Book of Ruth路得记

General Information一般资料

The Book of Ruth is the eighth book of the Old Testament of the Bible.露丝书是旧约圣经的第八册。 A short story, it tells how Ruth, the Moabite widow of a Bethlehemite, with her mother - in - law Naomi's assistance, married an older kinsman Boaz, thereby preserving her deceased husband's posterity and becoming an ancestor of King David.一个简短的故事,它告诉露丝,一个摩押Bethlehemite的寡妇,与她的母亲 - - 拿俄米法律的援助,如何嫁给一个老的亲属波阿斯,因此保留了她的已故丈夫的后代,成为大卫王的祖先。The plot is artfully constructed and exhibits a pronounced belief in the comprehensive but hidden providence of God that works quietly in ordinary events.情节巧妙地构造,呈现出全面,但隐藏在神普罗维登斯悄悄地在普通事件的显着信念。The legal customs concerning levirate marriage, redemption of property, and gleaning in the fields are relatively ancient, and the vocabulary and style are consistent with a date between 950 and 750 BC.关于娶寡嫂制,赎回财产,并在田里拾取的法律习俗是比较古老的,词汇和风格都与950和公元前750年之间的日期一致。 The Davidic genealogy is a secondary appendix, written between 500 and 350 BC, which served to increase the importance of the book for postexilic Jews.大卫的家谱是次要的附录,写500至公元前350年,这有助于增加postexilic犹太人的书的重要性。

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Bibliography 参考书目
YI Broch, The Book of Ruth (1975); EF Campbell, Ruth (1975); RM Hals, The Theology of the Book of Ruth (1969).易石塔,露丝书(1975年); EF坎贝尔,露丝(1975年);哈尔斯室露丝(1969年)“的神学。


Ruth怜悯

Advanced Information先进的信息

Ruth, a friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father, Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab.露丝,一个朋友,一个摩押女子,玛伦的妻子,他的父亲,以利米勒,已经解决了在摩押地。On the death of Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law, who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which Elimelech had migrated.以利米勒和玛伦死亡,拿俄米来到露丝,她的女儿在法律,拒绝离开她,伯利恒,从以利米勒迁移的老家。There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to whom Ruth was eventually married.在那里,她有丰富的亲属,波阿斯,其中露丝最终结婚。She became the mother of Obed, the grandfather of David.她成为俄别母亲,祖父大卫。Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5).因此,露丝,一个外邦人,是我们的主(太1:5)的孕产妇祖之间。The story of "the gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of transferring property from one person to another, the working of the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families; but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love, the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38: 29; Matt. 1:3) and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son'" (Ruth 4:18-22).的故事“拾穗露丝说明良好波阿斯和他的收割,犹太人的土地制度,从一个人的财产转移到另一个,痛心和破坏了家庭的救济工作镶嵌法的方法之间的友好关系;但,高于一切,给了无私奉献,勇敢的爱,她的坚定不移的信赖的人,虽然没有选择的种族,像Canaanitess添马舰(创38:29;马特1时03分)和Canaanitess拉哈伯(太1:5),荣幸地成为大卫的祖先,和“伟大的大卫的大儿子'”(路得记4:18-22)。


The Book of Ruth露丝书

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Book of Ruth was originally a part of the Book of Judges, but it now forms one of the twenty-four separate books of the Hebrew Bible.露丝本书原是法官“的一部分,但现在形式的希伯来文圣经第二十四个单独的书籍之一。The history it contains refers to a period perhaps about one hundred and twenty-six years before the birth of David.它包含的历史,是指一个时期,也许大卫出生前约一百二十六个年。It gives (1) an account of Naomi's going to Moab with her husband, Elimelech, and of her subsequent return to Bethlehem with her daughter-in-law; (2) the marriage of Boaz and Ruth; and (3) the birth of Obed, of whom David sprang.它提供了(1)Naomi的打算与她的丈夫,以利米勒到摩押的一个帐户,和她随后返回到伯利恒与她的女儿,在的法律;(2)在婚姻波阿斯和露丝;和(3)的诞生,俄备得,其中大卫窜出。 The author of this book was probably Samuel, according to Jewish tradition.这本书的作者很可能是萨穆埃尔,根据犹太传统。"Brief as this book is, and simple as is its story, it is remarkably rich in examples of faith, patience, industry, and kindness, nor less so in indications of the care which God takes of those who put their trust in him." “简短,因为这本书,和简单,因为它的故事,这是极为丰富,在信仰的例子,耐心,行业,与人为善,也没有那么的上帝把他的信任那些需要照顾的迹象。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Book of Ruth预订露丝

Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine of its exquisitely beautiful story.旧约,它的名字来自其精美的美丽故事中的女主角原规范的著作之一。

I. CONTENTS一目

The incidents related in the first part of the Book of Ruth (i-iv, 17) are briefly as follows.露丝书(I - IV,17)的第一部分中相关的事件简述如下。In the time of the judges, a famine arose in the land of Israel, in consequence of which Elimelech with Noemi and their two sons emigrated from Bethlehem of Juda to the land of Moab.在法官的时间,出现了饥荒在以色列的土地上,后果,其中以利米勒与诺埃米和他们的两个儿子移民从摩押地的犹大的伯利恒。 After Elimelech's death Mahalon and Chelion, his two sons, married Moabite wives, and not long after died without children.以利米勒的死亡Mahalon和Chelion,他的两个儿子,摩押的妻子结婚,后没多久后死亡无子女。Noemi, deprived now of her husband and children, left Moab for Bethlehem.诺埃米,现在剥夺了她的丈夫和孩子,离开伯利恒摩押。On her journey thither she dissuaded her daughters-in-law from going with her.在她的旅途上去中,她与她的女儿女婿劝阻。 One of them, however, named Ruth, accompanied Noemi to Bethlehem.然而,其中一个名为露丝,伴随着诺埃米到伯利恒。The barley harvest had just begun and Ruth, to relieve Noemi's and her own poverty, went to glean in the field of Booz, a rich man of the place.大麦收获刚刚开始,露丝,以纾缓诺埃米的和她自己的贫穷,​​在博斯的领域,富人的地方去,以收集。She met with the greatest kindness, and following Noemi's advice, she made known to Booz, as the near kinsman of Elimelech, her claim to marriage.她会见了最大的仁慈,诺埃米的意见后,她知道博斯,以利米勒的近亲,她声称婚姻。After a nearer kinsman had solemnly renounced his prior right, Booz married Ruth who bore him Obed, the grandfather of David.经过接近亲属郑重放弃他的在先权利,博斯结婚,露丝谁承担他奥贝德卢,大卫的祖父。The second part of the book (iv, 18-22) consists in a brief genealogy which connects the line of David through Booz with Phares, one of the sons of Juda.本书的第二部分(四,18日至22日)由Phares,犹大的儿子大卫线连接,通过博斯在一份简短的家谱。

II.二。PLACE IN THE CANON放置在佳能

In the series of the sacred writings of the Old Testament, the short Book of Ruth occupies two different principal places.在神圣的著作旧约系列中,露丝短的书占据了两个不同的主要地方。The Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the English Versions give it immediately after the Book of Judges.七十,武加大,和英文版本给它后,立即预订法官。The Hebrew Bible, on the contrary, reckons it among the Hagiographa or third chief part of the Old Testament.希伯来文圣经,相反,估计之间的Hagiographa或第三旧约中的主要部分。Of these two places, the latter is most likely the original one.这两个地方,后者是最有可能的原之一。It is attested to by all the data of Jewish tradition, namely, the oldest enumeration of the Hagiographa in the Talmudic treatise "Baba Bathra", all the Hebrew manuscripts whether Spanish or German, the printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, and the testimony of St. Jerome in his Preface to the Book of Daniel, according to which eleven books are included by the Hebrews in the Hagiographa.证明它是犹太传统中的所有数据,即在塔木德论“巴巴Bathra”最古老的Hagiographa枚举,所有的希伯来文手稿西班牙语或德语,希伯来文圣经的印刷版和证词是否圣杰罗姆但以理书的序言中,根据11个书籍包括在Hagiographa希伯来人。 The presence of the Book of Ruth after that of Judges in the Septuagint, whence it passed into the Vulgate and the English Versions, is easily explained by the systematic arrangement of the historical books of the Old Testament in that ancient Greek Version.书后,在七十法官露丝的存在,它从那里传入的武加大和英文版本,很容易被解释的历史书籍的旧约,古希腊的版本系统的安排。 As the episode of Ruth is connected with the period of the judges by its opening words "in the days. . .when the judges ruled", its narrative was made to follow the Book of Judges as a sort of complement to it.由于情节露丝是连接其开放的话:“在未来的日子。法官期间,当法官裁定”,其叙事遵循图书作为一种补充的法官。The same place assigned to it in the lists of St. Melito, Origen, St. Jerome (Prol. Galeatus), is traceable to the arrangement of the inspired writings of the Old Testament in the Septuagint, inasmuch as these lists bespeak in various ways the influence of the nomenclature and grouping of the sacred books in that Version, and consequently should not be regarded as conforming strictly to the arrangement of those books in the Hebrew Canon.圣美利托,奥利,圣杰罗姆(Prol. Galeatus),列出分配在同一个地方是有迹可寻的启发著作的中译本旧约,因为这些清单,表明以各种方式安排神圣的书籍,在该版本中,因此命名和分组的影响不应该被视为符合严格安排在希伯来文佳能那些书。 It has indeed been asserted that the Book of Ruth is really a third appendix to the Book of Judges and was, therefore, originally placed in immediate connection with the two narratives which are even now appended to this latter book (Judges 17-18; 19-21); but this view is not probable owing to the differences between these two works with respect to style, tone, subject, etc.确实有人断言,露丝书是真正的第三个附录的法官“,因此,原本摆在现在甚至追加后者的书叙述了两个直接连接(法官17日至18日; 19 -21),但这种观点是没有可能,因为这两部作品之间的差异与尊重风格,色调,主题,等

