seven Epistles.他们不是不可能的七个书信Nicolaitans。For they are there compared to Balaam and Jezabel seducing the Israelites to idolatry and fornication.因为他们有比较巴兰和Jezabel引诱以色列人的偶像崇拜和私通。The woman in travail is a personification of the synagogue or the church.在阵痛的女人,是一个人格化的犹太教堂或教堂。Her first-born is Christ, her other seed is the community of the faithful.她的第一个出生的是基督,她的其他种子是忠实的社会。

In this interpretation, of which we have given a summary, there are two difficulties:在这种解释中,我们都给予了总结,有两个困难:

In the enumeration of the emperors three are passed over, viz.在列举皇帝三个以上,即通过。Galba, Otho, and Vitellius.加尔巴,Otho,并Vitellius。But this omission may be explained by the shortness of their reigns.但这个遗漏的原因可能是他们统治的短促。Each one of the three reigned but a few months.这三个中的每一个在位,但几个月。

Tradition assigns the Apocalypse to the reign of Domitian.传统分配多米提安统治的启示。But according to the computation given above, the Seer himself assigns his work to the reign of Vespasian.但是,根据上面给出的计算,先知自己统治维斯帕先分配他的工作。For if this computation be correct, Vespasian is the emperor whom he designates as "the one that is".如果这个计算是正确的,维斯帕先指定为“一个是”他是皇帝。To this objection, however, it may be answered that it was the custom of apocalyptic writers, eg, of Daniel, Enoch, and the Sibylline books, to cast their visions into the form of prophecies and give them the appearance of being the work of an earlier date.这一反对,但是,它可能会回答,这是世界末日的作家,如丹尼尔,以诺,习俗,和女巫书籍,投下他们的梦想成预言的形式,并给予他们工作的外观较早的日期。 No literary fraud was thereby intended.没有文学欺诈从而打算。It was merely a peculiar style of writing adopted as suiting their subject.这仅仅是一个奇特的写作风格适合他们的主题通过。 The Seer of the Apocalypse follows this practice.先知的启示如下这种做法。Though actually banished to Patmos in the reign of Domitian, after the destruction of Jerusalem, he wrote as if he had been there and seen his visions in the reign of Vespasian when the temple perhaps yet existed.尽管实际上帕特莫斯在多米提安的统治,摧毁耶路撒冷后,被流放,他写道:如果他曾经在那里,看到他的视觉,在维斯帕先在位时的寺庙也许还存在。 Cf.比照II, 1, 2.二,1,2。

We cannot conclude without mentioning the theory advanced by the German scholar Vischer.我们不能断定没有提及先进的理论由德国学者Vischer。He holds the Apocalypse to have been originally a purely Jewish composition, and to have been changed into a Christian work by the insertion of those sections that deal with Christian subjects.他拥有的启示已经原本是一个纯粹的犹太人组成,并插入这些板块已被改变成一个基督徒的工作,处理与基督教科目。 From a doctrinal point of view, we think, it cannot be objected to.从教义的观点来看,我们认为,它不能反对。There are other instances where inspired writers have availed themselves of non-canonical literature.有其他实例启发作家利用自己的非规范的文学。Intrinsically considered it is not improbable.本质考虑它是不是不可能的。The Apocalypse abounds in passages which bear no specific Christian character but, on the contrary, show a decidedly Jewish complexion.启示盛产通道承担任何具体的基督徒的品格,但,相反,显示出决定性的犹太人的肤色。Yet on the whole the theory is but a conjecture.然而,就整体而言,理论只是一个猜想。(See also APOCRYPHA) (另请参阅伪经)

Publication information Written by C. Van Den Biesen.C.范登Biesen书面的公开信息。Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.转录由迈克尔Tinkler。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,第I卷出版1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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