III.三。PURPOSE目的

As the precise object of the Book of Ruth is not expressly given either in the book itself or in authentic tradition, scholars are greatly at variance concerning it.露丝书的具体对象不明确,无论是在书本身或真正的传统,也有学者大大关于它的方差。According to many, who lay special stress on the genealogy of David in the second part of the book, the chief aim of the author is to throw light upon the origin of David, the great King of Israel and royal ancestor of the Messias.据许多,躺在族谱大卫特别强调,在本书的第二部分,作者主要目的是抛出后,大卫,以色列和王室祖先的messias的伟大国王的起源。 Had this, however, been the main purpose of the writer, it seems that he should have given it greater prominence in his work.有了这个,但是,作家的主要目的,看来,他应该在他的工作更加突出。Besides, the genealogy at the close of the book is but loosely connected with the preceding contents, so it is not improbably an appendix added to that book by a later hand.此外,在书的密切的家谱是与前面的内容,但松散连接,所以它不是不大可能附录这本书以后。According to others, the principal aim of the author was to narrate how, in opposition to Deut., xxiii, 3, which forbids the reception of Moabites into Yahweh's assembly, the Moabitess Ruth was incorporated with Yahweh's people, and eventually became the ancestress of the founder of the Hebrew monarchy.根据其他人的,主要目的是作者以叙述​​如何,反对以申。,二十三,3,其中禁止入耶和华的装配接待摩押人,在摩押女子路得纳入耶和华的人,并最终成为了的祖先希伯来君主制的创始人。 But this second opinion is hardly more probable than the foregoing.但是,这第二个意见是很难超过上述的可能。Had the Book of Ruth been written in such full and distinct view of the Deuteronomic prohibition as is affirmed by the second opinion, it is most likely that its author would have placed a direct reference to that legislative enactment on Noemi's lips when she endeavoured to dissuade her daughters-in-law from accompanying her to Juda, or particularly when she received from Ruth the protestation that henceforth Noemi's God would be her God.当初的露丝书一直在等完整和鲜明的申命记禁止查看书面为是第二种观点的肯定,它是最有可能的,其作者将有放置一个直接引用诺埃米的嘴唇上,立法制定时,她竭力劝阻她的女儿在法律陪同她的犹大,或尤其是当她从露丝收到的断言,今后诺埃米的神将她的神。 Several recent scholars have regarded this short book as a kind of protest against Nehemias's and Esdras's efforts to suppress intermarriage with women of foreign birth.最近的一些学者视为一种抗议反对内赫米亚斯埃斯德拉斯的努力,以抑制外国出生的妇女通婚本小书。But this is plainly an inference not from the contents of the book, but from an assumed late date for its composition, an inference therefore no less uncertain than that date itself.但是,这显然不是从书的内容,但其成分,因此没有低于该日期本身的不确定性推理晚的日期从一个假设的推论。Others finally, and indeed with greater probability, have maintained that the author's chief purpose was to tell an edifying story as an example to his own age and an interesting sketch of the past, effecting this by recording the exemplary conduct of his various personages who act as simple, kindly, God-fearing people ought to act in Israel.其他最后确实的可能性更大,有保持,作者的行政目的是来告诉他自己的年龄和一个过去有趣的素描为例一个有启发性的故事,有效记录了他的谁的行为的各种人士的模范行为,这简单,亲切,神不怕人应该在以色列采取行动。

IV.四。HISTORICAL CHARACTER历史人物

The charming Book of Ruth is no mere "idyll" or "poetical fiction".露丝迷人的书是没有单纯的“牧歌”或“诗意的小说”。It is plain that the Jews of old regarded its contents as historical, since they included its narrative in the Septuagint within the prophetic histories (Josue- Kings).这是平原,旧的犹太人视为历史的内容,因为它们包括其内的预言历史的叙事中译本(若苏埃国王)。The fact that Josephus in framing his account of the Jewish Antiquities utilizes the data of the Book of Ruth in exactly the same manner as he does those of the historical books of the Old Testament shows that this inspired writing was then considered as no mere fiction.事实上,在制定他的犹太古物约瑟夫采用完全相同的方式露丝书的数据,像他那样的历史书籍的旧约显​​示,这启发了写作当时认为没有单纯的小说。 Again, the mention by St. Matthew of several personages of the episode of Ruth (Booz, Ruth, Obed), among the actual ancestors of Christ (Matthew 1:5), points in the same direction.同样,圣马修几个情节露丝(博斯,露丝,奥贝德卢)人士提到基督(马太福音1:5)实际的祖先,在同一方向点之间。 Intrinsic data agree with these testimonies of ancient tradition.同意与这些古老的传统证词的内部数据。The book records the intermarriage of an Israelite with a Moabitess, which shows that its narrative does not belong to the region of the poetical.书中记载与摩押女子,这表明其叙事的诗意的区域不属于以色列人通婚。The historical character of the work is also confirmed by the friendly intercourse between David and the King of Moab which is described in 1 Samuel 22:3-4; by the writer's distinct reference to a Jewish custom as obsolete (Ruth 4:7), etc.这项工作的历史人物是也证实了大卫和摩押王这是在22:3-4撒母耳记1之间的友好交往;作家的独特的一个犹太习俗过时(露丝4:7),等

In view of this concordant, extrinsic and intrinsic, evidence, little importance is attached by scholars generally to the grounds which certain critics have put forth to disprove the historical character of the Book of Ruth.鉴于此一致的,外在和内在的证据,意义不大,学者普遍重视的某些批评者提出反驳露丝书的历史人物的理由。It is rightly felt, for instance, that the symbolical meaning of the names of several persons in the narrative (Noemi, Mahalon, Chelion) is not a conclusive argument that they have been fictitiously accommodated to the characters in the episode, and more than the similar symbolical meaning of the proper names of well known and full historical personages mentioned in Israel's annals (Saul, David, Samuel, etc.).例如,它是正确的感觉,在叙述几个人的名字(诺埃米,Mahalon,Chelion)象征性的意义不在于一个确凿的论据,他们已被虚假安置在情节的人物,和比众所周知的,全面的历史人物的正确名称类似的象征性的意义提到以色列的史册(扫罗,大卫,撒母耳,等)。 It is rightly felt likewise that the striking appropriateness of the words put on the lips of certain personages to the general purpose of edification apparent in the Book of Ruth does not necessarily disprove the historical character of the work, since this is also noticeable in other books of Holy Writ which are undoubtedly historical.它是正确的感觉同样引人注目的某些人士的嘴唇上通用的熏陶,在露丝的图书明显的话适当不一定反驳的历史人物的工作,因为这也是在其他书籍明显圣经,这是无疑的历史。 Finally, it is readily seen that however great the contrast may appear between the general tone of simplicity, repose, purity, etc., of the characters delineated in the episode of Ruth, and the opposite features of the figures which are drawn in the Book of Judges, both writings describe actual events in one and the same period of Jewish history; for all we know, the beautiful scenes of domestic life connected in the Book of Ruth with the period of the judges may have truly occurred during the long intervals of peace which are repeatedly mentioned in the Book of Judges.最后,这是不难看出多么大的对比,可能会出现之间的简单,养神,纯度等的总的基调,情节露丝在划定的字符,并在书中得出的数字是相反的功能法官,双方的著作描述了在一个犹太人的历史同期实际事件,我们都知道,美丽的法官期间的图书在露丝的家庭生活场景可能真正发生在长的时间间隔在法官的书反复提到的和平。

V. AUTHOR AND DATE OF COMPOSITION五,作者和日期的组成

The Book of Ruth is anonymous, for the name which it bears as its title has never been regarded otherwise than that of the chief actor in the events recorded.露丝书是匿名的,它的名称作为它的标题熊从来没有比在记录事件的首席演员,否则被视为。In an ancient Beraitha to the Talmudic treatise "Baba Bathra" (Babylonian Talmud, c. i), it is definitely stated that "Samuel wrote his book, Judges, and Ruth"; but this ascription of Ruth to Samuel is groundless and hence almost universally rejected at the present day. ,在一个古老的Beraitha的塔木德论“巴巴Bathra”(巴比伦犹太法典,C.我)这是肯定说,“塞缪尔写他的书,法官,和露丝”;,但是这露丝归属塞缪尔是毫无根据的,因此几乎在现今普遍拒绝。 The name of the author of the book of Ruth is unknown, and so is also the precise date of its composition.书的作者露丝的名称是未知的,因此也是其组成的确切日期。The work, however, was most likely written before the Babylonian exile.然而,这项工作,是最有可能的书面巴比伦流亡前。On the one hand, there is nothing in its contents that would compel one to bring down its origin to a later date; and, on the other hand, the comparative purity of its style stamps it as a pre-exilic composition.一方面,在其内容,将迫使之一,以降低它的起源到稍后的日期无关,另一方面,其风格的邮票比较纯净,作为前放逐组成。 The numerous critics who hold a different view overrate the importance of its isolated Aramaisms which are best accounted for by the use of a spoken patois plainly independent of the actual developments of literary Hebrew.众多批评,有不同的看法,高估了,其使用的口语方言显然是独立的希伯来文学的实际发展,这是最好的占的隔离Aramaisms的重要性。 They also make too much of the place occupied by the Book of Ruth among the Hagiographa, for, as can be easily realized, the admission of a writing into this third division of the Hebrew Canon is not necessarily contemporary with its origin.他们还太多露丝之间的Hagiographa图书占领的地方,可以方便地实现,书面接纳这个希伯来语佳能的第三师不一定是当代与它的起源。 But, while the internal data supplied by the Book of Ruth thus point to its pre-exilic origin, they remain indecisive with regard to the precise date to which its composition should be referred, as clearly appears from the conflicting inferences which have been drawn from them by recent Catholic scholars.但是,尽管露丝书所提供的内部数据,从而指向其前放逐出身,但他们仍关于其组成应转介,显然已制订从冲突的推论出现的确切日期举棋不定他们最近的天主教学者。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.弗朗西斯大肠杆菌Gigot编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to Ruth Peterson The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.专用露丝彼得森天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Commentaries.--Catholic: CLAIR (Paris, 1878); VON HUMMELAUER (Paris, 1888); FILLION (Paris, 1889); VIGOUROUX (Paris, 1901); CRAMPONI.评.--天主教:CLAIR(巴黎,1878年);冯Hummelauer(巴黎,1888年);菲利安(巴黎,1889年); VIGOUROUX(巴黎,1901年); CRAMPONI。Protestant: WRIGHT (London, 1864); KEIL (Leipzig, 1874): BERTHEAU (Leipzig, 1883); OETTLE (Nordlingen, 1889); BERTHOLET (Freiburg, 1898); NOWACK (Goettingen, 1902).新教:怀特(伦敦,1864年);在KEIL(莱比锡,1874年):BERTHEAU(莱比锡,1883年); OETTLE(Nordlingen 1889年);贝尔托莱(弗赖堡,1898年); NOWACK(哥廷根大学,1902年)。


Book of Ruth预订露丝

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

Date of Composition.日期组成。

Bewer's Theory of Interpolations.Bewer理论插值。

The Book of Ruth, which is poetically idyllic in character, although the narrative is in the form of prose, contains an episode from the period of the Judges.露丝的书,这是诗意田园诗般的字符,虽然叙事散文的形式,包含一个情节从法官的时期。For this reason it is placed in the Septuagint after the Book of Judges; and this order is followed in the Vulgate and in the English translations.出于这个原因,它被放置在七十法官书后,这个顺序是在武加大和英文翻译。 In the Hebrew Bible, however, Ruth is found in the "Ketubim," or third part of the canon, where it stands next after the Song of Solomon, being the second of the Five Megillot.然而,在希伯来文圣经,露丝是“Ketubim”,或佳能,站在旁边的所罗门之歌“后,五Megillot第二第三部分。 In Spanish manuscripts and in one Bible of 1009 Ruth comes first (Buhl, "Canon of the Old Testament," i., § 10; see Bible Canon).在西班牙的手稿和1009露丝圣经至上(布尔,“佳能的旧约,”一,§ 10;见圣经佳能)。This position, as will be noted more fully below, probably accords better with the date of the book; for it was written so long after the date of which its story treats that many of the customs to which it refers had become antiquated.下文将指出,这一立场可能协定书之日起,它被写了这么久后,它的故事对待,它是指已经成为陈旧的习俗很多。

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

The book takes its name from one of its characters, who, with her mother-in-law, Naomi, shares the honor of being its heroine.该书从一个字符它的名字,谁,与她的母亲,拿俄米,股份被其女主角的荣誉。 The story is as follows: Elimelech, a man of Bethlehem-judah, with his wife, Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, went in time of famine and sojourned in the land of Moab.故事如下:以利米勒,一个犹大伯利恒的男子与他的妻子,拿俄米和他的两个儿子玛伦和基连,又在饥荒时,在摩押地寄居。There Elimelech died, and the two sons married, Mahlon taking Ruth as his wife, and Chilion taking Ophra-both women of Moab, where both sons likewise died.有以利米勒死了,和两个儿子结婚,玛伦作为他的妻子露丝,并采取Ophra妇女摩押,两个儿子同样死于基连。In due time Naomi heard that the famine in Judah had passed, and determined to return thither.在适当的时候,拿俄米听说,在犹大的饥荒已经过去了,决心返回到那里。Ruth, in spite of the dissuasion of Naomi, accompanied her mother-in-law to Bethlehem, and cast in her lot with the people of Judah.露丝,尽管拿俄米劝阻,伴随着她的婆婆,伯利恒,并在她的很多投与犹太人民。The two women arrived in Bethlehem at the beginning of barley harvest.两名女子抵达伯利恒,在大麦的收成开始。Naturally they were in a state of dire poverty.当然,他们在极端贫困状态。Elimelech had had an inheritance of land among his brethren, but, unless a Go'el, could be found, Naomi would be compelled to sell it (in Ruth iv. 3 should be pointed = "is going to sell"; comp. "Am. Jour. Semit. Lang." xix. 145).以利米勒他的弟兄们之间曾有过的土地继承权,但是,除非Go'el,可以发现,拿俄米将不得不把它卖掉(露丝IV 3应当指出=“去卖”;比赛“。 AM。怨妇。Semit。郎。“第十九145)。Elimelech had a prosperous relative in Bethlehem whose name was Boaz, and who, like others, was engaged in the harvest.以利米勒,其名称是波阿斯在伯利恒的繁荣相对的,和其他人一样,谁在收获从事的。Naomi sent Ruth to glean in his fields, and, after he had spoken kindly to her and shown her some favors, she, still acting upon the advice of her mother-in-law, approached Boaz at night and put herself in his power.拿俄米发送露丝在他的领域,以收集,并后,他请讲,她和她一些优惠,她,她的婆婆的意见后,仍然在夜间,走近波阿斯和自己在他的权力。 Boaz was attracted to her, but informed her that there was a kinsman nearer than he who had the first right to redeem the estate of Elimelech, and that it would be necessary for this kinsman to renounce his right before he (Boaz) could proceed in the matter.波阿斯是吸引了她,但告诉她,有一个亲属接近比他曾第一个赎回以利米勒的房地产权,这将是这个亲属必须放弃他的权利之前,他(波阿斯)进行此事。 Accordingly he called this kinsman to the gate of the city before the elders, and told him of the condition of the wife and daughter-in-law of Elimelech, and of his (the kinsman's) right to redeem the estate and to marry Ruth.因此,他所谓的这个亲属城市的门长辈面前,并告诉他的妻子和以利米勒媳妇的条件,和他的亲属的权利,以赎回地产和以结婚露丝。 The kinsman declared that he did not desire to do so, and drew off his shoe in token that he had renounced his rights in favor of Boaz.亲属宣布,他不希望这样做,并提请关闭令牌他的鞋,他赞成波阿斯放弃自己的权利。Boaz thereupon bought the estate from Naomi, married Ruth, and became by her the father of Obed, who in due time became the father of Jesse, the father of King David.ECGAB波阿斯随即从拿俄米买地产,已婚露丝,和她成为俄别父亲,他在适当的时候成为杰西的父亲,父亲王David.ECGAB

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

It should be noted that in the narrative of the Book of Ruth there are several points which are not quite clear.应该指出,在露丝书的叙述中,有几点不太清楚。In certain parts, as i.在某些地区作为一12-14, the action seems to presuppose the existence of the levirate law (comp. Gen. xxxviii. and Deut. xxv. 5 et seq.), while in other parts, as iv. 12-14日,行动似乎娶寡嫂法(comp.将军XXXVIII和申命记。XXV 5起。)的存在为前提,而在其他地区,为第四,。3 et seq., the redemption of Elimelech's estate for his widow seems to be the chief point in the discussion.3起。赎回他的遗孀,以利米勒的产业,似乎在讨论的主要观点。This seems to presuppose the extension to wives of the law concerning the inheritance of daughters (Num. xxxvi.).这似乎扩展为前提,以妻子的女儿继承(民数记XXXVI)。的法律。Again, from the general course of the narrative one receives the impression that Boaz is the Go'el; but in iv.同样,从一般的叙述之一过程中收到的印象是,波阿斯是Go'el;但在第四。13 et seq.13及以下。the go'el seems to be Obed (comp. Nowack, "Handkommentar zum Alten Testament," p. 199, sv "Richter," "Ruth," etc.; Bertholet, in "KHC" ad loc.).go'el似乎奥贝德鲁(comp. Nowack,“Handkommentar ZUM Alten约”,第199页,SV“里氏”,“露丝”等;贝尔托莱,在“KHC”广告同上)。Finally, if the levirate law had been really fulfilled, Obed should have been counted the son of Mahlon, the son of Elimelech, whereas he is really called (iv. 21) the son of Boaz.最后,如​​果娶寡嫂法得到真正的实现,奥贝德鲁应该已经算玛伦,以利米勒的儿子的儿子,而他真的是被称为(iv. 21)波阿斯的儿子。

Bewer (in "Am. Jour. Semit. Lang." xix. 143 et seq.) points out that four steps in the development of the levirate are met with in the Old Testament: (1) the go'el need not be a brother, but may be any kinsman of the deceased, as in Gen. xxxviii.; (2) he must be a brother (although this form is not actually found, it is necessarily presupposed by the following); (3) only such brothers as have lived with the deceased are required to perform the duties of the levirate (comp. Deut. xxv. 5 et seq.); and (4) no man is allowed to take his brother's wife (Lev. xx. 21). Bewer(“怨妇Semit郎。”第十九143起。)指出,在娶寡嫂发展的四个步骤是在旧约满足:(1)go'el毋须兄弟,但可能是任何死者的亲属,在将军XXXVIII;(2)他必须有一个哥哥(虽然实际上没有发现这种形式,它必然是由以下的先决条件);(3)如兄弟与死者生活需要执行的娶寡嫂(comp.申XXV 5及以下。)的职责;(4)允许任何人都不是他的兄弟的妻子(利未记XX 21)。According to this classification, the form of levirate in the Book of Ruth is the oldest of all, but here is encountered the difficulty that the described form of purchase of the estate of Naomi does not at all accord with any form of levirate, but with the law of Lev.根据这种分类,娶寡嫂在露丝书的形式,是所有最古老的,但在这里遇到的困难,购买房地产的拿俄米的形式不所有与任何形式的娶寡嫂协议,但与列夫的法律。 xxv.二十五。25 (Holiness Code, cited hereafter as H).25(圣洁守则,列举以下简称为H)。Bewer therefore concludes that the levirate idea is not an original part of the Book of Ruth, but that the work was first composed on the basis of Lev. Bewer因此得出结论,娶寡嫂的想法是不是原来露丝书的一部分,但列夫的基础上组成的工作是。xxv.二十五。25, and that it was afterward interpolated to some extent to ingraft upon it the levirate idea. 25,这是后来插在一定程度上它灌输娶寡嫂的想法。The phenomena of the book, however, may quite plausibly be explained in another way, as will be pointed out below.然而,书的现象,很可能会振振有词地加以解释以另一种方式,如下面将指出。

Date of Composition.日期组成。

According to Bewer the Book of Ruth is later than H., ie, it is post-exilic.据Bewer露丝书后比H.,也就是说,它是后放逐。This view of the date is for other reasons held by many scholars (eg, Kuenen, "Historische Bücher des Alten Testaments," i., part 2, p. 195; Cornill, "Einleitung," p. 241; Nowack, lc; Bertholet, lc; and Kautzsch, "Literature of the Old Testament," p. 129).这种观点的日期是其他原因,许多学者(例如,Kuenen,“Historische书刊DES Alten圣经”,一,第2部分,第195页举行; Cornill,“导论”,第241页; Nowack,立法会;贝尔托莱,立法会;和Kautzsch,旧约“文学”,第129页)。The days of the Judges are referred to as a time far past (i. 1), and even the law of Deut.法官的日子被称为时间远远过去(一1),甚至法律申。xxv.二十五。5 et seq.5起。is referred to as a custom now obsolete (comp. Ruth iv.7); the language of the book contains several Aramaisms(eg, , i. 4; , i. 13; and , iv. 7); the interest in the genealogy of David (iv. 20 et seq.) is thought to indicate a date when David had become the ideal of the nation; and the evident interest of the author in the marriage of an Israelite with a Moabitess-an interest in sharp contrast to the law of Deut.被称为一个自定义现在已经过时(comp.露丝四.7);书的语言包含几个Aramaisms(例如,岛4岛13;,四7);族谱的利益(iv. 20起)被认为是大卫的指示时,大卫已成为民族的理想之日起;作者在以色列人的婚姻明显的兴趣与摩押女子形成鲜明对比的利益法律申。xxiii.二十三。3 et seq.3起。as well as the procedure of Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra ix., x., and Neh. xiii. 23 et seq.)-indicates that the author of Ruth was a contemporary of Ezra and Nehemiah and wrote the book to show that their opposition to foreign marriages was contrary to ancient and most honorable precedent.以及以斯拉和尼希米(以斯拉第九,十,而尼第十三23等以下)。过程表明,露丝的作者是当代以斯拉和尼希米和写的书,表明他们反对涉外婚姻是违背了古老和最尊贵的的先例。

Although Driver ("Introduction," p. 427) urges that the general beauty and purity of style of Ruth indicate a pre-exilic date, holding that the Davidic genealogy at the end is probably a later addition, the post-exilic origin of Ruth seems to be confirmed by its position among the "Ketubim," in the third part of the canon.虽然驱动程序(第427页的“简介”)要求,一般的美丽和纯度露丝风格表明前放逐的日期,大卫的家谱在年底可能是一个后来此外,露丝后exilic出身似乎是“Ketubim,”在佳能的第三部分之间的地位的确认。 The view which makes it a tract against the marriage policy of Ezra and Nehemiah seems most probable.这使得道对以斯拉和尼希米的婚姻政策的观点似乎最有可能的。

Bewer's Theory of Interpolations.Bewer理论插值。

Bewer (lc xx. 205 et seq.) holds that the work was written at that time and for that purpose, and that in its original form, without any reference to the levirate, it was a more effective weapon in the controversy than it is now.Bewer(LC XX 205及以下)认为,工作当时并为此目的而写的,在其原来的形式,没有任何参考娶寡嫂制,它是一个更有效的武器,在争议比它现在。His view is that some friend of Ezra added the levirate interpolations in order to make it appear that the foreign marriage of Boaz was not a precedent for ordinary people, as the levirate compelled him to act thus.他的观点是,以斯拉的一些朋友说,为了使其出现涉外婚姻的波阿斯不是一个普通人的先例,娶寡嫂制,迫使他的举动也因此娶寡嫂插值。 If the book was written at the date supposed, it is clear from the law of H (Lev. xx. 21) that the levirate had passed away.如果是在假想的日期写的书,这是清楚的H(利未记XX 21)法律,娶寡嫂已经去世。It is too much, therefore, to expect an absolutely clear and accurate account of its workings.实在是太多了,因此,预计其运作绝对清晰和准确的的帐户。That the writer should mingle its provisions with those of Lev.作家列夫打成一片其规定。xxv., which refer to the redemption of the estates of the poor, would at this date be very natural.二十五,这是指赎回穷人的屋,将在这个日期很自然的。Confusion, too, as to who the go'el actually was would also be natural.混乱,太,以谁的go'el实际上是亦是自然的。Bewer's theory of interpolations seems, accordingly, unnecessary.Bewer插值理论看来,因此,没有必要的。Cheyne's view ("Encyc. Bibl." sv) that Elimelech was a Jerahmeelite, and that he went to sojourn in the land of Miṣṣur, is one of the curiosities of his Jerahmeel-Miṣṣur theory.进益的看法(“百科全书。Bibl。”SV),以利米勒是Jerahmeelite,和他去逗留在Miṣṣur土地,是他的耶拉篾Miṣṣur理论的珍品之一。

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, George A. Barton执行委员会的编委会,乔治巴顿

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography:参考书目:

In addition to the works cited in the article, Bleek, Einleitung in das Alte Testament, ed.另外的文章中,Bleek,在DAS阿尔特旧约导论,编列举的作品。Wellhausen, 1893; König, Einleitung, 1893; Strack, Einleitung, 4th ed., 1895; Oettli, Ruth, in Kurzgefasster Kommentar, 1889.ECGAB豪森,1893年;柯尼格导论,1893年;施特拉克,导论,第四版,1895年;欧特列,露丝,Kurzgefasster Kommentar,1889.ECGAB



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